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1

Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines.

2014-01-01

2

Esterification of ferulic acid with polyols using a ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Commercially available enzyme preparations were screened for enzymes that have a high ability to catalyze direct ester-synthesis of ferulic acid with glycerol. Only a preparation, Pectinase PL "Amano" produced by Aspergillus niger, feruloylated glycerol under the experimental conditions. The enzyme responsible for the esterification was purified and characterized. This enzyme, called FAE-PL, was found to be quite similar to an A. niger ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) in terms of molecular mass, pH and temperature optima, substrate specificity on synthetic substrates, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence. FAE-PL highly catalyzed direct esterification of ferulic acid and sinapinic acid with glycerol. FAE-PL could feruloylate monomeric sugars including arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, and xylose. We determined the suitable conditions for direct esterification of ferulic acid with glycerol to be as follows: 1% ferulic acid in the presence of 85% glycerol and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C. Under these conditions, 81% of ferulic acid could be converted to 1-glyceryl ferulate, which was identified by (1)H-NMR. The ability of 1-glyceryl ferulate to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was higher than that of the anti-oxidant butyl hydroxytoluene. PMID:16714088

Tsuchiyama, Moriyasu; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Murata, Shuichi; Kawasaki, Haruhiko

2006-07-01

3

Addition of ferulic acid, ethyl ferulate, and feruloylated monoacyl- and diacylglycerols to salad oils and frying oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine antioxidative effects of ferulic acid and esterified ferulic acids, these compounds were added to soybean oils\\u000a (SBO), which were evaluated for oxidative stability and frying stability. Additives included feruloylated MAG and DAG (FMG\\/FDG),\\u000a ferulic acid, ethyl ferulate, and TBHQ. After frying tests with potato chips, oils were analyzed for retention of additives\\u000a and polar compounds. Chips were evaluated

K. Warner; J. A. Laszlo

2005-01-01

4

Oxidation of ferulic acid or arabinose-esterified ferulic acid by wheat germ peroxidase.  

PubMed

The oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) or 5-O-(trans-feruloyl)-L-arabinose (EFA) by a purified wheat germ peroxidase was followed by UV spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography using an electrochemical detection. Wheat peroxidase (POD) exhibits a ping-pong bireactant mechanism forming phenoxy radicals more rapidly from FA than from EFA in routine assay conditions. When both the free and the esterified forms of FA are present, the reverse was found. This result could be due to a nonenzymatic cooxidation of FA by the phenoxy radicals of EFA leading to the formation of phenoxy radicals of FA and the EFA regeneration. Addition of ascorbic acid (AA) provokes a delay of FA consumption. AA reduced very rapidly the phenoxy radicals formed by POD back to initial phenol avoiding the formation of ferulate dimers until it was completely oxidized in dehydroascorbic acid. Conversely, cysteine addition slowed but did not delay the FA consumption. The thiol reduced a fraction of the phenoxy radicals produced by wheat POD and was oxidized into cystine, while the other part of phenoxy radicals formed ferulate dimers. These results could be of interest to understand the POD effect on the wheat dough rheological properties. PMID:12010000

Garcia, Rebeca; Rakotozafy, Lalatiana; Telef, Nadège; Potus, Jacques; Nicolas, Jacques

2002-05-22

5

Metabolism of Ferulic Acid by Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotia palmarum  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid metabolism was studied in cultures of two micromycetes producing different amounts of phenol oxidases. In cultures of the low phenol oxidase producer Paecilomyces variotii, ferulic acid was decarboxylated to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was converted to vanillin and then either oxidized to vanillic acid or reduced to vanillyl alcohol. Vanillic acid underwent simultaneously an oxidative decarboxylation to methoxyhydroquinone and a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. Methoxyhydroquinone and guaiacol were demethylated to yield hydroxyquinol and catechol, respectively. Catechol was hydroxylated to pyrogallol. Degradation of ferulic acid by Paecilomyces variotii proceeded mainly via methoxyhydroquinone. The high phenol oxidase producer Pestalotia palmarum catabolized ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, and methoxyhydroquinone. However, the main reactions observed with this fungus involved polymerization reactions. Images

Rahouti, Mohammed; Seigle-Murandi, Francoise; Steiman, Regine; Eriksson, Karl-Erik

1989-01-01

6

Review: Biocatalytic transformations of ferulic acid: An abundant aromatic natural product  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we examine the fascinating array of microbial and enzymatic transformations of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid is an extremely abundant, preformed phenolic aromatic chemical found widely in nature. Ferulic acid is viewed as a commodity scale, renewable chemical feedstock for biocatalytic conversion to other useful aromatic chemicals. Most attention is focused on bioconversions of ferulic acid itself. Topics

J P N Rosazza; Z Huang; L Dostal; T Volm; B Rousseau

1995-01-01

7

Ferulic acid: pharmacological and toxicological aspects.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FA) belongs to the family of phenolic acids and is very abundant in fruits and vegetables. Over the past years, several studies have shown that FA acts as a potent antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and enhancing the cell stress response through the up-regulation of cytoprotective systems, e.g. heme oxygenase-1, heat shock protein 70, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the proto-oncogene Akt. Furthermore, FA was shown to inhibit the expression and/or activity of cytotoxic enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspases and cyclooxygenase-2. Based on this evidence, FA has been proposed as a potential treatment for many disorders including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and skin disease. However, despite the great abundance of preclinical research, only a few studies were carried out in humans, the majority of which used foods containing FA, and therefore the clinical efficacy of this mode of administration needs to be further documented. New efforts and resources are needed in clinical research for the complete evaluation of FA therapeutic potential in chronic diseases. PMID:24373826

Mancuso, Cesare; Santangelo, Rosaria

2014-03-01

8

[Allelopathy effects of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa].  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects and allelopathy mechanism of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by measuring the D680 value, the content of chlorophyll-a, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical O*- value. Ferulic acid and coumarin had allelopathic effects on the growth of M. aeruginosa and promoted the physiological metabolism at low concentrations while inhibited the metabolism at high concentrations. Obvious inhibitory effects were observed when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was over 100 mg x L(-1). The average inhibitory rates reached 80.3% and 58.0% after six days when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was 200 mg x L(-1). The content of chlorophyll-a was decreased while the EC value and O2*- concentration were promoted by higher concentrations of ferulic acid or coumarin, suggesting that the growth of algae was inhibited probably by the damage of cell membrane, increase in the content of O2*- and decrease in the content of chlorophyll-a. In addition, seed germination test elucidated that Ferulic acid was safer than Coumarin. PMID:23798134

Guo, Ya-Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Huang, Guo-He; Gao, Pan-Feng; Chai, Tian; Yan, Bin; Liao, Huan

2013-04-01

9

Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

2012-11-01

10

Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.  

PubMed

(14)C-Labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. In mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)C-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into glucovanillin within 24 h. In the incorporation processes of methionine and phenylalanine into glucovanillin, some of the (14)C labels were also trapped by the unlabeled ferulic acid. However, (14)C-labeled 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were not converted to glucovanillin. On the other hand, in immature green vanilla pods radioactivities of the above six compounds were not incorporated into glucovanillin. Although 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were converted to the respective glucose esters or glucosides and vanillin was converted to glucovanillin, their conversions were believed to be from the detoxication of the aglycones. These results suggest that the biosynthetic pathway for vanillin is 4-coumaric acid --> --> ferulic acid --> --> vanillin --> glucovanillin in mature vanilla pods. PMID:19817415

Negishi, Osamu; Sugiura, Kenji; Negishi, Yukiko

2009-11-11

11

Biotransformation of rice bran to ferulic acid by pediococcal isolates.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used in foods, in beverages, and in various pharmaceutical industries as a precursor of vanillin. FA biotransformation can occur during the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and its conversion to other phenolic derivatives is observed by many scientists, where ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) play significant roles. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB for their ability to release FA from rice bran, an agro waste material. FAE and FDC activities were analyzed for the preliminary screening of various dairy isolates. Two Pediococcus acidilactici isolates were selected for studying further the hydrolysis of FA from rice bran and its bioconversion into phenolic derivatives like 4-ethylphenol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. P. acidilactici M16, a probiotic isolate, has great potential for the production of FA from rice bran and could be exploited as starter culture in the food industry for the production of biovanillin. PMID:23615732

Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Gundeep; Kaur, Gaganjot

2013-06-01

12

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

13

Methanogenic decomposition of ferulic acid, a model lignin derivative  

SciTech Connect

Ferulic acid, a model lignin derivative, was observed to be biodegradable to methane and carbon dioxide under strict anaerobic conditions. This conversion appears to be carried out by a consortium of bacteria similar to that previously described for the methanogenic degradation of benzoic acid. A temporary buildup of acetate in these cultures indicates that it is a likely intermediate and precursor for methane formation. An analog of coenzyme M, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA), inhibited gas production and enhanced the buildup of propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate. Phenylacetate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, benzoate, cyclohexane carboxylate, adipate, and pimelate were also detected in BESA-inhibited cultures. A pathway is proposed which includes these various acids as possible intermediates in the methanogenic degradation of ferulic acid. This model overlaps previously described benzoic acid degradation pathways, suggesting that this type of anaerobic degradation may be common for aromatic compounds.

Healy, J.B. Jr.; Young, L.Y.; Reinhard, M.

1980-02-01

14

In vitro genotoxicity assessment of caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids.  

PubMed

Phenols are a large and diverse class of compounds, many of which occur naturally in a variety of food plants; they exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and vasodilatory actions. We examined the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of three phenolic compounds: caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids, using the comet and micronucleus assays in vitro. Drug-metabolizing rat hepatoma tissue cells (HTCs) were used. Three different concentrations (50, 500 and 1500 ?M) of these phenolic acids were tested on the HTCs for 24 h. The caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids were not genotoxic by the comet assay (P > 0.05). However, the micronucleus test showed an increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells for the three compounds, indicating that these substances have clastogenic effects in HTC. PMID:21710465

Maistro, E L; Angeli, J P F; Andrade, S F; Mantovani, M S

2011-01-01

15

Screening of edible mushrooms for release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release ferulic acid from wheat bran. In the five samples tested in the present studies, cultured mycelia of four mushroom species were found to release ferulic acid, with Hericium erinaceus producing the highest ferulic acid yield at 4d of culture, reach 95.51mg\\/l in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection

Chun-yan Xie; Zhen-xin Gu; Xuejiao You; Gaixia Liu; Yuxia Tan; Hong Zhang

2010-01-01

16

Ferulic acid modulates nitric oxide synthase expression in focal cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by three different NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). It is known that eNOS produces NO, which exerts a protective effect, while iNOS produces NO with neurotoxic effects. Ferulic acid preserves neuronal cells against from cerebral ischemia and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. This study confirmed the neuroprotective effect of ferulic acid and investigated the levels of three NOS isoforms in focal cerebral ischemia with or without ferulic acid. Rats were immediately treated with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brains tissues were collected at 24 h after the onset of occlusion. The expressions of these three isoforms in cerebral ischemia with ferulic acid were analyzed using Western blot technique. Ferulic acid treatment significantly decreases the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the cerebral cortex against MCAO injury. The levels of eNOS decreased in MCAO-operated animals, while ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease of eNOS. However, iNOS and nNOS expression levels increased during MCAO, and ferulic acid prevented injury-induced increase of these isoforms. Thus, these findings suggest that the up- and down modulation of three isoforms by ferulic acid is associated with a neuroprotective mechanism.

2012-01-01

17

A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther

1996-01-01

18

Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

Ono, Kenjiro [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Hirohata, Mie [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Yamada, Masahito [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)]. E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

2005-10-21

19

Effects of ferulic acid on the impairment of inhibitory avoidance performance in rats.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (50 and 100 mg/kg) reversed the step-through latency shortened by scopolamine and cycloheximide but not by p-chloroamphetamine in an inhibitory avoidance performance. Piracetam and tacrine might reverse the step-through latency shortened by the above drugs. However, ferulic acid, piracetam or tacrine alone at any used dose did not influence motor activity produced by non-shock rats. Furthermore, the cerebral blood flow of rats treated with ferulic acid, piracetam or tacrine was enhanced. From these results, we suggest that the potency of ferulic acid was better than that of piracetam, but its action mechanism was somewhat different from that of piracetam and tacrine. Thus, the attenuating effects of ferulic acid on the avoidance performance impairment were related to memory processes, and might be enhancing the cholinergic activities and cerebral blood circle. PMID:12221605

Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Tsai, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Ying-Chih; Wang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chi-Rei

2002-08-01

20

Effects of ferulic acid, an allelopathic compound, on leaf expansion of cucumber seedlings grown in nutrient culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cucumber seeds and seedlings at various ages (7–19 days old) were treated with a single treatment or multiple treatments (at 2-day intervals) of ferulic acid in nutrient culture. Ferulic acid treatments of cucumber seeds during stages of germination and radicle growth did not significantly reduce subsequent seedling growth. Ferulic acid treatments to seedlings reduced leaf area, leaf expansion, and dry

Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton

1985-01-01

21

Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 × 10 -6 to 1.0 × 10 -4 mol l -1 and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 × 10 -9 mol l -1. The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 × 10 -5 mol l -1 ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

2008-11-01

22

Molecular spectroscopic studies on the interaction of ferulic acid with calf thymus DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between ferulic acid and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) under physiological conditions (Tris-HCl buffer solutions, pH 7.4) was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques, and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that a complex of ferulic acid with ctDNA was formed with a binding constant of K290K = 7.60 × 104 L mol-1 and K310K = 4.90 × 104 L mol-1. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (?H°), entropy change (?S°) and Gibbs free energy (?G°) were calculated to be -1.69 × 104 J mol-1, 35.36 J K-1 mol-1 and -2.79 × 104 J mol-1 at 310 K, respectively. The acting forces between ferulic acid and DNA mainly included hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Acridine orange displacement studies revealed that ferulic acid can substitute for AO probe in the AO-DNA complex which was indicative of intercalation binding. Thermal denaturation study suggested that the interaction of ferulic acid with DNA could result in the increase of the denaturation temperature, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ferulic acid. Spectroscopic techniques together with melting techniques and viscosity determination provided evidences of intercalation mode of binding for the interaction between ferulic acid and ctDNA.

Zhang, Shufang; Sun, Xuejun; Qu, Fengli; Kong, Rongmei

2013-08-01

23

Ferulic acid attenuates the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin expression.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical compound found in various plants, has a neuroprotective effect through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions. Peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin play a potent neuroprotective function against oxidative stress. We investigated whether ferulic acid regulates peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 210-230g) were treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100mg/kg) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. Decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels were elucidated in MCAO-operated animals using a proteomics approach. We found that ferulic acid treatment prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in the expression of peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels. Moreover, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the interaction between thioredoxin and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) decreased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in this interaction. Our findings suggest that ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role by attenuating injury-induced decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in neuronal cell injury. PMID:24582902

Sung, Jin-Hee; Gim, Sang-Ah; Koh, Phil-Ok

2014-04-30

24

Synergistic inhibitory effects of p -coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data support the hypothesis that there is a synergistic phytotoxic effect whenp-coumaric and ferulic acids are found together. Equimolar mixtures of both acids showed greater reduction in sorghum seed germination, shoot elongation, and total seedling growth than either phytotoxin caused when alone. Repeated experiments showed mixtures containing 5×10-3 Mp-coumaric and 5×10-3 M ferulic acids reduced germination to 34% of

James A. Rasmussen; Frank A. Einhellig

1977-01-01

25

Effect of Ferulic Acid and Catechin on Sorghum and Maize Starch Pasting Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 81(3):418-422 The effects of ferulic acid and catechin on starch pasting properties were studied as part of an investigation into the structure and func- tionality of phenolics in starch-based products. Commercial maize starch, starches from sorghum cultivars (SV2, Chirimaugute, and DC-75), and the phenolic compounds ferulic acid and catechin were used in the investigation. Pasting properties were measured

Trust Beta; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

26

Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and\\/or vanillic acids and that

Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton; John O. Rawlings

1984-01-01

27

Synergistic interaction of ferulic acid with commercial hypoglycemic drugs in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. The available commercial oral antidiabetic drugs have some serious side effects; hence there is a need for new hypoglycemic agents which will have therapeutic efficacy as well as less side effects. Ferulic acid, a phytochemical, might be a good supplement to manage diabetes. We investigated the antidiabetic and antilipidemic effect of ferulic acid alone and in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin and Thiazolidinedione (THZ)). Blood glucose, plasma lipid profiles levels, liver function and kidney function markers were measured in control and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats three weeks after administrating ferulic acid and OHDs (oral hypoglycemic drugs) alone and in combinations. The histopathological analysis of the pancreas was also carried out. Ferulic acid and OHDs significantly reduced the blood glucose, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT) in diabetic rats. Same level of reduction in blood glucose levels was achieved when ferulic acid was used in combination with even reduced amounts of OHDs. It decreased most of the side effects when used in combination with THZ. Histopathological analysis showed that combinations increased the number of islets. Ferulic acid interacts synergistically with both the drugs. It might be a good supplement with the OHDs to manage diabetic complications as well as reduces the use of the later. PMID:23490007

Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Prasad, Ram; Ali, Shakir; Doble, Mukesh

2013-04-15

28

Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

1998-01-01

29

Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and their metabolites: synthesis and antioxidant properties of the sulfate derivatives of ferulic and caffeic acids and of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid.  

PubMed

The main metabolites of caffeic and ferulic acids (ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate), the most representative phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables, and the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid were synthesized, purified, and tested for their antioxidant activity in comparison with those of their parent compounds and other related phenolics. Both the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging method were used. Ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide exhibited very low antioxidant activity, while the monosulfate derivatives of caffeic acid were 4-fold less efficient as the antioxidant than caffeic acid. The acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid showed strong antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity of caffeic acid-3'-O-glucuronide and caffeic acid-4'-O-glucuronide was also studied. Our results demonstrate that some of the products of phenolic acid metabolism still retain strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, we first demonstrate the ex vivo synthesis of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid by mouse liver microsomes, in addition to the phenyl glucuronide. PMID:23157164

Piazzon, A; Vrhovsek, U; Masuero, D; Mattivi, F; Mandoj, F; Nardini, M

2012-12-19

30

Rapid degradation of ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol and vanillin by a newly isolated strain of Bacillus coagulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strain Bacillus coagulans BK07 was isolated from decomposed wood-bark, based on its ability to grow on ferulic acid as a sole carbon source. This strain rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was immediately converted to vanillin and then oxidized to vanillic acid. Vanillic acid was further demethylated to protocatechuic acid. Above 95% substrate degradation was obtained within

B. Karmakar; R. M. Vohra; H. Nandanwar; P. Sharma; K. G. Gupta; R. C. Sobti

2000-01-01

31

Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases.

Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

2007-01-01

32

Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15?mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25??g/mL), or saline (control), was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in the FA-treated group at 25??g/mL compared to that in the control group. After 8 weeks, the FA-treated group at 25??g/mL had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, a significantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) staining of the lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injury, a significantly diminished number of macrophages recruited, and a significantly shortening of the latency and an acceleration of the nerve conductive velocity (NCV) of the evoked muscle action potentials (MAPs) compared with the controls. In summary, the FA may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

Lee, Sheng-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chang

2013-01-01

33

The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 ?g ml, was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control

Anabela Borges; Maria J. Saavedra; Manuel Simões

2012-01-01

34

Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

Wang, Jun-Ming; Sheng, Yu-Chen; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2014-06-01

35

Laccase-catalysed functionalisation of chitosan by ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate: evaluation of physicochemical and biofunctional properties.  

PubMed

Chitosan and its derivatives functionalized by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) were characterised for their physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The enzymatic grafting of oxidised phenols led to FA-coloured and EF-colourless chitosan derivatives with good stability of colour and grafted phenols towards the chemical treatment by organic solvents. The efficiency of FA-products grafting onto chitosan was higher than that of EF-products. Moreover, the enzymatic grafting of phenols onto chitosan changed its morphological surface, increased its molecular weight and its viscosity. Furthermore, the chitosan derivatives presented improved antioxidant properties especially for FA-chitosan derivative when compared with chitosan with good antioxidant stability towards thermal treatment (100°C/1h). Chitosan and its derivatives showed also similar antibacterial activities and more precisely bactericidal activities. This enzymatic procedure provided chitosan derivatives with improved properties such as antioxidant activity, thermal antioxidant stability as well as the preservation of initial antibacterial activity of chitosan. PMID:24837951

Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

2014-10-15

36

Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus brevis to N-Butanol and Ferulic Acid Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of anti-microbial phenolic compounds, such as the model compound ferulic acid, in biomass hydrolysates pose significant challenges to the widespread use of biomass in conjunction with whole cell biocatalysis or fermentation. Currently, these inhibitory compounds must be removed through additional downstream processing or sufficiently diluted to create environments suitable for most industrially important microbial strains. Simultaneously, product toxicity must also be overcome to allow for efficient production of next generation biofuels such as n-butanol, isopropanol, and others from these low cost feedstocks. Methodology and Principal Findings This study explores the high ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis, a lactic acid bacterium often found in fermentation processes, by global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional profile of L. brevis reveals that the presence of ferulic acid triggers the expression of currently uncharacterized membrane proteins, possibly in an effort to counteract ferulic acid induced changes in membrane fluidity and ion leakage. In contrast to the ferulic acid stress response, n-butanol challenges to growing cultures primarily induce genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway and reduced the proportion of 19?1 cyclopropane fatty acid within the L. brevis membrane. Both inhibitors also triggered generalized stress responses. Separate attempts to alter flux through the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits and deleting cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) both failed to improve n-butanol tolerance in E. coli, indicating that additional components of the stress response are required to confer n-butanol resistance. Conclusions Several promising routes for understanding both ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance have been identified from L. brevis gene expression data. These insights may be used to guide further engineering of model industrial organisms to better tolerate both classes of inhibitors to enable facile production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass.

Winkler, James; Kao, Katy C.

2011-01-01

37

[Influence of ferulic acid on the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine].  

PubMed

This study is to offer a clinical pain-depression dyad therapy of ferulic acid, the pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine was established and the dose-effect relationship of ferulic acid on ameliorating pain-depression dyad was explored. Mice were randomly divided into control group, reserpine + vechile and reserpine + ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)) groups. The reserpine treated mice were tested with thermal hyperalgesia, mechanicial allodynia and forced swimming tests, and the SOD and NO levels of hippocampus and frontal cortex were measured. Moreover, the HPLC-ECD was used to detect the changes of central monoamines concentrations. Compared with control group, reserpine can induce a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold and increase in the immobility time of the forced swimming test. The results suggested that reserpine significantly increased the level of nitrite in hippocampus and frontal cortex and reduced the levels of SOD, 5-HT and NE in these two brain regions. However, these indexes can be a dose-dependently reversed by ferulic acid (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg x kg(-1)). Ferulic acid can reverse pain-depression dyad, especially at the dose of 80 mg x kg(-1). In addition, it can influence oxidative stress and monoamine level. PMID:23600138

Zhang, Lu; Wang, Qian-Dong; Shi, Hua-Meng; Pan, Jian-Chun

2013-01-01

38

Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere.

Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

1993-01-01

39

Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere. PMID:8395165

Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

1993-07-01

40

Attenuation of chronic neuroinflammation by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the antioxidant ferulic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Chronic neuroinflammation and,oxidative,stress contribute,to the neurodegeneration associated,with Alzheimer’s disease and,represent,targets,for therapy. Ferulic acid is a natural compound,that expresses,antioxidant,and,anti-inflammatory activities. Nitric oxide is also a key modulator,of inflammatory responses.,Grafting a nitric oxide-releasing,moiety,onto,anti- inflammatory,drugs,results,in enhanced,anti-inflammatory activity. We compared,the effectiveness,of ferulic acid with a novel,nitric oxide-releasing,derivative,of ferulic acid,in an animal,model,of chronic,neuroinflammation that reproduces many,interesting,features,of Alzheimer’s disease.,Lipopoly- saccharide,was,infused into the 4th ventricle of

Gary L. Wenk; Kristin McGann-Gramling; Beatrice Hauss-Wegrzyniak; Daniela Ronchetti; Raffaella Maucci; Susanna Rosi; Laura Gasparini; Ennio Ongini

2004-01-01

41

The anticoagulant ability of ferulic acid and its applications for improving the blood compatibility of silk fibroin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemocompatibility of silk fibroin (SF) was improved with ferulic acid (FA) by graft polymerization. Ferulic acid is an active ingredient of many Chinese herbal medicines, such as Chuanxiong (Rhizoma ligustici wallichii), Danggui (Angelica sinensis) and Awei (Asafoetida giantfennel), which have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases by Chinese physicians for thousands of years. The inhibitory functions of FA on

Song Wang; Zhen Gao; Xiaomeng Chen; Xiaojie Lian; Hesun Zhu; Jun Zheng; Lizhong Sun

2008-01-01

42

Radiation protection of DNA by ferulic acid under in vitro and in vivo conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ferulic acid was studied on ?-radiation-induced relaxation of plasmid pBR322 DNA and induction of DNA strand\\u000a breaks in peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to whole body ?-radiation. Presence of 0.5 mM\\u000a ferulic acid significantly inhibited the disappearance of supercoiled (ccc) plasmid pBR322 with a dose modifying factor (DMF)\\u000a of 2.0. Intraperitoneal administration

Dharmendra Kumar Maurya; Veena Prakash Salvi; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair

2005-01-01

43

Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.  

PubMed

The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

2014-06-01

44

Autotoxicity mechanism of Oryza sativa: transcriptome response in rice roots exposed to ferulic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Autotoxicity plays an important role in regulating crop yield and quality. To help characterize the autotoxicity mechanism of rice, we performed a large-scale, transcriptomic analysis of the rice root response to ferulic acid, an autotoxin from rice straw. Results Root growth rate was decreased and reactive oxygen species, calcium content and lipoxygenase activity were increased with increasing ferulic acid concentration in roots. Transcriptome analysis revealed more transcripts responsive to short ferulic-acid exposure (1- and 3-h treatments, 1,204 genes) than long exposure (24 h, 176 genes). Induced genes were involved in cell wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, and abiotic stress response. Genes associated with signaling and biosynthesis for ethylene and jasmonic acid were upregulated with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid upregulated ATP-binding cassette and amino acid/auxin permease transporters as well as genes encoding signaling components such as leucine-rich repeat VIII and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases VII protein kinases, APETALA2/ethylene response factor, WRKY, MYB and Zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem transcription factors. Conclusions The results of a transcriptome analysis suggest the molecular mechanisms of plants in response to FA, including toxicity, detoxicification and signaling machinery. FA may have a significant effect on inhibiting rice root elongation through modulating ET and JA hormone homeostasis. FA-induced gene expression of AAAP transporters may contribute to detoxicification of the autotoxin. Moreover, the WRKY and Myb TFs and LRR-VIII and SD-2b kinases might regulate downstream genes under FA stress but not general allelochemical stress. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of autotoxicity in plants.

