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Mono and dimeric ferulic acid release from brewer's spent grain by fungal feruloyl esterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraflo L, a #-glucanase preparation from Humicola insolens sold for reducing viscosity problems in the brewing industry, exhibited activity against the methyl esters of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids, displaying mainly type-B feruloyl esterase activity. Ultraflo also contained the ability to release 65% of the available ferulic acid (FA) together with three forms of diferulate from brewer's spent grain

C. B. Faulds; A. I. Sancho; B. Bartolomé



Polymerization of pentachlorophenol and ferulic acid by fungal extracellular lignin-degrading enzymes.  

PubMed Central

High-molecular-weight polymers were produced by a crude concentrated supernatant from ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures in a reaction mixture containing pentachlorophenol and a humic acid precursor (ferulic acid) in the presence of a detergent and H2O2. Pure manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase were also shown to catalyze the reaction.

Ruttimann-Johnson, C; Lamar, R T



Detoxification of ferulic acid by ectomycorrhizal fungi.  


The ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria amethystina and Lactarius deterrimus grown in liquid culture were used to study the fate of added ferulic acid. Laccaria amethystina degraded ferulic acid to the major metabolite vanillic acid. The intermediate vanillin was not detected. Lactarius deterrimus showed a completely different detoxification pattern. Two dimers and one trimer of ferulic acid could be identified as polymerization products of this fungus. A bioassay of the possible biological activities of ferulic acid and vanillic acid on these fungi revealed that vanillic acid was less toxic than ferulic acid for Laccaria amethystina but that both phenolic acids were toxic for Lactarius deterrimus. The results are discussed with respect to ectomycorrhizal fungal growth in the organic layer of forest soils and between living root cells of ectomycorrhizas. PMID:12682834

Münzenberger, B; Hammer, E; Wray, V; Schauer, F; Schmidt, J; Strack, D



Characterization of physicochemical properties of ferulic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid) is a flavoid component possessing antioxidant property. The compound is\\u000a currently under development as a new drug candidate for the treatment of the dementia. The objective of this preformulation\\u000a study was to determine the physicochemical properties of ferulic acid. Then-octanol to water partition coefficients of ferulic acid were 0.375 and 0.489 at the pHs

Young Taek Sohn; Jin Hee Oh



Microbial decomposition of ferulic acid in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suppression of plant growth by different phenolic acids is well known. This work was designed to determine if ferulic acid, a known phenolic inhibitor of plant growth, accumulates in the soil and if soil microorganisms could be isolated that metabolize it. Over 99% of the extractable ferulic acid was lost from decaying hackberry leaves in 300 days. During this

Jack A. Turner; Elroy L. Rice



Ferulic Acid Esterase Activity from Schizophyllum commune†  

PubMed Central

Schizophyllum commune produced an esterase which released ferulic acid from starch-free wheat bran and from a soluble ferulic acid-sugar ester that was isolated from wheat bran. The preferred growth substrate for the production of ferulic acid esterase was cellulose. Growth on xylan-containing substrates (oat spelt xylan and starch-free wheat bran) resulted in activity levels that were significantly lower than those observed in cultures grown on cellulose. Similar observations were made for endoglucanase, p-nitrophenyllactopyranosidase, xylanase, and acetyl xylan esterase. Of the enzymes studied, only arabinofuranosidase was produced at maximum levels during growth on xylan-containing materials. Ferulic acid esterase that had been partially purified by DEAE chromatography released significant amounts of ferulic acid from wheat bran only in the presence of a xylanase-rich fraction, indicating that the esterase may not be able to readily attack high-molecular-weight substrates. The esterase acted efficiently, without xylanase addition, on a soluble sugar-ferulic acid substrate.

MacKenzie, C. Roger; Bilous, Doris



Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...


Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds.  


Antioxidant activity of 24 ferulic acid related compounds together with 6 gallic acid related compounds was evaluated using several different physical systems as well as their radical scavenging activity. The radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decreased in the order caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > ferulic acid esters > p-coumaric acid. In bulk methyl linoleate, test hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid esters showed antioxidant activity in parallel with their radical scavenging activity. In an ethanol-buffer solution of linoleic acid, the activity of test compounds was not always associated with their radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was most effective among the tested phenolic acids. Esterification of ferulic acid resulted in increasing activity. The activity of alkyl ferulates was somewhat influenced by the chain length of alcohol moiety. When the inhibitory effects of alkyl ferulates against oxidation of liposome induced by AAPH were tested, hexyl, octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl ferulates were more active than the other alkyl ferulates. Furthermore, lauryl gallate is most effective among the tested alkyl gallates. These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity. PMID:11902973

Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Kanae; Akiyama, Kayo; Taniguchi, Hisaji



Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration\\u000a of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using\\u000a adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen

Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Lifu Song; Shan Lin; Zhaobin Zhang; Zixin Deng; Ping Xu



Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.  


Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R



Evaluation of the antioxidant actions of ferulic acid and catechins.  


We have evaluated the abilities of ferulic acid, (+/-) catechin, (+) catechin and (-) epicatechin to scavenge the reactive oxygen species hydroxyl radical (OH.), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxyl radicals (RO2.). Ferulic acid tested at concentrations up to 5 mM inhibited the peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes. Both (+/-) and (+) catechin and (-) epicatechin were much more effective. All the compounds tested reacted with trichloromethyl peroxyl radical (CCl3 O2.) with rate constants > 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1. A mixture of FeCl3-EDTA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid at pH 7.4, has often been used to generate hydroxyl radicals (OH.) which are detected by their ability to cause damage to the sugar deoxyribose. Ferulic acid, (+) and (+/-) catechin and (-) epicatechin inhibited deoxyribose damage by reacting with OH. with rate constants of 4.5 x 10(9)M-1 s-1, 3.65 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, 2.36 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 and 2.84 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 respectively. (-) Epicatechin, ferulic acid and the (+) and (+/-) catechins exerted pro-oxidant action, accelerating damage to DNA in the presence of a bleomycin-iron complex. On a molar basis, ferulic acid was less effective in causing damage to DNA compared with the catechins. A mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase generates O2-. which reduces cytochrome c to ferrocytochrome c. (+) Catechin and (-) epicatechin inhibited the reduction of cytochrome c in a concentration dependent manner. Ferulic acid and (+/-) catechin had only weak effects. All the compounds tested were able to scavenge hypochlorous acid at a rate sufficient to protect alpha-1-antiproteinase against inactivation. Our results show that catechins and ferulic acid possess antioxidant properties. This may become important given the current search for "natural" replacements for synthetic antioxidant food additives. PMID:7507456

Scott, B C; Butler, J; Halliwell, B; Aruoma, O I



Biotransformation of rice bran to ferulic acid by pediococcal isolates.  


Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used in foods, in beverages, and in various pharmaceutical industries as a precursor of vanillin. FA biotransformation can occur during the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and its conversion to other phenolic derivatives is observed by many scientists, where ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) play significant roles. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB for their ability to release FA from rice bran, an agro waste material. FAE and FDC activities were analyzed for the preliminary screening of various dairy isolates. Two Pediococcus acidilactici isolates were selected for studying further the hydrolysis of FA from rice bran and its bioconversion into phenolic derivatives like 4-ethylphenol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. P. acidilactici M16, a probiotic isolate, has great potential for the production of FA from rice bran and could be exploited as starter culture in the food industry for the production of biovanillin. PMID:23615732

Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Gundeep; Kaur, Gaganjot



Methanogenic Decomposition of Ferulic Acid, a Model Lignin Derivative  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid, a model lignin derivative, was observed to be biodegradable to methane and carbon dioxide under strict anaerobic conditions. This conversion appears to be carried out by a consortium of bacteria similar to that previously described for the methanogenic degradation of benzoic acid. A temporary buildup of acetate in these cultures indicates that it is a likely intermediate and precursor for methane formation. An analog of coenzyme M, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA), inhibited gas production and enhanced the buildup of propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate. Phenylacetate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, benzoate, cyclohexane carboxylate, adipate, and pimelate were also detected in BESA-inhibited cultures. A pathway is proposed which includes these various acids as possible intermediates in the methanogenic degradation of ferulic acid. This model overlaps previously described benzoic acid degradation pathways, suggesting that this type of anaerobic degradation may be common for aromatic compounds. Images

Healy, J. B.; Young, L. Y.; Reinhard, M.



Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir



Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria.  


Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir



In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of ferulic acid: A comparative study with other natural oxidation inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects that are attributed to its potent antioxidant capacity. However, in vitro antioxidant properties of ferulic acid have not been elucidated in detail. Evidence that polyphenols, including ferulic acid, act as antioxidants in vivo is also limited. In order to elucidate in more detail the scientific background of antioxidant activities of ferulic

Shirou Itagaki; Toshimitsu Kurokawa; Chie Nakata; Yoshitaka Saito; Setsu Oikawa; Masaki Kobayashi; Takeshi Hirano; Ken Iseki



Short- and long-term effects of ferulic acid on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  


Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound contained in rice bran and other plants. The effect of ferulic acid on blood pressure (BP) was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After oral administration of ferulic acid (1 to 100 mg/kg) to SHR, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. When oral ferulic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered to SHR, BP was lowest at 1 h and returned to basal levels at 6 h. There was a significant correlation between SHR plasma ferulic acid and changes in the SBP of the tail artery, suggesting that absorbed ferulic acid reduces BP. When 7-week-old SHR were given 10 and 50 mg/kg/d of ferulic acid for 6 weeks, increases in BP were significantly attenuated compared to SHR on the control diet. Intravenous injection of ferulic acid dose dependently reduced carotid arterial pressure in anesthetized SHR. Furthermore, the depressor effect of intravenous ferulic acid (1 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated by pretreatment of SHR with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 mg/kg, administered intravenously). These data suggest that the hypotensive effect of ferulic acid in SHR is associated with NO-mediated vasodilation. PMID:11991222

Suzuki, Atsushi; Kagawa, Daiji; Fujii, Akihiko; Ochiai, Ryuji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Saito, Ikuo



Conversion of ferulic acid into 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin and vanillic acid in model solutions of shochu  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Vinylguaiacol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene), vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) were isolated from distilled and stored model solutions of shochu (MSS) that originally contained only ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) using a solid-phase extraction technique. These compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The amounts of the metabolites converted from ferulic acid was affected by pH, alcohol

Takuya Koseki; Yasurou Ito; Shinji Furuse; Kiyoshi Ito; Kimio Iwano



FA15, a hydrophobic derivative of ferulic acid, suppresses inflammatory responses and skin tumor promotion: comparison with ferulic acid.  


In our previous study, FA15 (2-methyl-1-butyl ferulic acid) was chemically synthesized as a novel ferulic acid (FA) analog, and found to notably suppress phorbol ester-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation and superoxide anion generation in vitro. In this report, we demonstrated that FA15, in contrast to FA, markedly suppressed the combined lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma-induced protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and also inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha accompanied by suppression of I-kappa B degradation in RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. In ICR mouse skin, topical application of FA15 significantly attenuated phorbol ester-triggered hydrogen peroxide production and edema formation as well as papilloma development while that of FA did not. Our results suggest that FA15, derived from natural sources, is a novel chemopreventive agent, both structurally and functionally. PMID:12175542

Murakami, Akira; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Koshimizu, Koichi; Takahashi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hagihara, Kazuma; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Nomura, Eisaku; Hosoda, Asao; Tsuno, Takuo; Maruta, Yuko; Kim, Ha Won; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Ohigashi, Hajime



Degradation of ferulic acid by a white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A ubiquitous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune was used for the first time to study the degradation of ferulic acid. Vanillic acid was observed as one of the major products of ferulic acid catabolism, with vanillin formed as an intermediate. Almost 99.9% ferulic acid with a initial concentration of 5 mM was consumed by this fungus after 16 days of

Shashwati Ghosh; Ashish Sachan; Adinpunya Mitra



Novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis SHL1 with potential converting ferulic acid into vanillic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in exploiting microbial bioconversions for the production of high value-added products such as\\u000a vanillin and vanillic acid. We conducted this study to screen strains of bacteria which are able to degrade ferulic acid,\\u000a and to evaluate the possibility of forming vanillic acid via conversion of ferulic acid under resting cell conditions. Twenty-seven\\u000a different strains of

Morahem Ashengroph; Iraj Nahvi; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani; Fariborz Momenbeik


Carbohydrate and lipid status in soybean roots influenced by ferulic acid uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to investigate how the allelochemical ferulic acid affects the carbohydrate and lipid contents\\u000a of soybean roots cultivated in nutrient culture. The results presented revealed that ferulic acid has significant effects\\u000a on carbohydrates by the increase in xylose, fructose and sucrose and decrease in glucose, after 24 h treatment of roots. Ferulic\\u000a acid increased the

Maria de Lourdes Lucio Ferrarese; Nilson Evlázio de Souza; Joăo Domingos Rodrigues; Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho



[Synthesis of ferulic acid derivatives and their inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation].  


Ferulic acid, an useful compound of Chinese traditional medicine, was used as leading compound. Six ferulic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized based on bioisosterism. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. In vivo experiment showed that ferulic acid derivatives had good inhibitory effects on adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet aggregation, which were significantly higher than that of Ozagrel. PMID:21626785

Li, Jia-Ming; Zhao, Yong-Hai; Zhong, Guo-Chen; Long, Zi-Jiang; Zhou, Peng; Yuan, Ming



Ferulic acid modulates nitric oxide synthase expression in focal cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by three different NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). It is known that eNOS produces NO, which exerts a protective effect, while iNOS produces NO with neurotoxic effects. Ferulic acid preserves neuronal cells against from cerebral ischemia and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. This study confirmed the neuroprotective effect of ferulic acid and investigated the levels of three NOS isoforms in focal cerebral ischemia with or without ferulic acid. Rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brains tissues were collected at 24 h after the onset of occlusion. The expressions of these three isoforms in cerebral ischemia with ferulic acid were analyzed using Western blot technique. Ferulic acid treatment significantly decreases the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the cerebral cortex against MCAO injury. The levels of eNOS decreased in MCAO-operated animals, while ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease of eNOS. However, iNOS and nNOS expression levels increased during MCAO, and ferulic acid prevented injury-induced increase of these isoforms. Thus, these findings suggest that the up- and down modulation of three isoforms by ferulic acid is associated with a neuroprotective mechanism.



Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes.  


We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological synthesis adds market value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive component of agricultural crops, is plentiful in corn hulls, cereal bran, and sugar-beet pulp. Two Enterobacter strains, E. soli, and E. aerogenes, accumulated 550-600 ppm amounts of 4-VG when grown in media containing 1,000 ppm ferulic acid; no accumulations were observed with the other strains. Decreasing the amount of ferulic acid present in the media increased the conversion efficiency. When ferulic acid was supplied in 500, 250, or 125 ppm amounts E. aerogenes converted ~72 % of the ferulic acid present to 4-VG while E. soli converted ~100 % of the ferulic acid to 4-VG when supplied with 250 or 125 ppm amounts of ferulic acid. Also, lowering the pH improved the conversion efficiency. At pH 5.0 E. aerogenes converted ~84 % and E. soli converted ~100 % of 1,000 ppm ferulic acid to 4-VG. Only small, 1-5 ppm, accumulations of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid were observed. E. soli has a putative phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) that is 168 amino acids long and is similar to PADs in other enterobacteriales; this protein is likely involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to 4-VG. E. soli or E. aerogenes might be useful as a means of biotransforming ferulic acid to 4-VG. PMID:22986816

Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K; van der Lelie, Daniel



Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...


A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther



Preparation of ferulic acid and its application for the synthesis of cancer chemopreventive agents.  


We suggest that chemical raw materials can best be obtained from natural resources. Ferulic acid is easily prepared in large quantities from rice bran pitch, a blackish brown waste oil with high viscosity, discharged in the process of the rice bran oil production. As an application of ferulic acid, potential cancer chemopreventive agents could be synthesized using organic synthetic methods. PMID:10625954

Taniguchi, H; Hosoda, A; Tsuno, T; Maruta, Y; Nomura, E


Acetyl cholinesterase inhibition potential and antioxidant activities of ferulic acid isolated from Impatiens bicolor Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Impatiens bicolor Linn. and identified by X-ray analysis. The acetylcholine esterase inhibition, radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay) and FRAP assay were carried out on the compound. It was found that the effect of ferulic acid was strongly dose dependent i.e., 25 - 175 µg\\/ml in DPPH assay, 50 - 150

Durre Shahwar; Shafiq Ur Rehman; Muhammad Asam Raza


Effects of ferulic acid treatment on growth and flavor development of cultured vanilla planifolia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanilla planifolia callus was maintained in the dark on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium at 26°C. Ferulic acid, a probable precursor of vanillin the dominant flavor component of vanilla extract, was topically applied to V. planifolia callus. Callus treated with ferulic acid experienced immediate fluid uptake followed by a delayed and reduced growth response. Over the 28 day period,

L. G. Romagnoli; Dietrich Knorr



The Release of Ferulic Acid and Feruloylated Oligosaccharides During Wort and Beer Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 111(4), 372-379, 2005 Ferulic acid, a very attractive natural antioxidant is present in beer in free form, but the main form is the bound form as feru- loylated oligosaccharides. Previous research showed that feru- loylated oligosaccharides more effectively inhibited lipid and Low Density Lipoprotein oxidation than free ferulic acid. The aim of the present study was to

Dominik Szwajgier; Jacek Pielecki


Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

Ono, Kenjiro [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Hirohata, Mie [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Yamada, Masahito [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)]. E-mail:



Molecular spectroscopic studies on the interaction of ferulic acid with calf thymus DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between ferulic acid and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) under physiological conditions (Tris-HCl buffer solutions, pH 7.4) was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques, and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that a complex of ferulic acid with ctDNA was formed with a binding constant of K290K = 7.60 × 104 L mol-1 and K310K = 4.90 × 104 L mol-1. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (?H°), entropy change (?S°) and Gibbs free energy (?G°) were calculated to be -1.69 × 104 J mol-1, 35.36 J K-1 mol-1 and -2.79 × 104 J mol-1 at 310 K, respectively. The acting forces between ferulic acid and DNA mainly included hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Acridine orange displacement studies revealed that ferulic acid can substitute for AO probe in the AO-DNA complex which was indicative of intercalation binding. Thermal denaturation study suggested that the interaction of ferulic acid with DNA could result in the increase of the denaturation temperature, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ferulic acid. Spectroscopic techniques together with melting techniques and viscosity determination provided evidences of intercalation mode of binding for the interaction between ferulic acid and ctDNA.

Zhang, Shufang; Sun, Xuejun; Qu, Fengli; Kong, Rongmei



Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 × 10 -6 to 1.0 × 10 -4 mol l -1 and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 × 10 -9 mol l -1. The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 × 10 -5 mol l -1 ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun



Protection against ?-amyloid peptide toxicity in vivo with long-term administration of ferulic acid  

PubMed Central

?-Amyloid peptide (A?), a 39?–?43 amino acid peptide, is believed to induce oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, which are postulated to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Ferulic acid is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent derived from plants; therefore, the potential protective activity of ferulic acid against A? toxicity in vivo was examined. Mice were allowed free access to drinking water (control) or water containing ferulic acid (0.006%). After 4 weeks, A?1-42 (410?pmol) was administered via intracerebroventricular injection. Injection of control mice with A?1-42 impaired performance on the passive avoidance test (35% decrease in step-through latency), the Y-maze test (19% decrease in alternation behaviour), and the water maze test (32% decrease in percentage time in platform-quadrant). In contrast, mice treated with ferulic acid prior to A?1-42 administration were protected from these changes (9% decrease in step-through latency; no decrease in alternation behaviour; 14% decrease in percentage time in platform-quadrant). A?1-42 induced 31% decrease in acetylcholine level in the cortex, which was tended to be ameliorated by ferulic acid. In addition, A?1-42 increased immunoreactivities of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the hippocampus, effects also suppressed by pretreatment with ferulic acid. Administration of ferulic acid per se unexpectedly induced a transient and slight increase in GFAP and IL-1? immunoreactivity in the hippocampus on day 14, which returned to basal levels on day 28. A slight (8%) decrease in alternation behaviour was observed on day 14. These results demonstrate that long-term administration of ferulic acid induces resistance to A?1-42 toxicity in the brain, and suggest that ferulic acid may be a useful chemopreventive agent against Alzheimer's disease.

Yan, Ji-Jing; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Hee-Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Li; Jung, Jun-Sub; Huh, Sung-Oh; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Yung-Hi; Song, Dong-Keun



Heterologous expression of two ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum.  


Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover. PMID:18421589

Knoshaug, Eric P; Selig, Michael J; Baker, John O; Decker, Stephen R; Himmel, Michael E; Adney, William S



Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum  

SciTech Connect

Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.



Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.


Ferulic acid induces mammalian target of rapamycin inactivation in cultured mammalian cells.  


Ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring polyphenol abundant in vegetables and rice bran, is known to possess a potent antioxidant activity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. In the present study, we show that in addition to its known anti-oxidant activity, ferulic acid exerts substantial inhibitory activity on cellular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor)-signaling pathways. In HeLa cells and mouse primary hepatocytes cultured with conventional nutrient-rich media, ferulic acid (1?mM) elicited dephosphorylation of S6 kinase and its substrate ribosomal S6. The dephosphorylating activity of ferulic acid was almost comparable to that of rapamycin, an established mTor inhibitor (TORC1). We next investigated the effect of ferulic acid on autophagy, a major cellular degradative process, which significantly contributes to the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Using a conventional green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein IA/IB light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) dot assay to evaluate autophagy flux, we showed that ferulic acid caused a significant increase in GFP-LC3 dots under serum-rich conditions in HeLa cells. The enhancement of autophagic flux by ferulic acid was almost equivalent to that of rapamycin. Furthermore, ferulic acid significantly enhanced autophagic degradation of (14)C-leucine-labeled long-lived proteins of cultured mouse hepatocytes under nutrient-rich conditions, but not nutrient-deprived conditions. These results indicate that ferulic acid is almost the equivalent of rapamycin in the ability to inhibit mTor (TORC1), which makes it a potent activator of basal autophagy. PMID:23117620

Bian, Zehua; Furuya, Norihiko; Zheng, Dong-Mei; Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro; Tada, Norihiro; Ezaki, Junji; Ueno, Takashi



Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and\\/or vanillic acids and that

Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton; John O. Rawlings



Towards a high-yield bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural vanillin is of high interest in the flavor market. Microbial routes to vanillin have so far not been economical as\\u000a the medium concentrations achieved have been well below 1 g?l?1. We have now screened microbial isolates from nature and known strains for their ability to convert eugenol or ferulic acid\\u000a into vanillin. Ferulic acid, in contrast to the rather

A. Muheim; K. Lerch



Preparation, characterization and antioxidant property of water-soluble ferulic acid grafted chitosan.  


The objective of the present work was to improve the antioxidant activity and water solubility of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid through a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, (1)H NMR and ninhydrin assay confirmed the grafting of ferulic acid onto chitosan at the C-2 position. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan - prepared using a mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1, reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 3h - possessed the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. Although ferulic acid grafted chitosan showed reduced crystallinity (?10%) and decreased decomposition temperature (?55°C) as compared to chitosan, it exhibited greater radical scavenging activity (?55%) and was soluble in water (up to 1.3mg/mL). The improved antioxidant property and water solubility of this chitosan derivative could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:23768592

Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong



Ferulic Acid: therapeutic potential through its antioxidant property.  


There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R; Menon, Venugopal P



Quantitative analysis of plasma caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A validated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid (CA), dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), ferulic acid (FA), dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), and isoferulic acid (IFA) in human plasma as metabolites derived from coffee consumption. The method includes a protein precipitation step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites (sulfate, glucuronide, and\\/or ester) back to their aglycone

Philippe A. Guy; Mathieu Renouf; Denis Barron; Christophe Cavin; Fabiola Dionisi; Sunil Kochhar; Serge Rezzi; Gary Williamson; Heike Steiling



Rapid degradation of ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol and vanillin by a newly isolated strain of Bacillus coagulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strain Bacillus coagulans BK07 was isolated from decomposed wood-bark, based on its ability to grow on ferulic acid as a sole carbon source. This strain rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was immediately converted to vanillin and then oxidized to vanillic acid. Vanillic acid was further demethylated to protocatechuic acid. Above 95% substrate degradation was obtained within

B. Karmakar; R. M. Vohra; H. Nandanwar; P. Sharma; K. G. Gupta; R. C. Sobti



Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, selected for the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin, are also able to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and feruloyl esterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous fungal strains Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, previously selected for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid and vanillin respectively, were grown on sugar beet pulp. A large spectrum of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes was produced by A. niger and very few levels of feruloyl esterases were found. In contrast, P. cinnabarinus culture filtrate contained low amount

E Bonnina; M Brunel; Y Gouy; L Lesage-Meessen; M Asther; J.-F Thibault



Electrochemical determination of ferulic acid in Chinese traditional medicine Xiao Yao Pills at electrode modified with carbon nanotube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behaviors of ferulic acid were investigated at the glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled\\u000a carbon nanotube. In pH 5.5, 0.1 mol l?1 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, ferulic acid exhibited a pair of stable and sensitive redox signals at the modified electrode.\\u000a The reaction mechanism was explored. Through the cyclic voltammetry, trace amount of ferulic acid was detected quantitatively.\\u000a In

Yan-Yan Yu; Qing-Sheng Wu; Xiao-Gang Wang; Ya-Ping Ding



The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 ?g ml, was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control

Anabela Borges; Maria J. Saavedra; Manuel Simőes



Treatment of poplar callus with ferulic and sinapic acids I: incorporation and enhancement of lignin biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (FA), tetradeuteroferulic acid (DFA), sinapic acid (SA), or heptadeuterosinapic acid (DSA) was exogenously supplied to poplar ( Populus alba L.) callus. Administration of FA or SA increased the lignin content of the callus to about twice that of the control callus. Gas chromatographic analysis of the alkali hydrolysate of the cell wall residue revealed that only a trace

Katsuyoshi Hamada; Yuji Tsutsumi; Kazuchika Yamauchi; Kazuhiko Fukushima; Tomoaki Nishida



Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus brevis to N-Butanol and Ferulic Acid Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of anti-microbial phenolic compounds, such as the model compound ferulic acid, in biomass hydrolysates pose significant challenges to the widespread use of biomass in conjunction with whole cell biocatalysis or fermentation. Currently, these inhibitory compounds must be removed through additional downstream processing or sufficiently diluted to create environments suitable for most industrially important microbial strains. Simultaneously, product toxicity must also be overcome to allow for efficient production of next generation biofuels such as n-butanol, isopropanol, and others from these low cost feedstocks. Methodology and Principal Findings This study explores the high ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis, a lactic acid bacterium often found in fermentation processes, by global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional profile of L. brevis reveals that the presence of ferulic acid triggers the expression of currently uncharacterized membrane proteins, possibly in an effort to counteract ferulic acid induced changes in membrane fluidity and ion leakage. In contrast to the ferulic acid stress response, n-butanol challenges to growing cultures primarily induce genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway and reduced the proportion of 19?1 cyclopropane fatty acid within the L. brevis membrane. Both inhibitors also triggered generalized stress responses. Separate attempts to alter flux through the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits and deleting cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) both failed to improve n-butanol tolerance in E. coli, indicating that additional components of the stress response are required to confer n-butanol resistance. Conclusions Several promising routes for understanding both ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance have been identified from L. brevis gene expression data. These insights may be used to guide further engineering of model industrial organisms to better tolerate both classes of inhibitors to enable facile production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass.

Winkler, James; Kao, Katy C.



[Influence of ferulic acid on the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine].  


This study is to offer a clinical pain-depression dyad therapy of ferulic acid, the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine was established and the dose-effect relationship of ferulic acid on ameliorating pain-depression dyad was explored. Mice were randomly divided into control group, reserpine + vechile and reserpine + ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)) groups. The reserpine treated mice were tested with thermal hyperalgesia, mechanicial allodynia and forced swimming tests, and the SOD and NO levels of hippocampus and frontal cortex were measured. Moreover, the HPLC-ECD was used to detect the changes of central monoamines concentrations. Compared with control group, reserpine can induce a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold and increase in the immobility time of the forced swimming test. The results suggested that reserpine significantly increased the level of nitrite in hippocampus and frontal cortex and reduced the levels of SOD, 5-HT and NE in these two brain regions. However, these indexes can be a dose-dependently reversed by ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)). Ferulic acid can reverse pain-depression dyad, especially at the dose of 80 mg x kg(-1). In addition, it can influence oxidative stress and monoamine level. PMID:23600138

Zhang, Lu; Wang, Qian-Dong; Shi, Hua-Meng; Pan, Jian-Chun



Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere.

Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P



Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of ferulic Acid amides as selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.  


A series of ferulic acid amides with extended P1' groups were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activities on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis and docking studies indicated that ferulic acid amides with electron-donating groups at the amino phenyl ring showed better inhibitory activities and selectivity than those with electron-withdrawing groups. Compound 3e, which had a hydroxyl group at meta-position of amino phenyl ring, showed considerable inhibitory activities against MMP-2, MMP-9 and best selectivity over MMP-1. The findings of this study would provide information for the exploitation and utilization of ferulic acid as MMP inhibitor for metastatic tumor treatment. PMID:23061601

Shi, Zhi-Hao; Li, Nian-Guang; Shi, Qian-Ping; Tang, Hao-; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Wei-; Yin, Lian-; Yang, Jian-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao



Cloning and Characterization of the Ferulic Acid Catabolic Genes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6  

PubMed Central

Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades ferulic acid to vanillin, and it is further metabolized through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. We obtained a Tn5 mutant of SYK-6, FA2, which was able to grow on vanillic acid but not on ferulic acid. A cosmid which complemented the growth deficiency of FA2 on ferulic acid was isolated. The 5.2-kb BamHI-EcoRI fragment in this cosmid conferred the transformation activity of ferulic acid to vanillin on Escherichia coli host cells. A sequencing analysis revealed the genes ferB and ferA in this fragment; these genes consist of 852- and 2,127-bp open reading frames, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB showed 40 to 48% identity with that of the feruloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase/lyase genes of Pseudomonas and Amycolatopsis ferulic acid degraders. On the other hand, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA showed no significant similarity to the feruloyl-CoA synthetase genes of other ferulic acid degraders. However, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA did show 31% identity with pimeloyl-CoA synthetase of Pseudomonas mendocina 35, which has been classified as a new superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetase (ADP forming) with succinyl-CoA synthetase (L. B. Sánchez, M. Y. Galperin, and M. Müller, J. Biol. Chem. 275:5794-5803, 2000). On the basis of the enzyme activity of E. coli carrying each of these genes, ferA and ferB were shown to encode a feruloyl-CoA synthetase and feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, respectively. p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and sinapinic acid were converted to their corresponding benzaldehyde derivatives by the cell extract containing FerA and FerB, thereby indicating their broad substrate specificities. We found a ferB homolog, ferB2, upstream of a 5-carboxyvanillic acid decarboxylase gene (ligW) involved in the degradation of 5,5?-dehydrodivanillic acid. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB2 showed 49% identity with ferB, and its gene product showed feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase activity with a substrate specificity similar to that of FerB. Insertional inactivation of each fer gene in S. paucimobilis SYK-6 suggested that the ferA gene is essential and that ferB and ferB2 genes are involved in ferulic acid degradation.