2013-01-01

45

Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. Results A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 ?g/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Conclusions Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies.

2013-01-01

46

Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the obtained spots. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis of a number of related phenolics, some of which

Leonard Vuyani Mabinya; Tungamirai Mafunga; John Morgan Brand

47

Identification of cholesteryl ester of ferulic acid in human plasma by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data suggests that regular consumption polyphenol rich foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of certain pathological conditions. While the in vivo "per se" antioxidant benefit of polyphenols still has not been clearly demonstrated, it has been suggested that phenolic acids can be incorporated into low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In the present study, we hypothesized that esterification of phenolic acids - such as ferulic acid - with lipophilic substances such as cholesterol can occur in vivo. To prove this hypothesis, we have synthesized pure cholesteryl-ferulate standard and used gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to confirm the presence of endogenous form in human plasma. The detection and identification of cholesteryl ferulate was based on: (1) matching gas- and liquid chromatographic retention time with the reference standard; (2) accurate mass of the molecular ion; (3) matching electron ionization mass spectrum and (4) matching electrospray product ion spectrum. The identified cholesteryl ferulate demonstrated an in vitro antioxidant capacity in various assays. The present study confirmed that phenolic acid can be found in human plasma as lipophilic conjugates which exert antioxidant capacity. These molecules can potentially be involved in the protection of lipoproteins against oxidative damages. PMID:23791450

Nagy, Kornél; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Redeuil, Karine; Barron, Denis; Fumeaux, René; Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Destaillats, Frédéric

2013-08-01

48

Oxidizing of ferulic acid with the use of polyoxometalates as catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of catalytic oxidation for ferulic acid with polyoxometalates used as catalysts was studied. The effect of pH and concentrations of the principal reacting components on the process kinetics was studied. A kinetic scheme of oxidation is proposed, and the values of a number of kinetic parameters of the process are determined.

Povarnitsyna, T. V.; Popova, N. R.; Bogolitsyn, K. G.; Beloglazova, A. L.; Pryakhin, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.

2010-12-01

49

Development and in vitro evaluation of a transdermal hydrogel patch for ferulic acid.  

PubMed

Current work aimed to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of hydrogel patch for ferulic acid to treat skin damage induced by UV radiation. VISCOMATE(TM) NP700, dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate, glycerine, tartaric acid were used in combination in different ratios to design the hydrogel patch. In vitro release rate was selected as an index to optimize the formulation. The formulated hydrogel patch was evaluated by several parameters like tacking strength, cohesive strength, peeling strength, residuals after peeling and drug content determination. The in vitro penetration was determined by Franz diffusion technology with hairless mouse skin as permeability media. Different kinetics models were employed to simulate the release and penetrate patterns of ferulic acid from patches in order to investigate the drug transport mechanism. The residual drugs in the patch and skin were determined after the penetration experiment. The optimized preparation was dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate: NP700: glycerine: ferulic acid as a ratio of 0.02:0.4:1.5:1.25:0.25. The cumulative percentage of release was 60.4465±1.7679% for 24h, which results from a combination of diffusion effect and polymer erosion effect. For the barrier of stratum corneum, the cumulative penetrate rate was only 1.3156±0.3588% and the release mechanism turn out to be the effect of erosion of polymer surface. The residual drugs in the patch were 97.5949±1.4932%. The in vitro data revealed that it was easy for ferulic acid to release from the paste while difficult to permeate through the skin barrier, which resulted in most of drugs residued in the paste. Hence, further experiments will be necessary for finding the penetration enhancer in ferulic acid transdermal delivery. PMID:24577928

Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue; Liu, Cong-min; Wu, Hui-chao; Wen, Ran; Du, Shou-ying

2014-03-01

50

Modifications of amino acids during ferulic acid-mediated, laccase-catalysed cross-linking of peptides.  

PubMed

Mass spectral analysis demonstrated oligomerization of peptides that had been subjected to oxidation catalysed by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor laccase. Peptide oligomerization occurred only when cysteines or tyrosines were present in the peptides. MS/MS confirmed the cross-linking in tyrosine-containing peptides to be located between tyrosine residues. Ferulic acid mediated oligomerization of cysteine-containing peptides, but prevented cross-linking of tyrosines when used in the same concentration as the peptides. This suggests an antioxidative effect of ferulic acid in relation to tyrosine oxidation, although incorporation of ferulic acid into peptide oligomers was found in some of the tyrosine-containing peptides. No other modifications to amino acid residues by laccase-catalysed oxidation were observed by mass spectroscopy. Thus, it is suggested that oxidative modifications of other amino acids observed in proteins oxidized by laccase are not major reaction products of laccase-catalysed oxidation. PMID:19905979

Steffensen, Charlotte L; Stensballe, Allan; Kidmose, Ulla; Degn, Peter E; Andersen, Mogens L; Nielsen, Jacob H

2009-12-01

51

Production and biochemical characterization of a type B ferulic acid esterase from Streptomyces ambofaciens.  

PubMed

For the first time, the presence of a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) was demonstrated in Streptomyces ambofaciens. This extracellular enzyme was produced on a range of lignocellulosic substrates. The maximal level of activity was detected in the presence of either destarched wheat bran or oat spelt xylan as the sole carbon source. We found that 1% (m/v) of destarched wheat bran was the optimal concentration to induce its production. With this inducer, no ferulic acid dimers were released from the cell wall by the produced FAE. Interestingly, rape cattle cake (Brassica napus), which does not contain esterified ferulic acid, was also shown to induce the production of the FAE from S. ambofaciens. The FAE was partially purified from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 7 and 40 degrees C. The substrate specificity of the FAE from S. ambofaciens was investigated: the highest activity was determined with methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, and methyl cinnamate. Furthermore, the FAE required a certain distance between the benzene ring and the ester bond to be active. According to these biochemical characteristics, the FAE from S. ambofaciens has been classified as a type B FAE. PMID:19767844

Kheder, Fadi; Delaunay, Stéphane; Abo-Chameh, Ghassan; Paris, Cédric; Muniglia, Lionel; Girardin, Michel

2009-06-01

52

Characterization of Two Streptomyces Enzymes That Convert Ferulic Acid to Vanillin  

PubMed Central

Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s?1, and 78.2 U mg?1, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM?1 s?1 for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation.

Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

53

Ferulic acid regulates the AKT/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) regulates CRMP-2 function through phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK-3? is inactivated by phosphorylation by Akt. This study investigated whether ferulic acid modulates the expression of CRMP-2 and its upstream targets, Akt and GSK-3?, in focal cerebral ischemia. Male rats were treated immediately with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then cerebral cortices were collected 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO resulted in decreased levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK-3?, while ferulic acid treatment prevented the decrease in the levels of these proteins. Moreover, phospho-CRMP-2 and CRMP-2 levels increased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid attenuated these injury-induced increases. These results demonstrate that ferulic acid regulates the Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury, thereby protecting against brain injury.

Gim, Sang-A; Sung, Jin-Hee; Shah, Fawad-Ali; Kim, Myeong-Ok

2013-01-01

54

Ferulic acid regulates the AKT/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) regulates CRMP-2 function through phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK-3? is inactivated by phosphorylation by Akt. This study investigated whether ferulic acid modulates the expression of CRMP-2 and its upstream targets, Akt and GSK-3?, in focal cerebral ischemia. Male rats were treated immediately with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then cerebral cortices were collected 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO resulted in decreased levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK-3?, while ferulic acid treatment prevented the decrease in the levels of these proteins. Moreover, phospho-CRMP-2 and CRMP-2 levels increased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid attenuated these injury-induced increases. These results demonstrate that ferulic acid regulates the Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury, thereby protecting against brain injury. PMID:23825478

Gim, Sang-A; Sung, Jin-Hee; Shah, Fawad-Ali; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

2013-06-01

55

Ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease of ?-enolase expression in brain tissue and HT22 cells  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. ?-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of ?-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult male rats were treated with either vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after MCAO and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO. Using a proteomics approach, we found that ?-enolase expression was decreased in MCAO-injured animals treated with vehicle alone, whereas ferulic acid treatment attenuated this decrease. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment prevented MCAO injury-induced decrease in ?-enolase. Furthermore, in hippocampal-derived cell lines, glutamate exposure also decreased ?-enolase expression and ferulic acid treatment attenuated this glutamate-induced decrease in ?-enolase. These findings suggest that ferulic acid mediates a neuroprotective effect by attenuating injury-induced decreases of ?-enolase expression in neuronal cells.

Gim, Sang-A

2014-01-01

56

Ferulic Acid and its Position Among the Phenolic Compounds of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is the main phenolic acid occurring in cell walls of monocotyledones. Due to its blue-and-white fluorescence it is easily identified and is located in the cereal grain morphological parts. Its 40-fold greater concentration was found in the cells walls of the seed coat and aleuronic layer than in the cells walls of endosperm. Most often, it

Joanna Klepacka; ?ucja Fornal

2006-01-01

57

Synchronous fluorescence determination of ferulic acid with Ce(IV) and sodium tripolyphosphate.  

PubMed

In this study, a synchronous fluorescence detection method for ferulic acid (FA) is proposed based on a redox reaction between FA and Ce(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid medium at room temperature. It was found that FA could reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in acidic medium, and sodium tripolyphosphate could further enhance the intrinsic fluorescence of the Ce(III) produced. The enhanced extent of synchronous fluorescence intensity was in proportion to the concentration of FA over the range 3.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. The corresponding limit of determination (S/N?=?3) was 1.3 × 10(-8) mol/L. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sodium ferulate for injection sample with satisfactory results. PMID:23744595

Meng, F; Liu, P; Huang, F; Wang, L; Wu, X; Shen, L

2014-05-01

58

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to bring about this conversion. Considerable differences in the resistance of two isolates of P. crustosum to sorbic acid were found. An isolate from coconut was more resistant than one isolated from hazelnuts. Both sorbic acid and caproic acid (hexanoic) brought about disorganization of the mitochondrial membranes in P. crustosum. It is suggested that these lipophilic acids inhibit growth by interfering with the electrochemical membrane potential across the mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2253810

Kinderlerer, J L; Hatton, P V

1990-01-01

59

Influence of Oryzanol and Ferulic Acid on the Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidative Status in High Fat-Fed Mice  

PubMed Central

The comparative effects of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative status of high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given a diet containing 17% fat (HF), supplemented with oryzanol (HF-O) or ferulic acid for 7 weeks. The control mice (NC) were fed with normal diet. The HF mice exhibited increased body weight gain, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and lipid peroxidation rate, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. In general, they also showed lower hepatic antioxidant and higher lipid-regulating enzymes activities relative to that of NC group. Addition of oryzanol or ferulic acid in the diet counteracted these high fat-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress via increased faecal lipid excretion and regulation of antioxidant and lipogenic enzymes activities. This study illustrates that oryzanol and ferulic acid have relatively similar hypolipidemic actions and could be effective in lowering the risk of high fat diet-induced obesity.

Jin Son, Myoung; W. Rico, Catherine; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi

2010-01-01

60

The distribution of ester-linked ferulic acid in the cell walls of angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ester-linked ferulic acid occurs in the cell walls of two major groups of angiosperms, the commelinid monocotyledons and the\\u000a ‘core’ Caryophyllales, at concentrations >3.5 mg g?1 cell walls, and has been detected in primary cell walls by its autofluorescence using ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy.\\u000a Both of these groups are resolved as monophyletic clades in phylogenetic trees constructed using gene sequences. In the primary

Philip J. Harris; Jason A. K. Trethewey

2010-01-01

61

Ferulic acid: an antioxidant found naturally in plant cell walls and feruloyl esterases involved in its release and their applications.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and maize bran with 3.1% (w/w) ferulic acid is one of the most promising sources of this antioxidant. The dehydrodimers of ferulic acid are important structural components in the plant cell wall and serve to enhance its rigidity and strength. Feruloyl esterases are a subclass of the carboxylic acid esterases that hydrolyze the ester bond between hydroxycinnamic acids and sugars present in plant cell walls and they have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms, when grown on complex substrates such as cereal brans, sugar beet pulp, pectin and xylan. These enzymes perform a function similar to alkali in the deesterification of plant cell wall and differ in their specificities towards the methyl esters of cinnamic acids and ferulolylated oligosaccharides. They act synergistically with xylanases and pectinases and facilitate the access of hydrolases to the backbone of cell wall polymers. The applications of ferulic acid and feruloyl esterase enzymes are many and varied. Ferulic acid obtained from agricultural byproducts is a potential precursor for the production of natural vanillin, due to the lower production cost. PMID:15493526

Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

2004-01-01

62

Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco.

Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; J?rgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; M?ller, Birger Lindberg

2014-01-01

63

Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.  

PubMed

Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

2014-01-01

64

Enzymatic production of ferulic acid from defatted rice bran by using a combination of bacterial enzymes.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FA), which is present in the cell walls of some plants, is best known for its antioxidant property. By combining a commercial enzyme that shows FA esterase activity with several Streptomyces carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, we succeeded in enhancing the enzymatic production of FA from defatted rice bran. In particular, the combination of three xylanases, an ?-L-arabinofuranosidase, and an acetyl xylan esterase from Streptomyces spp. produced the highest increase in the amount of released FAs among all the enzymes in the Streptomyces enzymes library. This enzyme combination also had an effect on FA production from other biomasses, such as raw rice bran, wheat bran, and corncob. PMID:23512135

Uraji, Misugi; Kimura, Masayo; Inoue, Yosikazu; Kawakami, Kayoko; Kumagai, Yuya; Harazono, Koichi; Hatanaka, Tadashi

2013-11-01

65

Consecutive Fragmentation Mechanisms of Protonated Ferulic Acid Probed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm-1. The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring.

Martens, Sabrina M.; Marta, Rick A.; Martens, Jonathan K.; McMahon, Terry B.

2012-10-01

66

Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua

2010-10-01

67

Ferulic acid antioxidant protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation in synaptosomal and neuronal cell culture systems in vitro: structure-activity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, free radical scavenging abilities of ferulic acid in relation to its structural characteristics were evaluated in solution, cultured neurons, and synaptosomal systems exposed to hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Cultured neuronal cells exposed to the peroxyl radical initiator AAPH die in a dose-response manner and show elevated levels of protein carbonyls. The presence of ferulic acid or similar

Jaroslaw Kanski; Marina Aksenova; Antonia Stoyanova; D. Allan Butterfield

2002-01-01

68

Metabolism of ferulic acid via vanillin using a novel CoA-dependent pathway in a newly-isolated strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

A soil bacterium, designated Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103, was isolated based on its ability to grow on ferulic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. In addition, this strain was found to metabolize a number of related phenolic substrates which contained a hydroxyl group at the para position of the aromatic ring. During growth on ferulic acid, transient accumulation of vanillic acid and trace amounts of protocatechuic acid were detected in the culture medium. Washed cells grown on ferulic acid readily oxidized vanillin, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid, the three putative intermediates of the metabolic pathway. The side-chain cleavage of ferulic acid to produce vanillin was demonstrated in vitro for the first time and this enzyme-catalysed reaction was shown to have an essential requirement for CoASH, ATP and MgCl2. This conversion involved a two-step process involving a CoA ligase followed by the side-chain cleavage. The addition of NAD increased the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and had an overall effect of increasing the rate of ferulic acid cleavage. The application of 13C-NMR studies in vitro revealed acetyl-CoA as the C2 side-chain cleavage product. High levels of inducible ferulate-CoA ligase and NAD-linked vanillin dehydrogenase were detected and a novel pathway for ferulic acid metabolism in this organism is proposed. PMID:9611814

Narbad, A; Gasson, M J

1998-05-01

69

Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.  

PubMed

The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ?-hydroxy, and ?,?-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ?-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-02-01

70

Enzymic release of reducing sugars from oat hulls by cellulase, as influenced by Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and trichoderma xylanase.  

PubMed

Hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids, are believed to be inhibitory to ruminal biodegradability of complex cell wall materials such as oat hulls. Previous studies have shown that a novel enzyme, Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase, and Trichoderma xylanase act synergistically to break the ester linkage between ferulic acid and the attached sugar of feruloyl polysaccharides, releasing ferulic acid from oat hulls. In this paper, we examined the enzymic release of reducing sugars from oat hulls by the actions of individual enzymes (Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase at 13 mU, 6.4 U, and 4678.4 U/assay; cellulase at 20 levels, ranging from 7.8 mU to 2772.7 U/assay; Trichoderma xylanase at 20 levels, ranging from 7.8 mU to 4096 U/assay) and by the combined action of cellulase at six levels (62.5 mU, 2 U, 16 U, 128 U, 1024 U, and 2772.7 U/assay), Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase at 13 mU/assay, and Trichoderma xylanase at two levels (1 U and 256 U/assay). The amount of total acid-extractable reducing sugars in the oat hulls used in this study was 793.8 +/- 8.0 microg/mg. The results show that after a 24-h incubation with Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase alone, no reducing sugars were observed to be released from oat hulls. With cellulase as the sole enzyme, as the concentration increased from 7.8 mU to 2772.7 U/assay, the release of reducing sugars increased (P < 0.01) from 0 to 39% of the total present, with the highest release at 512 U/assay. With Trichoderma xylanase alone, as the concentration increased from 7.8 mU to 4096 U/assay, the release of reducing sugars increased (P < 0.01) from 4.9 to 33%, with the highest release at 2048 U/assay. When incubated together with Trichoderma xylanase (1 U or 256 U/assay) and Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase (13 mU/assay), cellulase at all six levels (62.5 mU, 2 U, 16 U, 128 U, 1024 U and 2772.7 U/assay) significantly increased the release of reducing sugars (P < 0.01) from 8 to 69%. These results indicate that the synergistic interaction between Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and Trichoderma xylanase on the release of ferulic acid from feruloyl polysaccharides of oat hulls makes the remainder of the polysaccharides open for further hydrolytic attack and facilitates the accessibility of the main chain of polysaccharides to cellulase. This action extends the cell wall hydrolysis, thus releasing a higher yield of reducing sugars. Such enzymic pretreatment of oat hulls may provide a unique advantage to rumen microorganisms for the biodegradation of the complex cell walls of byproduct feeds such as oat hulls. PMID:12502411

Yu, Peiqiang; McKinnon, John J; Maenz, David D; Olkowski, Andrzej A; Racz, Vern J; Christensen, David A

2003-01-01

71

The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint

2004-02-01

72

Anticancer Activity of Ferulic Acid-Inorganic Nanohybrids Synthesized via Two Different Hybridization Routes, Reconstruction and Exfoliation-Reassembly  

PubMed Central

We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Micrsocopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150?nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines.

Choi, Ae-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

2013-01-01

73

Influence of oryzanol and ferulic Acid on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative status in high fat-fed mice.  

PubMed

The comparative effects of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative status of high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given a diet containing 17% fat (HF), supplemented with oryzanol (HF-O) or ferulic acid for 7 weeks. The control mice (NC) were fed with normal diet. The HF mice exhibited increased body weight gain, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and lipid peroxidation rate, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. In general, they also showed lower hepatic antioxidant and higher lipid-regulating enzymes activities relative to that of NC group. Addition of oryzanol or ferulic acid in the diet counteracted these high fat-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress via increased faecal lipid excretion and regulation of antioxidant and lipogenic enzymes activities. This study illustrates that oryzanol and ferulic acid have relatively similar hypolipidemic actions and could be effective in lowering the risk of high fat diet-induced obesity. PMID:20216948

Jin Son, Myoung; W Rico, Catherine; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi

2010-03-01

74

Effects of Ferulic Acid on Fertile and Asthenozoospermic Infertile Human Sperm Motility, Viability, Lipid Peroxidation, and Cyclic Nucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of human sperm fertilization principally depends on sperm motility and membrane integrity. Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, are known to impair sperm motility and membrane integrity by inducing membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). Ferulic acid (FA), an effective constituent in various medicinal herbs, has recently been shown to scavenge oxygen free radicals and increase

Rong-Liang Zheng; Hong Zhang

1996-01-01

75

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Type Strain B7-S, Which Converts Ferulic Acid to Vanillin  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis type strain B7-S was obtained through induction with ferulic acid. Here, we present the draft genome of strain B7-S, which contains 5,313,924 bp, with a G+C content of 35.8%, 5,135 protein-coding genes, and 40 tRNA-encoding genes.

Li, Suyue; Yan, Lei; Wang, Ningbo; Yan, Xiaojuan

2014-01-01

76

Radical Scavenging Activity of Lipophilized Products from Transesterification of Flaxseed Oil with Cinnamic Acid or Ferulic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of flaxseed oil with cinnamic acid (CA) or ferulic acid (FA) using an immobilized lipase\\u000a from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate whether the lipophilized products provided enhanced antioxidant activity in the\\u000a oil. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of flaxseed oil with CA or FA produced a variety of lipophilized products (identified\\u000a using ESI-MS-MS) such as monocinnamoyl\\/feruloyl-diacylglycerol, dicinnamoyl-monoacylglycerol and

Wee-Sim Choo; Edward John Birch; Ian Stewart

2009-01-01

77

Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract.  

PubMed

French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract (PBE) is a polyphenol-rich food supplement patented under the name of Pycnogenol and known to have strong antioxidant activity and different beneficial effects on human health. Although its biological properties have begun to be extensively studied both in vitro, in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, little is known about its bioavailability. The present study investigated the urinary excretion of free and conjugated ferulic acid, present in quantitatively detectable amounts in PBE, after oral PBE administration to human subjects. Eleven healthy adult subjects (4 women and 7men) consumed either a single dose (200 mg PBE) or two doses of PBE (100 and 200 mg, respectively) within a 48-h interval. Two days before the oral administration of PBE and during the urine sample collection period volunteers adhered to a diet low in polyphenols. Aliquots of all urine production were collected over 24 h. Free and conjugated ferulic acid was assessed in urine by HPLC using diode array detection. A close association between the dietary intake of PBE and the urinary excretion of ferulic acid was detected. Moreover, the results indicate that a considerable proportion of ferulic acid is excreted as glucuronide or sulfate after PBE consumption, varying over the range 2 to 20% between individuals. The kinetics of excretion associated with the administration of 100 mg PBE was quite similar to that obtained after 200 mg PBE. A a biphasic trend was evident in a number of subjects. All subjects studied here displayed a significant, although variable level of excretion of ferulic acid after supplementation with PBE, Thus, the data provide evidence that at least a part of the phenolic components of PBE are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated by humans. PMID:10889455

Virgili, F; Pagana, G; Bourne, L; Rimbach, G; Natella, F; Rice-Evans, C; Packer, L

2000-04-15

78

Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic Acid on dough and bread properties.  

PubMed

The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity. PMID:24993037

Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

2014-07-23

79

Simultaneous determination of gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in Si–Wu decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of gallic acid, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in Si–Wu decoction and other 13 combinations of the formula. These five compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a Zorbox SB C-18 column by gradient elution using 0.01% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid–acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1mlmin?1, and

Yu-Xin Sheng; Lie Li; Qiao Wang; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo

2005-01-01

80

Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

81

Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105?cells?mmol?1·h?1 and 2.63 × 106 cells?mmol?1·h?1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72?h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate.

Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu

2013-01-01

82

Quantitative analysis of plasma caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A validated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid (CA), dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), ferulic acid (FA), dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), and isoferulic acid (IFA) in human plasma as metabolites derived from coffee consumption. The method includes a protein precipitation step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites (sulfate, glucuronide, and/or ester) back to their aglycone forms. After liquid-liquid extraction, the reconstituted extract was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were constructed from spiked human plasma samples in the range of 0-4800 nM for each of the targeted analytes. Two internal standards, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid (500 nM) and 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (200 nM), were spiked at the beginning of the sample preparation and before analysis, respectively. Good performance data were obtained with limits of detection and quantification of the five hydroxycinnamates ranging between 1-15 nM and 3-50 nM, respectively. Within and between-days precisions were respectively calculated between 8-18% and 8-30% (at 50 nM added initially), between 6-9% and 6-12% (at 200 nM), and between 5-9% and 5-9% (at 500 nM). Precision calculated from different analysts ranged from 18% to 44% (at 50 nM), from 8% to 16% (at 200 nM), and from 4% to 8% (at 500 nM). Using this method, we determined plasma levels in humans and measured the efficiency of deconjugation using our enzymatic cocktail. PMID:19879819

Guy, Philippe A; Renouf, Mathieu; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Kochhar, Sunil; Rezzi, Serge; Williamson, Gary; Steiling, Heike

2009-12-01

83

Modulation of iNOS expression by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the natural antioxidant ferulic acid in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that NCX 2057, a new chemical entity bearing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety linked to the natural antioxidant ferulic acid, shows marked anti-inflammatory properties in a model of chronic brain inflammation. We have now studied the effects of NCX 2057 and its metabolic products, ferulic acid and NCX 2059, on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression

Daniela Ronchetti; Francesco Impagnatiello; Massimiliano Guzzetta; Laura Gasparini; Monica Borgatti; Roberto Gambari; Ennio Ongini

2006-01-01

84

Fungal production of citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid is the principal organic acid found in citrus fruits. To meet increasing demands it is produced from carbohydrate feedstock by fermentation with the fungus Aspergillus niger and the yeasts of Candida spp. Effect of various fermentation conditions and the biochemistry of citric acid formation by A. niger have been discussed. Commercially citric acid is produced by surface, submerged

H. S. Grewal; K. L. Kalra

1995-01-01

85

Ferulic acid potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via the serotonergic system.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a widely distributed natural phenolic compound that is abundant in many plant tissues and foods. This study investigated possible mechanisms underlying the sedative-hypnotic effect of FA through behavioral pharmacology methods. FA showed dose-dependent sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice. FA also significantly potentiated pentobarbital-induced (45 mg/kg, i.p.) sleep by prolonging sleeping time and shortening sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were augmented by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). With a sub-hypnotic dose of pentobarbital (25 mg/kg, i.p.), FA significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and exhibited a synergistic effect with 5-HTP (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase) significantly decreased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep, whereas FA significantly reversed this effect. These results suggest that FA has sedative-hypnotic activity, possibly mediated by the serotonergic system. PMID:22897877

Tu, Yue; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Sun, Hong-tao; Ma, Tie-zhu; Zhang, Sai

2012-09-13

86

Free radical mediated grafting of chitosan with caffeic and ferulic acids: structures and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

In this study, two water soluble chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) onto chitosan via a free radical mediated method. The structural characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of chitosan derivatives were determined. Results showed that the UV-vis absorption peaks of chitosan derivatives shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited the typical phenolic characteristics within 1450-1600 cm(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed new peaks of phenyl protons at 6.2-7.6 ppm. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed additional peaks between 110 and 150 ppm assigned to the C=C of phenolic groups. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of CA and FA onto chitosan backbones. The chitosan derivatives had decreased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to chitosan. In vitro assays showed that the antioxidant activity decreased in the order of CA-g-chitosan>FA-g-chitosan>chitosan. Moreover, administration of the chitosan derivatives could significantly increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease malondialdehyde levels in both serums and livers of d-galactose induced aging mice. Our results indicated the potential of CA-g-chitosan and FA-g-chitosan in the development of novel antioxidant agents. PMID:24444883

Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

2014-04-01

87

FT-Raman Spectra of Unsoaked and NaOH-Soaked Wheat Kernels, Bran, and Ferulic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(2):188-192 The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) test for determining wheat color class depends on the observation that on soaking in NaOH, red wheat turns a darker red and white wheat turns straw yellow. To understand the mechanism of this test, Raman spectra of wheat bran, wheat starch, ferulic acid, and whole kernels of wheat, before and after NaOH soak,

M. S. Ram; Floyd E. Dowell; Larry M. Seitz

2003-01-01

88

Simultaneous Quantification of Sodium Ferulate, Salicylic Acid, Cinnarizine and Vitamin B1 in Human Plasma by LC Tandem MS Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) via electrospray\\u000a ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated to separate and simultaneously quantify sodium ferulate (SF), salicylic\\u000a acid (SA), cinnarizine (CIN) and vitamin B1 (VB1) in human plasma. Gemfibrozil (GEM) was used as the internal standard (IS)\\u000a for SF and SA, whereas lomerizine (LOM)

Na Liu; Cheng Yang; Zunjian Zhang; Yuan Tian; Fengguo Xu; Yun Chen

2008-01-01

89

Radical Scavenging Activity of Lipophilized Products from Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Triolein with Cinnamic and Ferulic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the lipophilized products as model systems for enhanced\\u000a protection of unsaturated oil. The lipophilized products were identified using ESI-MS. Free radical scavenging activity was\\u000a determined using the DPPH radical method. The polarity of the

Wee-Sim Choo; Edward John Birch

2009-01-01

90

Effect of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the glucose metabolism of mice fed with a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The effects of oryzanol and ferulic acid on the glucose metabolism of high-fat-fed mice were investigated. Male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: NC group fed with normal control diet; HF group fed with high-fat (17%) diet; HF-O group fed with high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5% oryzanol; and HF-FA group fed with high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5% ferulic acid. All animals were allowed free access to the experimental diets and water for 7 wk. At the end of the experimental period, the HF-O and HF-FA groups exhibited significantly lower blood glucose level and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities, and higher glycogen and insulin concentrations and glucokinase (GK) activity compared with NC and HF groups. The results of this study illustrate that both oryzanol and ferulic acid could reduce the risk of high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia via regulation of insulin secretion and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. PMID:21535685

Son, Myoung Jin; Rico, Catherine W; Nam, Seok Hyun; Kang, Mi Young

2011-01-01

91

Ferulic acid inhibits gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and enhances the survival of mice.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FA) is a monophenolic phenylpropanoid occurring in plant products such as rice bran, green tea, and coffee beans. It has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in many studies. In the present study, we show that intraperitoneal administration of FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight 1 hour prior to or immediately after whole-body ?-irradiation of mice with 4 Gy results in considerable reduction in the micronuclei formation in peripheral blood reticulocytes. Administration of the same amount of FA immediately after 4 Gy ?-irradiation showed significant decrease in the amount of DNA strand breaks in murine peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells as examined by comet assay. Further, immunostaining of mouse splenic lymphocytes for phspho-?H2AX was carried out, and it was observed that FA inhibits the ?H2AX foci formation. Finally, the survival of mice upon 6, 8, and 10 Gy ?-ray exposure was monitored. FA enhances the survival of mice by a factor of 2.5 at a dose of 6 Gy ?-radiation but not at higher doses. In conclusion, FA has protective potential in both pre- and postirradiation exposure scenarios and enhances the survival of mice possibly by decreasing DNA damage as examined by ?H2AX foci, micronuclei formation, and comet assay. PMID:23009583

Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

2013-02-01

92

Role of Ferulic Acid in the Amelioration of Ionizing Radiation Induced Inflammation: A Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co ?-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKK?/? and I?B? and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation.

Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

2014-01-01

93

Role of ferulic Acid in the amelioration of ionizing radiation induced inflammation: a murine model.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co ?-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKK?/? and I?B? and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation. PMID:24854039

Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

2014-01-01

94

Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10?8?M ~5.29 × 10?5?M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10?8?M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis.

Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

2014-01-01

95

Ferulic acid crosslinks in asparagus cell walls in relation to texture.  

PubMed

Post-harvest toughening of asparagus spears is associated with a large increase in monomeric and diferulic acids in the cell walls of stem tissues. The purpose of this study has been to investigate the distribution of these phenolic components among cell wall polymers and the role they play in the formation of associated pectic-xylan-phenolic complexes in relation to post-harvest toughening. The phenolic esters are found in all the extractable polysaccharide fractions, particularly the 0.5 M KOH fraction, as well as the insoluble cellulose-rich residue. The storage-related increase occurs in all fractions but is most prominent in the 0.5 M KOH-soluble components. Degradation of 0.5 M KOH subfractions with pure polysaccharide degrading enzymes has confirmed the occurrence of pectic-xylan-phenolic complexes in which ferulic acid and its dehydrodimers are attached to the xylan component but not to the pectic component. Studies on cell separation show that the maturation- and storage-related increase in thermal stability of cell adhesion (and therefore texture) is probably due to an increase in phenolic cross linking of xylans mainly in the parenchyma tissues. This overcomes the thermal lability of the pectic polysaccharides that are responsible for cell adhesion in immature tissues. The storage-induced appearance of some of the diferulic acid moieties in a number of wall polymer fractions supports the hypothesis that the storage affect is a wound-induced response rather than a continuation of maturation-related activity. PMID:15264909

Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocio C; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

2004-07-28

96

Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.  

PubMed

Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to the control (-53% and -65%, respectively) and ferulic acid (-47% and -60%, respectively) diets. Hamsters fed the control and ferulic acid diets had significantly higher plasma vitamin E concentrations compared to the RBO (201% and 161%, respectively) and oryzanol (548% and 462%, respectively) diets; the ferulic acid and oryzanol diets had significantly lower plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels than the control (-57% and -46%, respectively) diet. The oryzanol-fed hamsters excreted significantly more coprostenol and cholesterol in their feces than the ferulic acid (127% and 120%, respectively) diet. The control diet had significantly greater aortic TC and FC accumulation compared to the RBO (115% and 89%, respectively), ferulic acid (48% and 58%, respectively) and the oryzanol (74% and 70%, respectively) diets. However, only the RBO and oryzanol diets had significantly lower aortic cholesterol ester accumulation compared to the control (-73% and -46%, respectively) diet. The present study suggests that at equal dietary levels, oryzanol has a greater effect on lowering plasma non-HDL-C levels and raising plasma HDL-C than ferulic acid, possibly through a greater extent to increase fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites. However, ferulic acid may have a greater antioxidant capacity via its ability to maintain serum vitamin E levels compared to RBO and oryzanol. Thus, both oryzanol and ferulic acid may exert similar antiatherogenic properties, but through different mechanisms. PMID:16713234

Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

2007-02-01

97

Ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound present in several plants with claimed beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of disorders linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to verify the possible antidepressant-like effect of acute oral administration of ferulic acid in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like action and the effects of the association of ferulic acid with the antidepressants fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline in the TST were investigated. Ferulic acid produced an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST (0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o.), without accompanying changes in ambulation. The pretreatment of mice with WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist) was able to reverse the anti-immobility effect of ferulic acid (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. The combination of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), paroxetine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) or sertraline (1 mg/kg, p.o.) with a sub-effective dose of ferulic acid (0.001 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing hyperlocomotion in the open-field test. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST in mice through modulation of the serotonergic system. PMID:22266492

Zeni, Ana Lúcia B; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias E; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Tasca, Carla I

2012-03-15

98

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.  

PubMed

Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. PMID:24507903

Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2014-07-01

99

Synergistic promotion of blood vessel regeneration by astragaloside IV and ferulic acid from electrospun fibrous mats.  

PubMed

The promotion of blood vessel initiation and growth plays an important role in the realization of therapeutic vascularization and regeneration of functional tissues. Astragalus membranaceus and angelica sinensis are commonly used traditional Chinese medicines for enriching the blood. In the current study astragaloside IV (AT, the main active ingredient of astragalus) and ferulic acid (FA, the main ingredient of angelica) were loaded into electrospun fibrous scaffolds to provide abundant and sustained biological factors required to initiate vascularization and bring it to maturity. The cell viability after AT and FA treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal concentration of around 50 ?g/mL, and the most significant synergistic effect was demonstrated for the combined treatment with AT and FA with the ratio of 7/3 on both primary endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The in vitro release study showed that the amount of AT and FA release could be regulated by their loading amount and ratios in electrospun fibers. The localized and sustained codelivery of AT and FA indicated significantly high cell viability and secretion of extracellular matrices for both endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and induced significantly high densities of vascular structures after subcutaneous implantation. The most significant angiogenesis promotion with few inflammatory reactions was demonstrated for electrospun fibers containing AT and FA with the ratio of 7/3. It was suggested that the integration of the synergistic effect of Chinese medicine into electrospun fibrous scaffolds should provide clinical relevance for therapeutic vascularization, full vascularization in engineered tissues, and regeneration of blood vessel substitutes. PMID:23651405

Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yun; Xia, Tian; Wei, Wei; Chen, Fang; Guo, Xueqin; Li, Xiaohong

2013-06-01

100

Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.  

PubMed

The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread. PMID:23106092

Moskowitz, Marlene R; Bin, Qing; Elias, Ryan J; Peterson, Devin G

2012-11-14

101

Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight

Thomas A. Wilson; Robert J. Nicolosi; Benjamin Woolfrey; David Kritchevsky

2007-01-01

102

Genetic Engineering Of Escherichia Coli To Enhance Biological Production Of Vanillin From Ferulic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an integrative vector, Pseudomonas genes encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and feruloyl-CoA hydratase\\/aldolase were integrated into the lacZ gene site of Escherichia coli. The resulting strain was very stable and more efficient in vanillin production than strains expressing ferulic catabolic genes from a low-copy vector. Optimization of culture conditions and bioconversion parameters, together with the reuse of the biomass, leaded to

103

Ferulic Acid, an Angelica sinensis-Derived Polyphenol, Slows the Progression of Membranous Nephropathy in a Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of adult nephrotic syndrome but lacks adequate treatment. Different extracts of Angelica sinensis (AS) and one of its active compounds, ferulic acid (FA), were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects in a MN mouse model. The MN model was grouped into three subgroups: no treatment (N-T), treatment at induction of MN (Pre-T), and treatment after full-blown MN (Post-T). The results showed that the methanol (ME) layer of AS extract exhibited a therapeutic effect on MN-induced proteinuria. The ME layer-enriched compound, FA, improved the hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in both Pre-T and Post-T groups. Ferulic acid also reduced the formation of oxidative protein products and increased the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in groups Pre-T and Post-T. Regarding angiogenesis factors, the antiangiogenic factors in renal glomeruli were increased in group N-T, but, after FA treatment, only one of the antiangiogenic factors, thrombospondin-1, showed a significant decrease. Furthermore, the expression of Th2 predominant showed significant decrease in both Pre-T and Post-T groups when compared to that of N-T group. In summary, FA retarded the progression of MN, and the mechanisms involved the regulation of oxidative stresses, angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, and attenuation of Th2 response. PMID:22844329

Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Li-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Jin-Shuen

2012-01-01

104

In vivo protection of synaptosomes by ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from oxidative stress mediated by 2,2-azobis(2-amidino-propane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) or Fe 2+\\/H 2O 2: Insight into mechanisms of neuroprotection and relevance to oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is an ester derivative of ferulic acid, the latter known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ferulic acid protects synaptosomal membrane system and neuronal cell culture systems against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation. FAEE is lipophilic and is able to penetrate lipid bilayer. Previous studies reported that

Gururaj Joshi; Marzia Perluigi; Rukhsana Sultana; Ravagna Agrippino; Vittorio Calabrese; D. Allan Butterfield

2006-01-01

105

Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ?-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ?-hydroxy, and ?,?-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ?-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm.

Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-01-01

106

A Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatograhy Method for Estimation of Ferulic Acid in Asafoetida and Polyherbal Preparation.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of ferulic acid from asafoetida and a polyherbal preparation. The separation was carried out on HiQSil ODS C-18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 10% acetic acid (20:80 v/v). The developed method was validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines for various parameters such as accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and specificity; and found to be reliable. Linear regression analysis showed a good corelation between peak area and concentration with a corelation coefficient r(2)=0.996 in the range 200-7000 ng/ml. The developed method can be utilized for standardization of herbal formulation comprising asafoetida. PMID:24302807

Kareparamban, J A; Nikam, P H; Jadhav, A P; Kadam, V J

2013-07-01

107

A Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatograhy Method for Estimation of Ferulic Acid in Asafoetida and Polyherbal Preparation  

PubMed Central

A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of ferulic acid from asafoetida and a polyherbal preparation. The separation was carried out on HiQSil ODS C-18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 10% acetic acid (20:80 v/v). The developed method was validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines for various parameters such as accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and specificity; and found to be reliable. Linear regression analysis showed a good corelation between peak area and concentration with a corelation coefficient r2=0.996 in the range 200-7000 ng/ml. The developed method can be utilized for standardization of herbal formulation comprising asafoetida.

Kareparamban, J. A.; Nikam, P. H.; Jadhav, A. P.; Kadam, V. J.

2013-01-01

108

Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1  

PubMed Central

The production of xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 °C and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, ?-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest ?-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of ?-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and ?-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L), which was not detected in the T. reesei culture.

Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; de Sousa Paredes, Raquel; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

2013-01-01

109

Bioconversion of Ferulic Acid into Vanillic Acid by Means of a Vanillate-Negative Mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain BF13  

PubMed Central

From a ferulic-acid-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain (BF13), we have isolated a transposon mutant, which retained the ability to bioconvert ferulic acid into vanillic acid but lost the ability to further degrade the latter acid. The mutant, BF13-97, was very stable, and therefore it was suitable to be used as a biocatalyst for the preparative synthesis of vanillic acid from ferulic acid. By use of resting cells we determined the effect on the bioconversion rate of several parameters, such as the addition of nutritional factors, the concentration of the biomass, and the carbon source on which the biomass was grown. The optimal yield of vanillic acid was obtained with cells pregrown on M9 medium containing p-coumaric acid (0.1% [wt/vol]) as a sole carbon source and yeast extract (0.001% [wt/vol]) as a source of nutritional factors. Under these conditions, 1 mg (wet weight) of biomass produced 0.23 mg of vanillic acid per h. The genomic region of BF13-97 flanking the transposon's site of insertion was cloned and sequenced revealing two open reading frames of 1,062 (vanA) and 954 (vanB) bp, respectively. The van genes are organized in a cluster and encode the subunits of the vanillate-O-demethylase, which catalyzes the first step of the vanillate catabolism. Amino acid sequences deduced from vanA and vanB genes were shown to have high identity with known VanAs and VanBs from Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Highly conserved regions known to exist in class IA oxygenases were also found in the vanillate-O-demethylase components from P. fluorescens BF13. The terminal oxygenase VanA is characterized by a conserved Rieske-type [2Fe-2S]R ligand center. The reductase VanB contains a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S]Fd, flavin mononucleotide, and NAD-ribose binding domains which are located in its C-terminal and N-terminal halves, respectively. Transfer of wild-type vanAB genes to BF13-97 complemented this mutant, which recovered its ability to grow on either vanillic or ferulic acid.

Civolani, Claudio; Barghini, Paolo; Roncetti, Anna Rita; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Schiesser, Alma

2000-01-01

110

Multi-site genetic modulation of monolignol biosynthesis suggests new routes for formation of syringyl lignin and wall-bound ferulic acid in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).  

PubMed

Genes encoding seven enzymes of the monolignol pathway were independently downregulated in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using antisense and/or RNA interference. In each case, total flux into lignin was reduced, with the largest effects arising from the downregulation of earlier enzymes in the pathway. The downregulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate/shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, ferulate 5-hydroxylase or caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase resulted in compositional changes in lignin and wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids consistent with the current models of the monolignol pathway. However, downregulating caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase neither reduced syringyl (S) lignin units nor wall-bound ferulate, inconsistent with a role for this enzyme in 3-O-methylation ofS monolignol precursors and hydroxycinnamic acids. Paradoxically, lignin composition differed in plants downregulated in either cinnamate 4-hydroxylase or phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. No changes in the levels of acylated flavonoids were observed in the various transgenic lines. The current model for monolignol and ferulate biosynthesis appears to be an over-simplification, at least in alfalfa, and additional enzymes may be needed for the 3-O-methylation reactions of S lignin and ferulate biosynthesis. PMID:16972868

Chen, Fang; Srinivasa Reddy, Marry S; Temple, Stephen; Jackson, Lisa; Shadle, Gail; Dixon, Richard A

2006-10-01

111

Modulation of iNOS expression by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the natural antioxidant ferulic acid in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that NCX 2057, a new chemical entity bearing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety linked to the natural antioxidant ferulic acid, shows marked anti-inflammatory properties in a model of chronic brain inflammation. We have now studied the effects of NCX 2057 and its metabolic products, ferulic acid and NCX 2059, on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and function in lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/IFNgamma)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. NCX 2057 inhibited iNOS mRNA and protein expression (IC(50)=6.2+/-1.0 microM) without altering iNOS protein degradation rate. NCX 2057 also decreased the levels of LPS/IFNgamma-induced nitrite accumulation (IC(50)=4.3+/-0.7 microM) in RAW 264.7 cells. Conversely, NCX 2059, which does not possess NO-donating properties, was only weakly effective (IC(50) >100 microM) and ferulic acid was inactive. To understand further the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory properties we studied the effects of NCX 2057 on selected transcription factors. Unlike ferulic acid, NCX 2057 inhibited LPS-induced translocation/activation of the nuclear factor, NF-kappaB, while other transcription factors, such as, Sp1, NF-IL2A and STAT-1 were not affected. The present data support the concept that NO adds important anti-inflammatory properties to ferulic acid. Thus, NCX 2057 represents a new prototype drug for the treatment of disorders associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:16443213

Ronchetti, Daniela; Impagnatiello, Francesco; Guzzetta, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Laura; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto; Ongini, Ennio

2006-02-17

112

A comparative study of the radical-scavenging activity of the phenolcarboxylic acids caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, with or without 2-mercaptoethanol, a thiol, using the induction period method.  

PubMed

Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione), a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP) method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R(.)) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO(.)) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Upon PhCOO(. )radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant) for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R(.) radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (k(inh)/k(p)) declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME) mixture (1:1 molar ratio) (A) to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME) (B) was investigated. Upon R(.) scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO(.) scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid/ME mixture was approximately 1. The reported beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid may be related to their prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the presence of GSH. PMID:18923340

Kadoma, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

2008-01-01

113

Association of non-starch polysaccharides and ferulic acid in grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) dietary fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

), and non-starch polysaccharides was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble amaranth fiber released several feruloylated oligosaccharides that were separated using Sephadex LH-20-chromato- graphy and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Three compounds were unambiguously identified: O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1fi4)-D-galactopyra- nose, O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-a-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(1fi5)-L-arabinofuranose, and O-a-L-arabinofura- nosyl-(1fi3)-O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-a-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(1fi5)-L-arabinofuranose. These feruloy- lated oligosaccharides show that ferulic acid is predominantly bound to pectic arabinans and galactans in amaranth insoluble

Mirko Bunzel; John Ralph; Hans Steinhart

2005-01-01

114

A study on synthesis of starch ferulate and its biological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch esterified with ferulic acid (starch ferulate) was synthesized and its food and biological properties were determined. Starch ferulate showed lower viscosity, higher water-holding capacity, and much less retrogradation during low temperature storage than native starch. It was only partly hydrolyzed (less than 10%) by diastase and the bound ferulic acid was largely released by colonic microorganisms. The rate of

Shiyi Ou

2001-01-01

115

Simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma by HPLC and their pharmacokinetic application in danxiongfang.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on an Agilent HC-C(18) column using a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (from 20:80 to 80:20, v/v) containing 0.5% (v/v) glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was employing gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The method showed good linearity and no endogenous material interfered with the marked compounds and I.S. peaks. The limit of quantification of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA were 0.1, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. The average extract recoveries of the four compounds from rabbit plasma were all over 60%. The precisions determined from 5 days were all within 10%. The established method has been successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study and drug interaction of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA in rabbits after intravenous administration of danxiongfang, a useful compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:17560063

Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhang; Xu, Yanxia; Xue, Ming

2007-09-01

116

Comparison of ferulic acid content in Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Danggui-Buxue-Tang and Danggui-Sini-Tang  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the ferulic acid (FA) content of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (AS), Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) and Danggui-Sini-Tang (DST) using the same ultra performance liquid chromatography system and method. FA was eluted using an Acquity BEH C18 column (100×2.1 mm inner diameter; 1.7 ?m). A mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid was used and a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was selected. The calibration curve exhibited a good linear regression (R2=0.9997). The inter- and intra-day precision measurements of FA ranged between 0.27 and 3.03% and the recovery ranged between 98.44 and 101.64% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ?4.73%. The method was reliable and simple. The results of the chromatographic analyses indicate that the FA contents of the DBT and DST decoctions were increased compared with that of AS due to the presence of other herbs.

YAO, JIA-MEI; YU, LI-JIN; CHEN, QIONG; CHEN, ZE-QI; WANG, DONG-SHENG; QIU, XIN-JIAN; ZHAO, LIN-LIN

2014-01-01

117

Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-?, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 ?M). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-?-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-?-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-?-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-?-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

2014-07-01

118

Molecular structure, spectroscopic studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of ferulic acid by density functional study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of ferulic acid (FA) (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP/BLYP) method with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment ( ?) and the first hyperpolarizability ( ?) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the FA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of FA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for the title molecule have been constructed.

Sebastian, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Manoharan, S.

2009-10-01

119

On the Origin of the Methyl Radical Loss from Deprotonated Ferulic and Isoferulic Acids: Electronic Excitation of a Transient Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of radical fragments from even-electron ions is an exception to the "even-electron rule". In this work, ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (IFA) were used as the model compounds to probe the fragmentation mechanisms and the isomeric effects on homolytic cleavage. Elimination of methyl radical and CO2 are the two competing reactions observed in the CID-MS of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-, of which losing methyl radical violates the "even-electron rule". The relative intensity of their product ions is significantly different, and thereby the two isomeric compounds can be differentiated by tandem MS. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the singlet-triplet gap and the excitation energy decrease in the transient structures, as the breaking C-O bond is lengthened. The methyl radical elimination has been rationalized as the intramolecular electronic excitation of a transient structure with an elongating C-O bond. The potential energy diagrams, completed by the addition of the energy barrier of the radical elimination, have provided a reasonable explanation of the different CID-MS behaviors of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-.

Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lv, Huiqing; Wu, Yanqing; Bian, Gaofeng; Jiang, Kezhi

2013-06-01

120

Physiological and Biochemical Tools Useful in Drought-Tolerance Detection in Genotypes of Winter Triticale: Accumulation of Ferulic Acid Correlates with Drought Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a classification of triticale genotypes into drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive types based on field performance trials correlates with a classification based on measurements of some physiological and biochemical parameters in greenhouse conditions. In addition, an examination was carried out of whether ferulic acid, as the main origin of the blue fluorescence produced, contributes to drought tolerance. Methods Ten winter triticale genotypes were examined, five known to be drought tolerant and five drought sensitive. Measurements of the osmotic potential, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and blue and red fluorescence were performed. In addition, analysis of the total pool of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid as well as the measurements of PAL (l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) activity were carried out. Key Results In agreement with field trials, three out of five cultivars (‘Lamberto’, ‘Timbo’ and ‘Piano’) were classified as drought tolerant. However, in the case of cultivar ‘Babor’, included in the group of drought-sensitive cultivars, the values obtained for some measured parameters were close to (Fv?/Fm?, phenolics content, osmotic potential) or even better than (non-photochemical quenching, red and blue fluorescence, ferulic acid content) those for drought-tolerant genotypes. Cultivars ‘Imperial’, ‘Ticino’, ‘Trimaran’ and ‘Boreas’ were included in the drought-sensitive group, whereas cultivars ‘Focus’ and ‘Kitaro’ were included in the moderately sensitive group. Conclusions The experiments confirmed that the period of flowering, the critical phase for plants as far as water demand is concerned, is suitable for plant screening and differentiation due to their tolerance to drought. The most important criteria which enabled creation of the ranking list of plants, from those sensitive to drought to those tolerant to drought, were the ability to perform the process of osmoregulation, the efficiency of the utilization of excitation energy by the photosynthetic apparatus and the functioning of protective mechanisms involving the level of ferulic acid in leaf tissues.

Hura, Tomasz; Grzesiak, Stanislaw; Hura, Katarzyna; Thiemt, Elisabeth; Tokarz, Krzysztof; Wedzony, Maria

2007-01-01

121

Pharmacokinetic study of the prokinetic compounds meranzin hydrate and ferulic acid following oral administration of Chaihu-Shugan-San to patients with functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe prokinetic activity of ferulic acid derived from Ligusticum chuanxiong hort in the Chaihu-Shugan-San formula has been shown to be similar to Chaihu-Shugan-San, a popular traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional dyspepsia. The effects of meranzin hydrate, a compound isolated from Fructus aurantii in the Chaihu-Shugan-San formula, are unclear, as the pharmacokinetics have never been studied in

Xin-Jian Qiu; Xi Huang; Ze-Qi Chen; Ping Ren; Wei Huang; Feng Qin; Si-Hang Hu; Jun Huang; Juan He; Zhao-Qian Liu; Hong-Hao Zhou

2011-01-01

122

Simultaneous analysis of glycyrrhizin, paeoniflorin, quercetin, ferulic acid, liquiritin, formononetin, benzoic acid and isoliquiritigenin in the Chinese proprietary medicine Xiao Yao Wan by HPLC.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode-array detection method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid, quercetin, ferulic acid, formononetin, liquiritin and isoliquiritigenin in the Chinese proprietary medicine "Xiao Yao Wan" (XYW). The analysis was performed by reverse phase gradient elution, using an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) modified by acetonitrile and detection made simultaneously at four wavelengths. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and quantification. Ten batches of XYW obtained from different pharmaceutical companies were analyzed and found to contain different amounts of the eight bioactive markers. This method could be used for quality assessment of this herbal medicine. PMID:17709224

Xie, Junbo; Wang, Wenquan; Zhang, Yanqing; Bai, Yin; Yang, Quan

2007-11-01

123

In vitro antioxidant activities, free radical scavenging capacity, and tyrosinase inhibitory of flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames.  

PubMed

In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g) and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g) content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis. PMID:24739930

Liang, Chung Pin; Chang, Chia Hao; Liang, Chien Cheng; Hung, Kuei Yu; Hsieh, Chang Wei

2014-01-01

124

Ferulic acid-induced anti-depression and prokinetics similar to Chaihu-Shugan-San via polypharmacology.  

PubMed

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), one of popular antidepressants as "one-compound-one-target" paradigm, cannot but discontinue because of inhibiting gut movement. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Chaihu-Sugan-San (CSS) can simultaneously exert anti-depression and prokinetics. From this thread, we aimed to find a new antidepressant with polypharmacological mechanisms. In vivo antidepressive and prokinetic comparisons between CSS and its absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA) were made. And FA's action mechanisms involved in monoaminergic systems, HPA axis and gastrointestinal peptide ghrelin was then studied in forced swimming test (FST) of rat. Lastly, the jejunal contraction activity evoked by FA was measured in vitro. Compared with vehicle, FA reduced immobility time, increased locomotor activity, accelerated gastric emptying and intestinal transit similar to CSS whose absorbable component FA was identified in hippocampus and jejunum. FA's prokinetics in vivo was further supported by its jejunal contraction in vitro. FA-induced anti-immobility was prevented by pretreated with PCPA, WAY-100635, ketanserin, sulpiride, SCH233390, haloperidol and yohimbine, respectively. CRH, ACTH and 5-HT were significantly decreased, but ghrelin was apparently increased compared with vehicle. In summary, FA induced anti-depression and prokinetics similar to CSS via inhibiting serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptakes, regulating HPA axis, increasing ghrelin and stimulating jejunal contraction simultaneously. PMID:21791239

Zhang, Ying-jin; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Xie, Ying; Qiu, Xin-jiang; Ren, Ping; Gao, Li-chen; Zhou, Hong-hao; Zhang, Hui-yun; Qiao, Ming-Qi

2011-10-10

125

Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization  

PubMed Central

Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain.

Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L.; Labbe, Alain; Prakash, Satya

2012-01-01

126

In vivo pharmacokinetic comparisons of ferulic acid and puerarin after oral administration of monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and Nao-De-Sheng to rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Nao-De-Sheng decoction (NDS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription containing Radix puerariae lobatae, Floscarthami, Radix et Rhizoma Notoginseng, Rhizoma chuanxiong and Fructus crataegi, is effective in the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis, ischemic cerebral stroke and apoplexy linger effect. Ferulic acid and puerarin are the main absorbed effective ingredients of NDS. Objective: To assess the affection of other components in medical material and compound recipe compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of ferulaic acid and puerarin, of ferulic acid from the monomer Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract and NDS were studied. And pharmacokinetics comparisons of puerarin from the monomer Radix puerariae extract and NDS decoction were investigated simultaneously. Materials and Methods: At respective different time points after oral administration of the monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and NDS at the same dose in rats, plasma concentrations of ferulic acid and puerarin in rats were determined by RP-HPLC, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with 3P97 software. Results: The plasma concentration-time curves of ferulaic acid and puerarin were both best fitted with a two-compartment model. AUC0?t, AUC0??, Tmax, and Cmax of ferulic acid in the monomer and NDS decoction were increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with that in Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract. And statistically signi?cant increase (P < 0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin including AUC0?t, AUC0??, CL, Tmax and Cmax were obtained after oral administration of puerarin monomer compared with Radix puerariae extract. Although the changes of AUC0?t, AUC0?? and CL had no statistically significant, Cmax of puerarin in NDS was increased remarkably (P < 0.05) compared with that in single puerarin. Conclusions: Some ingredients of Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix puerariae may be suggested to remarkably influence plasma concentrations of ferulaic acid and puerarin. Some ingredients in NDS may increase dissolution and absorption of ferulaic acid and puerarin, delay elimination, and subsequently enhance bioavailability of ferulaic acid and puerarin in rats after compatibility.

Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Tang, Jianming; Pan, Lulin

2012-01-01

127

Ferulic acid increases pain threshold and ameliorates depression-like behaviors in reserpine-treated mice: behavioral and neurobiological analyses.  

PubMed

Depression-pain dyad involves a series of pathological changes including the dysfunction of neuroendocrine and immune networks. Depression and pain influence each other, but the mechanisms are still obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors in mice. The results showed that reserpine (1 mg/kg for 3 days, i.p.) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold in thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, as well as a significant increase in the immobility time in mouse models of despair test. The neurochemical assays suggested the decreased neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) along with the increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic parameters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the reserpinised mice. Treatment with FA (40 or 80 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the behavioral abnormalities and decreased norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex induced by reserpine. The higher dose of FA effectively antagonized the oxidative and nitrosative stress and inflammation as evidenced by down-regulated nitrite, LPO, IL-1?, TNF-?, and up-regulated GSH and SOD. Furthermore, FA produced a dose dependent decrease in substance P, NF-?? p65 and caspase-3 levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of reserpinised mice. The findings suggest that FA exerts the effects on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors through regulating monoaminergic system, oxidative/antioxidant defense, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. Understanding the mechanism by which FA ameliorates depression and pain as a multi-targeted compound could open new avenues for the development of innovative treatments for depression coupled with pain. PMID:23584961

Xu, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Shao, Tuo; Ruan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Zhu, Xinbo; O'Donnell, James M; Pan, Jianchun

2013-12-01

128

Effects of dietary supplementation of ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol on integument color and suppression of oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream, Pagrus major.  

PubMed

The effects of ferulic acid (FA) and gamma-oryzanol (OZ) supplementation on cultured red sea bream were examined. Commercial brown fish meal diets supplemented with FA (0.01-0.5%) or OZ (0.05-0.5%) were given to zero-year, cultured red sea bream for 98 days. After the experiment, the brightness of the integument color ("L" value) of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was higher than that of control fish. Furthermore, 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was lower than in control fish. These results indicate that FA and OZ suppressed not only dark-color pigmentation but also oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream. PMID:18198470

Maoka, Takashi; Tanimoto, Fumio; Sano, Mitsuhiko; Tsurukawa, Kanji; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsujiwaki, Satomi; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Takii, Kenji

2008-01-01

129

Neuroprotective efficacy of a combination of fish oil and ferulic acid against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in rats: behavioural and biochemical evidence.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on the central nervous system have been adequately demonstrated. However, FO supplementation at higher doses for longer duration is likely to cause oxidative stress in vivo. To overcome this, attempts have been made to enrich FO with known antioxidants/phytochemicals. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that a combination of FO with ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring phenolic compound, is likely to provide higher degree of neuroprotection. This was examined by employing 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), a well-known neurotoxin used to mimic behavioural and neurochemical features of Huntington's disease. Growing male rats administered with NPA (25 mg/kg of body weight (bw) for 4 days) were provided with either FO (2 mL/kg bw), FA (50 mg/kg bw) or FO+FA for 2 weeks. Interestingly, FO+FA not only offered significant protection against NPA-induced behavioural impairments, but also markedly attenuated oxidative stress in brain regions (striatum/cerebellum) as evidenced by the reduction in reactive species, malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Further, FO+FA combination restored the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and the levels of cytosolic calcium. In striatum, activity levels of acetylcholinesterase enzyme and dopamine levels were markedly restored among FO+FA rats. Interestingly, NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions were also attenuated among FO+FA rats. Collectively, our findings suggest the advantage of co-treatment of FO with known antioxidants to achieve a higher therapeutic benefit in the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:24669991

K M, Denny Joseph; Muralidhara

2014-04-01

130

Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

2010-08-01

131

Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples.  

PubMed

An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (ks) and electron-transfer coefficient (?) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24s(-1), and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49×10(-8)molL(-1) to 3.89×10(-5)molL(-1) with detection limit of 2.06×10(-8)molL(-1). This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%. PMID:25063114

Liu, Linjie; Gou, Yuqiang; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Li, Yingdong

2014-09-01

132

Preparative isolation and purification of senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid from Rhizoma Chuanxiong using counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

Three active compounds, senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid (FA), were successfully isolated and purified from the extracts of Rhizoma Chuanxiong by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Based on the principle of the partition coefficient values (k) for target compounds and the separation factor (?) between target compounds, the two-phase solvent system that contains n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 3:7:4:6 v/v was selected for the CCC separation, and the lower phase was employed as the mobile phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. In a single run, 400 mg of the crude extract yielded pure senkyunolide-I (6.4 mg), senkyunolide-H (1.7 mg) and FA (4.4 mg) with the purities of 98, 93 and 99%, respectively. The CCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the structures of the three active compounds were identified by MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:22052814

Wei, Yun; Hu, Jia; Li, Hao; Liu, Jiangang

2011-12-01

133

Pharmacokinetic comparison of the vasorelaxant compound ferulic acid following the administration of Guanxin II to healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10?8?10?3 M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2?, t1/2? and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris.

LI, YUN-HUI; HUANG, XI; WANG, YANG; FAN, RONG; ZHANG, HONG-MIN; REN, PING; CHEN, YAO; ZHOU, HONG-HAO; LIU, ZHAO-QIAN; LIANG, YI-ZENG; LU, HONG-MEI

2013-01-01

134

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

135

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Bioactive Compound Ferulic Acid Contained in Oldenlandia diffusa on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study aimed to identify the active compounds in Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) decoction and the compounds absorbed into plasma, and to determine whether the absorbed compounds derived from OD exerted any anti-inflammatory effects in rats with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. The UPLC-PDA (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Photo-Diode Array) method was applied to identify the active compounds both in the decoction and rat plasma. The absorbable compound was administered to the CIA rats, and the effects were dynamically observed. X-ray films of the joints and HE stain of synovial tissues were analyzed. The levels of IL-1? and TNF-? in the rats from each group were measured by means of ELISA. The absorbed compound in the plasma of CIA rats was identified as ferulic acid (FA), following OD decoction administration. Two weeks after the administration of FA solution or OD decoction, the general conditions improved compared to the model group. The anti-inflammatory effect of FA was inferior to that of the OD decoction (P < 0.05), based on a comparison of IL-1? TNF-? levels. FA from the OD decoction was absorbed into the body of CIA rats, where it elicited anti-inflammatory responses in rats with CIA. Conclusions. These results suggest that FA is the bioactive compound in OD decoction, and FA exerts its effects through anti-inflammatory pathways.

Zhu, Hao; Liang, Qing-Hua; Xiong, Xin-Gui; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dan; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xi

2014-01-01

136

The abundant dietary constituent ferulic acid forms a wide range of metabolites including a glutathione adduct when incubated with rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

1. The metabolism of ferulic acid (FA) has been studied in a number of different systems and several metabolites of FA have been characterised. No previous work has been carried out using hepatocytes to characterise the metabolism of FA. 2. A metabolomics approach in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterise the metabolites of FA formed in isolated rat hepatocytes. FA was incubated with rat hepatocytes and the metabolites formed were profiled at 30 and 120 minutes. The metabolites were characterised according to their accurate mass at <2 ppm using Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS). 3. Sixteen metabolites of FA were identified. The most abundant metabolite was the sulphate of FA and this was followed by FA glucuronide and glycine conjugates. A wide range of low level metabolites were produced in the hepatocyte incubations. Novel metabolites resulted from side chain oxidation. 4. In addition, a glutathione (GSH) adduct of FA was formed. Incubation of a solution of FA with GSH also resulted in formation of this adduct indicating that it could be formed purely by a chemical reaction. Thus the metabolism of FA in rat hepatocytes is more complex than previously described. PMID:24195590

Omar, Khaled; Grant, M Helen; Henderson, Catherine; Watson, David G

2014-05-01

137

Determination of ferulic acid by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis based on enhancement of the N-bromobutanimide-eosin-CrCl3 system in alkaline solution.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) based on the significant enhancement effect of FA on the CL signal of the N-bromobutanimide (NBS)-eosin-CrCl3 system in alkaline solution. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity is linearly related to the concentration of FA in its pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples. The corresponding linear regression equations were established over the 4.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-7) g/mL for FA tablets and 2.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-7) g/mL for plasma samples. The limit of detection for FA tablets and limit of quantification for plasma samples were 2.8 × 10(-10) g/mL (3 ?) and 3.04 × 10(-10) g/mL (10 ?), respectively. A complete analysis could be performed within 40 s, including washing and sampling, giving a throughput of ?90/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FA in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples with satisfactory results. The recoveries of pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples at three different concentrations were 97.8-102.6% and 96.7-104.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reactions was also discussed briefly. PMID:23436468

Shen, Guopeng; Jia, Xin; Jin, Jianwen; Pang, Li; Chen, Zheng; Du, Bin

2013-01-01

138

NCX 2057, a novel NO-releasing derivative of ferulic acid, suppresses inflammatory and nociceptive responses in in vitro and in vivo models  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: We previously reported that NCX 2057, a compound comprising a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moiety and the natural antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA), inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators through NO-mediated gene regulation. Here, we have assessed the activities of NCX 2057 in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and characterized its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Experimental approach: Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of NCX 2057 were measured in vitro and in vivo in models of inflammatory (carrageenan) and neuropathic (chronic constriction injury; CCI) pain. Effects of NCX 2057 were measured on COX-1 and COX-2 activities in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Key results: NCX 2057 dose-dependently inhibited single motor unit responses to noxious mechanical stimulation (ID50= 100 µmol·kg?1) and wind-up responses in rats with paw inflammation induced by carrageenan. Moreover, NCX 2057 inhibited allodynic responses following CCI of the sciatic nerve [ipsilateral Paw Withdrawal Threshold (g): vehicle: 41.4 ± 3.3; NCX 2057: 76.3 ± 4.8 FA: 37.9 ± 15.5 at 175 µmol·kg?1]. NCX 2057 reversed carrageenan-induced hyperalgesic responses in mice and inhibited prostaglandin E2 formation in paw exudates. Finally, NCX 2057 competitively inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 activities in whole RAW macophages (IC50= 14.7 ± 7.4 and 21.6 ± 7.5 µM, respectively). None of these properties were exhibited by equivalent treatments with FA or standard NO donor compounds. Conclusions and implications: These studies indicate that NCX 2057 is effective in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, probably because of its particular combination of anti-COX, antioxidant and NO-releasing properties.

Ronchetti, Daniela; Borghi, Valentina; Gaitan, Gema; Herrero, Juan F; Impagnatiello, Francesco

2009-01-01

139

Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ferulic Acid in Normal and Blood Deficiency Rats after Oral Administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Their Combination  

PubMed Central

Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC(0–t) and Cmax of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t1/2?, Vd, AUC(0–t) and AUC(0–?) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome.

Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2012-01-01

140

Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.  

PubMed

In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results. PMID:24907546

Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

2014-07-01

141

An automated dual-gradient liquid chromatography-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

An automated on-line SPE and innovative fast polarity switch bioanalysis method employing dual-gradient liquid chromatography (DGLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (DGLC-MS/MS) was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma after administration of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis extract or monomer. The proteins in plasma samples were precipitated using acetonitrile: methanol (1:1, v/v). Sulfamethoxazole was used as an internal standard. The DGLC system contains two high-pressure pumps. The first pump was used for on-line solid phase extraction with a Cyclone™ SPE column. Chromatographic separations were performed with the other pump on a Syncronis C18 rapid analytical column. The analytical column was eluted by a gradient program that featured an acetonitrile/methanol/water gradient (flow-rate, 0.4ml/min). DGLC afforded greater convenience for bioanalysis. All analytes were simultaneously monitored in positive- and negative-ion mode by SRM (selective reaction monitoring) using the fast polarity switch speed of TSQ Vantage™. Method validation of the assay was implemented. No significant matrix effect was observed. The LLOQ of all analytes were <1.0ng/ml. The precision, recovery and linearity of the analysis met the pre-established requirements. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in Rhizoma Chuanxiong or Angelica sinensis extracts or monomers. PMID:24140450

Zeng, Mingfei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yifang; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Yan, Renjie

2014-01-25

142

Trametes sp. as a source of biopolymer cross-linking agents: laccase induced gelation of ferulated arabinoxylans.  

PubMed

This study examined the feasibility of using Trametes sp. grown under drought conditions to catalyze the covalent cross-linking of ferulated arabinoxylans. The rate of polymerization of ferulated arabinoxylans solutions at 0.5% (w/v) was dose dependent on the laccase concentration in the system. Above 1.2 nkat laccase/mg ferulated arabinoxylan, the rate of cross-linking reached a plateau, suggesting that the reaction reached saturation. For 2% (w/v) ferulated arabinoxylans treated with laccase (1.6 nkat/mg ferulated arabinoxylan), stable gels were formed after 4 h at 25 degrees C, with cross-linking contents (diferulic and triferulic acid) contents of 0.03 and 0.015 microg/mg ferulated arabinoxylan, respectively. This study demonstrated that Trametes sp. can be a source of biopolymer cross-linking enzymes like laccase. PMID:19924054

Castillo, Alva; Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Vargas, Georgina; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Martínez, Ana Luisa

2009-01-01

143

Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

2010-01-01

144

Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA.

Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

2011-01-01

145

Acid protease from Trichoderma reesei : limited proteolysis of fungal carbohydrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms regulating post-secretory limited proteolysis, carried out by the acid protease from Trichoderma reesei, were studied by following the release of ?-galactosidase and multiple forms of cellobiohydrolase from this species. Both\\u000a the rate of the proteolysis and the mode of action of the protease were affected by the pH of the culture medium, and only\\u000a weakly depended on the amount

E. V. Eneyskaya; A. A. Kulminskaya; A. N. Savel'ev; N. V. Savel'eva; K. A. Shabalin; K. N. Neustroev

1999-01-01

146

Fatty acid composition and dynamics of selected fungal-feeding nematodes and fungi.  

PubMed

Fatty acid profiles of fungal-feeding nematodes, Aphelenchus avenae and Aphelenchoides composticola, and selected fungi were determined in microcosm cultures of agar, broth, or sand amended with organic matter. Fatty acids of A. avenae and A. composticola included 16:0 18:0, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega9, 18:2, 20:0, 20:1, 20:2, 20:3 and 20:4 phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFAs). The nematodes differed in relative amounts of saturated and C(18) fatty acids. Similar C(16) and C(18) PLFAs and whole-cell fatty acids were found in Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma sp. with 18:2omega6 as the major component. The C(20) fatty acids were not found in these fungi. Although only present in the nematodes, C(20) PLFAs were only detected when nematode population levels were > or =22 per gram of sand, suggesting that there is a detection threshold that might limit their use as biomarkers in the soil community. After removal of nematodes from a food source, the relative amount of C(20) PLFAs (structural components of nematode cell membranes) decreased more slowly than the C(16) and C(18) PLFAs, which may have reflected ingested fungal cytoplasm in the nematode intestine. In the early stage of organic matter decomposition, total and fungal PLFAs were lower in the presence of A. composticola then in its absence at C:N ratios > or =30:1. PMID:11544084

Chen, J; Ferris, H; Scow, K M; Graham, K J

2001-09-01

147

Determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, ferulic acid, nodakenin, and glycyrrhizin by HPLC-PDA, and evaluation of the cytotoxicity of Palmul-tang, a traditional Korean herbal medicine.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for quantitative analysis of seven components, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (1), albiflorin (2), paeoniflorin (3), liquiritin (4), ferulic acid (5), nodakenin (6), and glycyrrhizin (7) of Palmul-tang (PMT), a traditional Korean medicine. HPLC analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column at 40°C, and photodiode array (PDA) detection at 230 nm, 254 nm, 280 nm, 320 nm, and 330 nm was used for quantification of the seven components in PMT. The mobile phase was a gradient flow composed of two solvent systems. Solvent A was 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and solvent B was acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid. Calibration curves were acquired with r (2) values > 0.9998, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) for intra- and interday precision were both less than 6.0%. The recovery of each component was in the range of 90.66-103.79%, with a RSD less than 5.0%. The contents of the seven components in PMT range form 0.61-6.21 mg/g. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the extract against the RBL-1 and BEAS-2B cell lines, as well as splenocytes. PMID:22297748

Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Mee-Young; Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Jin-Ah; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

148

Fungal hallucinogens psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol: analytical methods and biologic activities.  

PubMed

Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of "magic mushrooms." The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed. PMID:23851905

Stebelska, Katarzyna

2013-08-01

149

Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging, and NF-kappaB-inhibitory activities of phytosteryl ferulates: structure-activity studies.  

PubMed

Some of the pharmacological properties of phytosteryl ferulates may be linked to their antioxidant potential. In this study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), electron spin resonance (ESR), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assays demonstrated that phytosteryl ferulates such as cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF), and beta-sitosteryl ferulate (beta-SF) and ferulic acid (FA) each exerted strong free radical scavenging and antioxidation of lipid membrane, which were comparable to alpha-tocopherol. However, the sterol moiety alone, such as cycloartenol (CA), had neither activity. Since, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell complex defense mechanism cannot be ruled out with the cell free system, we measured ROS production in NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells induced by H(2)O(2). CAF and ethyl ferulate (eFA) greatly decreased the ROS level in this system. CA also significantly inhibited the ROS level, suggesting that CA could inhibit ROS production in living cells. Besides these, CAF, 24-mCAF, beta-SF, as well as eFA and CA, all these chemicals significantly inhibited the NF-kappaB activity as analyzed by measuring translocation of NF-kappaB p65 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These observations revealed that phytosteryl ferulates are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via ROS scavenging and inhibition of ROS production. PMID:19942803

Islam, Md Shafiqul; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Naoaki; Ono, Kenichiro; Nagasaka, Reiko; Ushio, Hideki; Guo, Ying; Hiramatsu, Toshiyuki; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Murata, Takahisa; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

2009-12-01

150

Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria.

Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

2013-01-01

151

Expanding the cyanuric acid hydrolase protein family to the fungal kingdom.  

PubMed

The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

Dodge, Anthony G; Preiner, Chelsea S; Wackett, Lawrence P

2013-12-01

152

Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed.

Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.

2013-01-01

153

Distribution and stable isotopic composition of amino acids from fungal peptaibiotics: assessing the potential for meteoritic contamination.  

PubMed

The presence of nonprotein ?-dialkyl-amino acids such as ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of ?-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the ?-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four ?-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C(4) and C(5) amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids. PMID:21417942

Elsila, Jamie E; Callahan, Michael P; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Brückner, Hans

2011-03-01

154

Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2014-08-01

155

Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.  

PubMed

Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils. PMID:19840995

Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

2009-12-01

156

Fungal production of citric and oxalic acid: importance in metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical processes.  

PubMed

The production of organic acids by fungi has profound implications for metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical cycles. Biosynthesis of oxalic acid from glucose occurs by hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate catalysed by cytosolic oxaloacetase, whereas on citric acid, oxalate production occurs by means of glyoxylate oxidation. Citric acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with metals greatly influencing biosynthesis: growth limiting concentrations of Mn, Fe and Zn are important for high yields. The metal-complexing properties of these organic acids assist both essential metal and anionic (e.g. phosphate) nutrition of fungi, other microbes and plants, and determine metal speciation and mobility in the environment, including transfer between terrestrial and aquatic habitats, biocorrosion and weathering. Metal solubilization processes are also of potential for metal recovery and reclamation from contaminated solid wastes, soils and low-grade ores. Such 'heterotrophic leaching' can occur by several mechanisms but organic acids occupy a central position in the overall process, supplying both protons and a metal-complexing organic acid anion. Most simple metal oxalates [except those of alkali metals, Fe(III) and Al] are sparingly soluble and precipitate as crystalline or amorphous solids. Calcium oxalate is the most important manifestation of this in the environment and, in a variety of crystalline structures, is ubiquitously associated with free-living, plant symbiotic and pathogenic fungi. The main forms are the monohydrate (whewellite) and the dihydrate (weddelite) and their formation is of significance in biomineralization, since they affect nutritional heterogeneity in soil, especially Ca, P, K and Al cycling. The formation of insoluble toxic metal oxalates, e.g. of Cu, may confer tolerance and ensure survival in contaminated environments. In semi-arid environments, calcium oxalate formation is important in the formation and alteration of terrestrial subsurface limestones. Oxalate also plays an important role in lignocellulose degradation and plant pathogenesis, affecting activities of key enzymes and metal oxido-reduction reactions, therefore underpinning one of the most fundamental roles of fungi in carbon cycling in the natural environment. This review discusses the physiology and chemistry of citric and oxalic acid production in fungi, the intimate association of these acids and processes with metal speciation, physiology and mobility, and their importance and involvement in key fungal-mediated processes, including lignocellulose degradation, plant pathogenesis and metal biogeochemistry. PMID:10500844

Gadd, G M

1999-01-01

157

Effect of Asafoetida Extract on Growth and Quality of Pleurotus ferulic  

PubMed Central

Different concentrations of asafoetida extract were added to the medium of Pleurotus ferulic and the effects of the extract on growth of P. ferulic mycelium and fruiting bodies was observed. As the amount of asafoetida extract additive was increased, the growth of Pleurotus mycelium was faster, the time formation of buds was shorter and that yield of fruiting bodies was stimulated. However, overdosing of asafoetida extract hampered the growth of Pleurotus ferulic. The amino acid composition and volatile components in three kinds of pleurotus’ were contrasted, including wild pleurotus (WP), cultivated pleurotus with asafoetida extract (CPAE) and cultivated pleurotus without asafoetida extract (CP). CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g asafoetida extract addition had the highest content of total amino acids, as well as essential amino acids. WP had a higher content of total amino acids and essential amino acids than CP. In addition, CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g had the highest score of protein content of pleurotus fruiting bodies, while WP had a higher score than CP. In the score of essential amino acid components of pleurotus fruiting bodies, CP had the highest score, while CPAE was higher than WP. Asafoetida extract influenced the volatile components of Pleurotus ferulic greatly, making the volatile components of cultivated pleurotus more similar to those of wild pleurotus (WP).