Masai, Eiji; Harada, Kyo; Peng, Xue; Kitayama, Hirotaka; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao



Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.  


The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product. PMID:18930006

El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis



Physicochemical and biological processes affecting the recovery of exogenously applied ferulic acid from tropical forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is found in both plants and soils, and some evidence suggests its involvement in biochemical interactions between plants (allelopathy) and other organisms living in the soil. Knowledge of the processes affecting the concentrations of such potential allelochemicals in soil is essential if we are to understand their roles in the soil environment. It was the intent

Barry R. Dalton



Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed Central

A ferulic acid decarboxylase enzyme which catalyzes the decarboxylation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene was purified from Pseudomonas fluorescens UI 670. The enzyme requires no cofactors and contains no prosthetic groups. Gel filtration estimated an apparent molecular mass of 40.4 (+/- 6%) kDa, whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a molecular mass of 20.4 kDa, indicating that ferulic acid decarboxylase is a homodimer in solution. The purified enzyme displayed an optimum temperature range of 27 to 30 degrees C, exhibited an optimum pH of 7.3 in potassium phosphate buffer, and had a Km of 7.9 mM for ferulic acid. This enzyme also decarboxylated 4-hydroxycinnamic acid but not 2- or 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, indicating that a hydroxy group para to the carboxylic acid-containing side chain is required for the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme was inactivated by Hg2+, Cu2+, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are necessary for enzyme activity. Diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine-specific inhibitor, did not affect enzyme activity. Images

Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P



Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four new phenolic dimers and trimers that contain ferulic acid moieties were isolated from the alkaline hydrolyzate of insoluble maize bran fiber and their structures were established by 1D/2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The biological role of one dimer remains unclear whereas the dimeric vanillin-fe...


Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. Results A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 ?g/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Conclusions Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies.



Identification of cholesteryl ester of ferulic acid in human plasma by mass spectrometry.  


Epidemiological data suggests that regular consumption polyphenol rich foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of certain pathological conditions. While the in vivo "per se" antioxidant benefit of polyphenols still has not been clearly demonstrated, it has been suggested that phenolic acids can be incorporated into low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In the present study, we hypothesized that esterification of phenolic acids - such as ferulic acid - with lipophilic substances such as cholesterol can occur in vivo. To prove this hypothesis, we have synthesized pure cholesteryl-ferulate standard and used gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to confirm the presence of endogenous form in human plasma. The detection and identification of cholesteryl ferulate was based on: (1) matching gas- and liquid chromatographic retention time with the reference standard; (2) accurate mass of the molecular ion; (3) matching electron ionization mass spectrum and (4) matching electrospray product ion spectrum. The identified cholesteryl ferulate demonstrated an in vitro antioxidant capacity in various assays. The present study confirmed that phenolic acid can be found in human plasma as lipophilic conjugates which exert antioxidant capacity. These molecules can potentially be involved in the protection of lipoproteins against oxidative damages. PMID:23791450

Nagy, Kornél; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Redeuil, Karine; Barron, Denis; Fumeaux, René; Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Destaillats, Frédéric



Oxidizing of ferulic acid with the use of polyoxometalates as catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of catalytic oxidation for ferulic acid with polyoxometalates used as catalysts was studied. The effect of pH and concentrations of the principal reacting components on the process kinetics was studied. A kinetic scheme of oxidation is proposed, and the values of a number of kinetic parameters of the process are determined.

Povarnitsyna, T. V.; Popova, N. R.; Bogolitsyn, K. G.; Beloglazova, A. L.; Pryakhin, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.



Ferulic acid dimer inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.  


Phenylpropanoids may act as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-like compounds. 4-cis, 8-cis-Bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dioxabicyclo-[3.3.0]octane-2,6-dione (bis-FA, compound 2), a dimer of ferulic acid, was synthesized from ferulic acid (1), and its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW 264.7 cells was compared with those of the parent ferulic acid (1) and of iso-ferulic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid) (3). LPS-induced gene expression of COX-2 was markedly inhibited by compound 2 at a concentration of 10 microM and by compound 3 at 100 microM, but was not inhibited by compound 1 at 100 microM. This observation suggests that compound 2 may possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. These ferulic acid-related compounds were able to scavenge the stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The 50% inhibitory concentration for DPPH radicals declined in the order 3 (40.20 mM) > 2 (3.16 mM) > 1 (0.145 mM). Compound 1 possessed potent anti-radical activity, but no COX-2 inhibitory activity, which may be a result of enhancement of its conjugate properties by abstraction of an H atom from the phenolic OH group, causing loss of phenolic function. In contrast, inhibition of COX-2 expression by compounds 2 and 3 could be caused by their increased phenolic function, which is associated with decreased anti-radical activity. Compounds 2 and 3, particularly 2, may have potential as NSAID-like compounds. PMID:16097437

Hirata, Atsusi; Murakami, Yukio; Atsumi, Toshiko; Shoji, Masao; Ogiwara, Takako; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Ito, Shigeru; Yokoe, Ichro; Fujisawa, Seiichiro


Simple and rapid determination of ferulic Acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.  


Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

Tee-Ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon



Production and biochemical characterization of a type B ferulic acid esterase from Streptomyces ambofaciens.  


For the first time, the presence of a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) was demonstrated in Streptomyces ambofaciens. This extracellular enzyme was produced on a range of lignocellulosic substrates. The maximal level of activity was detected in the presence of either destarched wheat bran or oat spelt xylan as the sole carbon source. We found that 1% (m/v) of destarched wheat bran was the optimal concentration to induce its production. With this inducer, no ferulic acid dimers were released from the cell wall by the produced FAE. Interestingly, rape cattle cake (Brassica napus), which does not contain esterified ferulic acid, was also shown to induce the production of the FAE from S. ambofaciens. The FAE was partially purified from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 7 and 40 degrees C. The substrate specificity of the FAE from S. ambofaciens was investigated: the highest activity was determined with methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, and methyl cinnamate. Furthermore, the FAE required a certain distance between the benzene ring and the ester bond to be active. According to these biochemical characteristics, the FAE from S. ambofaciens has been classified as a type B FAE. PMID:19767844

Kheder, Fadi; Delaunay, Stéphane; Abo-Chameh, Ghassan; Paris, Cédric; Muniglia, Lionel; Girardin, Michel



Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.  


Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s(-1), and 78.2 U mg(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation. PMID:23840666

Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping



Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression in Escherichia coli of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 gene for ferulic acid decarboxylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) can catalyze the transformation of ferulic acid into 4-vinyl guaiacol via decarboxylation\\u000a in microorganisms. In this study, a gene encoding FADase was first isolated from the bacterium Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 using degenerate primers and a genome walking technique. The putative encoding gene (fad) of FADase consists of 507-bp nucleotides, coding a polypeptide of 168 amino acid

Wen Gu; Xuemei Li; Jingwen Huang; Yanqing Duan; Zhaohui Meng; Ke-Qin Zhang; Jinkui Yang



Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.  


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82?M, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie



Synchronous fluorescence determination of ferulic acid with Ce(IV) and sodium tripolyphosphate.  


In this study, a synchronous fluorescence detection method for ferulic acid (FA) is proposed based on a redox reaction between FA and Ce(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid medium at room temperature. It was found that FA could reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in acidic medium, and sodium tripolyphosphate could further enhance the intrinsic fluorescence of the Ce(III) produced. The enhanced extent of synchronous fluorescence intensity was in proportion to the concentration of FA over the range 3.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. The corresponding limit of determination (S/N?=?3) was 1.3 × 10(-8) mol/L. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sodium ferulate for injection sample with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23744595

Meng, F; Liu, P; Huang, F; Wang, L; Wu, X; Shen, L



Influence of Oryzanol and Ferulic Acid on the Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidative Status in High Fat-Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

The comparative effects of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative status of high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given a diet containing 17% fat (HF), supplemented with oryzanol (HF-O) or ferulic acid for 7 weeks. The control mice (NC) were fed with normal diet. The HF mice exhibited increased body weight gain, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and lipid peroxidation rate, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. In general, they also showed lower hepatic antioxidant and higher lipid-regulating enzymes activities relative to that of NC group. Addition of oryzanol or ferulic acid in the diet counteracted these high fat-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress via increased faecal lipid excretion and regulation of antioxidant and lipogenic enzymes activities. This study illustrates that oryzanol and ferulic acid have relatively similar hypolipidemic actions and could be effective in lowering the risk of high fat diet-induced obesity.

Jin Son, Myoung; W. Rico, Catherine; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi



Purification and characterization of ferulic acid esterase from malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15).  


Ferulic acid esterase (EC cleaves the feruloyl groups substituted at the 5'-OH group of arabinosyl residues of arabinoxylans and is known to modulate their functional properties. In this study, ferulic acid esterase from 96 h finger millet malt was purified to apparent homogeneity by three-step purification with a recovery of 3% and a fold purification of 22. The substrate p-nitrophenylferulate (PNPF) was synthesized and used to assay this enzyme spectrophotometrically. The products liberated from ragi and wheat water-soluble polysaccharides by the action of purified ragi ferulic acid esterase were identified by ESI-MS. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were found to be 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The pH and temperature stabilities of the enzyme were found to be in the range of 5.5-9.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was found to be 4.08 kJ mol(-1). The apparent K m and V max of the purified ferulic acid esterase for PNPF were 0.053 microM and 0.085 unit mL(-1), respectively. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 16.5 kDa. Metal ions such as Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+) and oxalic and citric acids enhanced the enzyme activity. The enzyme was completely inhibited by Fe(3+). Group specific reagents such as p-chloromercuric benzoate and iodoacetamide inhibited the enzyme, indicating the possible presence of cysteine residues in the active site pocket. PMID:17944530

Latha, G Madhavi; Srinivas, P; Muralikrishna, G



Permeation and Distribution of Ferulic Acid and Its ?-Cyclodextrin Complex from Different Formulations in Hairless Rat Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural product that occurs in seeds of many plants where it is generally located in the bran. This\\u000a compound is a multifunctional ingredient endowed with antioxidative, radical scavenging, sunscreening and antibacterial actions.\\u000a The aim of this study was to analyse the ferulic acid cutaneous permeation and distribution, through and into the skin layers,\\u000a from different

Daniela Monti; Silvia Tampucci; Patrizia Chetoni; Susi Burgalassi; Veronica Saino; Marisanna Centini; Lucia Staltari; Cecilia Anselmi



Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacilli Degrading Cinnamic, 4-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids  

PubMed Central

Thirty-four thermophilic Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from decayed wood bark and a hot spring water sample based on their ability to degrade vanillic acid under thermophilic conditions. It was found that these bacteria were able to degrade a wide range of aromatic acids such as cinnamic, 4-coumaric, 3-phenylpropionic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, ferulic, benzoic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. The metabolic pathways for the degradation of these aromatic acids at 60°C were examined by using one of the isolates, strain B1. Benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were detected as breakdown products from cinnamic and 4-coumaric acids, respectively. The ?-oxidative mechanism was proposed to be responsible for these conversions. The degradation of benzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids was determined to proceed through catechol and gentisic acid, respectively, for their ring fission. It is likely that a non-?-oxidative mechanism is the case in the ferulic acid catabolism, which involved 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionic acid, vanillin, and vanillic acid as the intermediates. Other strains examined, which are V0, D1, E1, G2, ZI3, and H4, were found to have the same pathways as those of strain B1, except that strains V0, D1, and H4 had the ability to transform 3-hydroxybenzoic acid to gentisic acid, which strain B1 could not do.

Peng, Xue; Misawa, Norihiko; Harayama, Shigeaki



Ferulic acid and its therapeutic potential as a hormetin for age-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (FA) is a polyphenol very abundant in vegetables and maize bran. Several lines of evidence have shown that FA\\u000a acts as a potent antioxidant in vitro, due to its ability to scavenge free radicals and induce a robust cell stress response\\u000a through the up-regulation of cytoprotective enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, heat shock protein 70, extracellular signal-regulated\\u000a kinase

Eugenio Barone; Vittorio Calabrese; Cesare Mancuso



Microbial Metabolism of the Plant Phenolic Compounds Ferulic and Syringic Acids under Three Anaerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic and syringic acids are methoxylated aromatic compounds that often serve as models of the subunits of lignin. Although\\u000a these compounds have important implications for global carbon cycles, there is limited information on their fate in anoxic\\u000a environments. Enrichment cultures were established on these two model compounds under methanogenic, sulfidogenic, and denitrifying\\u000a conditions, using a Raritan River (New Jersey) marsh

C. D. Phelps; L. Y. Young



Florigenic Acid from fungal culture.  


The extraction procedures which have been successfully employed in the preparation of a florigenic principle from the tissues of Xanthium, are applicable to the derivation of an entity of similar activity from Calonectria culture. The Xanthium principle is acedic, with pK(a) values characteristic of a carboxylic acid (6). Although definitive chemical comparisons have not been completed, the extraction and solvent partition procedures that have been applicable to the extraction of the active entity from higher plant tissues have yielded florigenic preparations from fungal culture. The chemical principle from higher plant tissue may be the same or similar to the florigenic agent of Calonectria.The many responses of higher plants to growth regulators produced by micro-organisms are well known. The presence of a flower-producing principle from Calonectria (Fusarium) rigidiuscula parallels closely the pattern exhibited by those fungal species capable of the production of auxin and gibberellins. PMID:16656352

Lincoln, R G; Cunningham, A; Carpenter, B H; Alexander, J; Mayfield, D L



The kinetics and mechanisms of reactions of iron(III) with caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid and naringin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of iron(III) with the hydroxy cinnamic acid based ligands caffeic, chlorogenic, sinapic and ferulic acids and the flavonoid naringin have been investigated in aqueous solution. The mechanisms for caffeic and chlorogenic acid are generally consistent with the formation of a 1:1 complex that subsequently decays through an electron transfer reaction. On reaction with

Michael J. Hynes; Máirt??n O'Coinceanainn



Laccase-catalysed oxidation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in aqueous medium: A green procedure for the synthesis of new compounds.  


The enzymatic oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, as biocatalyst, was performed in aqueous medium using an eco-friendly procedure to synthesize new active molecules. First, the commercial laccase was ultrafiltrated allowing for the elimination of phenolic contaminants and increasing the specific activity by a factor of 2. Then, kinetic parameters of this laccase were determined for both substrates (FA, EF), indicating a higher substrate affinity for ethyl ferulate. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to the synthesis of a FA-major product, exhibiting a molecular mass of 386g/mol and a EF-major product with a molecular mass of 442g/mol. Structural analyses by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of dimeric derivatives. The optical properties of the oxidation products showed the increase of red and yellow colours, with FA-products compared to EF-products. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to a decrease of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to initial substrates. Consequently, this enzymatic procedure in aqueous medium could provide new compounds presenting optical, antioxidant and cytotoxic interest. PMID:24128582

Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Paris, Cédric; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel



Highly Efficient Biotransformation of Eugenol to Ferulic Acid and Further Conversion to Vanillin in Recombinant Strains of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The vaoA gene from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90, encoding vanillyl alcohol oxidase, which also catalyzes the conversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, was expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue under the control of the lac promoter, together with the genes calA and calB, encoding coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, respectively. Resting cells of the corresponding recombinant strain E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) converted eugenol to ferulic acid with a molar yield of 91% within 15 h on a 50-ml scale, reaching a ferulic acid concentration of 8.6 g liter?1. This biotransformation was scaled up to a 30-liter fermentation volume. The maximum production rate for ferulic acid at that scale was 14.4 mmol per h per liter of culture. The maximum concentration of ferulic acid obtained was 14.7 g liter?1 after a total fermentation time of 30 h, which corresponded to a molar yield of 93.3% with respect to the added amount of eugenol. In a two-step biotransformation, E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) was used to produce ferulic acid from eugenol and, subsequently, E. coli(pSKechE/Hfcs) was used to convert ferulic acid to vanillin (J. Overhage, H. Priefert, and A. Steinbüchel, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:4837-4847, 1999). This process led to 0.3 g of vanillin liter?1, besides 0.1 g of vanillyl alcohol and 4.6 g of ferulic acid liter?1. The genes ehyAB, encoding eugenol hydroxylase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, and azu, encoding the potential physiological electron acceptor of this enzyme, were shown to be unsuitable for establishing eugenol bioconversion in E. coli XL1-Blue.

Overhage, Jorg; Steinbuchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst



Influence of ferulic acid on circulatory prooxidant-antioxidant status during alcohol and PUFA induced toxicity.  


In recent years, there has been an escalation in alcohol abuse and inevitably, alcohol related disorders are becoming an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol is known to induce a dose dependent increase in lipid peroxidation. Alcohol related disabilities are more pronounced when taken along with diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The present work aims at analysing the protective role of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring nutritional component on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress. Two different doses of ferulic acid, 20 mg/kg body weight and 40 mg /kg body weight were used for the study. The results showed that the levels of oxidative markers; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides (HP) and levels of copper (Cu) and ferritin were increased significantly in plasma of alcohol, thermally oxidised PUFA (DeltaPUFA) and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups, which were decreased significantly on treatment with both the doses of ferulic acid. The activities of enzymic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non enzymic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the levels of zinc (Zn) were significantly decreased in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups which were improved significantly on treatment with both the doses of FA. The reduction in oxidative stress was more significant in 20 mg/kg body weight treatment groups compared to 40 mg/kg body weight. Thus from the results obtained, we conclude that FA effectively protects the system against alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress. PMID:15381826

Rukkumani, R; Aruna, K; Varma, P S; Menon, V P



Enzymatic Production of Ferulic Acid from Defatted Rice Bran by Using a Combination of Bacterial Enzymes.  


Ferulic acid (FA), which is present in the cell walls of some plants, is best known for its antioxidant property. By combining a commercial enzyme that shows FA esterase activity with several Streptomyces carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, we succeeded in enhancing the enzymatic production of FA from defatted rice bran. In particular, the combination of three xylanases, an ?-L-arabinofuranosidase, and an acetyl xylan esterase from Streptomyces spp. produced the highest increase in the amount of released FAs among all the enzymes in the Streptomyces enzymes library. This enzyme combination also had an effect on FA production from other biomasses, such as raw rice bran, wheat bran, and corncob. PMID:23512135

Uraji, Misugi; Kimura, Masayo; Inoue, Yosikazu; Kawakami, Kayoko; Kumagai, Yuya; Harazono, Koichi; Hatanaka, Tadashi



Consecutive Fragmentation Mechanisms of Protonated Ferulic Acid Probed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm-1. The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring.

Martens, Sabrina M.; Marta, Rick A.; Martens, Jonathan K.; McMahon, Terry B.



Consecutive fragmentation mechanisms of protonated ferulic acid probed by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.  


Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm(-1). The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring. PMID:22864827

Martens, Sabrina M; Marta, Rick A; Martens, Jonathan K; McMahon, Terry B



Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua



Treatment of poplar callus with ferulic and sinapic acids II: effects on related monolignol biosynthetic enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study we reported that administered ferulic acid (FA) was incorporated into guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in poplar callus ( Populus alba L.) but administered sinapic acid (SA) was not. It is possible that SA may induce or enhance the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin. In this study, enzyme activities in lignin biosynthesis were assayed in FA- or SA-treated

Katsuyoshi Hamada; Yuji Tsutsumi; Tomoaki Nishida



Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression in Escherichia coli of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 gene for ferulic acid decarboxylase.  


Ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) can catalyze the transformation of ferulic acid into 4-vinyl guaiacol via decarboxylation in microorganisms. In this study, a gene encoding FADase was first isolated from the bacterium Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 using degenerate primers and a genome walking technique. The putative encoding gene (fad) of FADase consists of 507-bp nucleotides, coding a polypeptide of 168 amino acid residues. In addition, a putative gene encoding the transcriptional regulator was identified from the upstream of the fad gene. The deduced peptide sequence of the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 showed a 51.2-53.3% sequence identity to decarboxylases from other bacteria. The gene fad was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and the recombinant FADase was purified as a protein of ca. 23 kDa with an optimal activity at pH 4.0 and 28 °C. The purified FADase could convert ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol effectively, and its hydrolytic activity could be inhibited by Cu(2+) (99%) and Hg(2+) (99.5%). A phylogenetic analysis of the FADase protein from bacteria revealed several different clades. Our result provided a basis for further studies of the ferulic acid transformation pathway and for enhanced production of vanillin in the future. PMID:21085952

Gu, Wen; Li, Xuemei; Huang, Jingwen; Duan, Yanqing; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui



The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.  


Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint



Enzymic release of reducing sugars from oat hulls by cellulase, as influenced by Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and trichoderma xylanase.  


Hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids, are believed to be inhibitory to ruminal biodegradability of complex cell wall materials such as oat hulls. Previous studies have shown that a novel enzyme, Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase, and Trichoderma xylanase act synergistically to break the ester linkage between ferulic acid and the attached sugar of feruloyl polysaccharides, releasing ferulic acid from oat hulls. In this paper, we examined the enzymic release of reducing sugars from oat hulls by the actions of individual enzymes (Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase at 13 mU, 6.4 U, and 4678.4 U/assay; cellulase at 20 levels, ranging from 7.8 mU to 2772.7 U/assay; Trichoderma xylanase at 20 levels, ranging from 7.8 mU to 4096 U/assay) and by the combined action of cellulase at six levels (62.5 mU, 2 U, 16 U, 128 U, 1024 U, and 2772.7 U/assay), Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase at 13 mU/assay, and Trichoderma xylanase at two levels (1 U and 256 U/assay). The amount of total acid-extractable reducing sugars in the oat hulls used in this study was 793.8 +/- 8.0 microg/mg. The results show that after a 24-h incubation with Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase alone, no reducing sugars were observed to be released from oat hulls. With cellulase as the sole enzyme, as the concentration increased from 7.8 mU to 2772.7 U/assay, the release of reducing sugars increased (P < 0.01) from 0 to 39% of the total present, with the highest release at 512 U/assay. With Trichoderma xylanase alone, as the concentration increased from 7.8 mU to 4096 U/assay, the release of reducing sugars increased (P < 0.01) from 4.9 to 33%, with the highest release at 2048 U/assay. When incubated together with Trichoderma xylanase (1 U or 256 U/assay) and Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase (13 mU/assay), cellulase at all six levels (62.5 mU, 2 U, 16 U, 128 U, 1024 U and 2772.7 U/assay) significantly increased the release of reducing sugars (P < 0.01) from 8 to 69%. These results indicate that the synergistic interaction between Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and Trichoderma xylanase on the release of ferulic acid from feruloyl polysaccharides of oat hulls makes the remainder of the polysaccharides open for further hydrolytic attack and facilitates the accessibility of the main chain of polysaccharides to cellulase. This action extends the cell wall hydrolysis, thus releasing a higher yield of reducing sugars. Such enzymic pretreatment of oat hulls may provide a unique advantage to rumen microorganisms for the biodegradation of the complex cell walls of byproduct feeds such as oat hulls. PMID:12502411

Yu, Peiqiang; McKinnon, John J; Maenz, David D; Olkowski, Andrzej A; Racz, Vern J; Christensen, David A



Protective effect of ferulic acid ethyl ester against oxidative stress mediated by UVB irradiation in human epidermal melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV solar radiation is the major environmental risk factor for malignant melanoma. A great effort is currently posed on the search of new compounds able to prevent or reduce UV-mediated cell damage. Ferulic acid is a natural compound recently included in the formulation of solar protecting dermatological products. The purpose of the present work was to assess whether its ethyl

F. Di Domenico; M. Perluigi; C. Foppoli; C. Blarzino; R. Coccia; F. De Marco; D. A. Butterfield; C. Cini



Theoretical prediction of the relationship between phenol function and COX-2/AP-1 inhibition for ferulic acid-related compounds.  


Ferulic acid-related compounds possess antioxidant activity. Dehydrodiisoeugenol and ferulic acid dimer (bis-FA), but not the parent monomers isoeugenol and ferulic acid, inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. To clarify the mechanism of their inhibitory effects on COX-2 expression, the phenolic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) of 8 ferulic acid-related compounds were calculated by both semi-empirical molecular orbital (AM1, PM3) and ab initio (3-21G* 6-31G*) and density function theory (DFT) (B3LYP) methods. COX-2 inhibition appeared in compounds with phenolic O-H BDE higher than 85.76 kcal/mol, as calculated by the density function theory (DFT) approach. The phenolic O-H BDEs of the most potent compounds, dehydrodiisoeugenol and bis-FA, were 85.99 and 85.76 kcal/mol, respectively. No causal relationship between COX-2 inhibition and IP was found. Neither dehydrodiisoeugenol nor bis-FA possessed significant scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The NSAID-like activity of dehydrodiisoeugenol and bis-FA appears to be related to their phenol function. Binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to the 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element (TRE) sequence in LPS-stimulated cells was inhibited by bis-FA at 1 microM and dehydrodiisoeugenol at 0.1 microM, but not by the parent monomers isoeugenol and ferulic acid. PMID:16277019

Murakami, Yukio; Ito, Shigeru; Atsumi, Toshiko; Fujisawa, Seiichiro


Evaluation of wound healing activity of ferulic acid in diabetic rats.  


In diabetic patients, there is impairment in angiogenesis, neovascularisation and failure in matrix metalloproteineases (MMPs), keratinocyte and fibroblast functions, which affects wound healing mechanism. Hence, diabetic patients are more prone to infections and ulcers which finally result in gangrene. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, rice bran and sweet corn. In this study, wound healing activity of FA was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision wound model. FA-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster as compared to diabetic wound control group. The hydroxyproline and hexosamine content increased significantly when compared to diabetic wound control. FA effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation and elevated the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, nitric oxide levels along with the increase in the serum zinc and copper levels probably aiding the wound healing process. Hence, the results indicate that FA significantly promotes wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:23236955

Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Kshirsagar, Shashank B; Sahane, Rajkumari S



Simultaneous determination of gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in Si–Wu decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in Si–Wu decoction and other 13 combinations of the formula. These five compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a Zorbox SB C-18 column by gradient elution using 0.01% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid–acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1mlmin?1, and

Yu-Xin Sheng; Lie Li; Qiao Wang; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo



Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney


Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105?cells?mmol?1·h?1 and 2.63 × 106 cells?mmol?1·h?1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72?h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate.

Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu



Content of p-coumaric and ferulic acid in forbs with potential grazing utilization.  


Content of p-coumaric (PCA) and ferulic (FA) acid was determined by the HPLC method in fourteen forbs with a potential utilization as forages (range of nutrient content per kg DM: 100 to 244 g CP, 339 to 528 g NDF and 180-369 g ADF. PCA and FA were determined after methanol extraction in four fractions: free phenolic acids extracted into either, ester-bound phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis, glycoside-bound phenolic acids after acid hydrolysis, and cell wall-bound phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis of the solid residue after the extraction with methanol. Cell wall-bound phenols were quantitatively the most important fraction (50% of total PCA and 47% of total FA, respectively). The differences among plant species in total PCA plus FA control were significant (F-value 775, P < 0.01). The range of total phenol content was 31.3 to 416.3 mg/100 g DM, the overall mean was 84 mg/100 g DM. Content of phenolic acids was correlated neither with ADF, NDF or ADL content (R2 = 1-3%, P > 0.05) nor with CP degradability (R2 = 3% and R2 = 1% for PCA and FA, respectively, P > 0.05). 95.4% and 30.9% of total PCA, and 98.3% and 72.5% of total FA disappeared in the rumen from the sample of Glechoma hederacea (species with the highest phenol content) and from the sample of Galium aparine (species with low phenol content), respectively, within the four hour incubation interval. It is presumed that in comparison with grasses, PCA and FA concentration in tested forbs represents a much lower risk in potential ruminant nutrition. PMID:10548979

Komprda, T; Stohandlová, M; Foltýn, J; Pozdísek, J; Míka, V



Structural Basis of Enzymatic Activity for the Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4  

PubMed Central

Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom ?-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core ?-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an “open-closed” mechanism involving a pocket of 8×8×15 Ĺ dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.

Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin



Modulation of iNOS expression by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the natural antioxidant ferulic acid in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that NCX 2057, a new chemical entity bearing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety linked to the natural antioxidant ferulic acid, shows marked anti-inflammatory properties in a model of chronic brain inflammation. We have now studied the effects of NCX 2057 and its metabolic products, ferulic acid and NCX 2059, on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression

Daniela Ronchetti; Francesco Impagnatiello; Massimiliano Guzzetta; Laura Gasparini; Monica Borgatti; Roberto Gambari; Ennio Ongini



A Novel Geranylated Derivative, Ethyl 3-(4?-Geranyloxy-3?-Methoxyphenyl)-2-Propenoate, Synthesized from Ferulic Acid Suppresses Carcinogenesis and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rat Tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We have previously observed the inhibitory effect of ferulic acid on rat tongue carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the modifying effects of a novel geranylated derivative, ethyl 3-(4?-geranyloxy-3?-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (EGMP), synthesized from ferulic acid on tongue carcinogenesis initiated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Methods: F344 male rats except those treated with EGMP alone and untreated rats were given 20 ppm

Takuji Tanaka; Hiroyuki Kohno; Eisaku Nomura; Hisaji Taniguchi; Takuo Tsuno; Hiroyuki Tsuda



Treatment with ferulic acid to rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes: effects on oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis in the pancreatic ? cell.  


In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid at different doses (50 mg/kg alternative day and 50 mg/kg daily) on diabetic rats and to explore the interrelationship between oxidative stress and cytokines correlates with apoptotic events in pancreatic tissue. Male Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Ferulic acid was administered orally for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for the biochemical estimations and pancreas was isolated for antioxidant status, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and apoptotic studies. Treatment with ferulic acid to diabetic rats significantly improved blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, and albumin levels toward normal. Furthermore, decrement of the elevated lipid peroxidation levels and increment of the reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione enzyme activities in pancreatic tissues were observed in ferulic acid-treated groups. Ferulic acid-treated rats in the diabetic group showed an improved histological appearance. Our data also revealed a significant reduction in the activity of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling and reduced expression of TGF-?1 and IL-1? in the pancreatic ?-cell of ferulic acid-treated rats. Treatment with ferulic acid daily doses produced a significant result compared to alternative dose. Collectively our results suggested that ferulic acid acts as a protective agent in diabetic rats by altering oxidative stress, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. PMID:23299178

Roy, Souvik; Metya, Satyajit Kumar; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Rahaman, Noorjaman; Ahmed, Faiqa



Ferulic Acid content and appearance determine the antioxidant capacity of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides.  