Feng, Zuoshan; Bai, Yujia; Lu, Fanglin; Huang, Wenshu; Li, Xinmin; Hu, Xiaosong

2009-01-01

158

Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production.  

PubMed

A combined hydrolysis process, which first mixed dilute acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover at a 1:1 (w/w) ratio, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without pH adjustment, has been developed in this study in order to minimize the need of neutralization, detoxification, and washing during the process of lignocellulosic biofuel production. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the combined hydrolysate as well as a synthetic medium to compare fungal lipid accumulation and biodiesel production in both shake flask and 7.5L fermentor. Fungal cultivation on combined hydrolysate exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid yield with those from synthetic medium, indicating that the integration of combined hydrolysis with oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation has great potential to improve performance of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24768942

Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Archer, Steven; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

2014-07-01

159

Berkelic acid, a novel spiroketal with selective anticancer activity from an acid mine waste fungal extremophile.  

PubMed

Berkeley Pit Lake is an abandoned open-pit copper mine filled with 30 billion gallons of acidic, metal-contaminated water. This harsh environment is proving to be a source of unusual microorganisms that produce novel bioactive metabolites. Bioassay-guided fractionation using signal transduction enzyme assays led to the isolation of the novel spiroketal, berkelic acid 1, and of the known gamma-pyrone, spiciferone A 4. Berkelic acid has shown selective, nanomolar activity against OVCAR-3, an ovarian cancer cell line in the National Cancer Institute cell line screen. The isolation and characterization of these compounds are reported here. PMID:16808526

Stierle, Andrea A; Stierle, Donald B; Kelly, Kal

2006-07-01

160

Grass cell wall feruloylation: distribution of bound ferulate and candidate gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

The cell walls of grasses such as wheat, maize, rice, and sugar cane, contain large amounts of ferulate that is ester-linked to the cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX). This ferulate is considered to limit the digestibility of polysaccharide in grass biomass as it forms covalent linkages between polysaccharide and lignin components. Candidate genes within a grass-specific clade of the BAHD acyl-coA transferase superfamily have been identified as being responsible for the ester linkage of ferulate to GAX. Manipulation of these BAHD genes may therefore be a biotechnological target for increasing efficiency of conversion of grass biomass into biofuel. Here, we describe the expression of these candidate genes and amounts of bound ferulate from various tissues and developmental stages of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. BAHD candidate transcripts and significant amounts of bound ferulate were present in every tissue and developmental stage. We hypothesize that BAHD candidate genes similar to the recently described Oryza sativa p-coumarate monolignol transferase (OsPMT) gene (PMT sub-clade) are principally responsible for the bound para-coumaric acid (pCA), and that other BAHD candidates (non-PMT sub-clade) are responsible for bound ferulic acid (FA). There were some similarities with between the ratio of expression non-PMT/PMT genes and the ratio of bound FA/pCA between tissue types, compatible with this hypothesis. However, much further work to modify BAHD genes in grasses and to characterize the heterologously expressed proteins is required to demonstrate their function.

Molinari, Hugo B. C.; Pellny, Till K.; Freeman, Jackie; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.

2013-01-01

161

Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets  

PubMed Central

Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary interaction with the SA signaling pathway.

2012-01-01

162

Isolation of campesteryl ferulate and epi-campesteryl ferulate, two components of ?-oryzanol from rice bran.  

PubMed

Campesteryl ferulate (3a, 24R/?) and epi-campesteryl ferulate (3b, 24S/?), components of rice bran ?-oryzanol, were isolated by the preparative recycle HPLC system using a combination of ODS silica and cholester packed columns at over 99% purity. Their purities and structures of 3a and 3b thus obtained were confirmed by HPLC analysis and physical data (1H- and 13C-NMR, MS spectra, and X-ray crystallography). PMID:23563552

Bao, Yuhua; Yanase, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

163

Structural elucidation of acidic fungal polysaccharides isolated from the cell-wall of genera Cylindrocladium and Calonectria.  

PubMed

The structure of acidic fungal polysaccharides, isolated from the cell wall of Cylindrocladium and Calonectria species, has been investigated by chemical analysis, methylation and reductive cleavage analyses, and 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharides have an idealized repeating unit: [formula: see text] linked to a small mannan core (< 5%), with n = 3 for Cylindrocladium penicilloides and C. quinqueseptatum and n = 5 for Calonectria theae, C. crotalariae, and C. colhounii. PMID:9345753

Ahrazem, O; Prieto, A; Leal, J A; Gómez-Miranda, B; Domenech, J; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Bernabé, M

1997-08-25

164

Anti-inflammatory effects of phytosteryl ferulates in colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: We have recently reported that phytosteryl ferulates isolated from rice bran inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ?-oryzanol (?-ORZ), a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates, cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of the components of ?-ORZ, and ferulic acid (FA), a possible metabolite of ?-ORZ in vivo, on a model of colitis in mice. Experimental approach: We induced colitis with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in mice and monitored disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mRNA expressions of cytokines and COX-2, colon length, antioxidant potency and NF-?B activity in colitis tissue. Key results: Both DAI and histopathology score revealed that DSS induced a severe mucosal colitis, with a marked increase in the thickness of the muscle layer, distortion and loss of crypts, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes. MPO activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 levels, NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation and inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-?B-? degradation levels were significantly increased in DSS-induced colitis tissues. ?-ORZ (50?mg?kg?1?day?1 p.o.) markedly inhibited these inflammatory reactions and CAF had a similar potency. In vitro assay demonstrated that ?-ORZ and CAF had strong antioxidant effects comparable to those of ?-tocopherol. Conclusions and implications: Phytosteryl ferulates could be new potential therapeutic and/or preventive agents for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. Their anti-inflammatory effect could be mediated by inhibition of NF-?B activity, which was at least partly due to the antioxidant effect of the FA moiety in the structure of phytosteryl ferulates.

Islam, M S; Murata, T; Fujisawa, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Bari, A M; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

2008-01-01

165

Firing Range Soils Yield a Diverse Array of Fungal Isolates Capable of Organic Acid Production and Pb Mineral Solubilization  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil?1. We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter?1 (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health.

Sullivan, Tarah S.; Gottel, Neil R.; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M.

2012-01-01

166

Firing range soils yield a diverse array of fungal isolates capable of organic acid production and Pb mineral solubilization.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil(-1). We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter(-1) (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health. PMID:22729539

Sullivan, Tarah S; Gottel, Neil R; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M; Schadt, Christopher W

2012-09-01

167

Asymmetric biomimetic oxidations of phenols: the mechanism of the diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of dehydrodiconiferyl ferulate (DDF) and dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereoselective bimolecular radical coupling of enantiopure phenylpropenoidic phenols are described, starting from enantiopure amidic derivatives of ferulic acid. The latter were prepared from ferulic acid by reaction with (S)-alanine or Oppolzer camphor sultam. The oxidation step was performed both enzymatically (HRP\\/H2O2) and chemically (Ag2O). The observed enantioselectivity in the oxidation step encompasses the range 65–84% and is consistent with the

Marco Orlandi; Bruno Rindone; Giorgio Molteni; Petteri Rummakko; Gösta Brunow

2001-01-01

168

Cell wall oxalate oxidase modifies the ferulate metabolism in cell walls of wheat shoots.  

PubMed

Oxalate oxidase (OXO) utilizes oxalate to generate hydrogen peroxide, and thereby acts as a source of hydrogen peroxide. The present study was carried out to investigate whether apoplastic OXO modifies the metabolism of cell wall-bound ferulates in wheat seedlings. Histochemical staining of OXO showed that cell walls were strongly stained, indicating the presence of OXO activity in shoot walls. When native cell walls prepared from shoots were incubated with oxalate or hydrogen peroxide, the levels of ester-linked diferulic acid (DFA) isomers were significantly increased. On the other hand, the level of ester-linked ferulic acid (FA) was substantially decreased. The decrease in FA level was accounted neither by the increases in DFA levels nor by the release of FA from cell walls during the incubation. After the extraction of ester-linked ferulates, considerable ultraviolet absorption remained in the hemicellulosic and cellulose fractions, which was increased by the treatment with oxalate or hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, a part of FA esters may form tight linkages within cell wall architecture. These results suggest that cell wall OXO is capable of modifying the metabolism of ester-linked ferulates in cell walls of wheat shoots by promoting the peroxidase action via supply of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:21684033

Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki

2011-11-01

169

Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T.

2001-03-13

170

Purification and characterization of ferulate and p-coumarate decarboxylase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus PS213 isolated from bovine ruminal fluid was able to transform ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol, respectively, by nonoxidative decarboxylation. The enzyme responsible for this activity has been purified and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extract from a culture induced by ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid shows three bands that are not present in the crude extract of an uninduced culture, while the purified enzyme shows a single band of 23 kDa; the molecular mass calculated by size exclusion chromatography is 45 kDa. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5 and is not enhanced by any cation. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 1.03 mM and a Vmax of 0.19 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for ferulic acid and a Km of 1.38 mM and a Vmax of 0.22 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for p-coumaric acid.

Degrassi, G; Polverino De Laureto, P; Bruschi, C V

1995-01-01

171

Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns.  

PubMed

Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. Among all tested terpenoids, geranic acid showed very strong inhibitory activity against both fungi (MIC<46 ?M). To evaluate the possibility of enhancing fungal resistance in maize by overexpressing geranic acid, we generated transgenic plants with the geraniol synthase gene cloned from Lippia dulcis under the control of a ubiquitin promoter. The volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of leaves from transgenic and control lines were compared. The headspaces collected from intact seedlings of transgenic and control plants were not significantly different, although detached leaves of transgenic plants emitted 5-fold more geranyl acetate compared to control plants. Non-targeted LC-MS profiling and LC-MS-MS identification of extracts from maize leaves revealed that the major significantly different non-volatile compounds were 2 geranic acid derivatives, a geraniol dihexose and 4 different types of hydroxyl-geranic acid-hexoses. A geranic acid glycoside was the most abundant, and identified by NMR as geranoyl-6-O-malonyl-?-d-glucopyranoside with an average concentration of 45?M. Fungal bioassays with C. graminicola and F. graminearum did not reveal an effect of these changes in secondary metabolite composition on plant resistance to either fungus. The results demonstrate that metabolic engineering of geraniol into geranic acid can rely on the existing default pathway, but branching glycosylation pathways must be controlled to achieve accumulation of the aglycones. PMID:21296182

Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Yalpani, Nasser; Vervoort, Jacques; de Vos, Ric; Voster, Alessandra; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A

2011-07-01

172

Succession of bacterial and fungal 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid degraders at the soil-litter interface.  

PubMed

Phenoxyacetic acids can be degraded by diverse soil microorganisms. Nevertheless, we miss information about the succession of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) degraders in micro-environments of soils as well as specific functions of different microbial groups during MCPA degradation. We studied MCPA degradation at the soil-litter interface in a microcosm experiment and followed the succession of different degrader populations by quantifying the abundance of 16S rRNA genes as well as, the fungal ITS fragment and the functional genes tfdA (in total and divided into three classes) and cadA. Adjacent to the litter layer, a dynamic depletion zone of MCPA indicated that the litter effect on MCPA degradation depends on substrate availability and the affected soil volume. The increase of the tfdA class III and cadA genes was linked to MCPA mineralisation. Total abundance of tfdA genes was dominated by class I MCPA degraders and did not reflect MCPA degradation potential of the soil. Litter addition induced the development of pioneer and late-stage fungal communities, which were probably both involved in MCPA degradation. The results underline the importance of the ecological behaviour of different degrader populations for the understanding of herbicide degradation in soils. PMID:23560662

Ditterich, Franziska; Poll, Christian; Pagel, Holger; Babin, Doreen; Smalla, Kornelia; Horn, Marcus A; Streck, Thilo; Kandeler, Ellen

2013-10-01

173

cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of a fungal stress protein induced in Rhizopus nigricans by steroids.  

PubMed

cDNA clone was isolated from lambdagt11 library prepared from Rhizopus nigricans after growing the fungus in the presence of progesterone. Northern blot analysis of total RNA showed that expression of corresponding mRNA was up-regulated in R. nigricans after treatment with different steroids and after exposure of the fungus to heat shock or osmotic stress. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame for a 364-amino-acid polypeptide. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibited significant similarity to several sugar epimerases in two domains common to these enzymes. Our results suggest that the analyzed cDNA is coding for a fungal stress inducible protein belonging to sugar epimerases. PMID:9784403

Cresnar, B; Plaper, A; Breskvar, K; Hudnik-Plevnik, T

1998-09-29

174

Bonding of hydroxycinnamic acids to lignin: ferulic and p-coumaric acids are predominantly linked at the benzyl position of lignin, not the beta-position, in grass cell walls.  

PubMed

A suspension in dichloromethane-water (18:1, v/v) of various fractions containing hydroxycinnamic acid ester-ether bridges between lignin and polysaccharides prepared from cell walls of matured oat (Avena sativa L.) intemodes, and a solution of their acetates in the same solvent, were treated with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). This reagent selectively cleaves benzyl ether and ester linkages of negatively charged aromatic nuclei. The sample treated with DDQ was directly hydrolysed either under mild (1 M NaOH, overnight at 37 degrees C) or severe (4 M NaOH, for 2 h at 170 degrees C) conditions. The hydroxycinnamic acids released in the hydrolysate were methylated with diazomethane and analysed quantitatively using gas chromatography. Significant portions of ether linkages between hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin were cleaved with DDQ, which suggests that most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were ether-linked at the benzyl position, and not the beta-position, of the lignin side chain as previously claimed. PMID:11423145

Lam, T B; Kadoya, K; Iiyama, K

2001-07-01

175

Synthesis of Isopropyl Ferulate Using Silica-Immobilized Lipase in an Organic Medium  

PubMed Central

Immobilization of lipases has proved to be a useful technique for improving an enzyme's activity in organic solvents. In the present study, the performance of a silica-immobilized lipase was evaluated for the synthesis of isopropyl ferulate in DMSO. The biocatalyst was cross-linked onto the matrix with 1% glutaraldehyde. The effects of various parameters, molar ratio of ferulic acid to isopropyl alcohol (25?mM?:?100?mM), concentration of biocatalyst (2.5–20?mg/mL), molecular sieves (25–250?mg/mL), and various salt ions, were studied consecutively as a function of percent esterification. Immobilized lipase at 25?mg/mL showed maximum esterification (~84%) of ferulic acid and isopropanol at a molar ratio of 25?mM?:?100?mM, respectively, in DMSO at 45°C in 3?h under shaking (150?rpm). To overcome the inhibitory effect of water (a byproduct) if any, in the reaction mixture, molecular sieves (3?Å × 1.5?mm; 100?mg/mL) were added to the reaction mixture to promote the forward reaction. Salt ions like Ca2+, Cd2+, and Fe2+ enhanced the activity of immobilized biocatalyst while a few ions like Co2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Al3+, and Na+ had mild inhibitory effect. Approximately, one third of total decrease in the esterification efficacy was observed after the 5th repetitive cycle of esterification.

Kumar, Ashok; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh

2011-01-01

176

Controlled mycelial growth for kojic acid production using Ca-alginate-immobilized fungal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidia of Aspergillus oryzae were immobilized in Ca-alginate beads and then incubated in a nutrient medium to yield an immobilized biocatalyst producing kojic acid. The immobilized cell cultures produced kojic acid linearly during cultivation. Regardless of the size of the immobilized particles, there existed an optimal nitrogen concentration for the maximum production rate of kojic acid, at which smaller bead

Moo Young Kwak; Joon Shick Rhee

1992-01-01

177

Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

2002-10-15

178

Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

2003-03-04

179

Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids.  

PubMed

Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints"). We measured amino acid delta 13C from 10 C3 plants, 13 fungi, and 10 bacteria collected and isolated from a boreal forest in interior Alaska, USA, using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Microorganisms were cultured under amino-acid-free conditions and identified based on DNA sequences. Bacteria, fungi, and plants generated consistent, unique 13C fingerprints based on the more complex amino acids (five or more biosynthetic steps) that are classified as essential for animals. Linear discriminant analysis classified all samples correctly with >99% certainty and correctly classified nearly all insect samples from a previous study by diet. Our results suggest that 13C fingerprints of amino acids could provide a powerful in situ assay of the biosynthetic sources of amino acids and a potential new tool for understanding nutritional linkages in food webs. PMID:20120819

Larsen, Thomas; Taylor, D Lee; Leigh, Mary Beth; O'Brien, Diane M

2009-12-01

180

Methyl jasmonate and oxalic acid treatment of Norway spruce: anatomically based defense responses and increased resistance against fungal infection.  

PubMed

To study the effect of chemical pretreatment on conifer resistance, 13-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ) or oxalic acid (OxA) on the outer bark and inoculated with the pathogenic blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau 4 weeks later. Both chemicals significantly reduced symptoms of fungal infection, but MJ was more effective than OxA (51 versus 18% reduction in length of necrotic lesions in the phloem relative to untreated control trees). Anatomical examination of treated stem tissues showed that MJ induced extensive formation of traumatic resin ducts in the xylem and extra polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells in the secondary phloem between the cambium and the regular annual PP cell layer. No traumatic resin ducts were formed after treatment with OxA, and the coverage of extra PP cells in OxA-treated tissues was not significantly higher than in the controls. The anatomically based defense reactions induced by MJ were similar to the reactions observed after pathogen infection, mechanical wounding and bark beetle attack. Neither MJ nor OxA had apparent phytotoxic effects on Norway spruce at the concentrations used, with needle and stem tissues of all trees appearing normal without visible symptoms of toxicity. However, trees treated with MJ had 30% less radial sapwood growth than control trees. In conclusion, MJ treatment of Norway spruce appears to have practical potential as a tool for increasing plant resistance to fungal infection, but with a modest reduction in sapwood growth. PMID:17938111

Krokene, Paal; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Solheim, Halvor

2008-01-01

181

The Natural Diyne-Furan Fatty Acid EV-086 Is an Inhibitor of Fungal Delta-9 Fatty Acid Desaturation with Efficacy in a Model of Skin Dermatophytosis  

PubMed Central

Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids—but not saturated fatty acids—antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086–phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses.

Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B. V.; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A.; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S.

2014-01-01

182

MNL1 Regulates Weak Acid-induced Stress Responses of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

MNL1, the Candida albicans homologue of an orphan Msn2-like gene (YER130c in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has no known function. Here we report that MNL1 regulates weak acid stress responses. Deletion of MNL1 prevents the long-term adaptation of C. albicans cells to weak acid stresses and compromises their global transcriptional response under these conditions. The promoters of Mnl1-dependent genes contain a novel STRE-like element (SLE) that imposes Mnl1-dependent, weak acid stress–induced transcription upon a lacZ reporter in C. albicans. The SLE (HHYYCCCCTTYTY) is related to the Nrg1 response element (NRE) element recognized by the transcriptional repressor Nrg1. Deletion of NRG1 partially restores the ability of C. albicans mnl1 cells to adapt to weak acid stress, indicating that Mnl1 and Nrg1 act antagonistically to regulate this response. Molecular, microarray, and proteomic analyses revealed that Mnl1-dependent adaptation does not occur in cells exposed to proapoptotic or pronecrotic doses of weak acid, suggesting that Ras-pathway activation might suppress the Mnl1-dependent weak acid response in dying cells. Our work defines a role for this YER130c orthologue in stress adaptation and cell death.

Selway, Laura; Stead, David; Walker, Jan; Yin, Zhikang; Nicholls, Susan M.; Crowe, Jonathan; Sheils, Emma M.; Brown, Alistair J.P.

2008-01-01

183

Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults are at increased risk of developing opportunistic fungal infections because organ transplantation, intensive\\u000a cancer chemotherapy regimens, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents are now used more commonly, and because admission to an\\u000a intensive care unit, which carries many risk factors for fungal infection, has become commonplace in this group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal

Carol A. Kauffman

184

Development of an efficient fungal DNA extraction method to be used in random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid mold producers.  

PubMed

A variety of previously established mechanical and chemical treatments to achieve fungal cell lysis combined with a semiautomatic system operated by a vacuum pump were tested to obtain DNA extract to be directly used in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid-producing and -nonproducing mold strains. A DNA extraction method that includes digestion with proteinase K and lyticase prior to using a mortar and pestle grinding and a semiautomatic vacuum system yielded DNA of high quality in all the fungal strains and species tested, at concentrations ranging from 17 to 89 ng/microl in 150 microl of the final DNA extract. Two microliters of DNA extracted with this method was directly used for RAPD-PCR using primer (GACA)4. Reproducible RAPD fingerprints showing high differences between producer and nonproducer strains were observed. These differences in the RAPD patterns did not differentiate all the strains tested in clusters by cyclopiazonic acid production but may be very useful to distinguish cyclopiazonic acid producer strains from nonproducer strains by a simple RAPD analysis. Thus, the DNA extracts obtained could be used directly without previous purification and quantification for RAPD analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid producer from nonproducer mold strains. This combined analysis could be adaptable to other toxigenic fungal species to enable differentiation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic molds, a procedure of great interest in food safety. PMID:19244904

Sánchez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva M; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

2008-12-01

185

Characterisation of fungal lanostane-type triterpene acids by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Lanostane-triterpene acids obtained from the culture of the fungus Coriolellus malicola were studied by electrospray mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode using quadrupole time-of-flight and quadrupole ion trap analysers. Despite the differences observed in the mass spectra recorded with these instruments, a set of fragment ions was found to be characteristic of the family, depending on the Delta(7,9(11)) or Delta(8) skeleton and the particular functional group at C-3. PMID:17624886

Cabrera, Gabriela M; Vellasco, Adriana P; Levy, Laura M; Eberlin, Marcos N

2007-01-01

186

The use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell content of 12 bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) was determined in bacteria extracted from soil by homogenization\\/centrifugation. The bacteria were enumerated using acridine orange direct counts. An average of 1.40×10-17 mol bacterial PLFA cell-1 was found in bacteria extracted from 15 soils covering a wide range of pH and organic matter contents. With this factor, the bacterial biomass

A. Frostegård; E. Bååth

1996-01-01

187

Cryptococcus neoformans Can Utilize the Bacterial Melanin Precursor Homogentisic Acid for Fungal Melanogenesis?  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans melanizes in the environment and in mammalian tissues, but the process of melanization in either venue is mysterious given that this microbe produces melanin only from exogenous substrates. Understanding the process of melanization is important because melanization is believed to protect against various stresses in the environment, including UV radiation, and pigment production is associated with virulence. Melanization in C. neoformans requires the availability of diphenolic precursors. In contrast, many bacteria synthesize melanin from homogentisic acid (HGA). We report that C. neoformans strains representing all four serotypes can produce a brown pigment from HGA. The brown pigment was acid resistant and had the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of a stable free radical, qualities that identified it as a melanin. Melanin “ghost”-like particles obtained from pigmented C. neoformans cells were hydrophobic, fluorescent under a variety of irradiation wavelengths, negatively charged, insoluble in organic solvents and alcohols, resistant to degradation by strong acids, and vulnerable to bleaching. HGA melanization was laccase dependent and repressed by high concentrations of glucose. The ability of C. neoformans to utilize a bacterial melanin precursor compound suggests a new substrate source for melanization in the environment.

Frases, Susana; Salazar, Angela; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2007-01-01

188

In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.  

PubMed

The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI. PMID:23134606

Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

2012-12-01

189

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  

PubMed

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2010-03-01

190

Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

191

A novel controlled porosity osmotic pump system for sodium ferulate.  

PubMed

A controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) delivery system for sodium ferulate was prepared with cellulose acetate (CA) as semipermeable membrane, polyethyleneglycol 400 (PEG 400) as channeling agent and dibutylphthalate (DBP) as plasticizer and release controller. Effects of coating levels, PEG and DBP content and amount of sodium chloride on in vitro release were studied. Coating formulations were optimized by a L9 (34) orthogonal array design (OAD) with three factors at three levels using statistical analysis. Controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets of sodium ferulate made with the optimal formulation were found to have good in vitro and in vivo release characteristics. PMID:17283661

He, Lili; Gong, Tao; Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Li, Lili

2006-12-01

192

Fungal Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... this website will be limited. Search Help? Fungal Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... body fluids, blood, and/or a tissue biopsy . Test Preparation Needed? None The Test Sample What is ...

193

Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... and body ringworm affects any other skin areas. Athlete's foot is another type of fungal infection that usually ... signs you and a parent can look for: Athlete's foot causes symptoms that include red, dry, cracked, and ...

194

Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

2012-01-01

195

Fungal allergens.  

PubMed Central

Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy.

Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

1995-01-01

196

Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+-dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmuller, Ralf

2013-01-01

197

Formation of ethyl ferulate by rice koji enzyme in sake and mirin mash conditions.  

PubMed

Formation mechanism of ethyl ferulate (EF) in sake and mirin mash conditions was investigated to understand EF level control in the manufacturing process. Rice koji formed EF from ferulic acid (FA) and ethanol and decomposed EF to FA. This did not occur in sake yeast and chemical esterification was rare. Esterification of FA and hydrolysis of EF by rice koji might be due to feruloyl esterase(s). The rice koji enzyme showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for FA in ethyl esterification and for EF in hydrolysis, but not for ethanol in the esterification reaction. Substrate specificity of the rice koji enzyme for hydroxycinnamic acids suggested that the main enzyme involved might be similar to type A feruloyl esterase. We studied the rice koji enzyme properties, short-term digestion of steamed rice grains with exogenous ethanol and small scale mirin making with pH adjustment. Our results suggested differences in the esterification and hydrolysis properties of the enzyme, in particular, different pH dependencies and different behaviors under high ethanol conditions; these factors might cause the differing EF levels in sake and mirin mashes. PMID:23597918

Hashizume, Katsumi; Ito, Toshihiko; Ishizuka, Takahiro; Takeda, Naoki

2013-08-01

198

Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the rates of nitrogen (N) cycling, microbial carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in a Mojave Desert ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant shrub Larrea tridentata. We used ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers as a proxy for microbial biomass to quantify spatial and temporal differences in soil microbial communities from February 2003 to May 2005. Further, we used the 13C signature of the fossil CO2 source for elevated CO2 plots to trace recent plant C inputs into soil organic matter (SOM) and broad microbial groups using ?13C (‰). Differences between individual ?13CPLFA and ?13CSOM for fungal biomarkers indicated active metabolism of newer C in elevated CO2 soils. Total PLFA-C was greater in shrub microsites compared to plant interspaces, and CO2 treatment differences within microsites increased under higher soil water availability. Total, fungal, and bacterial PLFA-C increased with decreasing soil volumetric water content (VWC) in both microsites, suggesting general adaptations to xeric desert conditions. Increases in fungal-to-bacterial PLFA-C ratio with decreasing VWC reflected functional group-specific responses to changing soil water availability. While temporal and spatial extremes in resource availability in desert ecosystems contribute to the difficulty in identifying common trends or mechanisms driving microbial responses in less extreme environments, we found that soil water availability and soil microsite interacted with elevated CO2 to shift fungal and bacterial biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils.

Jin, V. L.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Evans, R. D.

2011-06-01

199

Fungal keratitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea. Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.

Tuli, Sonal S

2011-01-01

200

Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices  

PubMed Central

Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350??M acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. ?-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-?1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation.

Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

2012-01-01

201

Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.  

PubMed

Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. PMID:24941338

Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F

2014-01-01

202

Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers

ANITA SARAF; LENNART LARSSON; HARRIET BURGE; DONALD MILTON

203

The inhibitory effect of DL-alpha-tocopheryl ferulate in lecithin on melanogenesis.  

PubMed

Oral vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation has been reported to improve facial hyperpigmentation. The compound of alpha-tocopherol and ferulic acid, also an antioxidant connected with an ester bond, alpha-tocopheryl ferulate (alpha-TF) can absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus maintain tocopherol in a stable state. Our aim was to determine whether alpha-TF can be applied to improve and prevent facial hyperpigmentation induced by UV as a whitening agent as well as an antioxidant. In this study, the effects of alpha-TF on melanogenesis were examined using cultured human melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes in vitro. alpha-TF solubilized in 0.5% lecithin inhibited melanization significantly at the concentration of 30 micrograms/ml compared with arbutin (100 micrograms/ml), kojic acid (100 micrograms/ml), ascorbic acid (600 micrograms/ml), and tranexamic acid (600 micrograms/ml). alpha-TF had no effect on the protein amounts of tyrosinase, TRP (tyrosinase related protein)-1, and TRP-2 of human melanoma cells exposed to UV radiation, but inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase activity. alpha-TF neither directly inhibited tyrosinase activity of the large granule fraction extracted from melanoma cells, nor modulated glycosylation of tyrosinase. These results suggest that alpha-TF may be a candidate for whitening agent which suppresses melanogenesis, possibly by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase activity in an indirect manner. Further, alpha-TF decreased the amount of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine produced indirectly through active oxygen species (AOS) in guinea pig skin exposed to 2 times the minimal erythema dose of UVB radiation, but did not suppress the direct formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Thus alpha-TF may reduce AOS-induced DNA damage and thereby contribute at least in part to suppressing or retarding skin cancer development. PMID:10625956

Ichihashi, M; Funasaka, Y; Ohashi, A; Chacraborty, A; Ahmed, N U; Ueda, M; Osawa, T

1999-01-01

204

Fungal diagnostics.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

2014-01-01

205

Fungal endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in medicine have caused fungal endocarditis (FE) to be a more common disease entity. A list of fungi is expanding\\u000a as potential pathogens in FE, with Candida species and Aspergillus species being the most common. The combination of valvular heart disease along with indwelling devices and antibiotic use\\u000a are the major predisposing factors for yeast endocarditis, whereas the

Yoav Keynan; Ethan Rubinstein

2007-01-01

206

Effects of Fungal Elicitor on Lignin Biosynthesis in Cell Suspension Cultures of Soybean 1  

PubMed Central

Soybean (Glycine max L.) cells cultured in B5 medium produce extremely low amounts of lignin. However, modification in the growth medium, by lowering the concentration of NO?3 and PO2?4, results in the lignification of these cells without affecting levels of cell wall-esterified 4-coumaric and ferulic acid. The production of an extracellular, macromolecular complex by the cultured soybean cells (Moore TS Jr 1973 Plant Physiol 51: 529-536) allows a rapid, nondestructive solubilization of the lignin which can be estimated by reaction with phloroglucinol in free solution. This system has been used to study the effects of fungal elicitor on the synthesis of lignin in soybean cells. The inclusion of very low levels of an elicitor fraction from the cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma in the medium in which lignification of the soybean cells occurs suppressed both the accumulation of extracellular lignin and phloroglucinol staining of the cell walls without affecting the levels of bound hydroxycinnamic acids. The activity profiles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and isoenzymes of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.12) were compared in lignifying and elicitor-treated cell cultures as was the activity of chalcone synthase, an enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis. The measured activities of these enzymes in cell cultures treated with elicitor were considerably lower than in untreated cells.

Farmer, Edward E.

1985-01-01

207

Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections ?  

PubMed Central

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient outcomes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-MB) detection system in multiplex format was developed to rapidly detect medically important BSI organisms. Probes and primers representing pan-gram-negative, pan-gram-positive, pan-fungal, pan-Candida, and pan-Aspergillus organisms were established utilizing 16S and 28S rRNA targets for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Two multiplex panels were developed to rapidly discriminate bacterial or fungal infections at the subkingdom/genus level with a sensitivity of 1 to 50 genomes. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this platform by evaluating 570 clinical samples from a tertiary-care hospital group using blood bottle samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index values for pan-gram-positive detection and pan-gram-negative detection were 99.7%, 100%, 0.997 and 98.6%, 95.9%, 0.945, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV) and the negative predictive values (NPV) for these two probes were 100, 90.7, and 99.4, 99.4, respectively. Pan-fungal and pan-Candida probes showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV, and the pan-Aspergillus probe showed 100% NPV. Robust signals were observed for all probes in the multiplex panels, with signal detection in <15 min. The multiplex real-time NASBA-MB assay provides a valuable platform for the rapid and specific diagnosis of bloodstream pathogens, and reliable pathogen identification and characterization can be obtained in under 3 h.

Zhao, Yanan; Park, Steven; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Veyret, Raphael; Laayoun, Ali; Troesch, Alain; Perlin, David S.

2009-01-01

208

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy as tools for identification of steryl ferulates.  

PubMed

Steryl ferulates are a mixture of minor bioactive compounds, possessing well-established health benefits. However, individual steryl ferulate species show structural differences, which seem to substantially influence their health-promoting potential. In this study, we tested Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, as potential tools in the identification of steryl ferulates. On the basis of our spectral data obtained from various individual steryl ferulates and steryl ferulate mixtures extracted from rice (?-oryzanol), corn bran, and wheat bran, we provide comprehensive peak assignment tables for both FTIR and Raman. With the help of FTIR spectroscopy, structural differences between individual steryl ferulates were possible to identify, such as the presence of the cyclopropane ring and additional differences in the side chain of the sterane skeleton. Data obtained with Raman spectroscopy provided us with a control for FTIR peak assignment and also with some additional information on the samples. However, detecting structural differences between steryl ferulates was not possible with this method. We consider that FTIR spectroscopy alone or combined with Raman provides detailed data on the structures of steryl ferulates. Moreover, thorough peak assignment tables presented in this study could prove to be helpful tools when identifying steryl ferulates, especially as a group, in future studies. PMID:23414293

Mandak, Eszter; Zhu, Dan; Godany, Tamas A; Nyström, Laura

2013-03-13

209

Investigation of ferulate deposition in endosperm cell walls of mature and developing wheat grains by using a polyclonal antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyclonal antibody has been raised against ferulic acid ester linked to arabinoxylans (AX). 5-O-feruloyl-?-l-arabinofuranosyl(1?4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl was obtained by chemical synthesis, and was coupled to bovine serum albumin for the immunization of rabbit.\\u000a The polyclonal antibody designated 5-O-Fer-Ara was highly specific for 5-O-(trans-feruloyl)-l-arabinose (5-O-Fer-Ara) structure that is a structural feature of cell wall AX of plants belonging to the family of

Sully Philippe; Olivier Tranquet; Jean-Pierre Utille; Luc Saulnier; Fabienne Guillon

2007-01-01

210

Linkage of phenolic acids to cell-wall polysaccharides of bamboo shoot.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of bamboo shoot cell walls with Driselase (a fungal enzyme preparation) gave xyloglucan and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides containing ferulic and p-coumaric acids, respectively. The structures of two oligosaccharides containing phenolic acids are here determined to be O-(4-O-trans-feruloyl-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1----6)-D-glucopy rano se and O-[5-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl(-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl]-(1----3)-O-be ta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-D-xylopyranose, on the basis of n.m.r. spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and f.a.b.-m.s. The possible role of phenolic acid substituents in cell-wall architecture is discussed. PMID:2073638

Ishii, T; Hiroi, T

1990-10-10

211

Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides  

PubMed Central

Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight.

Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

2011-01-01

212

Cycloartenyl trans-ferulate, a component of the bran byproduct of sake-brewing rice, inhibits mammalian DNA polymerase and suppresses inflammation.  

PubMed

During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors, we isolated cycloartenyl trans-ferulate (CAF), which is a major component of ?-oryzanol, which is a byproduct formed during the production of Japanese rice wine "sake". CAF selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian A, B, and X pol families, but Y family pols were not affected. CAF did not influence the activities of plant or prokaryotic pols, nor the activity of other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Individual chemical components of CAF, including cycloartenol (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), did not inhibit pol enzyme activities. CAF suppressed TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in the mouse ear, but CA and FA did not. The ability to inhibit mammalian pol enzymes in vitro was positively correlated with their propensity to suppress inflammation in vivo. These results suggest that this byproduct formed during the sake-brewing process is useful as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:23790879

Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yamazaki, Asahi; Akashi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiromi

2013-11-15

213

Fungal bioconversion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP).  

PubMed

Ninety strains of fungi from the collection of our mycology laboratory were tested in Galzy and Slonimski (GS) synthetic liquid medium for their ability to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its by-product, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) at 100 mg l(-1), each. Evolution of the amounts of each chemical in the culture media was monitored by HPLC. After 5 days of cultivation, the best results were obtained with Aspergillus penicilloides and Mortierella isabellina for 2,4-D and with Chrysosporium pannorum and Mucor genevensis for 2,4-DCP. The data collected seemed to prove, on one hand, that the strains responses varied with the taxonomic groups and the chemicals tested, and, on the other hand, that 2,4-D was less accessible to fungal degradation than 2,4-DCP. In each case, kinetics studies with the two most efficient strains revealed that there was a lag phase of 1 day before the onset of 2,4-D degradation, whereas there was none during 2,4-DCP degradation. Moreover, 2,4-DCP was detected transiently during 2,4-D degradation. Finally, M. isabellina improved its degradation potential in Tartaric Acid (TA) medium relative to GS and Malt Extract (ME) media. PMID:16201028

Vroumsia, T; Steiman, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Benoit-Guyod, J-L

2005-09-01

214

Phenolic Acids and Phenolic Glycosides of Gaultheria Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-two species of Gaultheria were examined for phenols and phenolic acids obtained by hydrolysis of ethanolic extracts. Most species yielded p-hydroxybenzoic, o-pyrocatechuic, protocatechuic, gentisic, vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. ...

G. H. N. Towers A. Tse W. S. G. Maass

1965-01-01

215

Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h).

Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

2013-01-01

216

Antilisterial activity of selected phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of micro-organisms. Their influence on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes, particularly in foods derived from plants, is not well understood. Several phenolic acids including chlorogenic acid and the hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were screened for activity against five strains of L. monocytogenes using a

Aimin Wen; Pascal Delaquis; Kareen Stanich; Peter Toivonen

2003-01-01

217

Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1).

Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

2014-01-01

218

Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid.

2013-01-01

219

Production of L-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. RESULTS: Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

Ilmén, Marja; Koivuranta, Kari; Ruohonen, Laura; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

2013-05-25

220

Cycloartenyl ferulate, a component of rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, attenuates mast cell degranulation.  

PubMed

IgE-targeting therapy could provide significant progress in the treatment of allergic inflammation. In this study, we examined the effect of cycloartenyl ferulate (cycloartenol ferulic acid ester; CAF), a natural product from rice bran oil-derived gamma-oryzanol, on allergic reaction. When CAF and gamma-oryzanol were injected intradermally with anti-DNP IgE into the dorsal skin of rats, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by DNP-HSA was attenuated. CAF and gamma-oryzanol also inhibited the degranulation of DNP-IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells stimulated with anti-DNP-HSA. IgE conjugated with CAF could not be detected by anti-IgE antibody in the ELISA analysis. Although incubation of IgE with CAF did not decrease the amount of IgE, it was possible to precipitate IgE by centrifugation. These results demonstrate that CAF captures IgE, prevents it from binding to FcepsilonRI, and attenuates mast cell degranulation. PMID:19577449

Oka, T; Fujimoto, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

2010-02-01

221

Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.  

PubMed

Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

2013-05-01

222

Quantification of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with fungal culture and determination of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.  

PubMed Central

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with results from fungal culture and Limulus assay. Analyses of replicate house dust samples resulted in correlations of 0.91 (ergosterol in six replicates; P < 0.01) and 0.94 (3-hydroxy fatty acids in nine replicates; P < 0.001). The amounts of ergosterol (range, 2 to 16.5 ng/mg of dust) correlated with those of total culturable fungi (range, 6 to 1,400 CFU/mg of dust) in 17 samples, (r = 0.65; P < 0.005). The amounts of endotoxin (range, 11 to 243 endotoxin units/mg of dust) measured with a modified chromogenic Limulus assay correlated with those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determined from 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis of 15 samples. The correlation coefficient depended on the chain lengths of 3-hydroxy acids used to compute the LPS content. The correlation was high (r = 0.88 +/- 0.01; P < 0.001) when fatty acid chains of 10 to 14 carbon atoms were included; the correlation was much lower when hydroxy acids of 16- or 18-carbon chains were included. In conclusion, the results of the described extraction and analysis procedure for ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids are reproducible, and the results can be correlated with fungal culture and endotoxin activity of organic dust samples.

Saraf, A; Larsson, L; Burge, H; Milton, D

1997-01-01

223

Development and evaluation of nucleic acid-based techniques for an auxiliary diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues.  

PubMed

Notwithstanding the advantages of providing definitive diagnoses, the identification of fungi based on histopathological determination can be difficult and may lead to a pit of diagnoses. Therefore, the establishment of an auxiliary diagnostic method for use in routine pathological laboratories is desirable and should improve the above situation. Our previous studies have shown the superiority of in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of pathogenic fungi in histological specimens. This review focuses on the usefulness of ISH in the detection and identification of pathogenic fungi from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, and provides an overview of ISH for the diagnosis of fungal infection and retrospective autopsy analysis using molecular procedures. Based on the above, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were shown to be superior in terms of the detection of target fungi and useful since histopathological diagnosis has the potential danger of being incorrect in the identification of fungi. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize that histopathological diagnosis in combination with molecular methods such as ISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of FFPE samples should enhance the accuracy of identification in relation to fungi. PMID:23257724

Shinozaki, Minoru; Okubo, Yoichiro; Sasai, Daisuke; Nakayama, Haruo; Ishiwatari, Takao; Murayama, Somay; Tochigi, Naobumi; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2012-01-01

224

Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases  

PubMed Central

During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors.

Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles

2013-01-01

225

The promoter of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 from Arabidopsis is systemically activated by fungal pathogens and responds to methyl jasmonate but not to salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. To further investigate the signalling and transcriptional processes underlying plant defensin induction, a DNA fragment containing 1184 bp and 1232 bp upstream of the transcriptional and translational start sites, respectively, was cloned by inverse PCR. To test

John M. Manners; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Katrien Vermaere; Kemal Kazan; Rebecca L. Brown; Andrew Morgan; Donald J. Maclean; Mark D. Curtis; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Willem F. Broekaert

1998-01-01

226

Secreted fungal effector lipase releases free fatty acids to inhibit innate immunity-related callose formation during wheat head infection.  

PubMed

The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant's innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A

2014-05-01

227

Fungal Synthesis of Exopolysaccharides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several fungal polysaccharides are currently used as thickening agents for materials ranging from enhanced oil recovery brines and drilling muds to foods. These polymers are generally produced during exponential fungal growth and appear to be normal cell ...

W. L. Griffith A. L. Compere

1984-01-01

228

Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)  

MedlinePLUS

... requires daily application for 9–12 months. Oral antifungal treatments offer the best chance for curing fungal ... may be used, in addition topical or oral antifungal agents. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Fungal Infections MedlinePlus: Nail ...

229

[Fungal allergy - fungal ecology in dwelling environments].  

PubMed

Fungi related to allergies are commonly found in dwelling environments. The predominant fungi Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Wallemia and Rhodotorula live mainly in indoor air, house dust (HD), futons, clothes and contaminated building materials. Fungi in HD are especially important allergens. The fungal CFU and predominant fungi in HD are 10(4) - 10(6)/g and are composed of xerophilic or osmophilic species Aspergillus restrictus, Wallemia and Eurotium but not many yeasts and actinomycetes. Fungal contamination of materials is a serious human health problem because the fungal cells scatter from the materials in the air or HD. The biological activities by fungi also have health implications from the viewpoint of fungal allergens. In this paper, fungal germination, enzyme activities, contaminating cell form and viable or nonviable cells are also discussed. PMID:11479530

Takatori, K

2001-01-01

230

Fungal Diseases Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... April 2012. MMWR 2012;61:310. Mikosz CA, Smith RM, Kim M, Tyson C, Lee EH, Adams E, et al. Fungal endophthalmitis associated with compounded products . Emerg Infect Dis 2014; 20:248-256. Fungal Endophthalmitis: ... 2012 CDC expert Dr. Rachel Smith discusses diagnosis and treatment of fungal endophthalmitis, an ...

231

Cancers mimicking fungal infections.  

PubMed

Primary and metastatic malignancies may occasionally mimic or coexist with cutaneous fungal infections. The authors report 3 cases of cancers that were initially presumed to be cutaneous fungal infections. Dermatologists should maintain a low threshold for skin biopsy in patients with persistent or refractory fungal infections. PMID:24932950

Ladizinski, Barry; Alavi, Afsaneh; Jambrosic, Jay; Mistry, Nisha; Sibbald, R Gary

2014-07-01

232

Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 interacts with soil water and microsite to affect soil microbesFungal biomarkers indicate active metabolism of newer C under elevated CO2Soil water availability is key to Mojave Desert soil C and nutrient cycles

V. L. Jin; S. M. Schaeffer; S. E. Ziegler; R. D. Evans

2011-01-01

233

Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60 % of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

2014-01-01

234

Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives  

SciTech Connect

NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

Nagasaka, Reiko [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Shafiqul, Islam Md. [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ozaki, Hiroshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ushio, Hideki [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan)]. E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

2007-06-29

235

A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.  

PubMed

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor. PMID:24276623

Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

2014-02-01

236

A nontransformable Triticum monococcum monocotyledonous culture produces the potent Agrobacterium vir-inducing compound ethyl ferulate.  

PubMed

Exudates of dicotyledonous plants contain specific phenolic signal molecules, such as acetosyringone, which serve as potent inducers for the expression of the virulence (vir) regulon of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This induction activates the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer process to initiate the genetic transformation of target plant cells. Wounded and metabolically active plant cells are particularly susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, and these cells specifically produce vir-inducing molecules. Most monocotyledonous, as opposed to dicotyledonous, species are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation. One hypothesis for this resistance is that nonsusceptible monocotyledonous cells fail to produce vir signal molecules and, thus, are not recognized by Agrobacterium as transformation targets. Here we demonstrate that monocotyledonous cells make such molecules, and, furthermore, we purify the inducer produced by a Triticum monococcum suspension culture that is resistant to Agrobacterium infection. This molecule is shown to correspond to ethyl ferulate [C12H14O4; 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester], to be more active for vir induction at low concentrations than acetosyringone, and to be produced in quantities giving significant levels of induction. Thus, at least for the wheat cell line used in this study, monocotyledonous resistance to Agrobacterium transformation must result from a block to a step of the T-DNA transfer process subsequent to vir induction. PMID:11607083

Messens, E; Dekeyser, R; Stachel, S E

1990-06-01

237

A nontransformable Triticum monococcum monocotyledonous culture produces the potent Agrobacterium vir-inducing compound ethyl ferulate.  

PubMed Central

Exudates of dicotyledonous plants contain specific phenolic signal molecules, such as acetosyringone, which serve as potent inducers for the expression of the virulence (vir) regulon of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This induction activates the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer process to initiate the genetic transformation of target plant cells. Wounded and metabolically active plant cells are particularly susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, and these cells specifically produce vir-inducing molecules. Most monocotyledonous, as opposed to dicotyledonous, species are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation. One hypothesis for this resistance is that nonsusceptible monocotyledonous cells fail to produce vir signal molecules and, thus, are not recognized by Agrobacterium as transformation targets. Here we demonstrate that monocotyledonous cells make such molecules, and, furthermore, we purify the inducer produced by a Triticum monococcum suspension culture that is resistant to Agrobacterium infection. This molecule is shown to correspond to ethyl ferulate [C12H14O4; 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester], to be more active for vir induction at low concentrations than acetosyringone, and to be produced in quantities giving significant levels of induction. Thus, at least for the wheat cell line used in this study, monocotyledonous resistance to Agrobacterium transformation must result from a block to a step of the T-DNA transfer process subsequent to vir induction. Images

Messens, E; Dekeyser, R; Stachel, S E

1990-01-01

238

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

239

Functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. Despite such diversty, single modular iterative type I polyketide synthases (iPKSs) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. Using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on ATX, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Aspergillus terreus as a model iPKS. In addition, iPKS functions involved in fungal

Isao Fujii

2010-01-01

240

Oxygenation by COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) of 3-HETE (3-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), a fungal mimetic of arachidonic acid, produces a cascade of novel bioactive 3-hydroxyeicosanoids  

PubMed Central

Cyclo-oxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) catalyse the oxygenation of AA (arachidonic acid) and related polyunsaturated fatty acids to endoperoxide precursors of prostanoids. COX-1 is referred to as a constitutive enzyme involved in haemostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The fungus Dipodascopsis uninucleata has been shown by us to convert exogenous AA into 3(R)-HETE [3(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid]. 3R-HETE is stereochemically identical with AA, except that a hydroxy group is attached at its C-3 position. Molecular modelling studies with 3-HETE and COX-1/2 revealed a similar enzyme–substrate structure as reported for AA and COX-1/2. Here, we report that 3-HETE is an appropriate substrate for COX-1 and -2, albeit with a lower activity of oxygenation than AA. Oxygenation of 3-HETE by COX-2 produced a novel cascade of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids, as identified with EI (electron impact)–GC–MS, LC–MS–ES (electrospray) and LC–MS–API (atmospheric pressure ionization) methods. Evidence for in vitro production of 3-hydroxy-PGE2 (3-hydroxy-prostaglandin E2) was obtained upon infection of HeLa cells with Candida albicans at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 100. Analogous to interaction of AA and aspirin-treated COX-2, 3-HETE was transformed by acetylated COX-2 to 3,15-di-HETE (3,15-dihydroxy-HETE), whereby C-15 showed the (R)-stereochemistry. 3-Hydroxy-PGs are potent biologically active compounds. Thus 3-hydroxy-PGE2 induced interleukin-6 gene expression via the EP3 receptor (PGE2 receptor 3) in A549 cells, and raised cAMP levels via the EP4 receptor in Jurkat cells. Moreover, 3R,15S-di-HETE triggered the opening of the K+ channel in HTM (human trabecular meshwork) cells, as measured by the patch–clamp technique. Since many fatty acid disorders are associated with an ‘escape’ of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from the ?-oxidation cycle, the production of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids may be critical in modulation of effects of endogenously produced eicosanoids.

2005-01-01

241

JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome

Grigoriev; Igor V

2011-01-01

242

Fungal nail infection  

MedlinePLUS

Good general health and hygiene help prevent fungal infections. Do not share tools used for manicures and pedicures. Keep your skin clean and dry. Take proper care of your nails. Wash and dry your hands thoroughly after contact with any fungal infection.

243

Differential Effects of Topical Vitamin E and C E Ferulic(R) Treatments on Ultraviolet Light B-Induced Cutaneous Tumor Development in Skh-1 Mice  

PubMed Central

Because of the ever-increasing incidence of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced skin cancer, considerable attention is being paid to prevention through the use of both sunscreens and after sun treatments, many of which contain antioxidants. Vitamin E is included as an antioxidant in many sunscreens and lotions currently on the market. Studies examining the efficacy of vitamin E as a topical preventative agent for UVB-induced skin cancer have yielded conflicting results. A likely contributor to differences in study outcome is the stability of vitamin E in the particular formulation being tested. In the current study we examined the effects of topical vitamin E alone as well as vitamin E combined with vitamin C and ferulic acid in a more stable topical formula (C E Ferulic®). Mice were exposed to UVB for 10 weeks in order to induce skin damage. Then, before the appearance of any cutaneous lesions, mice were treated for 15 weeks with a topical antioxidant, without any further UVB exposure. We found that topical C E Ferulic decreased tumor number and tumor burden and prevented the development of malignant skin tumors in female mice with chronically UVB-damaged skin. In contrast, female mice chronically exposed to UVB and treated topically with vitamin E alone showed a trend towards increased tumor growth rate and exhibited increased levels of overall DNA damage, cutaneous proliferation, and angiogenesis compared to vehicle-treated mice. Thus, we have demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits.

Burns, Erin M.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Riggenbach, Judith A.; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Young, Gregory S.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

2013-01-01

244

Ferulates, amurenlactone A and amurenamide A from traditional Chinese medicine cortex Phellodendri Amurensis.  

PubMed

Two new ferulate compounds, amurenlactone A (1) and amurenamide A (2), along with 11 known compounds have been isolated from the cortex of Phellodendron amurense. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectral analyzes. The known compounds were identified by comparison with authentic samples. PMID:18464078

Zhou, Hai-Yan; Wang, Dong; Cui, Zheng

2008-01-01

245

Ferulates, amurenlactone A and amurenamide A from traditional Chinese medicine cortex Phellodendri Amurensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new ferulate compounds, amurenlactone A (1) and amurenamide A (2), along with 11 known compounds have been isolated from the cortex of Phellodendron amurense. The structures of the new compounds were established based on 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectral analyzes. The known compounds were identified by comparison with authentic samples.

Hai-Yan Zhou; Dong Wang; Zheng Cui

2008-01-01

246

Clonal Selection for Lignin and Etherified Ferulates in Three Perennial Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased lignin concentration or decreased ferulate cross-linking between arabinoxylans and lignin are two mechanisms to increase cell- wall digestibility in plants. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the consistency and clonal repeatability of lignin and etherifi ed feru- lates across multiple harvest dates and years, (ii) to determine if the genetic correlation between lignin and etherifi ed

M. D. Casler; H. G. Jung; W. K. Coblentz

2008-01-01

247

Application of a non-amplification-based technology to detect invasive fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Current diagnostic techniques for fungal diseases could be improved with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness. To address this clinical need, we adapted a non-amplification-based nucleic acid detection technology to identify fungal pathogens. We demonstrate a high-specificity, detection sensitivity, reproducibility, and multiplex capacity for detecting fungal strains. PMID:24359934

Hsu, Joe L; Binkley, Jon; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A; Nicolls, Mark R; Holodniy, Mark

2014-02-01

248

Granuloma, fungal (Majocchi's) (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This is a picture of a fungal granuloma, a large, red (erythematous) patch (plaque) with a prominent border. Within the borders of the lesion are scattered blisters (pustules) that indicate deeper ...