To investigate the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid (FA) in conjunction with prebiotic arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS), procedures for the production of FA-enriched, -depleted and cross-linked AXOS were developed, and samples were analyzed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Results showed that not only the level of FA but also the condition under which it appears (free, bound, or dimerized) impacts the antioxidant capacity of FA-containing AXOS samples. Although esterification of FA on AXOS and cross-linking of AXOS through dehydrodiferulic acid formation lowered the antioxidant capacity of FA by 30 and 55%, respectively, as determined with the TEAC test, the antioxidant capacity of these components still remained high compared to Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analog. Total antioxidant capacity of the AXOS samples determined by the ORAC assay resulted in less prominent differences between the different forms of FA than those seen with the TEAC test. Feruloylated AXOS can hence function as strong, water-soluble antioxidants. PMID:24070339

Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M



Oligomers of resveratrol and ferulic acid prepared by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation and their protective effects on cardiac injury.  


Peroxidase extracted from Momordica charantia was used for the oligomerization of trans-resveratrol and ferulic acid on a preparative scale. One new heterocoupling oligomer, trans-3 E-3-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylene]-4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)tetrahydro-2-franone (6), and six resveratrol dimers, leachianol G (1), restrytisol B (2), parthenostilbenins A (3) and B (5), 7- O-acetylated leachianol G (4), and resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer (8), and one known ferulic acid dehydrodimer, (3alpha,3aalpha,6alpha,6aalpha)tetrahydro-3,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1 H,4 H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1,4-dione (7) were obtained. Bioactive experiments showed that compounds 6- 8 have strong free radical scavenging effects and also have protective effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiac cell injury when tested in vitro. PMID:17696480

Yu, Bei-Bei; Han, Xiu-Zhen; Lou, Hong-Xiang



Production of ferulic acid from lignocellulolytic agricultural biomass by Thermobifida fusca thermostable esterase produced in Yarrowia lipolytica transformant.  


A gene (axe) encoding the AXE thermostable esterase in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was cloned into a Yarrowia lipolytica P01g host strain. Recombinant expression resulted in extracellular esterase production at levels as high as 70.94 U/ml in Hinton flask culture broth, approximately 140 times higher than observed in a Pichia pastoris expression system. After 72 h of fermentation by the Y. lipolytica transformant in the fed-batch fermentor, the fermentation broth accumulated 41.11 U/ml esterase activity. Rice bran, wheat bran, bagasse and corncob were used as hydrolysis substrates for the esterase, with corncob giving the best ferulic acid yield. The corncob was incubated with T. fusca xylanase (Tfx) for 12h and then with the AXE esterase for an additional 12h. Ferulic acid accumulated to 396 ?M in the culture broth, a higher concentration than with esterase alone or with Tfx and esterase together for 24 h. PMID:21683590

Huang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Fen; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei-Lin; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Yang, Chao-Hsun



A new ferulic acid ester, a new ellagic acid derivative, and other constituents from pachycentria formosana: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.  


A new ferulic acid ester derivative, tetracosane-1,24-diyl di[(Z)-ferulate] (1), and a new ellagic acid derivative, 3,4?:?3',4'-bis(O,O-methylene)ellagic acid (2), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Pachycentria formosana, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Among the isolated compounds, oleanolic acid (6), ursolic acid acetate (7), and 3-epibetulinic acid (9) exhibited potent inhibition (IC(50) values ? 21.8 ?M) of O?(-) generation by human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). In addition, oleanolic acid (6), 3-O-[(E)-feruloyl]ursolic acid (8), 3-epibetulinic acid (9), and lawsonic acid (10) also inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC(50) values ? 18.6 ?M. PMID:21922659

Cho, Jui-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Jih-Jung



Non-covalent inclusion of ferulic acid with ?-cyclodextrin improves photo-stability and delivery: NMR and modeling studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (FA) is a highly effective antioxidant and photo-protective agent, already approved in Japan as a sunscreen, but it is poorly suited for cosmetic application because of its low physicochemical stability. We prepared the inclusion complex of FA with ?-cyclodextrin by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution, and used 1H NMR and molecular dynamics to investigate the most probable structure

Cecilia Anselmi; Marisanna Centini; Maria Maggiore; Nicola Gaggelli; Marco Andreassi; Anna Buonocore; Giangiacomo Beretta; Roberto Maffei Facino



Improvement of ferulic acid bioconversion into vanillin by use of high-density cultures of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density cultures of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus were tested with a view to optimisation of ferulic acid bioconversion into vanillin. The dry weight was increased fourfold\\u000a by using glucose, fructose or a mixture of glucose and phospholipids as carbon source instead of maltose, the carbon source\\u000a previously used. 5?mmol l?1 vanillin, i.e. 760?mg l?1, was produced over 15?days with glucose-phospholipid medium. In

J. Oddou; C. Stentelaire; L. Lesage-Meessen; M. Asther; B. Colonna Ceccaldi



Identification of Two Feruloyl Esterases in Dickeya dadantii 3937 and Induction of the Major Feruloyl Esterase and of Pectate Lyases by Ferulic Acid ?  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) produces a large array of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Using an in situ detection test, we showed that it produces two feruloyl esterases, FaeD and FaeT. These enzymes cleave the ester link between ferulate and the pectic or xylan chains. FaeD and FaeT belong to the carbohydrate esterase family CE10, and they are the first two feruloyl esterases to be identified in this family. Cleavage of synthetic substrates revealed strong activation of FaeD and FaeT by ferulic acid. The gene faeT appeared to be weakly expressed, and its product, FaeT, is a cytoplasmic protein. In contrast, the gene faeD is strongly induced in the presence of ferulic acid, and FaeD is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out system, responsible for pectinase secretion. The product of the adjacent gene faeR is involved in the positive control of faeD in response to ferulic acid. Moreover, ferulic acid acts in synergy with polygalacturonate to induce pectate lyases, the main virulence determinant of soft rot disease. Feruloyl esterases dissociate internal cross-links in the polysaccharide network of the plant cell wall, suppress the polysaccharide esterifications, and liberate ferulic acid, which contributes to the induction of pectate lyases. Together, these effects of feruloyl esterases could facilitate soft rot disease caused by pectinolytic bacteria.

Hassan, Susan; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole



Oxidation of ferulic acid by Momordica charantia peroxidase and related anti-inflammation activity changes.  


Plant peroxidases were found to play an important role in plant physiology such as the metabolism and transformation of small complexes. In the present research, a novel Momordica charantia peroxidase (MCP) from fruits was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by combining consecutive treatment of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose FF, affinity chromatography on concanavalin A (Con A) Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. The physical and chemical characters of MCP were also investigated. MCP catalyzed the oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) to dehydrodimer (FA-2) in aqueous acetone system at pH 5.0. Its structure was identified by spectral analyses including IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The anti-inflammatory activities of FA, FA-2 and other derivatives were examined. FA-2 significantly inhibited the release of proinflammatory factors such as TNF-alpha, NO and proliferation of spleen cells induced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and Con A and promoted a greater DNA fragmentation of spleen cells than that of other complexes. These results suggested that MCP as a tool enzyme transformed some complexes such as FA to more active derivatives, and that FA-2 was a potential inhibitor on inflammation through interference with immune response in the process of inflammation, which maybe was associated with apoptosis of immune related cells induced by FA-2. PMID:14600392

Ou, Li; Kong, Ling-Yi; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Niwa, Masatake



Effects of ferulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy is the most serious complication in diabetes mellitus. It is known that oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated that ferulic acid (FA) known as anti-oxidative agent could effect on diabetic nephropathy by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanism. We examined the effects of FA in obese diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. We treated FA to experimental rats from 26 to 45 weeks of age. We evaluated ACR, MDA and MCP-1 in 24 h urine and examined renal histopathology and morphologic change in extracted kidneys from rats. Also, we evaluated the ROS production and MCP-1 levels in cultured podocyte after FA treatment. In the FA-treated OLETF rats, blood glucose was significantly decreased and serum adiponectin levels were increased. Urinary ACR was significantly reduced in FA-treated OLETF rats compared with diabetic OLETF rats. In renal histopathology, FA-treated OLETF rats showed decreased glomerular basement membrane thickness, glomerular volume, and mesangial matrix expansion. FA treatment decreased oxidative stress markers and MCP-1 levels in 24 h urine of rats and supernatants of cultured podocyte. In conclusion, it was suggested that FA have protective and therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

Choi, Ran; Kim, Bo Hwan; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Mi Young; Hyun, Mi Ri; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Eun Soo; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Young Chul



Ferulic acid inhibits gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and enhances the survival of mice.  


Ferulic acid (FA) is a monophenolic phenylpropanoid occurring in plant products such as rice bran, green tea, and coffee beans. It has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in many studies. In the present study, we show that intraperitoneal administration of FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight 1 hour prior to or immediately after whole-body ?-irradiation of mice with 4 Gy results in considerable reduction in the micronuclei formation in peripheral blood reticulocytes. Administration of the same amount of FA immediately after 4 Gy ?-irradiation showed significant decrease in the amount of DNA strand breaks in murine peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells as examined by comet assay. Further, immunostaining of mouse splenic lymphocytes for phspho-?H2AX was carried out, and it was observed that FA inhibits the ?H2AX foci formation. Finally, the survival of mice upon 6, 8, and 10 Gy ?-ray exposure was monitored. FA enhances the survival of mice by a factor of 2.5 at a dose of 6 Gy ?-radiation but not at higher doses. In conclusion, FA has protective potential in both pre- and postirradiation exposure scenarios and enhances the survival of mice possibly by decreasing DNA damage as examined by ?H2AX foci, micronuclei formation, and comet assay. PMID:23009583

Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir



Preparation of ferulic acid from agricultural wastes: its improved extraction and purification.  


Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic antioxidant present in plants, which is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry. In the present study, various agricultural wastes such as maize bran, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugar cane baggasse, pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were screened for the presence of esterified FA (EFA). Among the sources screened, maize bran was found to contain the highest amount of EFA. Pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were also found to contain traces of EFA. Alkaline extraction of EFA from maize bran was carried out using 2 M NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of EFA extraction, which resulted in a 1.3-fold increase as compared to the unoptimized conventional extraction technique. FA was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purification was carried out by adsorption chromatography using Amberlite XAD-16 followed by preparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The recovery of Amberlite XAD-16 purified FA was up to 57.97% with HPLC purity 50.89%. The fold purity achieved was 1.35. After preparative HPTLC, the maximum HPLC purity obtained was 95.35% along with an increase in fold purity up to 2.53. PMID:18707110

Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Kishenkumar, Jyoti; Annapure, Uday



A computational study of the thermodynamic properties of sinapic and ferulic acids and their corresponding radical cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-phase basicities and gas-phase proton affinities of sinapic acid and ferulic acid, which are common matrices used in matrix assisted laser desorption\\/ionization mass spectroscopy, have been calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP\\/6-311+G(2df,p)\\/\\/B3LYP\\/6-31G** level. Respectively, the GBs of the two acids are 869.0 and 862.4kJ\\/mol while the gas-phase PAs of the same systems are 903.4 and 896.0kJ\\/mol. Our

Faten H. Yassin; Dennis S. Marynick



A modular esterase from Penicillium funiculosum which releases ferulic acid from plant cell walls and binds crystalline cellulose contains a carbohydrate binding module.  


An esterase was isolated from cultures of the filamentous fungus Penicillium funiculosum grown on sugar beet pulp as the sole carbon source. The enzyme (ferulic acid esterase B, FAEB) was shown to be a cinnamoyl esterase (CE), efficiently releasing hydroxycinnamic acids from synthetic ester substrates and plant cell walls, and bound strongly to microcrystalline cellulose. A gene fragment was obtained by PCR using partial amino-acid sequences obtained from the pure enzyme and used to a probe a P. funiculosum genomic DNA library. A clone containing a 1120-bp ORF, faeB, was obtained which encoded a putative 353-residue preprotein including an 18-residue signal peptide, which when expressed in Eschericia coli produced CE activity. Northern analysis showed that transcription of faeB was tightly regulated, being stimulated by growth of the fungus on sugar beet pulp but inhibited by free glucose. The faeB promoter sequence contains putative motifs for binding an activator protein, XLNR, and a carbon catabolite repressor protein, CREA. FAEB was comprised of two distinct domains separated by a 20 residue Thr/Ser/Pro linker region. The N-terminal domain comprised 276 amino acids, contained a G-X-S-X-G motif typical of serine esterases, and was shown to be a member of a family comprising serine esterases, including microbial acetyl xylan esterases, poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerases and CEs, and proteins of unknown function from Mycobacterium spp. and plants. The C-terminal domain comprised 39 amino acids and closely resembled the family 1 cellulose binding carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) of fungal glycosyl hydrolases. This is the first report of a fungal CE with a CBM. PMID:11082184

Kroon, P A; Williamson, G; Fish, N M; Archer, D B; Belshaw, N J



Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.  


Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to the control (-53% and -65%, respectively) and ferulic acid (-47% and -60%, respectively) diets. Hamsters fed the control and ferulic acid diets had significantly higher plasma vitamin E concentrations compared to the RBO (201% and 161%, respectively) and oryzanol (548% and 462%, respectively) diets; the ferulic acid and oryzanol diets had significantly lower plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels than the control (-57% and -46%, respectively) diet. The oryzanol-fed hamsters excreted significantly more coprostenol and cholesterol in their feces than the ferulic acid (127% and 120%, respectively) diet. The control diet had significantly greater aortic TC and FC accumulation compared to the RBO (115% and 89%, respectively), ferulic acid (48% and 58%, respectively) and the oryzanol (74% and 70%, respectively) diets. However, only the RBO and oryzanol diets had significantly lower aortic cholesterol ester accumulation compared to the control (-73% and -46%, respectively) diet. The present study suggests that at equal dietary levels, oryzanol has a greater effect on lowering plasma non-HDL-C levels and raising plasma HDL-C than ferulic acid, possibly through a greater extent to increase fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites. However, ferulic acid may have a greater antioxidant capacity via its ability to maintain serum vitamin E levels compared to RBO and oryzanol. Thus, both oryzanol and ferulic acid may exert similar antiatherogenic properties, but through different mechanisms. PMID:16713234

Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David



Chemopreventive effects of ferulic acid on oral and rice germ on large bowel carcinogenesis.  


Effects of ferulic acid (FA) known as a major constituent of rice bran or germ on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced oral carcinogenesis were examined in 4 groups of male rats. The incidences of tongue carcinomas and preneoplastic lesions (severe dysplasia) in rats of the group given FA in the diet at a dose of 500 ppm after exposure to 4NQO for 5 weeks in drinking water at a dose of 20 ppm, was significantly lower on termination of the experiment (32 weeks) in the group with the carcinogen alone (P < 0.005 and P < 0.001 respectively). The results suggest chemopreventive activity for this phenolic compound on oral cancer. Modifying effects of rice germ on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were also examined, in 8 groups of male F344 rats. Numbers of ACF/colon, ACF/cm2 and aberrant crypts/colon in the group treated with AOM (15 mg/kg s.c. once a week for 3 weeks) and gamma-amino butylic acid (GABA)-enriched defatted rice germ (2.5% in diet) or the group with AOM and rice germ (2.5% in diet) were smaller than those of the group with AOM alone (P < 0.005). Exposure to defatted rice germ or rice germ during the initiation phase or the post-initiation phase also decreased incidences of AOM-induced large bowel neoplasms (P < 0.05). These results suggest chemopreventive potential for rice germ on colonic neoplasia. PMID:10625957

Mori, H; Kawabata, K; Yoshimi, N; Tanaka, T; Murakami, T; Okada, T; Murai, H


Ferulic Acid modulates altered lipid profiles and prooxidant/antioxidant status in circulation during nicotine-induced toxicity: a dose-dependent study.  


Nicotine, an active ingredient of tobacco smoke, is known to induce hyperlipidemia and disturb the prooxidant-antioxidant status. In our study, ferulic acid, a naturally occurring nutritional compound, was tested for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic property in a dose-dependent manner against nicotine-induced toxicity in female Wistar rats. We tested three different doses of ferulic acid-10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/kg body weight-for their protective effects. The activities of biochemical marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, levels of peroxidative indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides), nitric oxide, and circulatory lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids) were increased significantly in the nicotine-treated group when compared to normal, which were brought down in ferulic acid-treated groups. The antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) was found to be decreased in the nicotine-treated group, and was significantly increased in ferulic acid-administered groups. Further, ferulic acid also positively modulated the nicotine-induced changes in the micronutrients (zinc and copper) level. The dose 20 mg/kg body weight was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Our data suggest that FA exerts its preventive effects by modulating the degree of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, lipid profiles, and trace element levels during nicotine-induced toxicity. PMID:20021059

Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Chandran, Kalpana; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan



The Antiproliferative Effect of Dietary Fiber Phenolic Compounds Ferulic Acid and p-Coumaric Acid on the Cell Cycle of Caco-2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that dietary fiber is protective against the development of colon cancer. Dietary fiber is a rich source of the hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), which both may contribute to the protective effect. We have investigated the effects of FA and p-CA treatment on global gene expression in Caco-2 colon cancer

Birgit Janicke; Cecilia Hegardt; Morten Krogh; Gunilla Önning; Björn Ĺkesson; Helena M. Cirenajwis; Stina M. Oredsson



Physicochemical characterization of starch ferulates of different degrees of substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch ferulates were prepared by reacting potato starch with ferulic acid chloride, using pyridine as a catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide. Starch ferulates of different degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared and their formation was confirmed by the presence of the carbonyl signal around 1726cm?1 in the FT-IR spectra. The thermal characteristics of the native starch and starch ferulates of different

Sindhu Mathew; T. Emilia Abraham



Astragaloside IV synergizes with ferulic acid to inhibit renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in rats with obstructive nephropathy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The combination of Chinese herbs, Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, could alleviate renal interstitial fibrosis. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and ferulic acid (FA) are the two major active constituents in this combination. In this study, we employed rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction to determine whether AS-IV and FA have the same renoprotective effects and investigated the mechanisms of this action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Renal pathological changes were evaluated after treatment with AS-IV, FA or AS-IV + FA (AF) for 10 days. Meanwhile, the expression of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and nitric oxide (NO) production in kidney were determined. The expressions of fibronectin, ?-SMA, mitogen-activated protein kinases [JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), P38] in TGF-?1-treated NRK-49F cells or interleukin-1-treated HK-2 cells after AS-IV, FA or AF were assessed. KEY RESULTS AF alleviated the infiltration of mononuclear cells, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis; reduced the expression of fibronectin, ?-SMA, TGF-?1 and p-JNK; and dramatically increased the production of NO in obstructed kidneys. Neither AS-IV nor FA alone improved renal damage, but both increased NO production. AF inhibited ?-SMA and fibronectin expression in NRK-49F or HK-2 cells. Furthermore, AF significantly inhibited IL-1?-induced JNK phosphorylation, without affecting ERK or P38 phosphorylation. Neither AS-IV nor FA alone had any effect on the cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AS-IV synergizes with FA to alleviate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis; this was associated with inhibition of tubular epithelial–mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) and fibroblast activation, as well as an increase in NO production in the kidney.

Meng, LQ; Tang, JW; Wang, Y; Zhao, JR; Shang, MY; Zhang, M; Liu, SY; Qu, L; Cai, SQ; Li, XM



RP-LC Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Ferulic Acid and Isoferulic Acid in Rat Plasma After Taking Traditional Chinese Medicinal-Preparation: Guanxinning Lyophilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, simple, and accurate method for determination and pharmacokinetic study of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid in\\u000a rat plasma was developed using a reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method with UV detection. Sample preparations\\u000a were carried out by protein precipitation with the addition of methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. The resultant\\u000a residue was then reconstituted in mobile phase

Xiaorui Guo; Xiaohui Chen; Weiming Cheng; Kaiyu Yang; Yongfen Ma; Kaishun Bi



Identification of Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR167 genes, involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene loci ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase\\/aldolase, and fcs, encoding an unusual feruloyl-CoA synthetase, which are involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by the\\u000a Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR167, were localized on a 4,000?bp PstI fragment (P40). The nucleotide sequence of P40 was determined, revealing open reading frames of 864?bp and 1,476?bp, representing\\u000a ech and fcs,

S. Achterholt; H. Priefert; A. Steinbüchel



Stereoisomerization of p-coumaric and ferulic acids during their incubation in peat soil extract solution by exposure to fluorescent light  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied two unknown substances which were produced by incubation of p-coumaric and ferulic acids in a peat soil extract solution. The substances were identified as the cisforms of these acids, which were isomerized from their trans-forms during the incubation by exposure to fluorescent light. Such isomerization did not take place during incubation under dark conditions. After 5 days of

Takao Katase



Ferulic Acid, an Angelica sinensis-Derived Polyphenol, Slows the Progression of Membranous Nephropathy in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of adult nephrotic syndrome but lacks adequate treatment. Different extracts of Angelica sinensis (AS) and one of its active compounds, ferulic acid (FA), were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects in a MN mouse model. The MN model was grouped into three subgroups: no treatment (N-T), treatment at induction of MN (Pre-T), and treatment after full-blown MN (Post-T). The results showed that the methanol (ME) layer of AS extract exhibited a therapeutic effect on MN-induced proteinuria. The ME layer-enriched compound, FA, improved the hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in both Pre-T and Post-T groups. Ferulic acid also reduced the formation of oxidative protein products and increased the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in groups Pre-T and Post-T. Regarding angiogenesis factors, the antiangiogenic factors in renal glomeruli were increased in group N-T, but, after FA treatment, only one of the antiangiogenic factors, thrombospondin-1, showed a significant decrease. Furthermore, the expression of Th2 predominant showed significant decrease in both Pre-T and Post-T groups when compared to that of N-T group. In summary, FA retarded the progression of MN, and the mechanisms involved the regulation of oxidative stresses, angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, and attenuation of Th2 response.

Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Li-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Jin-Shuen



In vivo protection of synaptosomes by ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from oxidative stress mediated by 2,2-azobis(2-amidino-propane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) or Fe 2+\\/H 2O 2: Insight into mechanisms of neuroprotection and relevance to oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is an ester derivative of ferulic acid, the latter known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ferulic acid protects synaptosomal membrane system and neuronal cell culture systems against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation. FAEE is lipophilic and is able to penetrate lipid bilayer. Previous studies reported that

Gururaj Joshi; Marzia Perluigi; Rukhsana Sultana; Ravagna Agrippino; Vittorio Calabrese; D. Allan Butterfield



Bioconversion of Ferulic Acid into Vanillic Acid by Means of a Vanillate-Negative Mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain BF13  

PubMed Central

From a ferulic-acid-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain (BF13), we have isolated a transposon mutant, which retained the ability to bioconvert ferulic acid into vanillic acid but lost the ability to further degrade the latter acid. The mutant, BF13-97, was very stable, and therefore it was suitable to be used as a biocatalyst for the preparative synthesis of vanillic acid from ferulic acid. By use of resting cells we determined the effect on the bioconversion rate of several parameters, such as the addition of nutritional factors, the concentration of the biomass, and the carbon source on which the biomass was grown. The optimal yield of vanillic acid was obtained with cells pregrown on M9 medium containing p-coumaric acid (0.1% [wt/vol]) as a sole carbon source and yeast extract (0.001% [wt/vol]) as a source of nutritional factors. Under these conditions, 1 mg (wet weight) of biomass produced 0.23 mg of vanillic acid per h. The genomic region of BF13-97 flanking the transposon's site of insertion was cloned and sequenced revealing two open reading frames of 1,062 (vanA) and 954 (vanB) bp, respectively. The van genes are organized in a cluster and encode the subunits of the vanillate-O-demethylase, which catalyzes the first step of the vanillate catabolism. Amino acid sequences deduced from vanA and vanB genes were shown to have high identity with known VanAs and VanBs from Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Highly conserved regions known to exist in class IA oxygenases were also found in the vanillate-O-demethylase components from P. fluorescens BF13. The terminal oxygenase VanA is characterized by a conserved Rieske-type [2Fe-2S]R ligand center. The reductase VanB contains a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S]Fd, flavin mononucleotide, and NAD-ribose binding domains which are located in its C-terminal and N-terminal halves, respectively. Transfer of wild-type vanAB genes to BF13-97 complemented this mutant, which recovered its ability to grow on either vanillic or ferulic acid.

Civolani, Claudio; Barghini, Paolo; Roncetti, Anna Rita; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Schiesser, Alma



Physiological and Biochemical Tools Useful in Drought-Tolerance Detection in Genotypes of Winter Triticale: Accumulation of Ferulic Acid Correlates with Drought Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a classification of triticale geno- types into drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive types based on field performance trials correlates with a classifi- cation based on measurements of some physiological and biochemical parameters in greenhouse conditions. In addition, an examination was carried out of whether ferulic acid, as the main




A comparative study of the radical-scavenging activity of the phenolcarboxylic acids caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, with or without 2-mercaptoethanol, a thiol, using the induction period method.  


Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione), a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP) method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R(.)) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO(.)) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Upon PhCOO(. )radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant) for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R(.) radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (k(inh)/k(p)) declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME) mixture (1:1 molar ratio) (A) to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME) (B) was investigated. Upon R(.) scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO(.) scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid/ME mixture was approximately 1. The reported beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid may be related to their prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the presence of GSH. PMID:18923340

Kadoma, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Seiichiro



The faeA genes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis encode ferulic acid esterases involved in degradation of complex cell wall polysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

We report the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a ferulic acid esterase, faeA, from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis. The A. niger and A. tubingensis genes have a high degree of sequence identity and contain one conserved intron. The gene product, FAEA, was overexpressed in wild-type A. tubingensis and a protease-deficient A. niger mutant. Overexpression of both genes in wild-type A. tubingensis and an A. niger protease-deficient mutant showed that the A. tubingensis gene product is more sensitive to degradation than the equivalent gene product from A. niger. FAEA from A. niger was identical to A. niger FAE-III (C. B. Faulds and G. Williamson, Microbiology 140:779-787, 1994), as assessed by molecular mass, pH and temperature optima, pI, N-terminal sequence, and activity on methyl ferulate. The faeA gene was induced by growth on wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin, and its gene product (FAEA) released ferulic acid from wheat arabinoxylan. The rate of release was enhanced by the presence of a xylanase. FAEA also hydrolyzed smaller amounts of ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin, but the rate was hardly affected by addition of an endo-pectin lyase.

de Vries, R P; Michelsen, B; Poulsen, C H; Kroon, P A; van den Heuvel, R H; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G; van den Hombergh, J P; Visser, J



Modulation of iNOS expression by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the natural antioxidant ferulic acid in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.  


We have previously reported that NCX 2057, a new chemical entity bearing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety linked to the natural antioxidant ferulic acid, shows marked anti-inflammatory properties in a model of chronic brain inflammation. We have now studied the effects of NCX 2057 and its metabolic products, ferulic acid and NCX 2059, on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and function in lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/IFNgamma)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. NCX 2057 inhibited iNOS mRNA and protein expression (IC(50)=6.2+/-1.0 microM) without altering iNOS protein degradation rate. NCX 2057 also decreased the levels of LPS/IFNgamma-induced nitrite accumulation (IC(50)=4.3+/-0.7 microM) in RAW 264.7 cells. Conversely, NCX 2059, which does not possess NO-donating properties, was only weakly effective (IC(50) >100 microM) and ferulic acid was inactive. To understand further the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory properties we studied the effects of NCX 2057 on selected transcription factors. Unlike ferulic acid, NCX 2057 inhibited LPS-induced translocation/activation of the nuclear factor, NF-kappaB, while other transcription factors, such as, Sp1, NF-IL2A and STAT-1 were not affected. The present data support the concept that NO adds important anti-inflammatory properties to ferulic acid. Thus, NCX 2057 represents a new prototype drug for the treatment of disorders associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:16443213

Ronchetti, Daniela; Impagnatiello, Francesco; Guzzetta, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Laura; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto; Ongini, Ennio



Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.  


Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline?+?ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12?months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid?+?starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September. PMID:23170774

Agrahari, P; Singh, D K




Microsoft Academic Search

—Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and HPLC have been used for determination of paeonol and ferulic acid in “Su-Xiao-Xin-Tong Dropping Pills” (SXDP). For extraction of these compounds, the type of sorbent, the type and volume of elution solvent were studied. The highest yields were obtained with a ratio 4:1 of C18 to sample and 10 mL methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (80:20:0.5, v\\/v).

De-Fu Cai; Qi Zhang; Jian-Hua Liu




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced during lignification when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaia...


On the Origin of the Methyl Radical Loss from Deprotonated Ferulic and Isoferulic Acids: Electronic Excitation of a Transient Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of radical fragments from even-electron ions is an exception to the "even-electron rule". In this work, ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (IFA) were used as the model compounds to probe the fragmentation mechanisms and the isomeric effects on homolytic cleavage. Elimination of methyl radical and CO2 are the two competing reactions observed in the CID-MS of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-, of which losing methyl radical violates the "even-electron rule". The relative intensity of their product ions is significantly different, and thereby the two isomeric compounds can be differentiated by tandem MS. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the singlet-triplet gap and the excitation energy decrease in the transient structures, as the breaking C-O bond is lengthened. The methyl radical elimination has been rationalized as the intramolecular electronic excitation of a transient structure with an elongating C-O bond. The potential energy diagrams, completed by the addition of the energy barrier of the radical elimination, have provided a reasonable explanation of the different CID-MS behaviors of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-.

Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lv, Huiqing; Wu, Yanqing; Bian, Gaofeng; Jiang, Kezhi



Molecular structure, spectroscopic studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of ferulic acid by density functional study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of ferulic acid (FA) (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP/BLYP) method with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment ( ?) and the first hyperpolarizability ( ?) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the FA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of FA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for the title molecule have been constructed.

Sebastian, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Manoharan, S.



Physiological and Biochemical Tools Useful in Drought-Tolerance Detection in Genotypes of Winter Triticale: Accumulation of Ferulic Acid Correlates with Drought Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a classification of triticale genotypes into drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive types based on field performance trials correlates with a classification based on measurements of some physiological and biochemical parameters in greenhouse conditions. In addition, an examination was carried out of whether ferulic acid, as the main origin of the blue fluorescence produced, contributes to drought tolerance. Methods Ten winter triticale genotypes were examined, five known to be drought tolerant and five drought sensitive. Measurements of the osmotic potential, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and blue and red fluorescence were performed. In addition, analysis of the total pool of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid as well as the measurements of PAL (l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) activity were carried out. Key Results In agreement with field trials, three out of five cultivars (‘Lamberto’, ‘Timbo’ and ‘Piano’) were classified as drought tolerant. However, in the case of cultivar ‘Babor’, included in the group of drought-sensitive cultivars, the values obtained for some measured parameters were close to (Fv?/Fm?, phenolics content, osmotic potential) or even better than (non-photochemical quenching, red and blue fluorescence, ferulic acid content) those for drought-tolerant genotypes. Cultivars ‘Imperial’, ‘Ticino’, ‘Trimaran’ and ‘Boreas’ were included in the drought-sensitive group, whereas cultivars ‘Focus’ and ‘Kitaro’ were included in the moderately sensitive group. Conclusions The experiments confirmed that the period of flowering, the critical phase for plants as far as water demand is concerned, is suitable for plant screening and differentiation due to their tolerance to drought. The most important criteria which enabled creation of the ranking list of plants, from those sensitive to drought to those tolerant to drought, were the ability to perform the process of osmoregulation, the efficiency of the utilization of excitation energy by the photosynthetic apparatus and the functioning of protective mechanisms involving the level of ferulic acid in leaf tissues.

Hura, Tomasz; Grzesiak, Stanislaw; Hura, Katarzyna; Thiemt, Elisabeth; Tokarz, Krzysztof; Wedzony, Maria



Fungal arachidonic acid-rich oil: research, development and industrialization.  


Abstract Fungal arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil is an important microbial oil that affects diverse physiological processes that impact normal health and chronic disease. In this article, the historic developments and technological achievements in fungal ARA-rich oil production in the past several years are reviewed. The biochemistry of ARA, ARA-rich oil synthesis and the accumulation mechanism are first introduced. Subsequently, the fermentation and downstream technologies are summarized. Furthermore, progress in the industrial production of ARA-rich oil is discussed. Finally, guidelines for future studies of fungal ARA-rich oil production are proposed in light of the current progress, challenges and trends in the field. PMID:23631634

Ji, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Huang, He; Ouyang, Ping-Kai



Ferulic acid increases pain threshold and ameliorates depression-like behaviors in reserpine-treated mice: behavioral and neurobiological analyses.  


Depression-pain dyad involves a series of pathological changes including the dysfunction of neuroendocrine and immune networks. Depression and pain influence each other, but the mechanisms are still obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors in mice. The results showed that reserpine (1 mg/kg for 3 days, i.p.) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold in thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, as well as a significant increase in the immobility time in mouse models of despair test. The neurochemical assays suggested the decreased neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) along with the increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic parameters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the reserpinised mice. Treatment with FA (40 or 80 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the behavioral abnormalities and decreased norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex induced by reserpine. The higher dose of FA effectively antagonized the oxidative and nitrosative stress and inflammation as evidenced by down-regulated nitrite, LPO, IL-1?, TNF-?, and up-regulated GSH and SOD. Furthermore, FA produced a dose dependent decrease in substance P, NF-?? p65 and caspase-3 levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of reserpinised mice. The findings suggest that FA exerts the effects on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors through regulating monoaminergic system, oxidative/antioxidant defense, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. Understanding the mechanism by which FA ameliorates depression and pain as a multi-targeted compound could open new avenues for the development of innovative treatments for depression coupled with pain. PMID:23584961

Xu, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Shao, Tuo; Ruan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Zhu, Xinbo; O'Donnell, James M; Pan, Jianchun



Functional Diversity in Fungal Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic specialized metabolites containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds are widespread, being found in fungi, vascular and lower plants, marine sponges and algae, and insects. Plants, moss, and most recently, insects, have been shown to employ an energetically difficult, sequential dehydrogenation mechanism for acetylenic bond formation. Here, we describe the cloning and heterologous expression in yeast of a linoleoyl 12-desaturase (acetylenase) and a bifunctional desaturase with ?12-/?14-regiospecificity from the Pacific golden chanterelle. The acetylenase gene, which is the first identified from a fungus, is phylogenetically distinct from known plant and fungal desaturases. Together, the bifunctional desaturase and the acetylenase provide the enzymatic activities required to drive oleate through linoleate to crepenynate and the conjugated enyne (14Z)-dehydrocrepenynate, the branchpoint precursors to a major class of acetylenic natural products.

Blacklock, Brenda J.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Shepard, Michael R.; Jayasuriya, Naomi; Minto, Robert E.



Hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction of rice bran and ferulic acid in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.  


Rice bran contains many phenolic acids, the most abundant of which is the antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA). We evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of a phenolic acid fraction (the ethyl acetate fraction, EAE) of rice bran and of FA in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. Type 2 diabetic mice were allocated to a control group, an EAE group, or an FA group. Animals were fed a modified AIN-76 diet, and EAE or FA was administered orally for 17 days. There was no significant difference in body weight gain between groups. Administration of EAE and FA significantly decreased blood glucose levels and increased plasma insulin levels. EAE or FA groups had significantly elevated hepatic glycogen synthesis and glucokinase activity compared with the control group. Plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased by EAE and FA administration. These findings suggest that EAE and FA may be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes because they regulate blood glucose levels by elevating glucokinase activity and production of glycogen in the liver. PMID:17973443

Jung, Eun Hee; Kim, Sung Ran; Hwang, In Kyeong; Ha, Tae Youl



Peroxidase activity against guaiacol, NADH, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and coniferyl alcohol in root tips of Lotus japonicus and L. corniculatus grown under low pH and aluminium stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of low pH and Al stress on the apoplastic production of H2O2 and POD activity against guaiacol, ferulic acid, coniferyl alcohol, NADH and chlorogenic acid in the root tip (RT) of two\\u000a cultivars of Lotus corniculatus and the model Lotus japonicus Gifu, with the goal to determine the possible role

Veronika Zelinová; Igor Mistrík; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Ladislav Tamás



Adaptation of the Carrez procedure for the purification of ferulic and p-coumaric acids released from lignocellulosic biomass prior to LC/MS analysis.  


The objective of this study was to adapt and improve an environmentally friendly and fast routine method for the analysis of ferulic and p-coumaric acids released from grass cell-walls by alkaline hydrolysis. This methodological development was performed on maize samples selected for their contrasted contents in ferulic and p-coumaric acids as a consequence of their different maturity stages (from stage of 7th leaf with visible ligule to stage of silage harvest). We demonstrate that the Carrez method is an efficient substitute to the common solvent-consuming extraction by ethyl acetate for the preparation of samples suitable for HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. We prove that it is possible to replace methanol by ethanol in the Carrez step and at last we propose a scale reduction of this procedure that offer a first step towards high throughput determinations. The new method leads to a solvent consumption reduced by a factor 100 and only requires ethanol as organic solvent. PMID:21945212

Culhaoglu, Tanya; Zheng, Dan; Méchin, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie



Tacrine-6-Ferulic Acid, a Novel Multifunctional Dimer, Inhibits Amyloid-?-Mediated Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We have previously synthesized a series of hybrid compounds by linking ferulic acid to tacrine as multifunctional agents based on the hypotheses that Alzheimer's disease (AD) generates cholinergic deficiency and oxidative stress. Interestingly, we found that they may have potential pharmacological activities for treating AD. Here we report for the first time that tacrine-6-ferulic acid (T6FA), one of these compounds, can prevent amyloid-? peptide (A?)-induced AD-associated pathological changes in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that T6FA significantly inhibited auto- and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-induced aggregation of A?1–40 in vitro and blocked the cell death induced by A?1–40 in PC12 cells. In an AD mouse model by the intracerebroventricular injection of A?1–40, T6FA significantly improved the cognitive ability along with increasing choline acetyltransferase and superoxide dismutase activity, decreasing AChE activity and malondialdehyde level. Based on our findings, we conclude that T6FA may be a promising multifunctional drug candidate for AD.

Pi, Rongbiao; Mao, Xuexuan; Chao, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Zhiyi; Liu, Mengfei; Duan, Xiaolu; Ye, Mingzhong; Chen, Xiaohong; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing; Li, Wenming; Han, Yifan



Synthesis and biological activity of nitric oxide-releasing derivatives of ferulic acid as potential agents for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases.  


In order to search for novel potential agents for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivatives (5a-c) of ferulic acid were synthesized and characterized by MS, 1H NMR, and elementary analysis. They showed different NO-releasing rate in the absence or presence of L-cysteine in vitro. In the adenine induced CKD rats, these compounds revealed reno-protective effect via lowering blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, increasing NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in kidney. Among them, 3-methoxy-4-(nitrooxy)ethoxy cinnamic acid (5a) was confirmed to have a higher NO-releasing rate in vitro and better effect in ameliorating adenine-induced kidney damage in rats. PMID:23151264

Liu, Hao-Ran; Liu, Ying; Li, Yan-Lai; Qi, Min-You; Liu, Wu-Kun



Effects of dietary supplementation of ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol on integument color and suppression of oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream, Pagrus major.  


The effects of ferulic acid (FA) and gamma-oryzanol (OZ) supplementation on cultured red sea bream were examined. Commercial brown fish meal diets supplemented with FA (0.01-0.5%) or OZ (0.05-0.5%) were given to zero-year, cultured red sea bream for 98 days. After the experiment, the brightness of the integument color ("L" value) of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was higher than that of control fish. Furthermore, 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was lower than in control fish. These results indicate that FA and OZ suppressed not only dark-color pigmentation but also oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream. PMID:18198470

Maoka, Takashi; Tanimoto, Fumio; Sano, Mitsuhiko; Tsurukawa, Kanji; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsujiwaki, Satomi; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Takii, Kenji



The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde

Ramesh B. Nair; Kristen L. Bastress; Max O. Ruegger; Jeff W. Denault; Clint Chapple



Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.  


The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G



Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring plant phenolics caffeic, ellagic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids.  


The modifying effects of dietary administration of the plant phenolic antioxidants caffeic acid (CA), ellagic acid (EA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and ferulic acid (FA) during the initiation phase on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis and on the number and area of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region proteins (AgNORs), a new cell proliferation marker, of the tongue squamous epithelium were investigated in male F344 rats. Rats were fed the diet containing 500 p.p.m. CA, 400 p.p.m. EA, 250 p.p.m. CGA or 500 p.p.m. FA for 7 weeks. One week after the commencement of the diets, 4-NQO (20 p.p.m.) was administered in the drinking water for 5 weeks. Feeding of four phenolic compounds significantly reduced the incidences of tongue neoplasms (squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma) and preneoplastic lesions (hyperplasia and dysplasia) by 32 weeks, and rats fed CA or EA had no tongue neoplasms. The number and area of AgNORs per nucleus were decreased significantly by dietary treatment with these four phenolics. Thus, CA, EA, CGA and FA inhibited the tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-NQO when they were administered concurrently with the carcinogen. These results might suggest possible application of these natural substances for cancer chemoprevention in tongue in addition to other tissues (skin, lung, liver and esophagus). PMID:8330344

Tanaka, T; Kojima, T; Kawamori, T; Wang, A; Suzui, M; Okamoto, K; Mori, H



Methane Fermentation of Ferulate and Benzoate: Anaerobic Degradation Pathways  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic biodegradation of ferulate and benzoate in stabilized methanogenic consortia was examined in detail. Up to 99% of the ferulate and 98% of the benzoate were converted to carbon dioxide and methane. Methanogenesis was inhibited with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, which reduced the gas production and enhanced the buildup of intermediates. Use of high-performance liquid chromatography and two gas chromatographic procedures yielded identification of the following compounds: caffeate, p-hydroxycinnamate, cinnamate, phenylpropionate, phenylacetate, benzoate, and toluene during ferulate degradation; and benzene, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, cyclohexanecarboxylate, cyclohexanone, 1-methylcyclohexanone, pimelate, adipate, succinate, lactate, heptanoate, caproate, isocaproate, valerate, butyrate, isobutyrate, propionate, and acetate during the degradation of either benzoate or ferulate. Based on the identification of the above compounds, more complete reductive pathways for ferulate and benzoate are proposed.

Grbic-Galic, D.; Young, L. Y.



Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls.  


It has been hypothesized that ferulates are only deposited in the primary cell wall of grasses. To test this hypothesis, the fourth elongating, above-ground internode of maize (Zea mays l.) was sampled from three maize hybrids throughout development. Cell wall composition was determined by the Uppsala Dietary Fibre method. Ester- and ether-linked ferulates were determined by HPLC analysis of ferulic acid released from the internodes by low and high temperature alkaline treatments. Internode length increased from 9 to 152 mm over 96 days of growth, with elongation being complete in the first 12 days. More than half of the cell wall material in the maize internodes accumulated after elongation had ended. Deposition of cell wall material appeared to reach its maximum extent 40 days after sampling began, well before physiological maturity of the maize plants. Galactose and arabinose began to accumulate early in cell wall development which was presumed to be associated with primary wall growth during internode elongation. The major secondary wall constituents (analyzed as glucose, xylose, and Klason lignin) did not begin to accumulate rapidly until shortly before internode elongation ended. Ferulate ester deposition began before ferulate ethers were observed in the cell wall, but both forms of ferulate continued to accumulate in secondary cell walls, long after internode elongation had ceased. These data clearly show that contrary to the hypothesis, ferulate deposition was not restricted to the primary wall and that active lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking mediated by ferulates occurs in the secondary wall. PMID:12809714

Jung, Hans-Joachim G



Fungal production of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from industrial waste streams and crude soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including 5,8,11,14,17-cis-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 5,8,11,14-cis-arachidonic acid (ARA), have widespread nutritional and pharmaceutical value. This study investigated the potential production of the two economically important fatty acids with a fungal fermentation process. The substrates for the fungal fermentation process were crude soybean oil (SBO), a sucrose waste stream (SWS) and a soymeal waste

Ming H. Cheng; Terry H. Walker; Gregory J. Hulbert; D. Raj Raman



Comparison of the impact of y-oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates on the polymerization of soybean oil during frying  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn steryl ferulates (CSF), oryzanol, a combination of equal amounts of CSF and oryzanol, and ferulic acid were added to refined, bleached, deodorized, soybean oil at a concentration of 8.1-8.4 µmol/g oil, which corresponded to 0.5% (w/w) for the steryl ferulates. The rate of polymerized triacylgly...


Enhancement of domoic acid neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae bioassay by marine fungal metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptaibols are small linear fungal peptides which are produced in the marine environment. They exhibit neurotoxicity by forming pores in neuronal membranes. This work describes their combine effect with domoic acid, a neurotoxic phycotoxin, on Diptera larvae. The Acute toxicity bioassay on this biological model was tested with a panel of different toxins (microbial, algal or fungal). It allowed the

Nicolas Ruiz; Karina Petit; Marieke Vansteelandt; Isabelle Kerzaon; Joseph Baudet; Zouher Amzil; Jean-François Biard; Olivier Grovel; Yves François Pouchus



Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.  


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively. PMID:23247371

Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J



NCX 2057, a novel NO-releasing derivative of ferulic acid, suppresses inflammatory and nociceptive responses in in vitro and in vivo models  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: We previously reported that NCX 2057, a compound comprising a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety and the natural antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA), inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators through NO-mediated gene regulation. Here, we have assessed the activities of NCX 2057 in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and characterized its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Experimental approach: Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of NCX 2057 were measured in vitro and in vivo in models of inflammatory (carrageenan) and neuropathic (chronic constriction injury; CCI) pain. Effects of NCX 2057 were measured on COX-1 and COX-2 activities in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Key results: NCX 2057 dose-dependently inhibited single motor unit responses to noxious mechanical stimulation (ID50= 100 µmol·kg?1) and wind-up responses in rats with paw inflammation induced by carrageenan. Moreover, NCX 2057 inhibited allodynic responses following CCI of the sciatic nerve [ipsilateral Paw Withdrawal Threshold (g): vehicle: 41.4 ± 3.3; NCX 2057: 76.3 ± 4.8 FA: 37.9 ± 15.5 at 175 µmol·kg?1]. NCX 2057 reversed carrageenan-induced hyperalgesic responses in mice and inhibited prostaglandin E2 formation in paw exudates. Finally, NCX 2057 competitively inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 activities in whole RAW macophages (IC50= 14.7 ± 7.4 and 21.6 ± 7.5 µM, respectively). None of these properties were exhibited by equivalent treatments with FA or standard NO donor compounds. Conclusions and implications: These studies indicate that NCX 2057 is effective in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, probably because of its particular combination of anti-COX, antioxidant and NO-releasing properties.

Ronchetti, Daniela; Borghi, Valentina; Gaitan, Gema; Herrero, Juan F; Impagnatiello, Francesco



Fungal Bioconversion of Agricultural By-Products to Vanillin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ester-linked ferulic acid of wheat bran and sugar-beet pulp can be converted to vanillin using biological transformation. Free ferulic acid from sugar-beet pulp and from wheat bran was almost quantitatively obtained by extensive degradation of the cell-walls using enzyme mixtures complemented with specific ferulic acid esterases. TheBasidiomycete Pycnoporus cinnabarinusthen converted the released ferulic acid to vanillin. The selection of

J Thibault; V Micard; C Renard; M Asther; M Delattre; L Lesage-Meessen; C Faulds; P Kroon; G Williamson; J Duarte; B. C Ceccaldi; M Tuohy; D Couteau; S Van Hulle; H.-P Heldt-Hansen



A UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.  


Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR) decoction, consisting of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription, clinically used for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, the main active ingredients in SZR decoction, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Analytes and IS were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1, 6 and 1 ng/mL for spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of ferulic acid was observed between two groups, while absorptions of spinosin and mangiferin in insomnic group were significantly lower than those in normal group. PMID:23019165

He, Bosai; Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Xiao, Feng; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of known amino acid sequence of a number of fungal histidine acid phosphatases (HAP) has revealed a conserved eight-cysteine motif (8CM). Typically, conserved amino acid sequences have been associated with catalytic or structurally essential components for the functionality of a protein. ...


Ferulate inhibits mixed lymphocyte reaction stimulated cell proliferation and inhibits IL2 and IL2 receptor expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. We have previously shown that curcumin (di-feruloyl methane) has immunosuppressive properties in addition to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-mutagenic properties. Ferulic acid is a metabolic product of phenylalanine and tyrosine and also a degradation product of curcumin. In this experiment we investigated whether ferulic acid retained the immunosuppressive properties of curcumin. We used ethyl--ferulic acid (FE, from Sigma) in

C. Chen; T. D. Johnston; H. Jeon; M. Ibranhim; D. Ranjan



Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha?1 each year for 6 years, yet no differences were

E. BAgtth; B. Lundgren; B. Soederstroem



Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC, could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...


Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha/sup -1/ each year for 6 years, yet no differences were found between the control treatment and an application of 50 kg ha/sup -1/. The abundance of Penicillium spinulosum and Oidiodendron cf. echinulatum II increased with increasing rates of acid application, whereas only small changes were found for other isolated fungal taxa. Soil respiration rate and fluorescein diacetate (FDA)-active fungal biomass were significantly different from the control treatment at all 3 levels of acidification. 15 references, 4 tables.

Baath, E.; Lundgren, B.; Soederstroem, B.



Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA.

Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas



Estimation of Fungal Infection of Peanut Kernels by Determination of Free Glutamic Acid Content  

PubMed Central

Peanut kernels (Tainan 9, a Spanish cultivar) inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. niger, or A. ochraceus as well as noninoculated kernels were incubated in a humidified environment (relative humidity, 100%) at 25(deg)C for 7 weeks. Internal fungal populations and changes in moisture and sucrose content and free amino acid composition of the kernels were determined periodically. Fungal populations determined by using A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar and rose bengal chlortetracycline agar as enumerating media were closely correlated. Moisture content in the kernels increased from 5.8 to 20.4% (dry basis), and changes in individual free amino acid contents varied, depending upon the incubation time and type of fungus used as an inoculum. In the early infection period (up to 5 weeks), sucrose contents and logarithms of threonine and tyrosine contents increased while logarithms of free glutamic acid content decreased linearly with incubation time. A negative linear relationship was further obtained between logarithms of fungal populations and the logarithm of free glutamic acid content (R(sup2) > 0.80) of the infected peanut kernels.

Chiou, R. Y.



Fungal hallucinogens psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol: analytical methods and biologic activities.  


Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of "magic mushrooms." The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed. PMID:23851905

Stebelska, Katarzyna



Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (Pyrocatechol and Gallic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Tar bush’ and ‘creosote bush’ were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol\\u000a accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal\\u000a strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after

J. Ventura; G. Gutiérrez-Sanchez; R. Rodríguez-Herrera; C. N. Aguilar



Fungal endophytes-induced abscisic acid is required for flavonoid accumulation in suspension cells of Ginkgo biloba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of suspension cells of Ginkgo biloba with fungal endophytes resulted in accumulation of flavonoids, increased abscisic acid (ABA) production and activation of\\u000a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, was effective in inhibiting fungal endophytes-induced\\u000a ABA biosynthesis, increase of PAL activity and flavonoids accumulation. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA enhanced PAL\\u000a activity and increased accumulation of flavonoids

Gangping Hao; Xihua Du; Faxing Zhao; Haiwei Ji



The Driselase-treated fraction of rice bran is a more effective dietary factor to improve hypertension, glucose and lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to ferulic acid.  


The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the Driselase-treated fraction (DF) of rice bran and ferulic acid (FA) on hypertension and glucose and lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male SHRSP at 4 weeks of age were divided into three groups, and for 8 weeks were fed (1) a control diet based on AIN-93M, (2) a DF of rice bran-supplemented diet at 60 g/kg and (3) an FA-supplemented diet at 0.01 g/kg. Means and standard errors were calculated and the data were tested by one-way ANOVA followed by a least significance difference test. The results showed that both the DF and FA diets significantly improved hypertension as well as glucose tolerance, plasma nitric oxide (NOx), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and other parameters. In particular, compared to the FA diet, the DF diet produced a significant improvement in urinary NOx, hepatic triacylglycerol and several mRNA expressions of metabolic parameters involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. The results of the metabolic syndrome-related parameters obtained from this study suggest that the DF diet is more effective than the FA diet. PMID:17217561

Ardiansyah; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Hashizume, Katsumi; Komai, Michio



Enhancement of domoic acid neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae bioassay by marine fungal metabolites.  


Peptaibols are small linear fungal peptides which are produced in the marine environment. They exhibit neurotoxicity by forming pores in neuronal membranes. This work describes their combine effect with domoic acid, a neurotoxic phycotoxin, on Diptera larvae. The Acute toxicity bioassay on this biological model was tested with a panel of different toxins (microbial, algal or fungal). It allowed the discrimination of neurotoxins and non-neurotoxic toxins, and an evaluation of the toxicity level (MED and ED(50)) which were correlated with published LD(50) in mice for neurotoxins tested. The highest activities on this test were found for Na(+) channel blockers tetrodotoxin (ED(50) = 0.026 mg/kg) and saxitoxin (ED(50) = 0.18 mg/kg). Domoic acid was less active with an ED(50) = 7.6 mg/kg. For synergism study, longibrachin-A-I, a 20-mer peptaibol isolated from cultures of a marine-derived strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai was chosen. Bioassay results confirmed its neuroactivity. Its level of toxicity (ED(50) = 270 mg/kg) was lower than those of phycotoxins tested but higher than mycotoxin ones. Injected together, longibrachin-A-I and domoic acid exhibited an increase of their activities. With doses of longibrachin-A-I below its Minimal Effective Dose (MED), the synergism factor which expresses the enhancement of domoic acid toxicity could reach 34.5. Both domoic acid and longibrachin-A-I are acting on ion channels and pores in neuronal membranes which contribute to the intake of Ca(2+) into cells. PMID:19941880

Ruiz, Nicolas; Petit, Karina; Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Baudet, Joseph; Amzil, Zouher; Biard, Jean-François; Grovel, Olivier; Pouchus, Yves François



Characterization of the complete uric acid degradation pathway in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.  


Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704

Lee, I Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H N; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y L; Morrow, Carl A; Fraser, James A



Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed.

Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.



Distribution and Stable Isotopic Composition of Amino Acids from Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing the Potential for Meteoritic Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of nonprotein ?-dialkyl-amino acids such as ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of ?-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the ?-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four ?-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C4 and C5 amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids.

Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Brückner, Hans



Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.  


This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable ?-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (?), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process. PMID:23292745

Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B



Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).  


'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated. PMID:19649735

Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N



Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.  


Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aďt.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils. PMID:19840995

Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C



Oxidative coupling of tyrosine and ferulic acid residues: Intra- and extra-protoplasmic occurrence, predominance of trimers and larger products, and possible role in inter-polymeric cross-linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss the range of oxidative phenolic coupling products formed from the tyrosine residues of cell wall glycoproteins and from the feruloyl residues of wall polysaccharides possibly by the action of peroxidases and\\/or laccases. In the cases of both tyrosine- and ferulate-coupling, the coupling products are not confined to dimers but include trimers and probably higher oligomers, which are sometimes

Stephen C. Fry



Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets  

PubMed Central

Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary interaction with the SA signaling pathway.



Simultaneous enrichment of cereals with polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments by fungal solid state fermentations.  


Four Mucor strains were tested for their ability to grow on four cereal substrates and enriched them with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and ?-carotene. M. circinelloides CCF-2617 as the best producer accumulated of both GLA and ?-carotene in high amounts during utilization of rye bran/spent malt grains (3:1). The first growth phase was characterized by rapid GLA biosynthesis, while distinct ?-carotene formation was found in the stationary fungal growth. Therefore various cultivation conditions were tested in order to optimize the yield of either GLA or ?-carotene. The fungus grown on cereal substrate supplemented with glucose produced maximal 8.5mg ?-carotene and 12.1g GLA in 1kg fermented substrate, respectively. On the other hand, the highest amount of GLA in the fermented substrate (24.2g/kg) was achieved when 30% of sunflower oil was employed to the substrate. Interestingly, ?-carotene biosynthesis was completely inhibited when either whey or linseed oil were added to the substrate. PMID:23583333

Certík, Milan; Adamechová, Zuzana; Guothová, Lucia



Inhibition of fungal spore adhesion by zosteric Acid as the basis for a novel, nontoxic crop protection technology.  


ABSTRACT To explore the potential for nontoxic crop protection technologies based on the inhibition of fungal spore adhesion, we have tested the effect of synthetic zosteric acid (p-(sulfo-oxy) cinnamic acid), a naturally occurring phenolic acid in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) plants, on spore adhesion and infection in two pathosystems: rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea and bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. We have shown that zosteric acid inhibits spore adhesion to model and host leaf surfaces and that any attached spores fail to develop appressoria, and consequently do not infect leaf cells. Low concentrations of zosteric acid that are effective in inhibiting adhesion are not toxic to either fungus or to the host. The inhibition of spore adhesion in the rice blast pathogen is fully reversible. On plants, zosteric acid reduced (rice) or delayed (bean) lesion development. These results suggest that there is potential for novel and environmentally benign crop protection technologies based on manipulating adhesion. PMID:18942950

Stanley, Michele S; Callow, Maureen E; Perry, Ruth; Alberte, Randall S; Smith, Robert; Callow, James A



Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T



Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T.



Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF) is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SF (110mg/kg) by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats.

Xu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Haijuan; Zhao, Jiangpei; Zhao, Tongfeng



Purification and characterization of ferulate and p-coumarate decarboxylase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus PS213 isolated from bovine ruminal fluid was able to transform ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol, respectively, by nonoxidative decarboxylation. The enzyme responsible for this activity has been purified and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extract from a culture induced by ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid shows three bands that are not present in the crude extract of an uninduced culture, while the purified enzyme shows a single band of 23 kDa; the molecular mass calculated by size exclusion chromatography is 45 kDa. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5 and is not enhanced by any cation. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 1.03 mM and a Vmax of 0.19 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for ferulic acid and a Km of 1.38 mM and a Vmax of 0.22 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for p-coumaric acid.

Degrassi, G; Polverino De Laureto, P; Bruschi, C V



Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops

Kingsley; Mark T



Fungal degradation of the thermoplastic polymer poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under simulated deep sea pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about marine filamentous fungi and yeasts, almost nothing about their life and metabolism under deep sea conditions. Data on growth and metabolic activity give insight into the role of organisms in the marine habitat. Degradation studies on pollutants, such as polymeric thermoplasts, provide information about the self-cleaning capacity of a habitat. Therefore, recently isolated fungal strains from

K. E. Gonda; D. Jendrossek; H. P. Molitoris



Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns.  


Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. Among all tested terpenoids, geranic acid showed very strong inhibitory activity against both fungi (MIC<46 ?M). To evaluate the possibility of enhancing fungal resistance in maize by overexpressing geranic acid, we generated transgenic plants with the geraniol synthase gene cloned from Lippia dulcis under the control of a ubiquitin promoter. The volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of leaves from transgenic and control lines were compared. The headspaces collected from intact seedlings of transgenic and control plants were not significantly different, although detached leaves of transgenic plants emitted 5-fold more geranyl acetate compared to control plants. Non-targeted LC-MS profiling and LC-MS-MS identification of extracts from maize leaves revealed that the major significantly different non-volatile compounds were 2 geranic acid derivatives, a geraniol dihexose and 4 different types of hydroxyl-geranic acid-hexoses. A geranic acid glycoside was the most abundant, and identified by NMR as geranoyl-6-O-malonyl-?-d-glucopyranoside with an average concentration of 45?M. Fungal bioassays with C. graminicola and F. graminearum did not reveal an effect of these changes in secondary metabolite composition on plant resistance to either fungus. The results demonstrate that metabolic engineering of geraniol into geranic acid can rely on the existing default pathway, but branching glycosylation pathways must be controlled to achieve accumulation of the aglycones. PMID:21296182

Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Yalpani, Nasser; Vervoort, Jacques; de Vos, Ric; Voster, Alessandra; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A




Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate safer, more inexpensive chemicals derived from sodium silicate that can be used to protect wood against fungal degradation. Desiccant and surfactant properties of sodium silicate-derived products have been used since the early 19th century and may find application for wood decay protection. In our study, wood was impregnated with 19.5% sodium silicate

George C. Chen


Succession of bacterial and fungal 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid degraders at the soil-litter interface.  


Phenoxyacetic acids can be degraded by diverse soil microorganisms. Nevertheless, we miss information about the succession of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) degraders in micro-environments of soils as well as specific functions of different microbial groups during MCPA degradation. We studied MCPA degradation at the soil-litter interface in a microcosm experiment and followed the succession of different degrader populations by quantifying the abundance of 16S rRNA genes as well as, the fungal ITS fragment and the functional genes tfdA (in total and divided into three classes) and cadA. Adjacent to the litter layer, a dynamic depletion zone of MCPA indicated that the litter effect on MCPA degradation depends on substrate availability and the affected soil volume. The increase of the tfdA class III and cadA genes was linked to MCPA mineralisation. Total abundance of tfdA genes was dominated by class I MCPA degraders and did not reflect MCPA degradation potential of the soil. Litter addition induced the development of pioneer and late-stage fungal communities, which were probably both involved in MCPA degradation. The results underline the importance of the ecological behaviour of different degrader populations for the understanding of herbicide degradation in soils. PMID:23560662

Ditterich, Franziska; Poll, Christian; Pagel, Holger; Babin, Doreen; Smalla, Kornelia; Horn, Marcus A; Streck, Thilo; Kandeler, Ellen



Selection for Lignin and Etherified Ferulates in Three Perennial Grasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decreased lignin concentration or decreased ferulate cross-linking between arabinoxylans and lignin are two mechanisms to increase cell-wall digestibility in plants. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the genetic correlation between lignin and etherified ferulates can be altered ...