249

Who Gets Fungal Infections?  

MedlinePLUS

... fungal infection, even people who are otherwise healthy. Fungi are common in the environment, and people breathe ... However, in people with weak immune systems, these fungi are more likely to cause an infection. People ...

250

Fungal Biofilm Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fungal biofilm infections have become increasingly recognised as a significant clinical problem. One of the major reasons behind this is the impact that these have upon treatment, as antifungal therapy often fails and surgical intervention is required. This places a large financial burden on health care providers. This paper aims to illustrate the importance of fungal biofilms, particularly Candida albicans, and discusses some of the key fungal biofilm resistance mechanisms that include, extracellular matrix (ECM), efflux pump activity, persisters, cell density, overexpression of drug targets, stress responses, and the general physiology of the cell. The paper demonstrates the multifaceted nature of fungal biofilm resistance, which encompasses some of the newest data and ideas in the field.

Ramage, Gordon; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Williams, Craig

2012-01-01

251

Fungal and Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fungal infections have emerged as major causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with hematological malignancies (Int\\u000a J Antimicrob Agents 31:193–197, 2008). Although several new antifungal agents have become available for clinical use in the\\u000a past few years, mortality from fungal infections remains above 20%. Advances in the management of hematological malignancies,\\u000a including use of more aggressive regimens and expansion

Gloria Mattiuzzi; Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner

252

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses.

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, Rene; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipila, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

253

The wood rot ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha produces a novel GH78 glycoside hydrolase that exhibits ?-L-rhamnosidase and feruloyl esterase activities and releases hydroxycinnamic acids from lignocelluloses.  

PubMed

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g(-1)) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g(-1)). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg(-1)). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-L-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-L-rhamnopyranoside and ?-L-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane

2012-07-01

254

Monolignol ferulate transferase introduces chemically labile linkages into the lignin backbone.  

PubMed

Redesigning lignin, the aromatic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, to be more amenable to chemical depolymerization can lower the energy required for industrial processing. We have engineered poplar trees to introduce ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone by augmenting the monomer pool with monolignol ferulate conjugates. Herein, we describe the isolation of a transferase gene capable of forming these conjugates and its xylem-specific introduction into poplar. Enzyme kinetics, in planta expression, lignin structural analysis, and improved cell wall digestibility after mild alkaline pretreatment demonstrate that these trees produce the monolignol ferulate conjugates, export them to the wall, and use them during lignification. Tailoring plants to use such conjugates during cell wall biosynthesis is a promising way to produce plants that are designed for deconstruction. PMID:24700858

Wilkerson, C G; Mansfield, S D; Lu, F; Withers, S; Park, J-Y; Karlen, S D; Gonzales-Vigil, E; Padmakshan, D; Unda, F; Rencoret, J; Ralph, J

2014-04-01

255

Unraveling ferulate role in suberin and periderm biology by reverse genetics.  

PubMed

Plant cell walls are dramatically affected by suberin deposition, becoming an impermeable barrier to water and pathogens. Suberin is a complex layered heteropolymer that comprises both a poly(aliphatic) and a poly(aromatic) lignin-like domain. Current structural models for suberin attribute the crosslinking of aliphatic and aromatic domains within the typical lamellar ultrastructure of the polymer to esterified ferulate. BAHD feruloyl transferases involved in suberin biosynthesis have been recently characterized in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In defective mutants, suberin, even lacks most of the esterified ferulate, but maintains the typical lamellar ultrastructure. However, suberized tissues display increased water permeability, in spite of exhibiting a similar lipid load to wild type. Therefore, the role of ferulate in suberin needs to be reconsidered. Moreover, silencing the feruloyl transferase in potato turns the typical smooth skin of cv. Desirée into a rough scabbed skin distinctive of Russet varieties and impairs the normal skin maturation that confers resistance to skinning. Concomitantly to these changes, the skin of silenced potatoes shows an altered profile of soluble phenolics with the emergence of conjugated polyamines. PMID:20657184

Serra, Olga; Figueras, Mercè; Franke, Rochus; Prat, Salome; Molinas, Marisa

2010-08-01

256

Unraveling ferulate role in suberin and periderm biology by reverse genetics  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are dramatically affected by suberin deposition, becoming an impermeable barrier to water and pathogens. Suberin is a complex layered heteropolymer that comprises both a poly(aliphatic) and a poly(aromatic) lignin-like domain. Current structural models for suberin attribute the crosslinking of aliphatic and aromatic domains within the typical lamellar ultrastructure of the polymer to esterified ferulate. BAHD feruloyl transferases involved in suberin biosynthesis have been recently characterized in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In defective mutants, suberin, even lacks most of the esterified ferulate, but maintains the typical lamellar ultrastructure. However, suberized tissues display increased water permeability, in spite of exhibiting a similar lipid load to wild type. Therefore, the role of ferulate in suberin needs to be reconsidered. Moreover, silencing the feruloyl transferase in potato turns the typical smooth skin of cv. Desirée into a rough scabbed skin distinctive of Russet varieties and impairs the normal skin maturation that confers resistance to skinning. Concomitantly to these changes, the skin of silenced potatoes shows an altered profile of soluble phenolics with the emergence of conjugated polyamines.

Serra, Olga; Figueras, Merce; Franke, Rochus; Prat, Salome

2010-01-01

257

Fungal mastitis. Case report.  

PubMed

Fungal (cryptococcal) mastitis in a young woman seemed to be a systemic manifestation of the infection, since it recurred contralaterally within 4 months. Diagnostic problems are discussed. Only two previous reports of deep mammary mycosis were found. In addition to excision, ketoconazole is recommended to prevent recurrence or serious complications. PMID:3618066

Walia, H S; Abraham, T K; Shaikh, H

1987-02-01

258

Fungal Biocontrol of Acari  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mites and ticks are susceptible to pathogenic fungi, and there are opportunities to exploit these micro-organisms for biological control. We have collated records of 58 species of fungi infecting at least 73 species of Acari, either naturally or in experiments. Fungal pathogens have been reported to kill representatives of all three orders of the Actinotrichida (the Astigmata, Oribatida and Prostigmata)

D. Chandler; G. Davidson; J. K. Pell; B. V. Ball; K. Shaw; K. D. Sunderland

2000-01-01

259

Fungal endophytes and bioprospecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontally transmitted fungal endophytes are an ecological group of fungi, mostly belonging to the Ascomycota, that reside in the aerial tissues and roots of plants without inducing any visual symptoms of their presence. These fungi appear to have a capacity to produce an array of secondary metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activity. Although the ability of fungi to produce

T. S. Suryanarayanan; N. Thirunavukkarasu; M. B. Govindarajulu; F. Sasse; R. Jansen; T. S. Murali

2009-01-01

260

Anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of steryl ferulate on experimental rats with non-bacterial prostatitis.  

PubMed

Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways. PMID:24686498

Hu, Yinzhou; Xiong, Lina; Huang, Weisu; Cai, Huafang; Luo, Yanxi; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Baiyi

2014-06-28

261

Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated\\u000a for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the\\u000a P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%,

Rishi Gupta; Girija Mehta; Yogender Pal Khasa; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2011-01-01

262

Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation.

2010-01-01

263

IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS  

SciTech Connect

DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

2013-10-16

264

Update on fungal diagnostics.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is becoming more prevalent in transplant and oncology patients as a result of the potent immunosuppressive therapies used to prevent allograft rejection and/or the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat cancer. Mortality attributable to IFD remains high despite advances in antifungal therapies. There is a continued need for laboratory diagnostics to help improve clinical outcomes. In recent years, culture-based detection strategies and histopathology have been supplemented with molecular and proteomic techniques as well as antigen detection methods. Refinements in these assays are improving the diagnosis of IFD, with the greatest strides made within the molecular and proteomic arenas. This review highlights recent laboratory developments in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis, opportunistic molds, and endemic fungal infections. PMID:24893982

Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

2014-08-01

265

Fungal Biosorption and Biosorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters\\u000a such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pretreatment of biomass, presence of various ligands\\u000a in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. The cell-wall fraction of biomass plays an important role in the sorption\\u000a of heavy metals. The

Thiruvenkatachari Viraraghavan; Asha Srinivasan

266

Cytology of Fungal Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky;)

2001-06-18

267

Fungal biotransformation of (+/-)-linalool.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of (+/-)-linalool was investigated by screening 19 fungi. Product accumulation was enhanced by substrate feeding and, for the first time, lilac aldehydes and lilac alcohols were identified as fungal biotransformation byproduct using SPME-GC-MS headspace analysis. Aspergillus niger DSM 821, Botrytis cinerea 5901/02, and B. cinerea 02/FBII/2.1 produced different isomers of lilac aldehyde and lilac alcohol from linalool via 8-hydroxylinalool as postulated intermediate. Linalool oxides and 8-hydroxylinalool were the major products of fungal (+/-)-linalool biotransformations. Furanoid trans-(2 R,5 R)- and cis-(2 S,5 R)-linalool oxide as well as pyranoid trans-(2 R,5 S)- and cis-(2 S, 5 S)-linalool oxide were identified as the main stereoisomers with (3 S,6 S)-6,7-epoxylinalool and (3 R,6 S)-6,7-epoxylinalool as postulated key intermediates of fungal (+/-)-linalool oxyfunctionalization, respectively. With a conversion yield close to 100% and a productivity of 120 mg/L.day linalool oxides, Corynespora cassiicola DSM 62485 was identified as a novel highly stereoselective linalool transforming biocatalyst showing the highest productivity reported so far. PMID:18426215

Mirata, Marco-Antonio; Wüst, Matthias; Mosandl, Armin; Schrader, Jens

2008-05-14

268

Developments in Fungal Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales).

Guarro, Josep; Gene, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

1999-01-01

269

Nonanoic Acid, a Fungal Self-Inhibitor, Prevents Germination of Rhizopus oligosporus Sporangiospores by Dissipation of the pH Gradient  

PubMed Central

Germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is characterized by swelling of the spores and subsequent emergence of germ tubes. Changes in spore morphology and alterations in intracellular pH (pH(infin)) of the sporangiospores were assessed during the germination process by flow cytometry. Sporangiospores were stained with carboxyfluorescein by incubation with carboxyfluorescein diacetate. The nonfluorescent carboxyfluorescein diacetate is passively transported into intact cells and subsequently cleaved by esterases, which results in intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent carboxyfluorescein. Given that the fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein is pH dependent, the pH(infin) of the individual spores could be assessed simultaneously with spore size. For R. oligosporus, swelling of the sporangiospores was accompanied by an increase of pH(infin). In the presence of nonanoic acid, a self-inhibitor produced by various fungi, increase of the pH(infin) was prevented and swelling was inhibited at concentrations of less than 1 mM. Octanoic acid and decanoic acid were equally effective. Acetic acid also inhibited germination but at much higher concentrations (>8 mM). The mechanism of action of these fatty acids is most likely dissipation of the pH gradient. A model is proposed in which the pH(infin) plays a crucial role in the germination of R. oligosporus sporangiospores.

Breeuwer, P.; De Reu, J. C.; Drocourt, J.; Rombouts, F. M.; Abee, T.

1997-01-01

270

Current Status of Nonculture Methods for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections  

PubMed Central

The incidence of invasive fungal infections has increased dramatically in recent decades, especially among immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis of these infections in a timely fashion is often very difficult. Conventional microbiologic and histopathologic approaches generally are neither sensitive nor specific, and they often do not detect invasive fungal infection until late in the course of disease. Since early diagnosis may guide appropriate treatment and prevent mortality, there has been considerable interest in developing nonculture approaches to diagnosing fungal infections. These approaches include detection of specific host immune responses to fungal antigens, detection of specific macromolecular antigens using immunologic reagents, amplification and detection of specific fungal nucleic acid sequences, and detection and quantitation of specific fungal metabolite products. This work reviews the current status and recent developments as well as problems in the design of nonculture diagnostic methods for invasive fungal infections.

Yeo, Siew Fah; Wong, Brian

2002-01-01

271

Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Thykaer, Jette [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Adney, William S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brockman, Fred [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dhaeseleer, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Martinez, A diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, R michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Torok, Tamas [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bennett, Joan [Rutgers University; Berka, Randy [Novozymes, Inc; Briggs, Steven [University of California, San Diego; Heitman, Joseph [Duke University; Rizvi, L [Royal Ontario Museum; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Turgeon, Gillian [Cornell University; Werner-Washburne, Maggie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Himmel, Michael [ORNL

2008-01-01

272

Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Mycological Society.

Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Thykaer, Jette [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Adney, William S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brockman, Fred [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dhaeseleer, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Martinez, A diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, R michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Torok, Tamas [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bennett, Joan [Rutgers University; Berka, Randy [Novozymes, Inc; Briggs, Steven [University of California, San Diego; Heitman, Joseph [Duke University; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Turgeon, Gillian [Cornell University; Werner-Washburne, Maggie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2008-01-01

273

Fungal Community Ecology: A Hybrid Beast with a Molecular Master  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fungi play a major role in the function and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, directly influencing the structure of plant, animal, and bacterial communities through interactions that span the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Only with the advent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based molecular techniques, however, have researchers been able to look closely at the ecological forces that structure fungal communities. The recent explosion of molecular studies has greatly advanced our understanding of fungal diversity, niche partitioning, competition, spatial variability, and functional traits. Because of fungi's unique biology, fungal ecology is a hybrid beast that straddles the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. While the dual nature of this field presents many challenges, it also makes fungi excellent organisms for testing extant ecological theories, and it provides opportunities for new and unanticipated research. Many questions remain unanswered, but continuing advances in molecular techniques and field and lab experimentation indicate that fungal ecology has a bright future.

Kabir G. Peay (University of California at Berkeley;); Peter G. Kennedy (Lewis and Clark College;); Thomas D. Bruns (University of California at Berkeley;)

2008-10-01

274

Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics.  

PubMed

The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%, and enriched their holocellulose content by 3.32 and 4.87%, respectively, after 15 days. The fungal delignification when scaled up from 10.0 g to 75.0, 200.0 and 500.0 g substrate level, the fungus degraded about 7.69-10.08% lignin in P. juliflora and 6.89-7.31% in L. camara, and eventually enhanced the holocellulose content by 2.90-3.97 and 4.25-4.61%, respectively. Furthermore, when the fungal fermented L. camara and P. juliflora was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid, the sugar release was increased by 21.4-42.4% and the phenolics content in hydrolysate was decreased by 18.46 and 19.88%, as compared to the unfermented substrate acid hydrolysis, respectively. The reduction of phenolics in acid hydrolysates of fungal treated substrates decreased the amount of detoxifying material (activated charcoal) by 25.0-33.0% as compared to the amount required to reduce almost the same level of phenolics from unfermented substrate hydrolysates. Moreover, an increment of 21.1-25.1% sugar release was obtained when fungal treated substrates were enzymatically hydrolysed as compared to the hydrolysis of unfermented substrates. This study clearly shows that fungal delignification holds potential in utilizing plant residues for the production of sugars and biofuels. PMID:20711746

Gupta, Rishi; Mehta, Girija; Khasa, Yogender Pal; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2011-07-01

275

What Are Fungal Infections?  

PubMed Central

Yeasts and moulds now rank amongst the 10 most frequently isolated pathogens in febrile patients with an impaired immune system. Fungi are mainly opportunistic pathogens that only invade the body if a severely weakened natural defense permits them to do so. Most factors facilitating an invasive fungal infection are unavoidable because they are directly connected to the underlying diseases as well as to their treatment. Modern aggressive treatment modalities jeopardize the defense mechanisms to an extent that even fungi with a low virulence may enter the body.

de Pauw, Ben E.

2011-01-01

276

Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes  

PubMed Central

One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

1968-01-01

277

Application of scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) for production of itaconic acid in a 50 L pilot-scale fermentor by fungal cells of Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

The scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was applied for the production of itaconic acid (IA) in a 50 L pilot-scale fermentor by the fungal cells of Aspergillus terreus. Various operating conditions were examined to collect as many kLa data as possible by adjusting the stirring speed and aeration rate in both 5 L and 50 L fermentor systems. In the fermentations performed with the 5 L fermentor, the highest IA production was obtained under the operating conditions of 200 rpm and 1.5 vvm. Accordingly, we intended to find out parallel agitation and aeration rates in the 50 L fermentor system, under which the kLa value measured was almost identical to that (0.02 sec(-1)) of the 5 L system. The conditions of 180 rpm and 0.5 vvm in the 50 L system turned out to be optimal for providing almost the same volumetric amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) into the fermentor, without causing shear damage to the producing cells due to excessive agitation. Practically identical fermentation physiologies were observed in both fermentations performed under those respective operating conditions, as demonstrated by nearly the same values of volumetric (Qp) and specific (qp) IA production rates, IA production yield (Yp/s), and specific growth rate (?). Specifically, the negligible difference of the specific growth rate (?) between the two cultures (i.e., 0.029 h(-1) vs. 0.031 h(-1)) was notable, considering the fact that ? normally has a significant influence on qp in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as itaconic acid. PMID:23928842

Shin, Woo-Shik; Lee, Dohoon; Kim, Sangyong; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Chun, Gie-Taek

2013-10-28

278

Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection.

Blumke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Bjorn; Bode, Rainer; Schafer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

2014-01-01

279

The Phenolic Acids in Wheat--Iii. Insoluble Derivatives of Phenolic Cinnamic Acids as Natural Intermediates in Lignin Biosynthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

C(14) Labeled compounds were administered to wheat shoots and their incorporation into lignin and into p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids was measured. These phenolic cinnamic acids were not present as such but were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of b...

S. Z. El-Basyouni A. C. Neish G. H. N. Towers

1964-01-01

280

Tropical dermatology: Fungal tropical diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal infections are common in tropical countries and can have an important impact on public health. Lobomycosis is a common fungal infection in the tropical rain forest of South America, and paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) is a widespread and sometimes severe illness. Penicilliosis marneffeiis an opportunistic infection of AIDS patients in southeast Asia. Chromoblastomycosis and mycetomas are causes of morbidity

Omar Lupi; Stephen K. Tyring; Michael R. McGinnis

281

Fungal rhinosinusitis and imaging modalities  

PubMed Central

This report provides an overview of fungal rhinosinusitis with a particular focus on acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis (AFIFS). Imaging modalities and findings that aid in diagnosis and surgical planning are reviewed with a pathophysiologic focus. In addition, the differential diagnosis based on imaging suggestive of AFIFS is considered.

Gorovoy, Ian R.; Kazanjian, Mia; Kersten, Robert C.; Kim, H. Jane; Vagefi, M. Reza

2012-01-01

282

Fungal infections of the cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To describe key aspects of fungal infections of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical regions.Methods Review of published studies and personal observations.Observations Fungal infections of the cornea are frequently caused by species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Curvularia, and Candida. Trauma is the most important predisposing cause; ocular and systemic defects and

P A Thomas; PA Thomas

2003-01-01

283

Invertebrate models of fungal infection.  

PubMed

The morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with fungal infections, together with the emergence of fungal strains resistant to current antimicrobial agents, necessitate broadening our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and discovering new agents to treat these infections. Using invertebrate hosts, especially the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Galleria mellonella, could help achieve these goals. The evolutionary conservation of several aspects of the innate immune response between invertebrates and mammals makes the use of these simple hosts an effective and fast screening method for identifying fungal virulence factors and testing potential antifungal compounds. The purpose of this review is to compare several model hosts that have been used in experimental mycology to-date and to describe their different characteristics and contribution to the study of fungal virulence and the detection of compounds with antifungal properties. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease. PMID:23517918

Arvanitis, Marios; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2013-09-01

284

Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.  

PubMed

Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited. PMID:23175562

Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

2013-03-01

285

Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.  

PubMed

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

2006-10-01

286

Distribution of Introns in Fungal Histone Genes  

PubMed Central

Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

Yun, Choong-Soo; Nishida, Hiromi

2011-01-01

287

Fungal fimbriae are composed of collagen.  

PubMed

Fungal fimbriae are surface appendages that were first described on the haploid cells of the smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum. They are long (1-20 microm), narrow (7 nm) flexuous structures that have been implicated in cellular functions such as mating and pathogenesis. Since the initial description, numerous fungi from all five phyla have been shown to produce fimbriae on their extracellular surfaces. The present study analyses the protein component of M.violaceum fimbriae. The N-terminus and three internal amino acid sequences were determined. All four show a strong similarity to sequences which are characteristic of the collagen gene family. Enzymatic digests and immunochemical analyses support this finding. Based on these results, it is suggested that the proteinaceous subunits of fimbriae should be termed fungal collagens. Previously, collagen has been found only among members of the kingdom Animalia where it is the principal component of the animal extracellular matrix and is the most abundant animal protein. The unexpected finding of collagen in the members of the Mycota suggests that it may have evolved from a common ancestor that existed before the divergence of fungi and animals. Further, native fungal fimbriae can function as a mammalian extracellular matrix component. They can act as a substratum which permits animal cells to adhere, spread, and proliferate in a manner similar to animal collagens. The implications of this finding to both phylogeny and pathology are discussed. PMID:8887535

Celerin, M; Ray, J M; Schisler, N J; Day, A W; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Laudenbach, D E

1996-09-01

288

Artificial biosynthesis of phenylpropanoic acids in a tyrosine overproducing Escherichia coli strain  

PubMed Central

Background The phenylpropanoid metabolites are an extremely diverse group of natural products biosynthesized by plants, fungi, and bacteria. Although these compounds are widely used in human health care and nutrition services, their availability is limited by regional variations, and isolation of single compounds from plants is often difficult. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled artificial production of plant secondary metabolites in microorganisms. Results We develop an Escherichia coli system containing an artificial biosynthetic pathway that yields phenylpropanoic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, from simple carbon sources. These artificial biosynthetic pathways contained a codon-optimized tal gene that improved the productivity of 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, but not caffeic acid in a minimal salt medium. These heterologous pathways extended in E. coli that had biosynthesis machinery overproducing tyrosine. Finally, the titers of 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid reached 974 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 196 mg/L, respectively, in shake flasks after 36-hour cultivation. Conclusions We achieved one gram per liter scale production of 4-coumaric acid. In addition, maximum titers of 150 mg/L of caffeic acid and 196 mg/L of ferulic acid were achieved. Phenylpropanoic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, have a great potential for pharmaceutical applications and food ingredients. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production and opens the possibility of microbial synthesis of more complex plant secondary metabolites derived from phenylpropanoic acids.

2012-01-01

289

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium with a yield of\\u000a ~2 mg\\/l. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography.\\u000a The specific activity was determined to be 8,200 U\\/?g (pH 6.5, 20°C, 3.5 mM 4-nitrophenyl

Dominic W. S. Wong; Victor J. Chan; Sarah B. Batt; Gautam Sarath; Hans Liao

290

Enzymatic synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Using Novozym 435 as catalyst, the syntheses of ethyl ferulate (EF) from ferulic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy cinnamic acid) and ethanol, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) from p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol were successfully carried out in this study. A conversion of 87% was obtained within 2 days at 75 degrees C for the synthesis of EF. For the synthesis of OMC at 80 degrees C, 90% conversion can be obtained within 1 day. The use of solvent and high reaction temperature resulted in better conversion for the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives. Some cinnamic acid esters could also be obtained with higher conversion and shorter reaction times in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. The enzyme can be reused several times before significant activity loss was observed. PMID:16614896

Lee, Gia-Sheu; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2006-04-01

291

Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... put you at risk for fungal infections, particularly Candida and Aspergillus infections. 4 Surgery can lead to ... et al. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of systemic Candida infection in surgical patients under intensive care. Intensive ...

292

Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... droppings. This includes places like chicken coops and caves. Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, ... Fungal infections in cancer patients: an international autopsy survey. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1992; ...

293

Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  

PubMed

The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

2009-06-01

294

Fungal biodiversity in aquatic habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal biodiversity in freshwater, brackish and marine habitats was estimated based on reports in the literature. The taxonomic\\u000a groups treated were those with species commonly found on submerged substrates in aquatic habitats: Ascomycetes (exclusive of yeasts), Basidiomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, and the non-fungal Saprolegniales in the Class Oomycetes. Based on presence\\/absence data for a large number and variety of aquatic habitats, about

Carol A. Shearer; Enrique Descals; Brigitte Kohlmeyer; Jan Kohlmeyer; Ludmila Marvanová; David Padgett; David Porter; Huzefa A. Raja; John P. Schmit; Holly A. Thorton; Hermann Voglymayr

2007-01-01

295

Fungal dermatitis in captive pinnipeds.  

PubMed

Fungal dermatitis was diagnosed in two captive gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) and four harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) between 1992 and 1994. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia spp., and Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica were isolated. Erythematous, thickened, alopecic skin lesions were present on the face and on the flippers, particularly around the nail bed. The two most important environmental factors associated with development of fungal dermatitis appeared to be excessive chlorination of pool water and warm water temperature. PMID:11237146

Pollock, C G; Rohrbach, B; Ramsay, E C

2000-09-01

296

Fungal infections: a growing threat.  

PubMed Central

THE EMERGENCE OF newly identified fungal pathogens and the reemergence of previously uncommon fungal diseases is primarily related to increases in the numbers of susceptible persons: people with HIV infection, bone marrow and organ transplant recipients, cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy, critically ill persons, and very low birth weight ( < or = 1500 g) infants. These immunocompromised populations are at risk for infection not only with opportunistic pathogens (for example, Pneumocystis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Aspergillus, Penicillium marneffei, and numerous other moulds or yeasts) but also with fungal pathogens that usually infect otherwise healthy persons not previously exposed to endemic fungi (for example, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis) and Sporothrix schenckii. Morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with fungal infections are high. Addressing the emergence of fungal diseases will require increased surveillance coupled with the availability of rapid, noninvasive diagnostic tests; monitoring the development of resistance to antifungal agents; and research focused on the understanding, prevention, and control of fungal infections. Images p[227]-a p226-a p232-a

Dixon, D M; McNeil, M M; Cohen, M L; Gellin, B G; La Montagne, J R

1996-01-01

297

Anticholinesterase activity of phenolic acids and their derivatives.  