Sinapate Dehydrodimers and Sinapate?Ferulate Heterodimers in Cereal Dietary Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 8-8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers and at least three sinapate-ferulate heterodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-disinapates were authenticated by comparison of their GC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized from methyl or ethyl sinapate using two different single-electron metal oxidant systems. The highest amounts

Mirko Bunzel; John Ralph; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Jane M. Marita; Ronald D. Hatfield; Hans Steinhart



Regulation of Ferulate-5Hydroxylase Expression in Arabidopsis in the Context of Sinapate Ester Biosynthesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapic acid is an intermediate in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, and in some taxa serves as a precursor for soluble secondary metabolites. The biosynthesis and accumulation of the sinapate esters sinapoylglucose, sinapoylmalate, and sinapoylcho- line are developmentally regulated in Arabidopsis and other mem- bers of the Brassicaceae. The FAH1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the enzyme ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), which catalyzes

Max Ruegger; Knut Meyer; Joanne C. Cusumano; Clint Chapple



Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by white rot and ectomycorrhizal fungal species and the accumulation of chlorinated benzoic acid in ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings.  


The capability of different white rot (WR, Heterobasidion annosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM, Paxillus involutus, Suillus bovinus) fungal species to degrade different aromatic compounds and the absorption of 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CBA) by ECM pine seedlings was examined. The effect of aromatic compounds on the fungal biomass development varied considerably and depended on (a) the compound, (b) the external concentration, and (c) the fungal species. The highest effect on the fungal biomass development was observed for 3-CBA. Generally the tolerance of WR fungi against aromatic compounds was higher than that of the biotrophic fungal species. The capability of different fungi to degrade aromatic substances varied between the species but not generally between biotrophic and saprotrophic fungi. The highest degradation capability for aromatic compounds was detected for T. versicolor and H. annosum, whereas for Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the ECM fungi lower degradation rates were found. However, Paxillus involutus and S. bovinus showed comparable degradation rates at low concentrations of benzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In contrast to liquid cultures, where no biodegradation of 3-CBA by S. bovinus was observed, mycorrhizal pines inoculated with S. bovinus showed a low capability to remove 3-CBA from soil substrates. Additional X-ray microanalytical investigations showed, that 3-CBA supplied to mycorrhizal plants was accumulated in the root cell cytoplasm and is translocated across the endodermis to the shoot of mycorrhizal pine seedlings. PMID:12363308

Dittmann, Jens; Heyser, Wolfgang; Bücking, Heike




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferulate dimers and trimers act as cross-links between polysaccharides and between polysaccha-rides and lignin in grasses. In addition to two already identified 8-8-diferulic acids we identified another product of 8-8-coupling by its mass spectral data. This compound, 2,5-di(4´-hydroxy-3-methoxyphen...


Variation in amino acid composition of cytochrome c of species in the fungal genus Ustilago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome c was extracted and purified from nine species of the genusUstilago, representing five pathogen for monocotyledonous and four for dicotyledonous host species. The amino acid compositions of acid hydrolysates of cytochrome c from these species were compared and divergence values were calculated for all pairs of species. Aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine,

Oscar H. Will III



Candida glabrata Persistence in Mice Does Not Depend on Host Immunosuppression and Is Unaffected by Fungal Amino Acid Auxotrophy?  

PubMed Central

Candida glabrata has emerged as an important fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. In contrast, mice do not develop disease upon systemic challenge, even with high infection doses. In this study we show that leukopenia, but not treatment with corticosteroids, leads to fungal burdens that are transiently increased over those in immunocompetent mice. However, even immunocompetent mice were not capable of clearing infections within 4 weeks. Tissue damage and immune responses to microabscesses were mild as monitored by clinical parameters, including blood enzyme levels, histology, myeloperoxidase, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, we investigated the suitability of amino acid auxotrophic C. glabrata strains for in vitro and in vivo studies of fitness and/or virulence. Histidine, leucine, or tryptophan auxotrophy, as well as a combination of these auxotrophies, did not influence in vitro growth in rich medium. The survival of all auxotrophic strains in immunocompetent mice was similar to that of the parental wild-type strain during the first week of infection and was only mildly reduced 4 weeks after infection, suggesting that C. glabrata is capable of utilizing a broad range of host-derived nutrients during infection. These data suggest that C. glabrata histidine, leucine, or tryptophan auxotrophic strains are suitable for the generation of knockout mutants for in vivo studies. Notably, our work indicates that C. glabrata has successfully developed immune evasion strategies enabling it to survive, disseminate, and persist within mammalian hosts.

Jacobsen, I. D.; Brunke, S.; Seider, K.; Schwarzmuller, T.; Firon, A.; d'Enfert, C.; Kuchler, K.; Hube, B.



Sinapate dehydrodimers and sinapate-ferulate heterodimers in cereal dietary fiber.  


Two 8-8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers and at least three sinapate-ferulate heterodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-disinapates were authenticated by comparison of their GC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized from methyl or ethyl sinapate using two different single-electron metal oxidant systems. The highest amounts (481 microg/g) were found in wild rice insoluble dietary fiber. Model reactions showed that it is unlikely that the dehydrodisinapates detected are artifacts formed from free sinapic acid during the saponification procedure. The dehydrodisinapates presumably derive from radical coupling of sinapate-polymer esters in the cell wall; the radical coupling origin is further confirmed by finding 8-8 and 8-5 (and possibly 8-O-4) sinapate-ferulate cross-products. Sinapates therefore appear to have an analogous role to ferulates in cross-linking polysaccharides in cereal grains and presumably grass cell walls in general. PMID:12590493

Bunzel, Mirko; Ralph, John; Kim, Hoon; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, Sally A; Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Steinhart, Hans



Addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to canola oil by fungal conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola materials including processed flake and cake were investigated as both of carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of new oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). With conversion of the fungi Mortierella alpina, modified lipids enhanced the oil profile with the addition of three PUFAs, ?-linolenic acid (GLA, ?-C18:3n6), arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3). The

Meidui Dong; Terry H. Walker



Acyl-carrier protein - Phosphopantetheinyltransferase partnerships in fungal fatty acid synthases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The synthesis of fatty acids is an essential primary metabolic process for energy storage and cellular structural integrity. Assembly of saturated fatty acids is achieved by fatty acid synthases (FASs) that combine acetyl- and malonyl-CoAs by repetitive decarboxylative Claisen condensations with su...


Alpha-picolinic acid, a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent, elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-picolinic acid (PA), a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell, has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here, we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated

Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE



Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  


The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR



Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  


The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR



Gallic acid and tannase accumulation during fungal solid state culture of a tannin-rich desert plant (Larrea tridentata Cov.).  


Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC.) Coville, also known as Larrea, gobernadora, chaparral, or creosote bush, is a shrubby plant which dominates some areas of the desert southwest in the United States and Northern Mexico and its use has not been exploited and standardized. In this study, gobernadora was studied to evaluate its potential use for support of solid state culture. Influence of two minimal media added with gobernadora powder as the sole carbon source and inducer of tannin-degrading enzymes was evaluated. Cultures were initially 70% moisture, had a pH of 5.5 and were inoculated with Aspergillus niger Aa-20 at 2 x 10(7) spores per gram of media. Analysis of pH, moisture, tannin uptake, gallic acid accumulation and tannase production were evaluated. Results indicated a high content of condensed (39.4%dm) and hydrolysable (22.8%dm) tannins. Invasion capacity of fungal growth was of 0.15 mmh(-1). Tannase production reached values of 1040 Ul(-1) at 43 h of culture. During the first 48 h of culture, the concentration of gallic acid accumulation was 0.33 gl(-1). Gobernadora is a potential source of gallic acid and tannase production by solid state culture; however, further optimization of the process is needed. PMID:16574410

Trevińo-Cueto, B; Luis, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Rodríguez, R; Aguilera, A; Aguilar, C N



High chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid levels in immature peaches reduce Monilinia laxa infection by interfering with fungal melanin biosynthesis.  


Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomer, neochlorogenic acid (NCGA), were found to be the major phenolic compounds in the flesh and peel of three peach cultivars. Their concentrations are especially high in immature fruits (CGA, 151-548 mg/kg; NCGA, 85-380 mg/kg), whose resistance to the brown rot fungus, Monilinia laxa , is very high. The concentrations of these two phenolic compounds decline in maturing fruits (CGA, 77-181 mg/kg; NCGA, 30-82 mg/kg), and this decline is associated with a concomitant increase in susceptibility to brown rot infection. Other phenolic compounds found in the same HPLC chromatograms at 340 nm from each peach extract at varying sampling dates in each of the three peach cultivars were not correlated with the incidence of brown rot and appeared only in some cultivars. The incidence of brown rot for each cultivar at each sampling date was significantly negatively correlated with the NCGA (r > -0.85) and CGA (r > -0.90) contents. At concentrations that are similar to those in peach fruit, CGA does not inhibit spore germination or mycelial growth of M. laxa in culture but markedly inhibits the production of melanin-like pigments in the mycelia of M. laxa in culture (42% melanin reduction). Accordingly, we propose that the high concentrations of CGA and NGA in immature fruits might contribute to their reduced susceptibility or increased resistance to brown rot infection by interfering with fungal melanin production. PMID:21370882

Villarino, Maria; Sandín-Espańa, Pilar; Melgarejo, Paloma; De Cal, Antonieta



MNL1 Regulates Weak Acid-induced Stress Responses of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

MNL1, the Candida albicans homologue of an orphan Msn2-like gene (YER130c in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has no known function. Here we report that MNL1 regulates weak acid stress responses. Deletion of MNL1 prevents the long-term adaptation of C. albicans cells to weak acid stresses and compromises their global transcriptional response under these conditions. The promoters of Mnl1-dependent genes contain a novel STRE-like element (SLE) that imposes Mnl1-dependent, weak acid stress–induced transcription upon a lacZ reporter in C. albicans. The SLE (HHYYCCCCTTYTY) is related to the Nrg1 response element (NRE) element recognized by the transcriptional repressor Nrg1. Deletion of NRG1 partially restores the ability of C. albicans mnl1 cells to adapt to weak acid stress, indicating that Mnl1 and Nrg1 act antagonistically to regulate this response. Molecular, microarray, and proteomic analyses revealed that Mnl1-dependent adaptation does not occur in cells exposed to proapoptotic or pronecrotic doses of weak acid, suggesting that Ras-pathway activation might suppress the Mnl1-dependent weak acid response in dying cells. Our work defines a role for this YER130c orthologue in stress adaptation and cell death.

Selway, Laura; Stead, David; Walker, Jan; Yin, Zhikang; Nicholls, Susan M.; Crowe, Jonathan; Sheils, Emma M.; Brown, Alistair J.P.



Fungal melanonychia.  


Fungal melanonychia is a relatively rare nail disorder caused by nail infection that produces brown-to-black pigmentation of the nail unit. The number of organisms implicated as etiologic agents of fungal melanonychia is increasing, and the list currently tops 21 species of dematiaceous fungi and at least 8 species of nondematiaceous fungi. These superficial infections may clinically mimic subungual melanoma and are often not responsive to traditional antifungal therapy. This article reviews the literature on fungal melanonychia and the role of fungal melanin in infection. PMID:22257832

Finch, Justin; Arenas, Roberto; Baran, Robert



Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture*  

PubMed Central

The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.

Trevino, Lucia; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristobal Noe



Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture.  


The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices. PMID:17910122

Trevino, Lucia; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé



Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  


The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R



Apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge – A novel substrate for fungal bioproduction of citric acid: Optimisation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever-growing demand for citric acid (CA) and urgent need for alternative sources has served as a driving force for workers to search for novel and economical substrates. Submerged fermentation was conducted using apple (Malus domestica) pomace ultrafiltration sludge as an inexpensive substrate for CA bioproduction, using Aspergillus niger NRRL567. The crucial parameters, such as total suspended solids and inducer concentration,

Gurpreet Singh Dhillon; Satinder Kaur Brar; Mausam Verma; Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi



Fungal Degradation of the Bioplastic PHB (Poly3-hydroxy-butyric acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid) is a thermoplastic polyester synthesized by Ralstonia eutropha and other bacteria as a form of intracellular carbon and energy storage and accumulated as inclusions in the cytoplasm of these bacteria. The degradation of PHB by fungi from samples collected from various environments was studied. PHB depolymerization was tested in vials containing a PHB-containing medium which were inoculated

K.-M. Lee; D. F. Gimore; M. J. Huss



Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w\\/w on dry bagasse basis, 160°C and above, 10min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers

C. C. Geddes; J. J. Peterson; C. Roslander; G. Zacchi; M. T. Mullinnix; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram



Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  


A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O



In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.  


The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI. PMID:23134606

Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S



Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic Acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  


Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth



Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth



Fungal Infections  


... too. Candida (say: kan -duh-duh) is a yeast, similar to a fungus. It most often affects ... and around the vagina. This is called a yeast infection. Continue Why Do Kids Get Fungal Infections? ...


Attenuation of age-related changes in FOXO3a activity and the PI3K\\/Akt pathway by short-term feeding of ferulate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic compound that scavenges free radicals and exerts anti-inflammatory\\u000a effects. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor that plays important roles in aging processes, decreases with age\\u000a and is negatively regulated through phosphorylation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt signaling. The present study\\u000a investigated the efficacy of short-term ferulate feeding on age-related changes in PI3K\\/Akt\\/FOXO3a and

Yeon Ja Choi; Dae Hyun Kim; Eun Kyeong Lee; Ji Min Kim; Young Mi Ha; Nam Deuk Kim; Jee H. Jung; Jae Sue Choi; Byung Pal Yu; Hae Young Chung


Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.



Fungal nail infection  


Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...


Alternations in phenolic acids content in developing rye grains in normal environment and during enforced dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of high pressure liquid chroamtography analyses revealed the presence of five phenolic acids in rye caryopses (vanillic,\\u000a caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic), three of which (p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic) were found in the free phenolic\\u000a fraction. Ferulic acid was predominant, both among free acids and total phenolic acids (i.e. free, liberated from soluble\\u000a esters and glycosides). The highest

Stanis?aw Weidner; Ewa Fr?czek; Ryszard Amarowicz; Shunnosuke Abe



Fungal keratitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea. Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.

Tuli, Sonal S



Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the rates of nitrogen (N) cycling, microbial carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in a Mojave Desert ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant shrub Larrea tridentata. We used ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers as a proxy for microbial biomass to quantify spatial and temporal differences in soil microbial communities from February 2003 to May 2005. Further, we used the 13C signature of the fossil CO2 source for elevated CO2 plots to trace recent plant C inputs into soil organic matter (SOM) and broad microbial groups using ?13C (‰). Differences between individual ?13CPLFA and ?13CSOM for fungal biomarkers indicated active metabolism of newer C in elevated CO2 soils. Total PLFA-C was greater in shrub microsites compared to plant interspaces, and CO2 treatment differences within microsites increased under higher soil water availability. Total, fungal, and bacterial PLFA-C increased with decreasing soil volumetric water content (VWC) in both microsites, suggesting general adaptations to xeric desert conditions. Increases in fungal-to-bacterial PLFA-C ratio with decreasing VWC reflected functional group-specific responses to changing soil water availability. While temporal and spatial extremes in resource availability in desert ecosystems contribute to the difficulty in identifying common trends or mechanisms driving microbial responses in less extreme environments, we found that soil water availability and soil microsite interacted with elevated CO2 to shift fungal and bacterial biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils.

Jin, V. L.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Evans, R. D.



Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this experiment, part of a larger study, was to investigate changes in rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity in cows with normal and reduced protozoal populations. In the main study, 6 lactating dairy cows were dosed intraruminally with 240 g/cow per day of stearic (contr...


Fungal Entomopathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...


Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers



Wound-induced expression of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene in Camptotheca acuminata.  


The phenylpropanoid pathway plays important roles in plants following exposure to environmental stresses, such as wounding and pathogen attack, which lead to the production of a variety of compounds, including lignin, flavonoids and phytoalexins. Ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of ferulic acid, coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol, leading to sinapic acid and syringyl lignin biosynthesis. We isolated F5H cDNA and genomic DNA from Camptotheca acuminata and investigated the expression pattern of the C. acuminata F5H (CaF5H1) gene in response to wounding. A search against the BLOCKS database of conserved protein motifs indicated that CaF5H1 retains features in common with F5Hs reported from other plants. 5'-flanking region analysis using the PLACE database showed that putative regulatory elements related to various abiotic and biotic stresses, such as drought, wounding, low temperature and pathogens, exist in the 5'-flanking region of CaF5H1. Based upon these analysis results, we investigated the expression pattern of CaF5H1 gene in response to wounding and stress-related molecules. Here, we show that CaF5H1 transcripts accumulated in the leaves in response to mechanical wounding or the application of molecules involved in the stress response, such as ethylene, ABA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The application of salicylic acid and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) inhibited the wound-induced expression of CaF5H1. Taken together, we suggest that wound-induced expression of CaF5H1 may be mediated by MJ and H2O2 and enhanced phenylpropanoid contents via CaF5H1 maybe function in response to various stresses, including wounding, in plants. PMID:16332414

Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Gwan; Lee, Sun Hi; Lee, Incheol



Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections ?  

PubMed Central

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient outcomes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-MB) detection system in multiplex format was developed to rapidly detect medically important BSI organisms. Probes and primers representing pan-gram-negative, pan-gram-positive, pan-fungal, pan-Candida, and pan-Aspergillus organisms were established utilizing 16S and 28S rRNA targets for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Two multiplex panels were developed to rapidly discriminate bacterial or fungal infections at the subkingdom/genus level with a sensitivity of 1 to 50 genomes. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this platform by evaluating 570 clinical samples from a tertiary-care hospital group using blood bottle samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index values for pan-gram-positive detection and pan-gram-negative detection were 99.7%, 100%, 0.997 and 98.6%, 95.9%, 0.945, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV) and the negative predictive values (NPV) for these two probes were 100, 90.7, and 99.4, 99.4, respectively. Pan-fungal and pan-Candida probes showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV, and the pan-Aspergillus probe showed 100% NPV. Robust signals were observed for all probes in the multiplex panels, with signal detection in <15 min. The multiplex real-time NASBA-MB assay provides a valuable platform for the rapid and specific diagnosis of bloodstream pathogens, and reliable pathogen identification and characterization can be obtained in under 3 h.

Zhao, Yanan; Park, Steven; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Veyret, Raphael; Laayoun, Ali; Troesch, Alain; Perlin, David S.



Removal of diclofenac and mefenamic acid by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 and identification of their metabolites after fungal transformation.  


The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac (DCF) and mefenamic acid (MFA) were treated with the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. DCF completely disappeared and MFA decreased by about 90% after 6 days of treatment. It was also confirmed that the fungus almost completely removed the acute lethal toxicity of DCF and MFA towards the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus after 6 days of treatment. Mass spectrometric and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses demonstrated that two mono-hydroxylated DCFs (4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac) and one di-hydroxylated DCF (4',5-dihydroxydiclofenac) were formed via fungal transformation. The four metabolites of MFA were identified as 3'-hydroxymethylmefenamic acid (mono-hydroxylated MFA), 3'-hydroxymethyl-5-hydroxymefenamic acid (di-hydroxylated MFA), 3'-hydroxymethyl-6'-hydroxymefenamic acid (di-hydroxylated MFA) and 3'-carboxymefenamic acid. These results suggest that hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in P. sordida YK-624 may be involved in the elimination and detoxification of DCF and MFA. This notion was further supported by the fact that smaller decreases in DCF and MFA were observed in cultures of P. sordida YK-624 incubated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, a known inhibitor of CYP. PMID:20127144

Hata, Takayuki; Kawai, Shingo; Okamura, Hideo; Nishida, Tomoaki



Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy as Tools for Identification of Steryl Ferulates.  


Steryl ferulates are a mixture of minor bioactive compounds, possessing well-established health benefits. However, individual steryl ferulate species show structural differences, which seem to substantially influence their health-promoting potential. In this study, we tested Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, as potential tools in the identification of steryl ferulates. On the basis of our spectral data obtained from various individual steryl ferulates and steryl ferulate mixtures extracted from rice (?-oryzanol), corn bran, and wheat bran, we provide comprehensive peak assignment tables for both FTIR and Raman. With the help of FTIR spectroscopy, structural differences between individual steryl ferulates were possible to identify, such as the presence of the cyclopropane ring and additional differences in the side chain of the sterane skeleton. Data obtained with Raman spectroscopy provided us with a control for FTIR peak assignment and also with some additional information on the samples. However, detecting structural differences between steryl ferulates was not possible with this method. We consider that FTIR spectroscopy alone or combined with Raman provides detailed data on the structures of steryl ferulates. Moreover, thorough peak assignment tables presented in this study could prove to be helpful tools when identifying steryl ferulates, especially as a group, in future studies. PMID:23414293

Mandak, Eszter; Zhu, Dan; Godany, Tamas A; Nyström, Laura



Effects of Fungal Elicitor on Lignin Biosynthesis in Cell Suspension Cultures of Soybean 1  

PubMed Central

Soybean (Glycine max L.) cells cultured in B5 medium produce extremely low amounts of lignin. However, modification in the growth medium, by lowering the concentration of NO?3 and PO2?4, results in the lignification of these cells without affecting levels of cell wall-esterified 4-coumaric and ferulic acid. The production of an extracellular, macromolecular complex by the cultured soybean cells (Moore TS Jr 1973 Plant Physiol 51: 529-536) allows a rapid, nondestructive solubilization of the lignin which can be estimated by reaction with phloroglucinol in free solution. This system has been used to study the effects of fungal elicitor on the synthesis of lignin in soybean cells. The inclusion of very low levels of an elicitor fraction from the cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma in the medium in which lignification of the soybean cells occurs suppressed both the accumulation of extracellular lignin and phloroglucinol staining of the cell walls without affecting the levels of bound hydroxycinnamic acids. The activity profiles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC and isoenzymes of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (EC were compared in lignifying and elicitor-treated cell cultures as was the activity of chalcone synthase, an enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis. The measured activities of these enzymes in cell cultures treated with elicitor were considerably lower than in untreated cells.

Farmer, Edward E.



The analgesic effect and mechanism of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine.  


Sodium ferulate (SF) and Oxymatrine (OMT) were compounds extracted from Chinese herbs, and have been used in clinical treatment of heart and hepatic diseases, respectively, in China for many years. The objective of this study was to examine the analgesic effect and the mechanism of the combined treatment of SF and OMT. Using the animal pain models by applying Acetic Acid Writhing Test and Formalin Test, the combination of SF and OMT showed significant analgesic effect in dose-dependent manner. In vitro, the combined treatment inhibited the increase in intracellular calcium concentration evoked by capsaicin in the dorsal root ganglion neurons. Importantly, a synergistic inhibitory effect of SF and OMT on the capsaicin-induced currents was demonstrated by whole-cell patch-clamp. Our results suggest that SF and OMT cause significant analgesic effect which maybe related to the synergistic inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. PMID:20521101

Liu, Hanqing; Sun, Yan; Gao, Yan; Chen, Fangfang; Xu, MingBo; Liu, Zhifeng



Natural phenolic acids from wheat bran inhibit Fusarium culmorum trichothecene biosynthesis in vitro by repressing Tri gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural phenolic acids from wheat bran on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium culmorum was investigated in vitro. Durum wheat bran contained various monomeric forms of phenolic acids, with ferulic acid being the most abundant. In addition,\\u000a various oligomeric forms of ferulic acid and mainly dimeric forms were also detected. When liquid cultures of F. culmorum were

Anne-Laure Boutigny; Vessela Atanasova-Pénichon; Marion Benet; Christian Barreau; Florence Richard-Forget



Effects of Microbial Utilization of Phenolic Acids and their Phenolic Acid Breakdown Products on Allelopathic Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5–3 µmol\\/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8–14% in Cecil Ap horizon and 31–38% in Cecil Bt, horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed\\/solution ratios (r\\/s) for ferulic acid or

Udo Blum



The effect of in vitro digestion on steryl ferulates from rice (Oryza sativa L.) and other grains.  


Polished and cargo rice, wild rice, rice bran, corn bran, and wheat bran were subjected to a static in vitro digestion model, to monitor changes in their steryl ferulate content and composition. Free sterols, possible hydrolysis products of steryl ferulates, were also measured. Additionally, steryl ferulate bioaccessibility was calculated as the percentage of steryl ferulates liberated from the grain matrix into the digestive juice. Steryl ferulate content ranged between 6.1 and 3900 ?g/g and decreased by 1-63% due to digestion. A parallel increase in free sterols of more than 70% was observed in all samples. Additionally, bioaccessibility of steryl ferulates was found to be almost negligible. These findings suggest that intestinal enzymes immediately hydrolyze steryl ferulates, which are liberated from the grain matrix, and thus they are practically unavailable for absorption in the small intestine. This further indicates that the hydrolysis products of steryl ferulates could be bioactive in the gut. PMID:22607464

Mandak, Eszter; Nyström, Laura



Fungal endophthalmitis.  


Fungal endophthalmitis (FE) is infrequent but results in poor visual outcomes. It can be exogenous or endogenous depending upon the mode of infection. The common causes for endogenous FE, post-traumatic FE and FE secondary to keratitis are Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani, respectively. Clinical features depend on the virulence of the organism and the mode of infection. Broad-spectrum systemic antifungal therapy with or without intravitreal antifungal drugs is recommended. The prognosis depends upon the virulence of the organism, extent of intraocular involvement and the timing of interventions. Prompt therapy following early diagnosis helps to reduce significant visual loss. This review evaluates the current literature on FE and focuses on antifungal agents and discusses species-specific management and outcomes of FE. PMID:22114969

Chhablani, Jay



Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.  


This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M



Reactivity of bacterial and fungal laccases with lignin under alkaline conditions.  


The ability of Streptomyces ipomoea laccase to polymerize secoisolariciresinol lignan and technical lignins was assessed. The reactivity of S. ipomoea laccase was also compared to that of low redox fungal laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces using low molecular mass p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid as well as natural (acetosyringone) and synthetic 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediators as substrates. Oxygen consumption measurement, MALDI-TOF MS and SEC were used to follow the enzymatic reactions at pH 7, 8, 9 and 10 at 30°C and 50°C. Polymerization of lignins and lignan by S. ipomoea laccase under alkaline reaction conditions was observed, and was enhanced in the presence of acetosyringone almost to the level obtained with M. albomyces laccase without mediator. Reactivities of the enzymes towards acetosyringone and TEMPO were similar, suggesting exploitation of the compounds and low redox laccase in lignin valorization under alkaline conditions. The results have scientific impact on basic research of laccases. PMID:21908186

Moya, Raquel; Saastamoinen, Päivi; Hernández, Manuel; Suurnäkki, Anna; Arias, Enriqueta; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa



Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100).  


There is a constant search for new cancer treatments that are less aggressive and economically affordable. In this context, natural products extracted from plants, fungi, and microorganisms are of great interest. Pestheic acid, or dihidromaldoxin, is a chlorinated diphenylic ether extracted from the phytopathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Amphisphaeriaceae). We assessed the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects of pestheic acid in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100). A decrease in clonogenic survival was observed. Pestheic acid also induced significant increases in both micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge frequency. However, we did not observe changes in cell cycle kinetics or apoptosis induction. Reactive oxygen species induced by diphenylic ethers may explain the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of pestheic acid. The absence of repair checkpoints that we observed is probably due to the fact that the PG100 cell line lacks the TP53 gene, which is common in gastric cancers. Even though pestheic acid has had a clear cytotoxic effect, the minimal inhibitory concentration was high, which shows that pestheic acid is not an active anticancer compound under these conditions. PMID:24114206

Sousa, J M C; Matos, L A; Alcântara, D F A; Ribeiro, H F; Santos, L S; Oliveira, M N; Brito-Junior, L C; Khayat, A S; Guimarăes, A C; Cunha, L A; Burbano, R R; Bahia, M O



Production of hydroxy-fatty acid derivatives from waste oil by Escherichia coli cells producing fungal cytochrome P450foxy.  


Cytochrome P450foxy (P450foxy) is a fatty acid (FA) monooxygenase that is characterized by self-sufficient catalysis and high turnover numbers due to the fused structure of cytochrome P450 and its reductase. Here we found that resting recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing P450foxy converted saturated FA with a chain length of 7-16 carbon atoms to their omega-1 to omega-3 hydroxy derivatives. Most products were recovered from the culture supernatant. Decanoic acid was most efficiently converted to omega-1 to omega-3 hydroxy decanoic acids in the order of omega-1>omega-2>omega-3, with a total product yield of 47%. We also found that P450foxy was more active against physiological fatty acyl esters such as monopalmitoyl glycerol, monopalmitoyl phospholipid, and palmitoyl CoA than free palmitic acid. The bacteria producing P450foxy were applicable as biocatalysts in the production of omega-1 hydroxy palmitic acid from lard, vegetable, and soy sauce oil wastes from the food industry. PMID:18512058

Kitazume, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Yuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Shoun, Hirofumi; Takaya, Naoki



Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host plant growth and alleviate adverse effects of salt stress. Such fungal strain could be used for further field trials to improve agricultural productivity under saline conditions.



Design of a fungal bioprocess for vanillin production from vanillic acid at scalable level by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotechnological process of vanillin production from vanillic acid by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was scaled-up at the laboratory level. Vanillin production was studied in two types of bioreactors, a mechanically agitated and an air-lift bioreactor. In the mechanically agitated bioreactor where vanillin was produced in greater quantities, oxygen availability was studied during the growth and production phases. A maximal aeration rate

Christelle Stentelaire; Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Julie Oddou; Olivier Bernard; Georges Bastin; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Marcel Asther



Fungal Biodegradation of Tannins from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) and Tar Bush (Fluorensia cernua) for Gallic and Ellagic Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present work, the production of two potent antioxidants, gallic and ellagic acids, has been studied using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of tannin-rich aqueous plant extracts impregnated in polyurethane foam. Extracts from creosote and tar bush were ino- culated with Aspergillus niger PSH spores and impregnated in the polyurethane support. The kinetics of the fermentation was monitored every 24

Janeth Ventura; Ruth Belmares; Antonio Aguilera-Carbo; Gerardo Gutiérrez-Sanchez; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar



Production of L-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases.  


BACKGROUND: Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. RESULTS: Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

Ilmén, Marja; Koivuranta, Kari; Ruohonen, Laura; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja



Fungal wood decay in the presence of fly ash as indicated by gravimetrics and by extractability of low molecular weight volatile organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mycoremediation system of wood substrate and fungal inoculum was established on an organically poor fly ash deposit at the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia. A mini-block method with beech wood samples was used to select a suitable fungal isolate for inoculation into the mycoremediation system. Pleurotus ostreatus ZIM 76 proved to be the most appropriate for further tests. Compared

Barbara Piškur; Janja Zule; Mitja Piškur; Dušan Jurc; Franc Pohleven



Phenolic Acids and Phenolic Glycosides of Gaultheria Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-two species of Gaultheria were examined for phenols and phenolic acids obtained by hydrolysis of ethanolic extracts. Most species yielded p-hydroxybenzoic, o-pyrocatechuic, protocatechuic, gentisic, vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. ...

G. H. N. Towers A. Tse W. S. G. Maass



[On the phenolic acids of vegetables. III. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of root vegetables (author's transl)].  


In carrots, celeriac, scorzoneras, and horse radish caffeic acid, in small radishes p-coumaric acid, in beets ferulic acid and in radishes probably ferulic acid is dominating after hydrolysis. The contents of phenolic acids in the roots are much smaller than in the corresponding leaves. Carrots, small radishes, horse radish and partially scorzoneras show higher concentrations of phenolic acids in outer tissue layers. In contrary to hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives the contents of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, salicylic and gentisic acid) mostly were small. Partially hydroxycoumarins (aesculetin and scopoletin) identified. PMID:1224796

Stöhr, H; Herrmann, K



Comparative Genomics Suggests that the Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Is an Obligate Parasite Scavenging Amino Acids from Its Host's Lungs  

PubMed Central

Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immuno-compromised patients. Progress in understanding its pathogenicity and epidemiology has been hampered by the lack of a long-term in vitro culture method. Obligate parasitism of this pathogen has been suggested on the basis of various features but remains controversial. We analysed the 7.0 Mb draft genome sequence of the closely related species Pneumocystis carinii infecting rats, which is a well established experimental model of the disease. We predicted 8’085 (redundant) peptides and 14.9% of them were mapped onto the KEGG biochemical pathways. The proteome of the closely related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was used as a control for the annotation procedure (4’974 genes, 14.1% mapped). About two thirds of the mapped peptides of each organism (65.7% and 73.2%, respectively) corresponded to crucial enzymes for the basal metabolism and standard cellular processes. However, the proportion of P. carinii genes relative to those of S. pombe was significantly smaller for the “amino acid metabolism” category of pathways than for all other categories taken together (40 versus 114 against 278 versus 427, P<0.002). Importantly, we identified in P. carinii only 2 enzymes specifically dedicated to the synthesis of the 20 standard amino acids. By contrast all the 54 enzymes dedicated to this synthesis reported in the KEGG atlas for S. pombe were detected upon reannotation of S. pombe proteome (2 versus 54 against 278 versus 427, P<0.0001). This finding strongly suggests that species of the genus Pneumocystis are scavenging amino acids from their host's lung environment. Consequently, they would have no form able to live independently from another organism, and these parasites would be obligate in addition to being opportunistic. These findings have implications for the management of patients susceptible to P. jirovecii infection given that the only source of infection would be other humans.

Hauser, Philippe M.; Burdet, Frederic X.; Cisse, Ousmane H.; Keller, Laurent; Taffe, Patrick; Sanglard, Dominique; Pagni, Marco



Changes in endogenous phenolic acids during development of Secale cereale caryopses and after dehydration treatment of unripe rye grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal rye caryopses, five phenolic acids were detected: ferulic, sinapic, vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric, three of which were found in the free phenolic fraction (p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic). Total phenolic compound and phenolic acid contents were the highest at the initial stage of development and the lowest at the final stage of maturation of rye grains. After the dehydration

Stanis?aw Weidner; Ryszard Amarowicz; Magdalena Karama?; Ewa Fr?czek



Coniferyl Ferulate Incorporation into Lignin Enhances the Alkaline Delignification and Enzymatic Degradation of Cell Walls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporating ester interunit linkages into lignin could facilitate fiber delignification and utilization. In model studies with maize cell walls, we examined how partial substitution of coniferyl alcohol (a normal monolignol) with coniferyl ferulate (an ester conjugate from lignan biosynthesis) alt...


Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...


Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 interacts with soil water and microsite to affect soil microbesFungal biomarkers indicate active metabolism of newer C under elevated CO2Soil water availability is key to Mojave Desert soil C and nutrient cycles

V. L. Jin; S. M. Schaeffer; S. E. Ziegler; R. D. Evans



Re-characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ach1p: fungal CoA-transferases are involved in acetic acid detoxification.  


Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa mutants defective in the so-called acetyl-CoA hydrolases Ach1p and Acu-8, respectively, display a severe growth defect on acetate, which is most strongly pronounced under acidic conditions. Acetyl-CoA hydrolysis is an energy wasting process and therefore denoted as a biochemical conundrum. Acetyl-CoA hydrolases show high sequence identity to the CoA-transferase CoaT from Aspergillus nidulans. Therefore, we extensively re-characterised the yeast enzyme. Ach1p showed highest specific activity for the CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate and only a minor acetyl-CoA-hydrolase activity. Complementation of an ach1 mutant with the coaT gene reversed the growth defect on acetate confirming the in vivo function of Ach1p as a CoA-transferase. Our results imply that Ach1p is involved in mitochondrial acetate detoxification by a CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate. Thereby, Ach1p does not perform the energy wasting hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA but conserves energy by the detoxification of mitochondrial acetate. PMID:19298859

Fleck, Christian B; Brock, Matthias



Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard ( Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of

Zhongxiang Fang; Yuxia Hu; Donghong Liu; Jianchu Chen; Xingqian Ye



Regulation of ferulate-5-hydroxylase expression in Arabidopsis in the context of sinapate ester biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Sinapic acid is an intermediate in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, and in some taxa serves as a precursor for soluble secondary metabolites. The biosynthesis and accumulation of the sinapate esters sinapoylglucose, sinapolymalate, and sinapolycholine are developmentally regulated in Arabidopsis and other members of the Brassicaceae. The FAH1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the enzyme ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in syringyl lignin biosynthesis and is required for the production of sinapate esters. Here the authors show that F5H expression parallels sinapate ester accumulation in developing siliques and seedlings, but is not rate limiting for their biosynthesis. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of F5H mRNA is distinct from that of other phenylpropanoid genes. Efforts to identify constructs capable of complementing the sinapate ester-deficient phenotype of fah1 mutants demonstrated that F5H expression in leaves is dependent on sequences 3{prime} of the F5H coding region. In contrast, the positive regulatory function of the downstream region is not required for F5H transcript or sinapolycholine accumulation in embryos.

Ruegger, M.; Meyer, K.; Cusumano, J.C.; Chapple, C. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry



Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)



Relationships between Phenolic Acid Concentrations, Transpiration, Water Utilization, Leaf Area Expansion, and Uptake of Phenolic Acids: Nutrient Culture Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acid treatments of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus cv “Early Green Cluster”) inhibited transpiration, water utilization, leaf area, and absolute and relative rates of leaf expansion. The cinnamic acids, ferulic and p-coumaric acids, were two to five times more inhibitory than the benzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid. When phenolic acid concentrations were maintained at inhibitory concentrations through multiple

Udo Blum; Thomas M. Gerig




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferulate and diferulates mediate cell wall cross-linking in grasses but little is known about their cross-coupling reactions with monolignols and their role in lignin formation in primary cell walls. Feruloylated primary walls of maize were artificially lignified and then saponified to release ferul...


JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome

Grigoriev; Igor V



Ferulate–coniferyl alcohol cross-coupled products formed by radical coupling reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical coupling reactions between ethyl ferulate (Et-FA), a simple model for feruloyl polysaccharides in planta, and coniferyl\\u000a alcohol (CA), a monolignol, were studied in order to better understand the polymer cross-coupling interactions among polysaccharides\\u000a and monolignols or lignin, mediated by ferulate (FA), in plant cell walls. Cross-coupled FA\\/CA dimers produced in an aqueous\\u000a buffer (pH 5.0) containing peroxidase\\/hydrogen peroxide were

Aiping Zhang; Fachuang Lu; Runcang Sun; John Ralph



Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): variation of phenolic acids in shoot tissues.  


Seven known phenolic acids implicated in wheat allelopathy were analyzed in a worldwide collection of 58 wheat accessions by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Chemical analysis showed that accessions differed significantly in the production of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids in the shoots of 17-day-old wheat seedlings. The concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, cis-p-coumaric, and cis-ferulic acids were normally distributed in the 58 accessions. A binormal distribution was found for syringic and trans-ferulic acids and a skewed normal distribution for trans-p-coumaric acid. The concentration of each compound also varied with phenolic acids. The relative abundance of each phenolic acid was ordered decreasingly as trans-ferulic, vanillic, trans-p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, cis-ferulic, and cis-p-coumaric acids. The concentration of total identified phenolic acids varied from 93.2 to 453.8 mg/kg in the shoots of 58 accessions. The content of each phenolic acid or group was highly associated with others in the shoots of wheat seedlings. Wheat accessions with high levels of total identified phenolic acids in the shoots are generally strongly allelopathic to the growth of annual ryegrass. PMID:11382058

Wu, H; Haig, T; Pratley, J; Lemerle, D; An, M



Moderate Ferulate and Diferulate Levels Do Not Impede Maize Cell Wall Degradation by Human Intestinal Microbiota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The degradation of plant fiber by human gut microbiota could be restricted by xylan substitution and cross-linking by ferulate and diferulates, for example by hindering the association of enzymes like xylanases with their substrates. To test the influence of feruloylation on cell wall degradability ...


Granuloma, fungal (Majocchi's) (image)  


This is a picture of a fungal granuloma, a large, red (erythematous) patch (plaque) with a prominent border. Within the borders of the lesion are scattered blisters (pustules) that indicate deeper ...


Fungal biofilm resistance.  


Fungal biofilm infections have become increasingly recognised as a significant clinical problem. One of the major reasons behind this is the impact that these have upon treatment, as antifungal therapy often fails and surgical intervention is required. This places a large financial burden on health care providers. This paper aims to illustrate the importance of fungal biofilms, particularly Candida albicans, and discusses some of the key fungal biofilm resistance mechanisms that include, extracellular matrix (ECM), efflux pump activity, persisters, cell density, overexpression of drug targets, stress responses, and the general physiology of the cell. The paper demonstrates the multifaceted nature of fungal biofilm resistance, which encompasses some of the newest data and ideas in the field. PMID:22518145

Ramage, Gordon; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Williams, Craig



Suppression of age-related renal changes in NF-kappaB and its target gene expression by dietary ferulate.  


Ferulate is a well-described natural antioxidant found in plants. It protects against cellular redox disruption and several oxidative stress-related diseases, including inflammation in animal studies. In this study, we examined ferulate for its ability to suppress redox-sensitive, proinflammatory NF-kappaB activation via NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK)/IkappaB kinase (IKK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by reducing oxidative stress in aged rats. The experimental design was set as follows: Sprague-Dawley rats, ages 7 months (young) and 20 months (old) were used in this study, and dietary ferulate (0.01% or 0.02%) was fed to the old rats for 10 days. Data show that in aged kidney tissue, ferulate exhibited its antioxidative action by maintaining redox regulation, suppressing NF-kappaB activation and modulating the expression of NF-kappaB-induced, proinflammatory COX-2, iNOS, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Next, we examined cultured YPEN-1 endothelial cells and show that ferulate protected YPEN-1 cells against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. The molecular modulation of NF-kappaB by ferulate was further revealed in endothelial YPEN-1 cells through ferulate's ability to suppress the activation of NIK/IKK and MAPKs. Based on these results, we conclude that ferulate's antioxidative capacity suppressed the age-related increase in NF-kappaB activity through inhibition of NIK/IKK and MAPKs in vivo. This study may also suggest the potentiality of ferulate as a developable supplement against chronic inflammatory disease as well as aging. PMID:18657961

Jung, Kyung Jin; Go, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young



Fungal and Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fungal infections have emerged as major causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with hematological malignancies (Int\\u000a J Antimicrob Agents 31:193–197, 2008). Although several new antifungal agents have become available for clinical use in the\\u000a past few years, mortality from fungal infections remains above 20%. Advances in the management of hematological malignancies,\\u000a including use of more aggressive regimens and expansion

Gloria Mattiuzzi; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner


Determination of organic acids in Salicornia herbacea by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography.  


A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in Salicornia herbacea L. (Hamcho) has been developed. The optimal conditions were obtained by using a C18 SPE cartridge. By using ethanol and acetonitrile /water/ trifluoracetic acid as washing and eluting solvents, most interfering compounds originating from the hamcho matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into the HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 to 200 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for procatechuic acid, 0.2 to 400 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for caffeic acid and 0.3 to 600 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for ferulic acid, with the relative standard deviations being less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from hamcho were more than 79.2% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 microg/mL for procatechuic acid, 0.01 microg/mL for caffeic acid and 0.04 microg/mL for ferulic acid. This method is a viable alternative to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in hamcho. PMID:23513729

Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Park, Dong Wha; Row, Kyung Ho



Color enhancing effect of carboxylic acids on anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color enhancing effect of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids on anthocyanin-glucosides was investigated in this work. The color of black rice anthocyanin-rich fraction was successfully improved after the addition of aromatic acids (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid), aliphatic acid (lipoic acid) and tannic acid (as a complex acid). The addition of carboxylic acids showed an enhancing and

Robert Yawadio; Naofumi Morita



Allelochemicals in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Variation of Phenolic Acids in Shoot Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven known phenolic acids implicated in wheat allelopathy were analyzed in a worldwide collection of 58 wheat accessions by gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Chemical analysis showed that accessions differed significantly in the production of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids in the shoots of 17-day-old wheat seedlings. The concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, cis-p-coumaric, and

Hanwen Wu; Terry Haig; James Pratley; Deirdre Lemerle; Min An



Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by caffeic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of the major phenols derived from hydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) on in vitro LDL oxidation was screened, using Cu2+ as catalyst. The presence of the second phenolic hydroxy group enhanced the inhibitory effect of these compounds. In fact, at 5 ?M concentration, only caffeic acid completely protected LDL from modification as measured as conjugated

Mirella Nardini; Massimo D'Aquino; Gianni Tomassi; Vincenzo Gentili; Maurizio Di Felice; Cristina Scaccini



Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...


Antioxidative activity of phenolic acids on triacylglycerols and fatty acid methyl esters from olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoxidation of kinetically pure triacylglycerols and methyl esters of olive oil (TGOO and MEOO) in the presence of four different concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids at 100 °C was studied. It was established that effectiveness and strength of the phenolic acids were greater in MEOO than in TGOO. In both lipid substates the molecules of phenolic acids

Emma M. Marinova; Nedjalka Vl. Yanishlieva



The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses.

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, Rene; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipila, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four isotopically (13C) labeled phenolic acids (caffeic [M+3], sinapic [M+2], p-coumaric [M+6] and ferulic [M+6] acids) were synthesized via a simple one step malonic acid condensation with a series of aldehydes. The aldehydes and the malonic acid were variously labeled and unlabeled to vary the enr...


Quantitation of steryl ferulate and p -coumarate esters from corn and rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal steryl ferulate andp-coumarate esters of different fractions from processed corn brans and corn oils, unrefined and refined, and from rice bran\\u000a and rice bran oil were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results show that hexane-extracted corn oils\\u000a yield more than five times the amount of esters compared to expeller processed oils. The yields of esters from bran

Robert A. Norton




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal phytotoxins have facilitated advances in our understanding of numerous phenomena in plant and fungal physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. During the past few decades, phytotoxins have been employed as tools contributing to fundamental discoveries in plant pathogenesis, h...


Allelopathic effects of phenolic acids detected in buffalograss ( Buchloe dactyloides) clippings on growth of annual bluegrass ( Poa annua) and buffalograss seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen different phenolic acids were detected in water extracts of buffalograss clippings. Six of the 14 phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, homoveratric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid, were examined for water and base extractable tissue concentration, and their effects on growth of seedlings of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides). The tissue phenolic

Lin Wu; Xun Guo; M. Ali Harivandi



Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis.  


Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B. PMID:23640266

Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki



Emerging Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections is evolving. Yeasts other than Candida albicans and moulds other than Aspergillus fumigatus have emerged as significant causes of invasive mycoses in severely immunocompromised patients. Whereas in some instances these changes may be related to medical interventions, such as the use of prophylactic antifungal agents, in the majority of cases, they seem to be

Marcia Garnica; Marcio Nucci



Mechanisms of Fungal Speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The objective of this review,is to provide,a synthesis of speciation theory, of what is known about mechanisms of speciation in fungi and from this, what is expected, and of ideas on how speciation can be elucidated in more fungal systems. The emphasis is on process rather than pattern. Phylogeographic studies in some groups, such as the agarics, demonstrate

Linda M. Kohn



Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin\\/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred

H. G. Jung; D. R. Mertens; R. L. Phillips



Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.  


Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum. Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production. PMID:21943763

Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L



Stability of lipid encapsulated phenolic acid particles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acids are potential bioactive additives for use in animal feeds to replace current antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. These compounds are ubiquitous in plants and may be obtained from commodity grain crops and waste biomass. Encapsulation...


Energetics and structural properties, in the gas phase, of trans-hydroxycinnamic acids.  


We have studied the energetics and structural properties of trans-cinnamic acid (CA), o-, m-, and p-coumaric acids (2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids), caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), iso-ferulic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid), and sinapic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). The experimental values of ?(f)H(m)°(g), determined (in kJ·mol(-1)) for CA (-229.8 ± 1.9), p-coumaric acid (-408.0 ± 4.4), caffeic acid (-580.0 ± 5.9), and ferulic acid (-566.4 ± 5.7), allowed us to derive ?(f)H(m)°(g) of o-coumaric acid (-405.6 ± 4.4), m-coumaric acid (-406.4 ± 4.4), iso-ferulic acid (-565.2 ± 5.7), and sinapic acid (-698.8 ± 4.1). From these values and by use of isodesmic/homodesmotic reactions, we studied the energetic effects of ?-donor substituents (-OH and -OCH(3)) in cinnamic acid derivatives and in the respective benzene analogues. Our results indicate that the interaction between -OCH(3) and/or -OH groups in hydroxycinnamic acids takes place without significant influence of the propenoic fragment. PMID:22316076

Dávalos, Juan Z; Herrero, Rebeca; Chana, Antonio; Guerrero, Andrés; Jiménez, Pilar; Santiuste, José María



Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...


Inducing gene expression of cardiac antioxidant enzymes by dietary phenolic acids in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in oxidative stress is suggested to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Phenolic acids are widespread in plant foods; they contain important biological and pharmacological properties. This study evaluated the role of phenolic acids on the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the heart of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gallic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid at

Chi-Tai Yeh; Li-Chien Ching; Gow-Chin Yen



Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated\\u000a for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the\\u000a P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%,

Rishi Gupta; Girija Mehta; Yogender Pal Khasa; Ramesh Chander Kuhad



Fungal Communities Associated with Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fungal communities involved in the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) were investi- gated. PU coupons were buried in two sandy loam soils with different levels of organic carbon: one was acidic (pH 5.5), and the other was more neutral (pH 6.7). After 5 months of burial, the fungal communities on the surface of the PU were compared with the

Lee Cosgrove; Paula L. McGeechan; Geoff D. Robson; Pauline S. Handley



Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage?  

PubMed Central

The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco



Fungal diseases of horses.  


Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico



Unusual fungal niches.  


Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments. PMID:21700639

Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P


Superficial fungal infections.  


Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common. PMID:22474120

Kelly, Brendan P



Fungal sex and pathogenesis.  


Human fungal pathogens are associated with diseases ranging from dandruff and skin colonization to invasive bloodstream infections. The major human pathogens belong to the Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus clades, and infections have high and increasing morbidity and mortality. Many human fungal pathogens were originally assumed to be asexual. However, recent advances in genome sequencing, which revealed that many species have retained the genes required for the sexual machinery, have dramatically influenced our understanding of the biology of these organisms. Predictions of a rare or cryptic sexual cycle have been supported experimentally for some species. Here, I examine the evidence that human pathogens reproduce sexually. The evolution of the mating-type locus in ascomycetes (including Candida and Aspergillus species) and basidiomycetes (Malassezia and Cryptococcus) is discussed. I provide an overview of how sex is suppressed in different species and discuss the potential associations with pathogenesis. PMID:20065328

Butler, Geraldine



Fungal endophytes of grasses.  


Epichloae endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with temperate grasses and confer on the host a number of bioprotective benefits through production of fungal secondary metabolites and changed host metabolism. Maintenance of this mutualistic interaction requires that growth of the endophyte within the host is restricted. Recent work has shown that epichloae endophytes grow in the leaves by intercalary division and extension rather than tip growth. This novel pattern of growth enables the fungus to synchronise its growth with that of the host. Reactive oxygen species signalling is required to maintain this pattern of growth. Disruption of components of the NADPH oxidase complex or a MAP kinase, result in a switch from restricted to proliferative growth and a breakdown in the symbiosis. RNAseq analysis of mutant and wild-type associations identifies key fungal and plant genes that define the symbiotic state. Endophyte genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are only expressed in the plant and under conditions of restricted growth. PMID:22465162

Tanaka, Aiko; Takemoto, Daigo; Chujo, Tetsuya; Scott, Barry



Fungal evolution and taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fungi and insects are closely associated in many terrestrial and some aquatic habitats. In addition to the pathogenic associations,\\u000a many more interactions involve fungal spore dispersal. Recent advances in the study of insect-associated fungi have come from\\u000a phylogenic analyses with increased taxon sampling and additional DNA loci. In addition to providing stable phylogenies, some\\u000a molecular studies have begun to unravel

Meredith Blackwell


Fungal evolution and taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi and insects are closely associated in many terrestrial and some aquatic habitats. In addition to the pathogenic associations,\\u000a many more interactions involve fungal spore dispersal. Recent advances in the study of insect-associated fungi have come from\\u000a phylogenic analyses with increased taxon sampling and additional DNA loci. In addition to providing stable phylogenies, some\\u000a molecular studies have begun to unravel

Meredith Blackwell



Emerging Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging fungal pathogens have been increasingly reported as causes of pneumonia in severely immunocompromised patients. These\\u000a include Fusarium species, Zygomycetes, the agents of phaeohyphomycosis and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species. Hematologic patients at high risk to develop these infections are those with prolonged neutropenia and\\/or severe\\u000a T-cell immunodeficiency, typically patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapy for induction of remission, allogeneic\\u000a stem cell

Marcia Garnica; Marcio Nucci


Fungal evolution and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular-genetic methods are making possible a revolution in the the study of fungal evolutionary biology. To date, substantial\\u000a progress has been made toward the goal of determining phylogenetic relationships, This is particularly true for higher taxonomic\\u000a levels, where small-subunit rRNA sequences have proved valuable. The tremendous range of life-cycle diversity exhibited among\\u000a fungi makes them excellent candidates for exploring areas

Donald O. Natvig; Georgiana May



Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient out- comes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-

Yanan Zhao; Steven Park; Barry N. Kreiswirth; Christine C. Ginocchio; Raphael Veyret; Ali Laayoun; Alain Troesch; David S. Perlin



Simultaneous estimation of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides) using RP-HPLC with DAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic acids including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffiec acid and ferulic acid in sea buckthorn (SB) (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries and leaves. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD, precision, accuracy and recovery and found to

Ranjith Arimboor; K. Sarin Kumar; C. Arumughan



Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Thykaer, Jette [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Adney, William S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brockman, Fred [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dhaeseleer, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Martinez, A diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, R michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Torok, Tamas [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bennett, Joan [Rutgers University; Berka, Randy [Novozymes, Inc; Briggs, Steven [University of California, San Diego; Heitman, Joseph [Duke University; Rizvi, L [Royal Ontario Museum; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Turgeon, Gillian [Cornell University; Werner-Washburne, Maggie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Himmel, Michael [ORNL



Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.



Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...


Fungal Community Ecology: A Hybrid Beast with a Molecular Master  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fungi play a major role in the function and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, directly influencing the structure of plant, animal, and bacterial communities through interactions that span the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Only with the advent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based molecular techniques, however, have researchers been able to look closely at the ecological forces that structure fungal communities. The recent explosion of molecular studies has greatly advanced our understanding of fungal diversity, niche partitioning, competition, spatial variability, and functional traits. Because of fungi's unique biology, fungal ecology is a hybrid beast that straddles the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. While the dual nature of this field presents many challenges, it also makes fungi excellent organisms for testing extant ecological theories, and it provides opportunities for new and unanticipated research. Many questions remain unanswered, but continuing advances in molecular techniques and field and lab experimentation indicate that fungal ecology has a bright future.

Kabir G. Peay (University of California at Berkeley;); Peter G. Kennedy (Lewis and Clark College;); Thomas D. Bruns (University of California at Berkeley;)



Fungal horizons: the Asilomar Fungal Genetics Conference 2007.  


This meeting report covers advances presented at the 2007 Asilomar Fungal Genetics Conference that expand our understanding of fungal biology and the myriad ways in which studies of organisms in this ubiquitous and successful kingdom of life advance an understanding of conserved biological principles. PMID:17977033

Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, Barbara



Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions  

SciTech Connect

Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

Blum, U. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany



Fungal rhinosinusitis and imaging modalities  

PubMed Central

This report provides an overview of fungal rhinosinusitis with a particular focus on acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis (AFIFS). Imaging modalities and findings that aid in diagnosis and surgical planning are reviewed with a pathophysiologic focus. In addition, the differential diagnosis based on imaging suggestive of AFIFS is considered.

Gorovoy, Ian R.; Kazanjian, Mia; Kersten, Robert C.; Kim, H. Jane; Vagefi, M. Reza



Fungal keratitis in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a total of 27 cases of fungal keratitis is Saudi Arabia. History of trauma was found in 9 patients, and previous use of topical steroids in 6 patients. In the majority of patients the onset of the disease was in fall and spring. The most frequent cause of fungal keratitis was found to be Aspergillus spp., and these

Samir H. Khairallah; Kathleen A. Byrne; Khalid F. Tabbara



Microencapsulated bacterial cells can be used to produce the enzyme feruloyl esterase: preparation and in-vitro analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnological production of ferulic acid, a precursor of vanillin, is an attractive alternative for various industries\\u000a due to the high price and demand for natural ferulic acid. Feruloyl esterase has been identified as a key enzyme involved\\u000a in microbial transformations of ferulic acid to vanillin. Several fungal feruloyl esterases have been purified and characterized\\u000a for their use in the production

Jasmine Bhathena; Arun Kulamarva; Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska; Christopher Martoni; Satya Prakash



Bioconversion of cinnamic acid derivatives by Schizophyllum commune.  


To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. PMID:21099134

Nimura, Yoshifumi; Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Masayoshi



Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.  


Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited. PMID:23175562

Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri



Fungal solid state culture of palm kernel cake.  


Palm kernel cake (PKC), an agro-industrial by-product used extensively in the animal feed industry, has limited use in fish feeds due to its high fiber and low protein contents. In this study, PKC was processed under solid state culture conditions with five fungal strains and the effect of this fungal culturing on the amino acid, fatty acid, cellulose and hemicellulose fractions was evaluated. Fungal strains used were Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma longiobrachiatum, Trichoderma koninggi and Aspergillus niger. Fungal growth was carried out at 50% moisture level and 1% inoculum level for 7 days. A significant increase in protein content from 18.76% to 32.79% was obtained by growing T. longibrachiatum on PKC. Cellulose level decreased significantly from 28.31% to 12.11% for PKC cultured with T. longibrachiatum, and hemicellulose from 37.03% to 19.01% for PKC cultured with A. niger. Fungal culturing of PKC brought about an increase in the level of unsaturated- and a decrease in the level of the saturated-fatty acids. PMID:16216731

Iluyemi, F B; Hanafi, M M; Radziah, O; Kamarudin, M S



Investigation of phenolic acids in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves and tubers.  


Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) screening of crude extracts of dried leaves and tubers of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) and products of acid hydrolysis of tubers on the silica gel HPTLC plates using the developing solvents ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (85:10:15, v/v/v) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v/v) proved the presence of chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acid. These phenolic acids were isolated from the crude extract of yacon leaves by preparative TLC, and identified after elution by HPLC/MS, as well as by direct injection of the crude extract into the HPLC/MS system. Acid hydrolysis of tubers released the increased amount of phenolic acids (e.g. caffeic acid and ferulic acid), flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid, which was detected by TLC analysis. Ferulic acid, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and still an unidentified derivative of chlorogenic acid (Mr = 562) as constituents of yacon leaves and ferulic acid as constituent of yacon tubers are reported here for the first time. These acids gave significant contribution to the radical scavenging activity detected directly on the TLC plate sprayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). PMID:14601830

Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Andrensek, Samo; Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka



Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic and ellagic acids) were simultaneously detected from 19 berries using a simple High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method. These phenolics have been proposed to have beneficial effects on health as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. Marked differences were observed in the phenolic profiles among the berries, with certain similarities

S. Häkkinen; M. Heinonen; S. Kärenlampi; H. Mykkänen; J. Ruuskanen; R. Törrönen



Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...


The Phenolic Acids in Wheat--Iii. Insoluble Derivatives of Phenolic Cinnamic Acids as Natural Intermediates in Lignin Biosynthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

C(14) Labeled compounds were administered to wheat shoots and their incorporation into lignin and into p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids was measured. These phenolic cinnamic acids were not present as such but were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of b...

S. Z. El-Basyouni A. C. Neish G. H. N. Towers



Fungal splenic abscess.  


Nineteen patients with fungal splenic abscesses included 16 with leukemia, one drug user, one patient with Cushing's syndrome, and one without predisposing causes. Fifteen had persistent fever; six had esophageal or mucocutaneous candidiasis. Abdominal pain occurred in seven patients, splenomegaly occurred in six, and left abdominal mass occurred in one. Three chest x-ray films showed left pleural effusions; two had elevated left hemidiaphragms, two had left-sided infiltrates, and one was normal. Sixteen of 17 technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid scans were abnormal, as were 15 gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Two computed tomographic studies revealed splenic defects. Candida was the cause in 15 cases, Aspergillus was the cause in three cases, and Blastomyces dermatitidis was the cause in one case. Sixteen patients underwent splenectomy, 12 receiving postoperative antifungal therapy. Fifteen survived regardless of underlying disease or hepatic microabscesses. PMID:6385895

Johnson, J D; Raff, M J



Fungal biodegradation of pomegranate ellagitannins.  


Ellagitannins (ETs) are phytochemicals derived from secondary metabolism associated to defense system, with complex chemical structures, which have high participation during all stages of protection against microbial infection. In this study, we report the fungal biodegradation of a bioactive ET, named punicaline which was recovered and purified from pomegranate peels and used as carbon source in solid-state culture (SSC) using polyurethane as solid support. SSC was kinetically monitored during 36?h of incubation time. ETs and glycosides consumption were spectrophotometrically determined. Ellagic acid (EA) accumulation was analyzed by HPLC. Several enzymatic activities were assayed (cellulase, xylanase, ?-glucosydase, polyphenoloxidase, tannase, and ET hydrolyzing activities). The consumption levels of ETs and glycosides were 66 and 40%, while EA accumulation reached 42.02?mg?g(-1) . A differential pattern of enzymatic activities was found; evidence from our studies suggests that the ET hydrolyzing activity is directly associated to EA accumulation, and production of this enzyme may represent the most critical step to successfully develop a bioprocess for production of an important bioactive compound, the EA. PMID:23564673

Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Buenrostro, José J; De la Cruz, Reynaldo; Sepúlveda, Leonardo; Aguilera, Antonio F; Prado, Arely; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N



Biotransformation of Eugenol to Ferulic Acid by a Recombinant Strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is the charac- teristic aroma component of the vanilla pod and is used in a broad range of flavors for foods, confectionery, and beverages; as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes and cosmetics; and for pharmaceuticals. The main production of vanillin is done via chemical synthesis from guaiacol and lignin (9). The increasing customer-led demand for natural flavors has

Jorg Overhage; Alexander Steinbuchel; Horst Priefert



Fungal fimbriae are composed of collagen.  

PubMed Central

Fungal fimbriae are surface appendages that were first described on the haploid cells of the smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum. They are long (1-20 microm), narrow (7 nm) flexuous structures that have been implicated in cellular functions such as mating and pathogenesis. Since the initial description, numerous fungi from all five phyla have been shown to produce fimbriae on their extracellular surfaces. The present study analyses the protein component of M.violaceum fimbriae. The N-terminus and three internal amino acid sequences were determined. All four show a strong similarity to sequences which are characteristic of the collagen gene family. Enzymatic digests and immunochemical analyses support this finding. Based on these results, it is suggested that the proteinaceous subunits of fimbriae should be termed fungal collagens. Previously, collagen has been found only among members of the kingdom Animalia where it is the principal component of the animal extracellular matrix and is the most abundant animal protein. The unexpected finding of collagen in the members of the Mycota suggests that it may have evolved from a common ancestor that existed before the divergence of fungi and animals. Further, native fungal fimbriae can function as a mammalian extracellular matrix component. They can act as a substratum which permits animal cells to adhere, spread, and proliferate in a manner similar to animal collagens. The implications of this finding to both phylogeny and pathology are discussed. Images

Celerin, M; Ray, J M; Schisler, N J; Day, A W; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Laudenbach, D E



Ferulate protects the epithelial barrier by maintaining tight junction protein expression and preventing apoptosis in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced Caco-2 cells.  


Epithelial barrier function is determined by both transcellular and paracellular permeability, the latter of which is mainly influenced by tight junctions (TJs) and apoptotic leaks within the epithelium. We investigated the protective effects of ferulate on epithelial barrier integrity by examining permeability, TJ protein expression, and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), a strong reactive species inducer. Caco-2 cells pretreated with ferulate (5 or 15??M) were exposed to t-BHP (100??M), and ferulate suppressed the t-BHP-mediated increases in reactive species and epithelial permeability in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, ferulate inhibited epithelial cell leakage induced by t-BHP, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In addition, pretreatment with ferulate markedly protected cells against t-BHP-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by decreased nuclear condensation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that ferulate protects the epithelial barrier of Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress, which results in increased epithelial permeability, decreased TJ protein expression, and increased apoptosis. The most significant finding of our study is the demonstration of protective, ferulate-mediated antioxidant effects on barrier integrity, with a particular focus on intracellular molecular mechanisms. PMID:22610911

Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Park, Min Hi; Ha, Young Mi; Jung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young



Decarboxylation of Substituted Cinnamic Acids by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated during Malt Whisky Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxy- cinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxy- lated p-coumaric acid and\\/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and\\/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respec- tively, although




[Diagnosis of cutaneous fungal infection].  


The Japanese Dermatological Association produced some guidelines for the management of cutaneous fungal infection in cooperation with the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology, in which the importance of an accurate diagnosis of the fungal infection before antifungal treatment is emphasized. Here I comment on conventional mycological tests including direct microscopic examination and fungal cultures, which have been listed in the guidelines. Sampling of the clinical specimen is the most important step in mycological tests, so dermatologists should be aware of how and where good specimens are obtained. Direct microscopic examination of a KOH (potassium hydroxide) mounted preparation is the most simple and important test for diagnosing superficial fungal infection and dematiaceous fungal infection, which requires that dermatologists be skilled. The fungal culture is important in determining the therapeutic strategy and prophylaxis of the fungal infection, especially in cases of tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and deep mycoses. It is imperative that dermatologists be fully trained and prepared in order to implement these procedures when the occasion demands. PMID:19942788

Mochizuki, Takashi



Structure and expression of fungal calmodulin gene.  


I report on the isolation, structural analysis, and in vivo expression patterns of a fungal calmodulin gene. The gene is intronless and encodes a protein of 148 amino acid residues that is 92% homologous with vertebrate calmodulins. Through S1 nuclease transcript mapping, it was determined that the cloned gene (a) is transcribed in vivo, (b) has a 5'-untranslated region of about 400 nucleotides, and (c) has a 3'-untranslated end of about 300 nucleotides. Southern blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA and the cloned gene provide evidence for the existence of only one type of calmodulin gene in the organism. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence shows that Achlya klebsiana calmodulin has amino acid substitutions that are a mix of those seen in calmodulins from invertebrates such as Drosophila and trypanosome when compared to mammalian calmodulins. Not surprisingly, it has less resemblance to calmodulins from Saccharomyces and Dictyostelium. PMID:2808429

LéJohn, H B



Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...


Natural phenolic acids may increase serum estradiol level in ovariectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural phenolic acids are commonly present in plants consumed in the diet. Recently we have observed that different natural phenolic acids exert differential effects on the body mass gain in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized female rats. The aim of the present study was to investi - gate the effects of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids on serum estradiol and total

Maria Zych; Joanna Folwarczna; Henryk I. Trzeciak


Phenolic acids from beer are absorbed and extensively metabolized in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the wide literature describing the biological effects of phenolic compounds, scarce data are available on their absorption from diet. In the present work, we studied the absorption in humans of phenolic acids from beer, a common beverage rich in different phenolic acids with related chemical structures. Beer was analyzed for free and total (free+bound) phenolic acids. Ferulic,

Mirella Nardini; Fausta Natella; Cristina Scaccini; Andrea Ghiselli



Benefits of Citrate Over EDTA for Extracting Phenolic Acids from Soils and Plant Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of various citrate extractions to recover ferulic acid, a phenolic acid, from Cecil Ap and Bt soil and plant surface debris (crimson clover, rye, subterranean clover, and wheat) was compared with that of EDTA extractions. Citrate extractions were equivalent to or better than EDTA in recovering phenolic acids from soil and plant debris. Citrate, unlike EDTA, did not

Udo Blum



Fungal Degradation of Military Assets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three case histories of bio-deterioration due to fungi are reviewed. Fungal accelerated deterioration has recently been documented in aircraft fuel storage tanks, painted interior surfaces of helicopters, and wire high-lines stored in humid environments o...

B. Little P. Wagner D. Lavoie R. Ray




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The enzyme activity and transcript level of key flavonoid precursor enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), were monitored alfalfa seedlings that had been challenged with the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii. Inoculation...


Soil fungal community structure in a temperate upland grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in soil microfungal community structure across a transect between a semi-natural upland grassland and an agriculturally improved enclosure were assessed using an indirect measurement of active fungal biomass (ergosterol), together with a nucleic acid approach, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), which was compared to a commonly used but less sensitive community fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

Eoin Brodie; Suzanne Edwards; Nicholas Clipson



Fungal infections in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected over the past 10–20 years clearly show that invasive fungal infections, far from being observed in immunocompromised\\u000a hosts only, are increasingly recognised as a growing problem in critically ill nonimmunocompromised patients and in subjects\\u000a undergoing major surgical procedures [1–3]. While Candida spp. are the most common cause of severe fungal infections in the ICU, mould infections are so

A. DE GASPERI; A. Corti; L. Perrone


Structural features of fungal genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen fungal genomes have been sequenced to date from a variety of taxonomic groups, with fifteen Ascomycota, two Basidomycota and one Microsporidia species represented. The genomes vary in size more than tenfold, from approximately 2.5 Mbp to 38.8 Mbp. We have performed\\u000a a computational analysis of DNA structural features of all 18 fungal genomes. The sequenced genomes can be visualised

Phatthanaphong Wanchanthuek; Peter F. Hallin; Rodrigo Gouveia-Oliveira; David Ussery


Fungal infections: a growing threat.  

PubMed Central

THE EMERGENCE OF newly identified fungal pathogens and the reemergence of previously uncommon fungal diseases is primarily related to increases in the numbers of susceptible persons: people with HIV infection, bone marrow and organ transplant recipients, cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy, critically ill persons, and very low birth weight ( < or = 1500 g) infants. These immunocompromised populations are at risk for infection not only with opportunistic pathogens (for example, Pneumocystis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Aspergillus, Penicillium marneffei, and numerous other moulds or yeasts) but also with fungal pathogens that usually infect otherwise healthy persons not previously exposed to endemic fungi (for example, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis) and Sporothrix schenckii. Morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with fungal infections are high. Addressing the emergence of fungal diseases will require increased surveillance coupled with the availability of rapid, noninvasive diagnostic tests; monitoring the development of resistance to antifungal agents; and research focused on the understanding, prevention, and control of fungal infections. Images p[227]-a p226-a p232-a

Dixon, D M; McNeil, M M; Cohen, M L; Gellin, B G; La Montagne, J R



Phenolic acids composition and antioxidant activity of canola extracts in cooked beef, chicken and pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude polyphenol extracts (15 or 100mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)\\/kg meat) from canola meal reduced the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in pre-cooked beef (66–92%), pork (43–75%) and chicken (36–70%). The canola extract contained sinapic (99.7%), ferulic (0.28%) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (0.07%).The relationship between polyphenol composition and the antioxidant activity of a blend containing of caffeic, cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic,

Amandine Brettonnet; Amitha Hewavitarana; Sharon DeJong; Maria Cecilia Lanari



Involvement of cell wall-bound phenolic acids in decrease in cell wall susceptibility to expansins during the cessation of rapid growth in internodes of floating rice.  


The cell walls in the elongating zone of submerged floating rice internodes show high susceptibility to expansins. When internode sections corresponding to such an elongation zone were incubated for 24h under osmotic stress conditions produced by treatment with 100mM polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG), the cell wall susceptibility to expansins remained at its initial level, while the susceptibility of internode sections incubated under unstressed conditions decreased considerably during the same period. The contents of polysaccharides and phenolic acids as ferulic, diferulic and p-coumaric acids in the cell walls of internode sections increased substantially under unstressed conditions, but the increases were almost completely prevented by osmotic stress. Ferulic acid applied to internode sections under osmotic stress reduced the susceptibility of the cell walls to expansins and increased the levels of ferulic and diferulic acids in the cell walls, with little effect on the accumulation of polysaccharides. In contrast, applied p-coumaric acid increased the level of p-coumaric acid in the cell walls without a change in the levels of ferulic and diferulic acids but did not reduce the susceptibility to expansins. These results suggest that the deposition of ferulic and diferulic acids is a primary determinant in regulating the reduction of the susceptibility of cell walls to expansins in floating rice internodes. PMID:20650543

Sasayama, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsushi; Itoh, Kazuyuki



Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  


The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A



Dissociative proton transfer in cluster ions: clusters of aromatic carboxylic acids with amino acids 1 1 Dedicated to Professor Nico Nibering on the occasion of his retirement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cluster formation of several aromatic carboxylic acids ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapinic acid and 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid was investigated by means of laser desorption into a supersonic beam followed by multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The formation of not only homogeneous clusters but also that of heterogeneous clusters with some small amino acids was studied. The different neutral clusters formed in

Anja Meffert; Jürgen Grotemeyer



Fluorescence spectroscopy of atmospherically relevant bacterial and fungal spores and potential interferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study fluorescence properties of fungal spores and bacteria, selected for their possible atmospheric relevance. In addition, aromatic organic acid aerosols, potentially interfering with laser induced fluorescence measurement, were studied. The results indicate that fungal spores and bacteria have dissimilar fluorescence spectra. The tested aromatic organic acids had fluorescence properties rather similar to common biological molecules. It may be possible to classify atmospheric bacterial and fungal spores through the dissimilar fluorescence properties, but the influence of the potential interferences must be taken into account.

Saari, S. E.; Putkiranta, M. J.; Keskinen, J.



Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†  

PubMed Central

Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted ?-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities.

Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.



Anticholinesterase activity of phenolic acids and their derivatives.  


The ability of 36 phenolic acids and their derivatives to inhibit acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase was studied. The most efficient acetylcholine inhibitors were: carnosic acid = gentisic acid > 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid = ethyl ferulate = ethyl vanillate = nordihydroguaiaretic acid > ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate = methyl ferulate. The order of effectiveness towards butyrylcholinesterase was: carnosic acid > nordihydroguaiaretic acid = ethyl ferulate > salicylic acid > gentisic acid > rosmarinic acid = caftaric acid > homogentisic acid. The inhibitory activity was dependent on the number/position of OH or/and OCH3 groups attached to a phenol ring. It can be speculated that OCH3 substitution in the phenol ring can promote a higher antibutyrylcholinesterase activity (although not statistically confirmed at p < 0.05). The presence of a CH=CH-COOH group had a highly favourable effect on the antiacetylcholinesterase activity compared with a CH2-CH2-COOH or a COOH group. Methyl and ethyl esters were more potent inhibitors than the corresponding free acids. The molecular weight of the compounds (in the range of M = 154.12 - 474 g/mol) played a minor role in this context. PMID:23819308

Szwajgier, Dominik


Identification of fungal sphingolipid C9-methyltransferases by phylogenetic profiling.  


Fungal glucosylceramides play an important role in plant-pathogen interactions enabling plants to recognize the fungal attack and initiate specific defense responses. A prime structural feature distinguishing fungal glucosylceramides from those of plants and animals is a methyl group at the C9-position of the sphingoid base, the biosynthesis of which has never been investigated. Using information on the presence or absence of C9-methylated glucosylceramides in different fungal species, we developed a bioinformatics strategy to identify the gene responsible for the biosynthesis of this C9-methyl group. This phylogenetic profiling allowed the selection of a single candidate out of 24-71 methyltransferase sequences present in each of the fungal species with C9-methylated glucosylceramides. A Pichia pastoris knock-out strain lacking the candidate sphingolipid C9-methyltransferase was generated, and indeed, this strain contained only non-methylated glucosylceramides. In a complementary approach, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was engineered to produce glucosylceramides suitable as a substrate for C9-methylation. C9-methylated sphingolipids were detected in this strain expressing the candidate from P. pastoris, demonstrating its function as a sphingolipid C9-methyltransferase. The enzyme belongs to the superfamily of S-adenosylmethionine-(SAM)-dependent methyltransferases and shows highest sequence similarity to plant and bacterial cyclopropane fatty acid synthases. An in vitro assay showed that sphingolipid C9-methylation is membrane-bound and requires SAM and Delta4,8-desaturated ceramide as substrates. PMID:16339149

Ternes, Philipp; Sperling, Petra; Albrecht, Sandra; Franke, Stephan; Cregg, James M; Warnecke, Dirk; Heinz, Ernst



Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum l.): variation of phenolic acids in root tissues.  


Analysis by GC/MS/MS showed that a worldwide collection of 58 wheat accessions differed significantly in the production of seven phenolic acids in the roots of 17-day-old wheat seedlings. The allelochemical contents among wheat accessions ranged from 24.5 to 94.5, 19.9 to 91.7, 3.7 to 15.4, 2.2 to 38.6, 1.0 to 42.2, 19.3 to 183.6, and 11.7 to 187.6 mg/kg of root dry weight for p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, cis-p-coumaric, syringic, cis-ferulic, trans-p-coumaric, and trans-ferulic acids, respectively. trans-Ferulic acid was identified as the most predominant phenolic acid in the roots. Phenolic acids, with the exception of syringic acid, were more concentrated in roots than in shoots. Significant correlation was found between the roots and the shoots in the contents of vanillic, cis-p-coumaric, syringic, trans-p-coumaric, and trans-ferulic acids, and in the content of each structural group of phenolic acids. Wheat accessions with high levels of total identified phenolic acids in the roots were generally strongly allelopathic to the growth of annual ryegrass. PMID:11087480

Wu, H; Haig, T; Pratley, J; Lemerle, D; An, M



FSRD: fungal stress response database  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to different types of environmental stress is a common part of life for today’s fungi. A deeper understanding of the organization, regulation and evolution of fungal stress response systems may lead to the development of novel antifungal drugs and technologies or the engineering of industrial strains with elevated stress tolerance. Here we present the Fungal Stress Response Database ( aimed to stimulate further research on stress biology of fungi. The database incorporates 1985 fungal stress response proteins with verified physiological function(s) and their orthologs identified and annotated in 28 species including human and plant pathogens, as well as important industrial fungi. The database will be extended continuously to cover other fully sequenced fungal species. Our database, as a starting point for future stress research, facilitates the analysis of literature data on stress and the identification of ortholog groups of stress response proteins in newly sequenced fungal genomes. Database URL:

Karanyi, Zsolt; Holb, Imre; Hornok, Laszlo; Pocsi, Istvan; Miskei, Marton



Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, next to nothing is known about this deep, concealed biosphere. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (~50-200 ?m in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few ?m:s to ∼20 ?m in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma, and probably still is. It is suggested that near future ocean drilling programs prioritize sampling of live species to better understand this concealed biosphere.

Ivarsson, M.



Phenolic acids of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose ( Oenothera biennis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids, both free and liberated from esters and glycosides, was determined in evening primrose\\u000a and borage seeds by GC and MS. The free phenolic acid fraction was predominant in these seeds. Protocatechuic acid was the\\u000a principal phenolic acid of the free and esterified phenolic acids in evening primrose seeds. Ferulic acid represented a high\\u000a proportion of

R. Zadernowski; M. Naczk; H. Nowak-Polakowska



Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases  

PubMed Central

Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution.

Mate, Diana; Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel



Chapter 7: Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.  


Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis in which patients classically exhibit nasal polyps, type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, characteristic findings on computed tomography scans, eosinophilic mucin, and positive fungal stain. New research has sought to further understand the pathophysiology of AFRS. However, this has also led to debate about the classification and predominance of this interesting disease process. Historically, patients with AFRS are immunocompetent. The disease is most prevalent in the southeast and south central United States and typically presents with sinus pressure, hyposmia, and congestion. Radiographically, cases of AFRS have a distinct appearance, often exhibiting unilateral heterogeneously dense material, which may erode and expand the paranasal sinus bony walls. Treatment typically consists of surgery, sinonasal irrigations, and topical and systemic steroids, all with the effort to decrease the fungal load and antigenic response. Immunotherapy is also often included in the treatment regimen for AFRS. PMID:23711035

Laury, Adrienne M; Wise, Sarah K


Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection.  


Fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue may result from either direct contact or inoculation injury (primary infection) or from hematogenous spread from a primary focus of disease (secondary infection). The parainfectious lesions of erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme are manifestations of the host's immune response to the invading fungus, particularly Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidiodes immitis. In some patients, skin lesions may be the only sign of a systemic fungal infection, and prompt recognition of these lesions may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. This article first addresses the pathogenesis, host defenses, and diagnosis of fungal skin infections. The specific cutaneous manifestations of the superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic mycoses are then reviewed. PMID:7890937

Chapman, S W; Daniel, C R




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An arabinoxylan (hemicellulose B), termed "Corn fiber gum" (CFG), is obtained by the alkaline extraction of corn kernel pericarp and/or endosperm fractions of corn fiber (1). Two classes of phytochemicals, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) and lipids were released, when CFG was hydroly...


Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy.

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing



Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis.  


We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum). The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient. PMID:20404473

Kindo, A J; Anita, S; Kalpana, S


Fungal endocarditis: an autopsy study.  


Between 1990 and 2002, 237 hearts were examined at autopsy, including 16 with infective endocarditis; 6 showed fungal endocarditis. The preceding pathology was chronic rheumatic heart disease in 2 patients, one of whom had undergone double valve replacement, 2 patients had been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one had protein-energy malnutrition. The underlying cause was unknown in one case. The organisms isolated were Aspergillus in 3 patients, Zygomycota in 1, Candida in 1, and both Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus in 1 patient. Immunosuppressed states are a cause of fungal endocarditis in India, although chronic rheumatic heart disease is the preceding pathology in the majority of patients. PMID:15213071

Challa, Sundaram; Prayaga, Aruna Kumari; Vemu, Laxmi; Sadasivan, Jaishankar; Jagarlapudi, Murali Krishna Murthy; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Prabhala, Rajagopal



Genomic Organization of Fungal Plant Pathogenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent large scale genomic sequencing of fungal phytopathogens has revolutionized the study of plant pathogenesis. Initially, having whole genome sequence (WGS) data for individual fungal genomes has accelerated classical forward and reverse genetic approaches for identifying pathogenicity genes...


Rational reprogramming of fungal polyketide first-ring cyclization  

PubMed Central

Resorcylic acid lactones and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactones represent important pharmacophores with heat shock response and immune system modulatory activities. The biosynthesis of these fungal polyketides involves a pair of collaborating iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs): a highly reducing iPKS with product that is further elaborated by a nonreducing iPKS (nrPKS) to yield a 1,3-benzenediol moiety bridged by a macrolactone. Biosynthesis of unreduced polyketides requires the sequestration and programmed cyclization of highly reactive poly-?-ketoacyl intermediates to channel these uncommitted, pluripotent substrates to defined subsets of the polyketide structural space. Catalyzed by product template (PT) domains of the fungal nrPKSs and discrete aromatase/cyclase enzymes in bacteria, regiospecific first-ring aldol cyclizations result in characteristically different polyketide folding modes. However, a few fungal polyketides, including the dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone dehydrocurvularin, derive from a folding event that is analogous to the bacterial folding mode. The structural basis of such a drastic difference in the way a PT domain acts has not been investigated until now. We report here that the fungal vs. bacterial folding mode difference is portable on creating hybrid enzymes, and we structurally characterize the resulting unnatural products. Using structure-guided active site engineering, we unravel structural contributions to regiospecific aldol condensations and show that reshaping the cyclization chamber of a PT domain by only three selected point mutations is sufficient to reprogram the dehydrocurvularin nrPKS to produce polyketides with a fungal fold. Such rational control of first-ring cyclizations will facilitate efforts to the engineered biosynthesis of novel chemical diversity from natural unreduced polyketides.

Xu, Yuquan; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Zhengfu; Su, Shiyou; Roberts, Sue A.; Montfort, William R.; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min; Zhan, Jixun; Molnar, Istvan



Bacterial Biofilms on Fungal Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilm formation on fungi participates in the synergistic degradation of sub- strates, antagonism of fungal growth, bacterial utilization of fungi as nutrient sources, and the formation of more complex synergistic associations for the purposes of nutrient acquisition. While bacterial biofilm formation has been described in many systems, the molecular mechanisms that govern these interactions are not yet well understood.

Deborah A. Hogan; Matthew J. Wargo; Nancy Beck


Fungal farming in a snail.  


Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R; Newell, Steven Y



Fungal farming in a snail  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production.

Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.



Can fungal biopesticides control malaria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has raised the prospect of using insect fungal pathogens for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In the past, microbial control of insect pests in both medical and agricultural sectors has generally had limited success. We propose that it might now be possible to produce a cheap, safe and green tool for the control of malaria,

Andrew F. Read; Matthew B. Thomas



Fungal cytochrome P450 database  

PubMed Central

Background Cytochrome P450 enzymes play critical roles in fungal biology and ecology. To support studies on the roles and evolution of cytochrome P450 enzymes in fungi based on rapidly accumulating genome sequences from diverse fungal species, an efficient bioinformatics platform specialized for this super family of proteins is highly desirable. Results The Fungal Cytochrome P450 Database (FCPD) archives genes encoding P450s in the genomes of 66 fungal and 4 oomycete species (4,538 in total) and supports analyses of their sequences, chromosomal distribution pattern, and evolutionary histories and relationships. The archived P450s were classified into 16 classes based on InterPro terms and clustered into 141 groups using tribe-MCL. The proportion of P450s in the total proteome and class distribution in individual species exhibited certain taxon-specific characteristics. Conclusion The FCPD will facilitate systematic identification and multifaceted analyses of P450s at multiple taxon levels via the web. All data and functions are available at the web site .

Park, Jongsun; Lee, Seungmin; Choi, Jaeyoung; Ahn, Kyohun; Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jaejin; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan



The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and\\/or mycelial cells may

Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Ursula Denk; Verena Pöll; Raphaela Rid; Michael Breitenbach



Probing Interactions in Fungal PKS.  


Biosynthesis of polyketides can depend on interactions between the acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) which hold the growing chains and their enzymatic partners. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Bruegger and colleagues demonstrate that mechanism-based probes tethered to the ACPs of fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases can provide insights into these contacts. PMID:24054181

Weissman, Kira J




EPA Science Inventory

Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...


Metal Toxicity Affects Fungal and Bacterial Activities in Soil Differently  

PubMed Central

Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load.

Rajapaksha, R. M. C. P.; Tobor-Kaplon, M. A; Baath, E.



Occurrence of Metabolically-Active Bound Forms of Cinnamic Acid and Its Phenolic Derivatives in Acetone Powders of Wheat and Barley Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetone powders of wheat and barley shoots contain bound forms of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. The free acids can be released by an enzymatic autolysis as well as by the action of acids and alkali. The bound forms can be extracted by c...

S. Z. El-Basyouni A. C. Neish



Iron-Chelating Compounds Produced by Soil Pseudomonads: Correlation with Fungal Growth Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Strains of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined for their ability to grow in the presence of the iron chelator, ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). In vitro fungal inhibition assays showed that the isolates varied in their ability to inhibit the growth of representative fungal plant pathogens. Fungal inhibition in vitro was superior to that of previously reported Pseudomonas sp. Studies with Fusarium oxysporum forma sp. lycopersici and a susceptible tomato cultivar demonstrated that Pseudomonas putida PPU3.1 was able to significantly reduce wilt disease.

Vandenbergh, Peter A.; Gonzalez, Carlos F.; Wright, Ann M.; Kunka, Blair S.



Bacterial and fungal growth in total parenteral nutrition solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most serious complication of prolonged intravenous infusion of hypertonic dextrose and amino acids is infection. Frequently,\\u000a the etiology is fungal rather than bacterial. Previous authors have suggested that bacterial survival and growth in the solutions\\u000a is suppressed by (a) high dextrose concentration, (b) high osmolality, or (c) low pH. This paper presents evidence that proposals\\u000a (a) and (b) are

M. L. Failla; C. D. Benedict; E. D. Weinberg



Fungal enhancement of the antioxidant properties of grape waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of grape waste were characterized to evaluate its potential to support the fungal growth of\\u000a four Aspergillus and three Penicillium strains under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions for the production of phenolic antioxidants. In addition, the free\\u000a radical-scavenging potential of DPPH? and ABTS?+ radical solutions and lipid oxidation inhibition by linoleic acid peroxidation of extracts from fermented and

Guillermo Cristian Martínez-Ávila; Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó; Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar


Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.



Fungal keratitis in Lattice dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of fungal keratitis occurring in a patient with lattice dystrophy. A 57-year-old farmer presented with a corneal ulcer following probable entry of paddy husk in the right eye, of one month duration. Corneal scraping revealed pigmented fungal filaments while culture grew Alternaria alternata. Treatment with 5% natamycin eye drops and 1% atropine healed the infection in four weeks. We would like to draw attention to the fact that the cornea in lattice dystrophy is prone to frequent erosions and is a compromised epithelial barrier to invasion by microorganisms. Patients must be made aware of this fact and should seek attention at the earliest following any trivial trauma. Management of minor corneal abrasions in them should be directed at healing the epithelium with adequate lubricants and preventing infection with topical antibiotic prophylaxis.

Chatterjee, Samrat; Agrawal, Deepshikha



Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers.

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.



Systems Biology of Fungal Infection  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmacher, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.



Sphingolipid signaling in fungal pathogens.  


Sphingolipid involvement in infectious disease is a new and exciting branch of research. Various microbial pathogens have been shown to synthesize their own sphingolipids and some have evolved methods to "hijack" host sphingolipids for their own use. For instance, Sphingomonas species are bacterial pathogens that lack the lipopolysaccharide component typical but instead contain glycosphingolipids (Kawahara 1991, 2006). In terms of sphingolipid signaling and function, perhaps the best-studied group of microbes is the pathogenic fungi. Pathogenic fungi still represent significant problems in human disease, despite treatments that have been used for decades. Because fungi are eukaryotic, drug targets in fungi can have many similarities to mammalian processes. This often leads to significant side effects of antifungal drugs that can be dose limiting in many patient populations. The search for fungal-specific drugs and the need for better understanding of cellular processes of pathogenic fungi has led to a large body of research on fungal signaling. One particularly interesting and rapidly growing field in this research is the involvement of fungal sphingolipid pathways in signaling and virulence. In this chapter, the research relating to sphingolipid signaling pathogenic fungi will be reviewed and summarized, in addition to highlighting pathways that show promise for future research. PMID:20919658

Rhome, Ryan; Del Poeta, Maurizio



[Fungal sinusitis diagnostic management and classification].  


The aim of this paper is to present the current classification of fungal sinusitis and share our experiences in diagnostic procedures and treatment outcomes. The study includes 31 patients operated since 2000-2009 in whom some form of fungal infection had been dignosed. There were 10 patients with mycetoma, and 16 patients with chronic non-invasive fungal sinusitis, while in five patients allergic fungal sinusitis was proven. All patients were treated postoperatively with topical steroids and irrigation with saline solution, without use of fungicides. Characteristics of chronic non-invasive fungal sinusitis and mycetoma are CT with specific opacification and calcification with involement of maxillary sinus unilaterally or bilateral together with pathohistological finding of positive staining by Grocott with the identification of fungi from secret or tissue. Allergic fungal Sinusitis is characterized by eosinophilia, positive skin test to fungal allergens, elevated serum level of both specific IgE antibodies to causal fungus and total IgE, as well as, pathohistological finding of allergic mucus which include non-invasive hifa. Fungal sinusitis in immunocompetent patients is classified into the following categories: mycetoma, chronic non-invasive fungal sinusitis, chronic indolent sinusitis (which does not occur in our population) and allergic fungal sinusitis. PMID:20218120

Pendjer, I; Borici?, I; Arsi?, V; Dudvarski, Z; Dotli?, J; Jovicevi?, O; Janosevi?, L



Interaction of cellulase with three phenolic acids.  


The activity of cellulase against filter paper was enhanced by 28.32% and 15.17% after the addition of 0.83 mg/ml of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively, and by 10.15% after the addition of salicylic acid at 0.67 mg/ml. The effects of three phenolic acids on the structure of cellulase were investigated via ultraviolet spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Ultraviolet spectroscopic results indicated that the peak absorbance of cellulase significantly increased and exhibited a 4-5 nm redshift after the addition of the three phenolic acids, suggesting that the phenolic acids strongly interacted with the enzyme. Fluorescence investigation of the interaction between the enzyme and the phenolic acids showed that ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid covalently reacted with the aromatic amino acid residues in cellulase, whereas salicylic acid interacted non-covalently with cellulase. CD analysis revealed that the addition of the phenolic acids significantly decreased ?-helix content but increased ?-sheet and random coil contents. The possible mechanism underlying the effects of these phenolic acids on cellulase activity was also discussed. PMID:23411209

Tian, Ye; Jiang, Yue; Ou, Shiyi



Effects of mixtures of phenolic acids on phosphorus uptake by cucumber seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine how individual phenolic acids in a mixture might affect phosphorus (P) uptake, 15-day-old cucumber seedlings grown in solution culture were treated with ferulic, vanillic,p-coumaric, or equimolar mixtures of these phenolic acids. Phenolic acid and P uptake were determined by solution depletion. The joint action of the mixtures of these phenolic acids on P uptake was primarily additive. Thus,

Seung-Won Lyu; Udo Blum; Thomas M. Gerig; Timothy E. O'Brien



The role of activity coefficients in bioreaction equilibria: thermodynamics of methyl ferulate hydrolysis.  


The Gibbs energy of reaction (?(R)g) is the key quantity in the thermodynamic characterization of biological reactions. Its calculation requires precise standard Gibbs energy of reaction (?(R)g(+)) values. The value of ?(R)g(+) is usually determined by measuring the apparent (concentration-dependent) equilibrium constants K, e.g., the molality-based Km. However, the thermodynamically consistent determination of ?(R)g(+) requires the thermodynamic (activity-based) equilibrium constant Ka. These values (Km and Ka) are equal only if the ratio of the activity coefficients of the reactants to the activity coefficients of the products (K?) is equal to unity. In this work, the impact of K? on the estimation of Ka for biological reactions was investigated using methyl ferulate (MF) hydrolysis as a model reaction. The value of K? was experimentally determined from Km values that were measured at different reactant concentrations. Moreover, K? was independently predicted using the thermodynamic model ePC-SAFT. Both the experimentally determined and the predicted K? values indicate that this value cannot be assumed to be unity in the considered reaction. In fact, in the reaction conditions considered in this work, K? was shown to be in the range of 3

Hoffmann, Philip; Voges, Matthias; Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele



Cell Wall-Bound Phenolic Acid and Lignin Contents in Date Palm as Related to its Resistance to Fusarium Oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root cell walls of the resistant cultivars of the date palm were more resistant to the action of the cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDE) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis than those of the susceptible cultivars. Date palm roots contain four cell wall-bound phenolics identified as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid. The contents of p-coumaric acid

C. El Modafar; E. El Boustani



Use of water and EDTA extractions to estimate available (free and reversibly bound) phenolic acids in Cecil soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile and microbe reinfested Cecil Ap and Bt soil materials amended with 0 to 5 µmol\\/g of ferulic acid,p-coumaric acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or vanillic acid were extracted after varying time intervals with water, EDTA, or NaOH to characterize sorption of cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives and to determine the effectiveness of water and EDTA extractions in estimating concentrations of free and

U. Blum; A. D. Worsham; L. D. King; T. M. Gerig



tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.  


We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

Kuramae, Eiko E; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F M; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Kowalchuk, George A



Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time.

Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Roling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.



Chemosensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzo analogs.  


Activities of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycin A, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, were elevated by coapplication of certain benzo analogs (aldehydes and acids). Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to rely upon mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or glutathione reductase (GLR1), genes regulated by the HOG1 signaling pathway, respectively. Thus, certain benzo analogs can be effective at targeting cellular oxidative stress response systems. The ability of these compounds to chemosensitize fungi for improved control with conventional antifungal agents is discussed. PMID:18284447

Kim, Jong H; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L; Molyneux, Russell J; May, Gregory S; Campbell, Bruce C




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between ergosterol content and biomass of two fungal pathogens, Diaporthe paseolorum (DPM) and Cercospora Kikuchii (CKNC) was estimated. Biomass was manipulated by varying incubation period. Ergosterol was quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fungal dry mass ...


Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites in human plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS\\/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine chlorogenic acids (CGAs), three isomers each of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (dCQAs), and their two metabolites, caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), in human plasma. In simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measurements using ESI-MS\\/MS with a negative

Yuji Matsui; Shun Nakamura; Naoki Kondou; Yoshio Takasu; Ryuji Ochiai; Yoshinori Masukawa



Induction of Hepatic Antioxidant Enzymes by Phenolic Acids in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Levels of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 mRNA Expression1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids are widespread in plant foods; they contain important biological and pharmacological properties, some of which were shown to be effective in preventing cancer. We investigated the modulatory effects of phenolic acids on an antioxidant system in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administrated gentisic acid (GEA), gallic acid (GA), ferulic acid (FA), and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) at a

Chi-Tai Yeh; Gow-Chin Yen


Modeling suberization with peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of hydroxycinnamic acids: cross-coupling and dimerization reactions.  


An anionic potato peroxidase (EC, APP) thought to be involved in suberization after wounding was isolated from slices of Solanum tuberosum in order to elucidate the first steps of dehydrogenative polymerization between pairs of different hydroxycinnamic acids (FA, CafA, CA and SA) present in wound-healing plant tissues. Use of a commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H2O2 catalytic system gave the identical major products in these coupling reactions, providing sufficient quantities for purification and structural elucidation. Using an equimolar mixture of pairs of hydroxycinnamic acid suberin precursors, only caffeic acid is coupled to ferulic acid and sinapic acid in separate cross-coupling reactions. For the other systems, HRP and APP reacted as follows: (1) preferentially with ferulic acid in a reaction mixture that contained p-coumaric and ferulic acids; (2) with sinapic acid in a mixture of p-coumaric and sinapic acids; (3) with sinapic acid in a mixture of ferulic and sinapic acids; (4) with caffeic acid in a reaction mixture of p-coumaric and caffeic acids. The resulting products, isolated and identified by NMR and MS analysis, had predominantly beta-beta-gamma-lactone and beta-5 benzofuran molecular frameworks. Five cross-coupling products are described for the first time, whereas the beta-O-4 dehydrodimers identified from the caffeic acid and sinapic acid cross-coupling reaction are known materials that are highly abundant in plants. These reactivity trends lead to testable hypotheses regarding the molecular architecture of intractable suberin protective plant materials, complementing prior analysis of monomeric constituents by GC-MS and polymer functional group identification from solid-state NMR, respectively. PMID:16524605

Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Stark, Ruth E



Photochemical characterization of a novel fungal rhodopsin from Phaeosphaeria nodorum.  


Eukaryotic microbial rhodopsins are widespread bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins found in many lower eukaryotic groups including fungi. Many fungi contain multiple rhodopsins, some significantly diverged from the original bacteriorhodopsin template. Although few fungal rhodopsins have been studied biophysically, both fast-cycling light-driven proton pumps and slow-cycling photosensors have been found. The purpose of this study was to characterize photochemically a new subgroup of fungal rhodopsins, the so-called auxiliary group. The study used the two known rhodopsin genes from the fungal wheat pathogen, Phaeosphaeria nodorum. One of the genes is a member of the auxiliary group while the other is highly similar to previously characterized proton-pumping Leptosphaeria rhodopsin. Auxiliary rhodopsin genes from a range of species form a distinct group with a unique primary structure and are located in carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster. Amino acid conservation pattern suggests that auxiliary rhodopsins retain the transmembrane core of bacteriorhodopsins, including all residues important for proton transport, but have unique polar intramembrane residues. Spectroscopic characterization of the two yeast-expressed Phaeosphaeria rhodopsins showed many similarities: absorption spectra, conformation of the retinal chromophore, fast photocycling, and carboxylic acid protonation changes. It is likely that both Phaeosphaeria rhodopsins are proton-pumping, at least in vitro. We suggest that auxiliary rhodopsins have separated from their ancestors fairly recently and have acquired the ability to interact with as yet unidentified transducers, performing a photosensory function without changing their spectral properties and basic photochemistry. PMID:21791197

Fan, Ying; Solomon, Peter; Oliver, Richard P; Brown, Leonid S



Fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate.  

PubMed Central

The fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was studied. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with BPDP for 7 days, and the metabolites formed were separated by thin-layer, gas-liquid, or high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral techniques. C. elegans metabolized BPDP predominantly at the tert-butyl moiety to form the carboxylic acid 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate. In addition, 4-hydroxy-4'-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, diphenyl phosphate, 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)diphenyl phosphate, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propionic acid, and phenol were detected. Similar metabolites were found in the 28 fungal cultures which were examined for their ability to metabolize BPDP. Experiments with [14C]BPDP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 70% of the BPDP after 7 days and that the ratio of organic-soluble metabolites to water-soluble metabolites was 8:2. The results indicate that fungi preferentially oxidize BPDP at the alkyl side chain and at the aromatic rings to form hydroxylated derivatives. The trace levels of mono- and diaryl metabolites and the low level of phosphotriesterase activity measured in C. elegans indicate that phosphatase cleavage is a minor pathway for fungal metabolism of BPDP. Images

Heitkamp, M A; Freeman, J P; McMillan, D C; Cerniglia, C E



Optical spectroscopy on in vitro fungal diagnosis.  


The growing incidence of microbial infections and the increasing ability of such organisms to acquire resistance to antimicrobial treatment lead the requirement of fast bacteria and fungi identification methods. In this work we explored optical spectroscopic techniques on fungal identification. We show that some fungal infections can be identified by ultraviolet optical excitation of fungi fluorescence followed by the spectral analysis of the emitted light. Moreover, we demonstrate that ultraviolet LED and LASER could be applied in fungal identification and a new device for fungal diagnosis is proposed. PMID:19163808

Rativa, D J; Gomes, A L; Benedetti, M A; Souza Filho, L G; Marsden, A; de Araujo, R E



Fungal Fragments as Indoor Air Biocontaminants  

PubMed Central

The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers (up to 320 times) than the spores. The release of fungal propagules varied depending on the fungal species, the air velocity above the contaminated surface, and the texture and vibration of the contaminated material. In contrast to spores, the release of fragments from smooth surfaces was not affected by air velocity, indicating a different release mechanism. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments cannot be predicted on the basis of the number of spores. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with monoclonal antibodies produced against Aspergillus and Penicillium fungal species showed that fragments and spores share common antigens, which not only confirmed the fungal origin of the fragments but also established their potential biological relevance. The considerable immunological reactivity, the high number, and the small particle size of the fungal fragments may contribute to human health effects that have been detected in buildings with mold problems but had no scientific explanation until now. This study suggests that future fungal spore investigations in buildings with mold problems should include the quantitation of fungal fragments.

Gorny, Rafal L.; Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Schmechel, Detlef; Robine, Enric; Boissier, Marjorie; Grinshpun, Sergey A.



Fungal spores: hazardous to health?  

PubMed Central

Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer.

Sorenson, W G



Topical therapy for fungal infections.  


Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since most products work well regardless of mechanism of action. Cost becomes especially important when infections involve large areas of the body surface. This article reviews various treatments of cutaneous fungal infections, with special emphasis on cure rates and rationales for choosing particular products. PMID:15663341

Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V



[Invasive fungal disease: conventional or molecular mycological diagnosis?].  


Diagnosis of invasive mycoses is a difficult challenge due to the limitations and low sensitivity of traditional microbiology methods which lead to diagnostic and therapeutic delays. The aim of this review is to summarise the state of the art of the molecular diagnosis of invasive fungal disease and to clarify its current role in the clinical practice. Conventional microbiological methods could be complemented with molecular methods in the rapid and definitive identification of fungal isolates. Biomarkers (?-glucan, galactomannan) are very useful in immunocompromised patients and have been included as probable invasive mycoses by the EORTC/MSG. Nucleic acid detection is currently used as a complementary tool for diagnosis. However, PCR can be very useful in mould invasive mycoses. Finally, the combined detection using biomarkers can improve the diagnosis. However, their applicability in the microbiology laboratory is not so easy and further studies are required for the appropriate evaluation of its clinical usefulness. PMID:22206948

Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; López-Soria, Leyre M; Ezpeleta, Guillermo



Stimulation of saccharifying enzyme production by immobilized fungal mycelia using liquefied rice treated with protease.  


The effects of protease-treated liquefied rice on the production of saccharifying enzyme by immobilized fungal mycelia were investigated. The production of saccharifying enzyme by immobilized fungal mycelia was stimulated by the protease-treated liquefied rice. The origin of the effector was identified as a hydrolyzate of glutelin, a major rice protein. Moreover, the effector was purified by gel permeation chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. The molecular weight of the purified effector was around 400-500 Da and it was composed of a few amino acids. These results indicate that the oligopeptide derived from the glutelin hydrolyzate regulates the production of saccharifying enzyme by immobilized fungal mycelia. Furthermore, this oligopeptide stimulated the production of raw starch-digesting glucoamylase by immobilized fungal mycelia but did not stimulate the production of other proteins. PMID:16232985

Shindo, S; Takahashi, S



Fungal Septicemia in Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic systemic fungal infections are more frequent than generally realized. Increased awareness and a high index of suspicion of fungal super-infection in the presence of sepsis is required to bring about recognition and therapy. The intravenous catheter is an important portal of entry or may act as a foreign body favoring localization of a septic process. In its presence, fungemia must be guarded against. Whenever an intravenous catheter is removed, its tip should be cultured. Removal alone may be a critical item in therapy. In febrile patients, in whom the course of fever is not established, frequent blood cultures with attention directed specifically at fungi should be obtained. Fungi are not easily isolated and identified and only by requesting special attention from the microbiologist can the diagnosis be established in the average institutional laboratory in time to permit appropriate therapy. Since available therapeutic measures are strikingly effective when instituted early, awareness and alertness on the part of the clinician constitute the key to cure.

Rodrigues, Roberto J.; Wolff, William I.



[Iron and invasive fungal infection.  


Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. PMID:23684655

Alvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María



Fungal transmission of plant viruses.  


Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study. PMID:15012536

Campbell, R N



Dekkera and Brettanomyces growth and utilisation of hydroxycinnamic acids in synthetic media.  


Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeast are important spoilage organisms in a number of food and beverage products. Isolates of both genera were cultured in a defined medium and supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids and vinylphenols to investigate their influence on growth and the formation of ethyl phenol derivatives. The growth rate of Brettanomyces species in the presence of acids was reduced, and no significant conversion to vinyl or ethyl derivatives was observed. The growth rate and substrate utilisation rates of Dekkera anomala and Dekkera bruxellensis yeast differed depending on strain and the acid precursor present. Growth of D. bruxellensis was slowed by the presence of ferulic acid with the addition of 1 mM ferulic acid completely inhibiting growth. This study provides an insight into the spoilage potential of these organisms and possible control strategies involving hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:18322682

Harris, Victoria; Ford, Christopher M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R



Allergic fungal sinusitis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a noninvasive form of fungal rhinosinusitis with an incidence of between 6 and 9% of all rhinosinusitis requiring surgery. Regional variation in incidence has been reported, with the southern and southwestern US particularly endemic. Patients with AFS commonly present with chronic rhinosinu- sitis with nasal polyps, inhalant atopy, elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and

Mark S. Schubert



Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an intensive research on fungal decolorization of dye wastewater. It is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes. This paper examines various fungi, living or dead cells, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanisms involved; reports some elution and regeneration methods for fungal biomass; summarizes the present

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan



Fungal virulence studies come of age  

PubMed Central

Sophisticated molecular biological research has revealed many virulence attributes in at least four pathogenic fungi, but the future study of fungal virulence requires investigators to distinguish between molecules that directly interact with the host, molecules that regulate these, and molecules that are always required for fungal growth and survival, independent of the host.

Odds, Frank C; Gow, Neil AR; Brown, Alistair JP



China's fungal genomics initiative: a whitepaper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal genomics is becoming one of the focal interests within the Chinese mycological community and advances in genomics will, no doubt, accelerate the pace of mycological research in China. Simultaneously, the challenge will be how to capture the full potential of genomics by maximizing and prioritizing the resources within the Chinese mycological community. The 2009 China Fungal Genome Initiative Symposium

Zhiqiang An; Chengshu Wang; Xingzhong Liu; Joan W. Bennett



Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....


Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.



Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Caffeine exerts positive effects on cognitive and behavioral processes, especially in sub-optimal conditions when arousal\\u000a is low. Apart from caffeine, coffee contains other compounds including the phenolic compounds ferulic acid, caffeic acid,\\u000a and the chlorogenic acids, which have purported antioxidant properties. The chlorogenic acids are the most abundant family\\u000a of compounds found in coffee, yet their effects on cognition and

Vanessa Cropley; Rodney Croft; Beata Silber; Chris Neale; Andrew Scholey; Con Stough; Jeroen Schmitt


Thermal decomposition of ?-tetralyl hydroperoxide in the presence of the phenylpropionic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition of cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids has been investigated by employing TG\\/DTG\\/DTA methods in the temperature range at ambient to 500°C in a self-generated atmosphere. It established high thermal stability of the investigated acids. The presence of two methoxy groups in the structure increases the thermal stability of sinapic acid. The thermal decomposition of ?-tetralyl hydroperoxide

N Shopova; Tz Milkova



Inhibition of polygalacturonase and polygalacturonic acid lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by phenolics in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The phenolic acids benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic and vanillic\\u000a together with vanillin, were tested for their ability to inhibit polygalacturonic acid lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG)\\u000a in culture filtrates ofErwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora. None of the compounds inhibited PL at 200 ?g\\/ml, although syringic and sinapic acids caused a 54% and 43% reduction respectively\\u000a at 400

G. D. Lyon; Fiona M. McGill



A kinetic approach for evaluation of the antioxidant activity of selected phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of eight phenolic acids (chlorogenic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coumaric, sinapic, umbellic, rosmarinic and ferulic) in scavenging the alkylperoxyl radical generated in the ?-carotene–linoleic acid emulsion system, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and the superoxide anion radical (O2-). The efficiency of the phenolic acids was estimated at the initial stage (t=10s) and expressed as

Petra Terpinc; Helena Abramovi?



Tailoring GalNAc?1-3Gal?-specific lectins from a multi-specific fungal galectin: dramatic change of carbohydrate specificity by a single amino-acid substitution.  


Galectins exhibit multiple roles through recognition of diverse structures of ?-galactosides. However, this broad specificity often hinders their practical use as probes. In the present study we report a dramatic improvement in the carbohydrate specificity of a multi-specific fungal galectin from the mushroom Agrocybe cylindricea, which binds not only to simple ?-galactosides, but also to their derivatives. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting five residues involved in ?-galactose binding revealed that replacement of Asn46 with alanine (N46A) increased the binding to GalNAc?1-3Gal?-containing glycans, while eliminating binding to all other ?-galactosides, as shown by glycoconjugate microarray analysis. Quantitative analysis by frontal affinity chromatography showed that the mutant N46A had enhanced affinity towards blood group A tetraose (type 2), A hexaose (type 1) and Forssman pentasaccharide with dissociation constants of 5.0 × 10?? M, 3.8 × 10?? M and 1.0 × 10?? M respectively. Surprisingly, all the other mutants generated by saturation mutagenesis of Asn46 exhibited essentially the same specificity as N46A. Moreover, alanine substitution for Pro45, which forms the cis-conformation upon ?-galactose binding, exhibited the same specificity as N46A. From a practical viewpoint, the derived N46A mutant proved to be unique as a specific probe to detect GalNAc?1-3Gal?-containing glycans by methods such as flow cytometry, cell staining and lectin microarray. PMID:23611418

Hu, Dan; Tateno, Hiroaki; Sato, Takashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Hirabayashi, Jun



Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning  

PubMed Central

The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes.

Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith



Comparison of bacterial and fungal communities between natural and planted pine forests in subtropical China.  


To improve our understanding of the changes in bacterial and fungal diversity in natural pine and planted forests in subtropical region of China, we examined bacterial and fungal communities from a native and a nearby planted pine forest of the Mt. Lushan by constructing clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. For bacterial communities, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant bacterial taxa in both two types of forest soils. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, rarefaction curve analysis, and LibShuff analysis suggest that these two forests contained similar diversity of bacterial communities. Low soil acidity (pH ? 4) of our study forests might be one of the most important selection factors determining growth of acidophilic Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. However, the natural forest harbored greater level of fungal diversity than the planted forest according to the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and rarefaction curve analysis. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were dominant fungal taxa in the soils of natural and planted forests, respectively. Our results suggest that fungal community was more sensitive than the bacterial community in characterizing the differences in plant cover impacts on the microbial flora in the natural and planted forests. The natural and planted forests may function differently due to the differences in soil fungal diversity and relative abundance. PMID:21993713

Nie, Ming; Meng, Han; Li, Ke; Wan, Jia-Rong; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo




PubMed Central

Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients with fungal infection but in only 8% (3/36) of patients without fungal infection (P<0.0005). The cause of death, however, was usually multifactorial, and not solely due to the fungal infection. Fungal infections were associated with the following clinical factors: administration of preoperative steroids (P<0.05) and antibiotics (P<0.05), longer transplant operative time (P<0.02), longer posttransplant operative time (P<0.01), duration of antibiotic use after transplant surgery (P<0.001), and the number of steroid boluses administered to control rejection in the first 2 posttransplant months (P<0.01). Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis had fewer fungal infections than patients with other underlying liver diseases (P<0.05). A total of 41% (9/22) of Candida infections resolved, but all Aspergillus infections ended in death.

Wajszczuk, Charles P.; Dummer, J. Stephen; Ho, Monto; Van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers



DAMP signaling in fungal infections and diseases  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections and diseases predominantly affect patients with deregulated immunity. Compelling experimental and clinical evidence indicate that severe fungal diseases belong to the spectrum of fungus-related inflammatory diseases. Some degree of inflammation is required for protection during the transitional response occurring temporally between the rapid innate and slower adaptive response. However, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen eradication. The challenge now is to elucidate cellular and molecular pathways distinguishing protective vs. pathogenic inflammation to fungi. In addition to fungal ligands of pattern recognition receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), several host-encoded proteins, the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are released during tissue injury and activate innate recognition receptors. DAMPs have been shown to regulate inflammation in fungal diseases. The DAMP/receptor for advanced glycation end-products axis integrated with the PAMP/Toll-like receptors axis in the generation of the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical fungal pneumonia. These emerging themes better accommodate fungal pathogenesis in the face of high-level inflammation seen in several clinical settings and point to DAMP targeting as a novel immunomodulatory strategy in fungal diseases.

Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Esposito, Antonella; Bistoni, Francesco; Romani, Luigina



Fungal community composition in neotropical rain forests: the influence of tree diversity and precipitation.  


Plant diversity is considered one factor structuring soil fungal communities because the diversity of compounds in leaf litter might determine the extent of resource heterogeneity for decomposer communities. Lowland tropical rain forests have the highest plant diversity per area of any biome. Since fungi are responsible for much of the decomposition occurring in forest soils, understanding the factors that structure fungi in tropical forests may provide valuable insight for predicting changes in global carbon and nitrogen fluxes. To test the role of plant diversity in shaping fungal community structure and function, soil (0-20 cm) and leaf litter (O horizons) were collected from six established 1-ha forest census plots across a natural plant diversity gradient on the Isthmus of Panama. We used 454 pyrosequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to evaluate correlations between microbial community composition, precipitation, soil nutrients, and plant richness. In soil, the number of fungal taxa increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation, but not with plant richness. There were no correlations between fungal communities in leaf litter and plant diversity or precipitation, and fungal communities were found to be compositionally distinct between soil and leaf litter. To directly test for effects of plant species richness on fungal diversity and function, we experimentally re-created litter diversity gradients in litter bags with 1, 25, and 50 species of litter. After 6 months, we found a significant effect of litter diversity on decomposition rate between one and 25 species of leaf litter. However, fungal richness did not track plant species richness. Although studies in a broader range of sites is required, these results suggest that precipitation may be a more important factor than plant diversity or soil nutrient status in structuring tropical forest soil fungal communities. PMID:22080256

McGuire, Krista L; Fierer, Noah; Bateman, Carling; Treseder, Kathleen K; Turner, Benjamin L



[Current aspects of fungal spores allergy].  


In industrialized countries the prevalence of allergic inhalant diseases is some 15-20%. More than 10% of these individuals are sensitized to fungal allergens. Many fungal spores are less than 10 microns in size, which permits penetration into the smaller airways of the lung. Bronchial provocation tests have demonstrated that fungal spores and spore extracts can cause both an early and a late phase reaction in sensitive subjects. Over 80 genera of fungi have been associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergy. Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes are the major fungal groups that contain genera known to induce and elicit allergic reactions. These groups contribute most of the spores found in air. Although ascomycetes include the greatest number of any fungal group, only a few species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum, have been investigated in a scientific manner. In recent years spores of basidiomycetes have been tested for allergenicity and some species have been determined to be allergenic, such as Calvatia cyathiformis, Ganoderma applanatum, Pleurotus ostreatus, or Psilocybe cubensis. Compared to pollen-related allergies, diagnosis of fungal allergy is often difficult. Provocative challenge with specific fungal antigens can provide a definitive diagnosis. To date, only three controlled immunotherapy trials with standardized extracts of A. alternata and C. herbarum have shown clinical efficacy. In spite of these studies, immunotherapy with fungal antigens requires further investigations. Thus, the indication for immunotherapy with fungal extracts must be judged by an experienced allergist. Apart from pharmacological management, avoiding or minimizing exposure is the front-line measure. PMID:8016603

Helbling, A; Reese, G; Horner, W E; Lehrer, S B



Phospholipid acylhydrolases trigger membrane degradation during fungal sporogenesis.  


Armillaria ostoyae is a phytopathogen infecting coniferous trees. Fruiting bodies of this basidiomycete contain high phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1)) activity. In this paper, the role of phospholipid-deacylating activity, which was also detected in fruiting bodies of other basidiomycetes, in the fungal lipid metabolism is elucidated. For A. ostoyae the occurrence of PLA(1) activity is shown to be restricted to the late reproductive phase, correlating with the release of mature spores. Specific expression in the spore-producing tissue provides evidence for the involvement of PLA(1) in spore formation. Based on lipid analysis, the degradation of membrane phospholipids in this tissue can be ascribed mainly to PLA(1) activity because other enzymes such as phospholipases C and D, triglyceride lipase and phosphatidic acid phosphatase had only low activities. A concomitant increase in the concentration of fatty acids and their anabolites (di- and triglycerides), which are used as storage lipids in the developing fungal spore cells, was observed. Therefore, PLA(1) contributes to the formation of spores by providing membrane constituents as a source of fatty acids. PMID:21683150

Dippe, Martin; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate



Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.  


Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen



Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen.

Heitman, Joseph



Early stage de-etiolation increases the ferulic acid content in winter triticale seedlings under full sunlight conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presented work an attempt has been made to estimate the phenolics content and its implication for the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus in course of a plant’s de-etiolation. The experiments were carried out on two genotypes of winter triticale varying in their resistance to drought. The activity of the photosynthetic apparatus was monitored by taking measurements of chlorophyll

Tomasz Hura; Katarzyna Hura; Maciej Grzesiak



Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine ( Pinus maritima) bark extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract (PBE) is a polyphenol-rich food supplement patented under the name of Pycnogenol and known to have strong antioxidant activity and different beneficial effects on human health. Although its biological properties have begun to be extensively studied both in vitro, in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, little is known about its bioavailability.

Fabio Virgili; George Pagana; Louise Bourne; Gerald Rimbach; Fausta Natella; Catherine Rice-Evans; Lester Packer



Redox regulation of cellular stress response by ferulic acid ethyl ester in human dermal fibroblasts: role of vitagenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin is one of the main targets for reactive oxygen species; thus, reactive oxygen species-induced damage and protein and lipid modifications occur, and skin can undergo a wide array of diseases, from photosensitivity to cancer. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0–1000 ?mol\\/L) exhibited a marked increase in both protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which are indices

Vittorio Calabrese; Stella Calafato; Eduardo Puleo; Carolin Cornelius; Maria Sapienza; Pierfrancesco Morganti; Cesare Mancuso



Comparison of soil fungal\\/bacterial ratios in a pH gradient using physiological and PLFA-based techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the total microbial biomass and the fungal\\/bacterial ratio estimated using substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in combination with the selective inhibition technique and using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) technique in a pH gradient (3.0–7.2) consisting of 53 mature broad-leaved forest soils. A fungal\\/bacterial biomass index using the PLFA technique was calculated using the PLFA 18:2?6,9 as an indicator

E. Bĺĺth; T.-H. Anderson



PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.



The fungal mitochondrial genome project: evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes and their gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the fungal mitochondrial genome project (FMGP) is to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes for a representative\\u000a sample of the major fungal lineages; to analyze the genome structure, gene content, and conserved sequence elements of these\\u000a sequences; and to study the evolution of gene expression in fungal mitochondria. By using our new sequence data for evolutionary\\u000a studies, we were

Bruno Paquin; Marie-Josée Laforest; Lise Forget; Ingeborg Roewer; Zhang Wang; Joyce Longcore; B. Franz Lang



Mechanism of Intestinal-Derived fungal sepsis by gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Gut barrier dysfunction resulting from fungal overgrowth may be caused by the interaction of gliotoxin (GT), a fungal metabolite, with enterocytes. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which gliotoxin (GT), a fungal metabolite, causes enterocyte apoptosis.Methods: The authors measured enterocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, pro-caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in GT-exposed IEC-6 cells,

Jeffrey S Upperman; Douglas A Potoka; Xiao-Ru Zhang; Katerina Wong; Ruben Zamora; Henri R Ford



Structure and Function of Fungal Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and...

Y. Nozawa



Soil science: Fungal friends against drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal-based food webs of undisturbed grasslands resist and adapt to the effects of drought more than bacterial-based food webs of agricultural soils, indicating how soil biota might be able to withstand long-term climate change.

Six, Johan



Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms ...  


Title: Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms, ... However, its success is likely influenced by a variety of other mechanisms including symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.


[Fungal infection in the otorinolaryngologic area].  


Recent trends of fungal infections of the ear and nose were introduced from the viewpoint of otolaryngologic practice. Aspergillus terreus was the most common pathogen of otomycosis followed by A. niger and A.flavus. Aspergillosis is the most common fungal disease in the paranasal sinuses. Unilateral opacity of the maxillary sinus which contains flecks of calcification was specifically found by CT-study. These two fungal infections are easily treated surgical removal of the fungus ball and establishment of a drainage route to the nasal passage by endoscopic sinus surgery are effective to manage aspergillomas in paranasal sinuses. These two fungal infections usually occurred in immunocompetent patients and the relationship between diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease is not established. PMID:19069094

Kaieda, Satoru



Screening of oxylipins for control of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus) fungal pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxylipins are products of oxygenase-catalyzed reactions of fatty acids. Oxylipins have been found or implied to participate in a variety of different functions in or between organisms. In this report we investigated the potential of various naturally occurring oxylipins found in plants for their effects as fungicides on a number of fungal pathogens interfering with Brassica cultivation. The fungi investigated

Georg Granér; Mats Hamberg; Johan Meijer



Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...