PubMed

The ability of 36 phenolic acids and their derivatives to inhibit acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase was studied. The most efficient acetylcholine inhibitors were: carnosic acid = gentisic acid > 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid = ethyl ferulate = ethyl vanillate = nordihydroguaiaretic acid > ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate = methyl ferulate. The order of effectiveness towards butyrylcholinesterase was: carnosic acid > nordihydroguaiaretic acid = ethyl ferulate > salicylic acid > gentisic acid > rosmarinic acid = caftaric acid > homogentisic acid. The inhibitory activity was dependent on the number/position of OH or/and OCH3 groups attached to a phenol ring. It can be speculated that OCH3 substitution in the phenol ring can promote a higher antibutyrylcholinesterase activity (although not statistically confirmed at p < 0.05). The presence of a CH=CH-COOH group had a highly favourable effect on the antiacetylcholinesterase activity compared with a CH2-CH2-COOH or a COOH group. Methyl and ethyl esters were more potent inhibitors than the corresponding free acids. The molecular weight of the compounds (in the range of M = 154.12 - 474 g/mol) played a minor role in this context. PMID:23819308

Szwajgier, Dominik

2013-01-01

298

Correlations of Phenolic Acids and Xylose Content of Cell Wall with In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Three Maturing Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maturing reed canarygrass, Russian wildrye, and smooth bromegrass cell walls were analyzed for lignin, phenolic acids, and neutral sugars. Linear correlation be- tween in vitro dry matter digestibility and the p-coumaric acid content was -.86. The correlation between in vitro dry mat- ter digestibility and ratio of p-coumaric to ferulic acid was -.84. Samples with high percentages of lignin also

E. A. Burritt; A. S. Bittner; M. J. Anderson

1984-01-01

299

Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae.  

PubMed

Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study was to characterise several of these pathogens using morphology, culture characteristics, and DNA sequence data of the rRNA-ITS and LSU genes. In some cases additional genes such as TEF 1-? and CHS were also sequenced. Based on the results of this study, several novel species and genera are described. Brunneosphaerella leaf blight is shown to be caused by three species, namely B. jonkershoekensis on Protea repens, B. nitidae sp. nov. on Protea nitida and B. protearum on a wide host range of Protea spp. (South Africa). Coniothyrium-like species associated with Coniothyrium leaf spot are allocated to other genera, namely Curreya grandicipis on Protea grandiceps, and Microsphaeropsis proteae on P. nitida (South Africa). Diaporthe leucospermi is described on Leucospermum sp. (Australia), and Diplodina microsperma newly reported on Protea sp. (New Zealand). Pyrenophora blight is caused by a novel species, Pyrenophora leucospermi, and not Drechslera biseptata or D. dematoidea as previously reported. Fusicladium proteae is described on Protea sp. (South Africa), Pestalotiopsis protearum on Leucospermum cuneiforme (Zimbabwe), Ramularia vizellae and R. stellenboschensis on Protea spp. (South Africa), and Teratosphaeria capensis on Protea spp. (Portugal, South Africa). Aureobasidium leaf spot is shown to be caused by two species, namely A. proteae comb. nov. on Protea spp. (South Africa), and A. leucospermi sp. nov. on Leucospermum spp. (Indonesia, Portugal, South Africa). Novel genera and species elucidated in this study include Gordonomyces mucovaginatus and Pseudopassalora gouriqua (hyphomycetes), and Xenoconiothyrium catenata (coelomycete), all on Protea spp. (South Africa). PMID:22403475

Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Swart, L; Denman, S; Taylor, J E; Bezuidenhout, C M; Palm, M E; Marincowitz, S; Groenewald, J Z

2011-12-01

300

Fungal Secretome Database: Integrated platform for annotation of fungal secretomes  

PubMed Central

Background Fungi secrete various proteins that have diverse functions. Prediction of secretory proteins using only one program is unsatisfactory. To enhance prediction accuracy, we constructed Fungal Secretome Database (FSD). Description A three-layer hierarchical identification rule based on nine prediction programs was used to identify putative secretory proteins in 158 fungal/oomycete genomes (208,883 proteins, 15.21% of the total proteome). The presence of putative effectors containing known host targeting signals such as RXLX [EDQ] and RXLR was investigated, presenting the degree of bias along with the species. The FSD's user-friendly interface provides summaries of prediction results and diverse web-based analysis functions through Favorite, a personalized repository. Conclusions The FSD can serve as an integrated platform supporting researches on secretory proteins in the fungal kingdom. All data and functions described in this study can be accessed on the FSD web site at http://fsd.snu.ac.kr/.

2010-01-01

301

Preparative separation of triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran oil using a high performance counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

A novel method for the separation of two major triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran oil (RBO) was developed using a high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC). A two-phase solvent system of n-hexane-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) was applied to purify cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF) and 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) from RBO. The yields were 20.50±2.60 mg CAF and 12.62±1.15 mg 24-mCAF from 390 mg RBO through a two-step separation procedure. The purities of the two compounds were 97.97±0.90% and 95.50±0.75%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their chemical structures were confirmed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and (1)H, (13)C and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This represents the first report on direct separation of CAF and 24-mCAF from RBO by HPCCC. PMID:23561190

Liu, Man; Yang, Fei; Shi, Haiming; Akoh, Casimir C; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2013-08-15

302

FSRD: fungal stress response database  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to different types of environmental stress is a common part of life for today’s fungi. A deeper understanding of the organization, regulation and evolution of fungal stress response systems may lead to the development of novel antifungal drugs and technologies or the engineering of industrial strains with elevated stress tolerance. Here we present the Fungal Stress Response Database (http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd) aimed to stimulate further research on stress biology of fungi. The database incorporates 1985 fungal stress response proteins with verified physiological function(s) and their orthologs identified and annotated in 28 species including human and plant pathogens, as well as important industrial fungi. The database will be extended continuously to cover other fully sequenced fungal species. Our database, as a starting point for future stress research, facilitates the analysis of literature data on stress and the identification of ortholog groups of stress response proteins in newly sequenced fungal genomes. Database URL: http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd

Karanyi, Zsolt; Holb, Imre; Hornok, Laszlo; Pocsi, Istvan; Miskei, Marton

2013-01-01

303

Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy.

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

2013-01-01

304

Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3? ? M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

2013-01-01

305

Inhibitory effect of medicinal plant-derived carboxylic acids on the human transporters hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1.  

PubMed

A significant number of organic carboxylic acids have been shown to influence the absorption and distribution of drugs mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs). In this study, uptake experiments were performed to assess the inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, oleanolic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin on hOAT1, hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP2B1. After a drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigation, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were found and validated to inhibit hOAT1 in a competitive manner, and deoxycholic acid was found to be an inhibitor of all four transporters. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cynarin were estimated to be 133.87, 3.69, 90.03 and 6.03 ?mol·L(-1) for hOAT1, respectively. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of deoxycholic acid were estimated to be 9.57 ?mol·L(-1) for hOAT3, 70.54 ?mol·L(-1) for hOATP1B1, and 168.27 ?mol·L(-1) for hOATP2B1. Because cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and cynarin are ingredients of food or food additives, the present study suggests there are new food-drug interactions to be disclosed. In addition, deoxycholic acid may be used as a probe for studying the correlation of OATs and OATPs. PMID:24636064

Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Si, Duan-Yun; Yi, Xiu-Lin; Liu, Chang-Xiao

2014-02-01

306

Sodium ferulate protects against daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis in juvenile rats.  

PubMed

Daunorubicin (DNR) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical use is limited because of its cardiotoxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), an effective component from traditional Chinese herbs, against DNR-induced cardiotoxicity in juvenile rats. DNR was administered intraperitoneally to rats at the dosage of 2.5 mg·kg(-1)·wk(-1) for 5 consecutive weeks (cumulative dose of 12.5 mg/kg) or in combination with intraperitoneal injection of SF at 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) over a period of 30 days. The animals were killed 6 days after the last injection of DNR. SF significantly ameliorated the DNR-induced cardiac dysfunction, structural damage of the myocardium, and release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Treatment with SF also reversed DNR-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde levels with a concomitant increase in myocardical superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, SF afforded significant cardioprotection against DNR-induced apoptosis in vivo and effectively suppressed the complex mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling triggered by DNR. This study indicates that SF may improve cardiac function by inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis, thus providing a beneficial effect on the prevention of DNR-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24336018

Wu, Zhi-Juan; Yu, Jing; Fang, Qiu-Juan; Lian, Jia-Bian; Wang, Rui-Xing; He, Rui-Lan; Lin, Mo-Jun

2014-04-01

307

In vitro controlled release of sodium ferulate from Compritol 888 ATO-based matrix tablets.  

PubMed

A controlled release matrix formulation for freely water-soluble drug of sodium ferulate (SF) was designed and developed to achieve a 24h release profile. Using Compritol 888 ATO as an inert matrix-forming agent to control the release of SF, formulation granules containing the physical mixtures or solid dispersions were investigated. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in vitro release tests were carried out. The solid dispersion based tablets were found to be more effective than those compressed from physical mixtures in retarding the release of SF. Drug release from the matrix tablets containing physical mixtures nearly completed within 12h, while that from the solid dispersion formulations lasted for over 24h. Images of the tablet surface and cross-section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to show the formed pores and channels in the matrices. These might provide the release pathway for the inner embedded drugs. Drug released fast from the matrix tablets with the release-enhancer of lactose. The addition of surfactants was also found to increase the release rate of SF effectively. Moreover, the co-mixing of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) in the waxy matrices played a meaningful role in controlling the drug release for 24h. The drug release from the novel formulation might be attributed to the diffusion-controlled mechanism. PMID:16837152

Li, Feng-Qian; Hu, Jin-Hong; Deng, Jia-Xin; Su, Hua; Xu, Shu; Liu, Ji-Yong

2006-11-01

308

Occurrence of Metabolically-Active Bound Forms of Cinnamic Acid and Its Phenolic Derivatives in Acetone Powders of Wheat and Barley Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetone powders of wheat and barley shoots contain bound forms of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. The free acids can be released by an enzymatic autolysis as well as by the action of acids and alkali. The bound forms can be extracted by c...

S. Z. El-Basyouni A. C. Neish

1965-01-01

309

Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, 11 phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla roots exposed to low (3 ?M) and high (60 and 120 ?M) levels of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) for 7 days were investigated.\\u000a Five derivatives of cinnamic acid (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) and six derivatives of benzoic acid (protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic acids and protocatechuic

Jozef Ková?ik; Bo?ivoj Klejdus

2008-01-01

310

Seasonality in Antarctic Airborne Fungal Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne fungal spores were monitored over periods of up to 131?2 months at three sites on Signy Island in the maritime Antarctic. Fungal spore concentrations in the air were much lower than in other parts of the world. Concentrations were very low during the austral winter but increased during the austral summer. Chlamydospores were the most abundant fungal spore type

WILLIAM A. MARSHALL

1997-01-01

311

A radiochemical technique with potential for revealing novel fungal metabolites according to expression of specific biosynthetic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal secondary metabolites are mostly derived from a few key intermediates in primary metabolism, such as acetate and some amino acids. Classical screens for novel fungal compounds of possible industrial interest have used chromatographic displays of extract components, as was the practice for plant natural products, followed by structural determination and pharmacological study. In contrast, modern robotic screens usually focus

Ana Miljkovic; Lucy M. Collinson; Peter G. Mantle

2008-01-01

312

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

313

Airborne fungal fragments and allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to fungi, particularly in water damaged indoor environments, has been thought to exacerbate a number of adverse health effects, ranging from subjective symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive difficulties or memory loss to more definable diseases such as allergy, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Understanding the role of fungal exposure in these environments has been limited by methodo- logical difficulties in

Brett J. Green; Euan R. Tovey; Jason K. Sercombe; Francoise M. Blachere; Donald H. Beezhold; Detlef Schmechel

2006-01-01

314

Fungal farming in a snail.  

PubMed

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R; Newell, Steven Y

2003-12-23

315

Fungal farming in a snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria

Brian R. Silliman; Steven Y. Newell

2003-01-01

316

Knockout of the p-Coumarate Decarboxylase Gene from Lactobacillus plantarum Reveals the Existence of Two Other Inducible Enzymatic Activities Involved in Phenolic Acid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 contains a pdc gene coding for p-coumaric acid decarboxylase activity (PDC). A food grade mutant, designated LPD1, in which the chromosomal pdc gene was replaced with the deleted pdc gene copy, was obtained by a two-step homologous recombination process using an unstable replicative vector. The LPD1 mutant strain remained able to weakly metabolize p-coumaric and ferulic acids into vinyl derivatives or into substituted phenyl propionic acids. We have shown that L. plantarum has a second acid phenol decarboxylase enzyme, better induced with ferulic acid than with p-coumaric acid, which also displays inducible acid phenol reductase activity that is mostly active when glucose is added. Those two enzymatic activities are in competition for p-coumaric and ferulic acid degradation, and the ratio of the corresponding derivatives depends on induction conditions. Moreover, PDC appeared to decarboxylate ferulic acid in vitro with a specific activity of about 10 nmol · min?1 · mg?1 in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Finally, PDC activity was shown to confer a selective advantage on LPNC8 grown in acidic media supplemented with p-coumaric acid, compared to the LPD1 mutant devoid of PDC activity.

Barthelmebs, Lise; Divies, Charles; Cavin, Jean-Francois

2000-01-01

317

Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

Ivarsson, M.

2012-09-01

318

Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols  

PubMed Central

Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other ?5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -?5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. Conclusions/Significance Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of ergosterol. These findings also invalidate use of ergosterol as an indicator of biomass of certain fungal taxa (e.g., Glomeromycota). Data from this study are available from the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL) Structural and Biochemical Database: http://aftol.umn.edu.

Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

2010-01-01

319

Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

2000-01-01

320

Iron-chelating compounds produced by soil pseudomonads: correlation with fungal growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Strains of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined for their ability to grow in the presence of the iron chelator, ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). In vitro fungal inhibition assays showed that the isolates varied in their ability to inhibit the growth of representative fungal plant pathogens. Fungal inhibition in vitro was superior to that of previously reported Pseudomonas sp. Studies with Fusarium oxysporum forma sp. lycopersici and a susceptible tomato cultivar demonstrated that Pseudomonas putida PPU3.1 was able to significantly reduce wilt disease. PMID:16346334

Vandenbergh, P A; Gonzalez, C F; Wright, A M; Kunka, B S

1983-07-01

321

Fungal enhancement of the antioxidant properties of grape waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of grape waste were characterized to evaluate its potential to support the fungal growth of\\u000a four Aspergillus and three Penicillium strains under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions for the production of phenolic antioxidants. In addition, the free\\u000a radical-scavenging potential of DPPH? and ABTS?+ radical solutions and lipid oxidation inhibition by linoleic acid peroxidation of extracts from fermented and

Guillermo Cristian Martínez-Ávila; Antonio F. Aguilera-Carbó; Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar

322

Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications  

PubMed Central

Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.

Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

2013-01-01

323

[Fungal keratitis: review of diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Fungal keratitis is a characteristic infection upon tropical zones, associated with vegetal trauma. Doubt exists about the best diagnostic test and the effectiveness of available treatment. Which is the best diagnostic method for fungal keratitis? And, which is the best management? Fungal culture remains as diagnostic gold standard of fungal elements. As of treatment, natamycin and amphotericin B are the most popular drugs for fungal keratitis and they have not shown effectiveness in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. Voriconazole showed effectiveness and security in multiple fungal infections. It may be the drug of choice in optimal conditions, because of its better ocular penetration and wider coverage. However, its high price difficult general application. This review establishes management recommendations and the need to perform studies that address cost-effectiveness analysis of voriconazole for fungal keratitis. PMID:23812531

Mellado, Felipe; Rojas, Tomás; Cumsille, Cristián

2013-01-01

324

Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

1995-03-01

325

Fungal infections in older adults.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections have become an increasing problem in older adults. Infections with opportunistic fungi have increased because older patients are more likely to be considered for transplantation, receive aggressive regimens of chemotherapy for cancer, and take immunosuppressive drugs for nonmalignant diseases. In addition, healthy older adults are now more likely to travel extensively and to indulge in outdoor activities, which put them at risk for exposure to endemic mycoses. Although many of the clinical manifestations of fungal infections in older and younger adults are similar, there are aspects of histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis that are unique to older patients. Treatment of older adults with amphotericin B is difficult because of the intrinsic nephrotoxicity of the drug. Although they are less toxic, azoles must be used carefully for treatment of older adults, who are more likely to experience serious drug-drug interactions than are younger persons. PMID:11462194

Kauffman, C A

2001-08-15

326

Pathogenesis of indoor fungal diseases.  

PubMed

Mold growth within homes and other buildings has been associated to varying degrees with human health problems. These problems vary from allergenic disease to toxicosis. Case definitions for mold exposure have not been adequately defined to allow for a pathognomonic diagnosis of mold-caused disease following indoor exposure. Some important factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of indoor mold induced disease include beta (1,3)-D-glucans, outer cell wall fungal hydrophobins, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, fungal volatile organic compounds, mycotoxins, and stachylysin. The information in this contribution was presented as the ISHAM Presidential address as a means to clarify some of the confusing surrounding indoor mold-related health issues. PMID:15124863

McGinnis, Michael R

2004-04-01

327

Phenolic acids content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Ligusticum mutellina L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple HPLC method has been used for separation and quantitative analysis of the phenolic acids in the methanolic extracts of Ligusticum mutellina aerial parts. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant phenolic acid. Additionally, gallic, p-OH-benzoic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified. Moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC?=?1.25–2.5?mg?mL) was observed for the methanol extract of L. mutellina herb received from

Elwira Sieniawska; Tomasz Baj; Renata Los; Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak; Anna Malm; Kazimierz Glowniak

2012-01-01

328

Compatible solutes and fungal development.  

PubMed

Compatible solutes are components that can be quickly accumulated and degraded inside fungal cells. They do not disturb the functioning of proteins and protect the cell under adverse conditions. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Solomon and co-workers evaluate the role of mannitol, one of these components, in Stagonospora nodorum, a plant-pathogenic fungus, and find surprising effects on the development of spores and spore-forming structures. PMID:16987106

Dijksterhuis, Jan; de Vries, Ronald P

2006-10-15

329

Fungal diseases of laboratory rodents.  

PubMed

Although fungal disease is uncommon in rodents, dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis seen in clinical practice. T. mentagrophytes is the most common etiologic agent, and the guinea pig is the most common species affected, although there are reports in all pet and laboratory rodent species except the gerbil. Despite the low incidence of clinical disease, rodents are common asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and ringworm is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted from rodents to people. PMID:12827729

Pollock, Christal

2003-05-01

330

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

1996-01-01

331

Systems Biology of Fungal Infection  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmacher, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

2012-01-01

332

Fungal genome resources at NCBI  

PubMed Central

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

2011-01-01

333

Use of water and EDTA extractions to estimate available (free and reversibly bound) phenolic acids in Cecil soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile and microbe reinfested Cecil Ap and Bt soil materials amended with 0 to 5 µmol\\/g of ferulic acid,p-coumaric acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or vanillic acid were extracted after varying time intervals with water, EDTA, or NaOH to characterize sorption of cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives and to determine the effectiveness of water and EDTA extractions in estimating concentrations of free and

U. Blum; A. D. Worsham; L. D. King; T. M. Gerig

1994-01-01

334

Tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

Kuramae, Eiko E; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F M; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Kowalchuk, George A

2013-01-01

335

Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time.

Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Roling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.

2013-01-01

336

Photochemical characterization of a novel fungal rhodopsin from Phaeosphaeria nodorum.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic microbial rhodopsins are widespread bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins found in many lower eukaryotic groups including fungi. Many fungi contain multiple rhodopsins, some significantly diverged from the original bacteriorhodopsin template. Although few fungal rhodopsins have been studied biophysically, both fast-cycling light-driven proton pumps and slow-cycling photosensors have been found. The purpose of this study was to characterize photochemically a new subgroup of fungal rhodopsins, the so-called auxiliary group. The study used the two known rhodopsin genes from the fungal wheat pathogen, Phaeosphaeria nodorum. One of the genes is a member of the auxiliary group while the other is highly similar to previously characterized proton-pumping Leptosphaeria rhodopsin. Auxiliary rhodopsin genes from a range of species form a distinct group with a unique primary structure and are located in carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster. Amino acid conservation pattern suggests that auxiliary rhodopsins retain the transmembrane core of bacteriorhodopsins, including all residues important for proton transport, but have unique polar intramembrane residues. Spectroscopic characterization of the two yeast-expressed Phaeosphaeria rhodopsins showed many similarities: absorption spectra, conformation of the retinal chromophore, fast photocycling, and carboxylic acid protonation changes. It is likely that both Phaeosphaeria rhodopsins are proton-pumping, at least in vitro. We suggest that auxiliary rhodopsins have separated from their ancestors fairly recently and have acquired the ability to interact with as yet unidentified transducers, performing a photosensory function without changing their spectral properties and basic photochemistry. PMID:21791197

Fan, Ying; Solomon, Peter; Oliver, Richard P; Brown, Leonid S

2011-11-01

337

Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

2014-05-01

338

Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks  

PubMed Central

In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

339

Fungal spores: hazardous to health?  

PubMed Central

Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer.

Sorenson, W G

1999-01-01

340

Superficial fungal infections in children.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

2014-04-01

341

Highlights in pathogenic fungal biofilms.  

PubMed

A wide variety of fungi have demonstrated the ability to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida albicans and more recently, several authors have reported the involvement of other genera of yeasts and Candida species, as well as of filamentous fungi in the formation of biofilms, including: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Rhodotorula species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Pneumocystis species, Coccidioides immitis, Fusarium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii, Mucorales and Blastoschizomyces. There is a current interest in describing the particular characteristics of the biofilm formation by of these fungi. A major concern is the control of biofilms, requiring knowledge of the biofilm mechanisms. However, our knowledge of these microbial communities is limited, due to the complexity of these systems and metabolic interactions that remain unknown. This mini-review aims to highlight recently discovered fungal biofilms and to compare them with the current knowledge on biofilms. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24252828

Sardi, Janaina De Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla De Souza; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

2014-01-01

342

POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME  

EPA Science Inventory

Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

343

Inhibition of polygalacturonase and polygalacturonic acid lyase from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by phenolics in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The phenolic acids benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic and vanillic\\u000a together with vanillin, were tested for their ability to inhibit polygalacturonic acid lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG)\\u000a in culture filtrates ofErwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora. None of the compounds inhibited PL at 200 ?g\\/ml, although syringic and sinapic acids caused a 54% and 43% reduction respectively\\u000a at 400

G. D. Lyon; Fiona M. McGill

1989-01-01

344

Fungal Fragments as Indoor Air Biocontaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers

Rafaø L. Gorny; Tiina Reponen; Klaus Willeke; Detlef Schmechel; Enric Robine; Marjorie Boissier; Sergey A. Grinshpun

2002-01-01

345

Development of Prophylactic Anti-Fungal Preparations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to develop better topical anti-fungal agents with prophylactic activity against common ringworm infection a chemical assay for sodium pyrithione (a known anti-fungal drug) was developed in stratum corneum and its persistence there determined a do...

S. Riegelman W. L. Epstein R. A. Upton

1980-01-01

346

Fungal Susceptibility of Military Paint Formulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven Military paint formulations on metal panels were evaluated for fungal susceptibity before and after weathering and leaching. TT-E-527 and TT-E-529 (olive drab) and MIL-E-52798A (forest green camouflage) formulations supported moderate fungal growth...

A. M. Kaplan B. J. Wiley D. L. Kaplan M. Greenberger

1982-01-01

347

Efficient Genetic Analysis of Fungal Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for rapid genetic analysis of small amounts of fungal material. Sterile glass slides, sufficiently small to fit in a standard PCR tube, were placed on agar inside a Petri dish. After a few days, fungal cultures start to overgrow the glass slides. Glass slides with attached mycelium were harvested, analysed microscopically, and placed into a standard

A. de los Ríos; G. Deutsch; M. Grube

2000-01-01

348

Production of vanillin from waste residue of rice bran oil by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology of transforming ferulic acid, which was from waste residue of rice bran oil, into vanillin was developed by a combination of fungal strains Aspergillus niger CGMCC0774 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. Various concentrations of ferulic acid were compared, and the highest yield reached 2.2gl?1 of vanillic acid by A. niger CGMCC0774 in a 25l fermenter when concentration of

Lirong Zheng; Pu. Zheng; Zhihao Sun; Yanbing Bai; Jun Wang; Xinfu Guo

2007-01-01

349

Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

2011-01-01

350

Fungal and enzymatic decolourisation of artificial textile dye baths.  

PubMed

A textile dye Reactive Black 5 was used in screening 25 fungal strains for their decolourising ability. The most promising strains were tested in a medium containing specific constituents of a dye bath in order to approach real application conditions. It was shown that the concentrations of the constituents had to be reduced to allow fungal growth. Decolourisation started in cultures of Geotrichum candidum but was not complete. Only Bjerkandera adusta was able to decolourise the black-blue colour through violet and red to pale yellow. After 17 days spectral absorption coefficients, alpha, at three wavelengths, 620, 525 and 436 nm almost reached the permitted values. A partly purified manganese peroxidase prepared from B. adusta was tested for decolourisation of several artificial dye baths. The constituents seemed not to be inhibitory to the enzyme and no dilution was necessary. Evaluation of decolourisation gave different results, depending on the method used. The most efficient decolourisation on a percentage basis was observed in the dye bath of the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19, followed by the diazo dye Reactive Black 5. However, based on absorbance units, the largest reduction was achieved with the Reactive Black 5 and Acid Orange 7 dye baths. Comparing the alpha values after 120 h fungal and enzymatic treatments of Reactive Black 5 dye bath the enzyme showed about 1.5 times greater colour reduction than the fungus. Given the tolerance to the constituents and concentration of dye baths, the enzyme proved to be a promising tool for their treatment. PMID:16310823

Mohorcic, Martina; Teodorovic, Simona; Golob, Vera; Friedrich, Jozefa

2006-06-01

351

Proline suppresses apoptosis in the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii  

PubMed Central

The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell communication, control of gene expression, and oxygen sensing is well established. Inappropriate regulation of ROS levels can damage cells, resulting in a diseased state. In Colletotrichum trifolii, a fungal pathogen of alfalfa, the mutationally activated oncogenic fungal Ras (DARas) elevates levels of ROS, causing abnormal fungal growth and development and eventual apoptotic-like cell death but only when grown under nutrient-limiting conditions. Remarkably, restoration to the wild-type phenotype requires only proline. Here, we describe a generally unrecognized function of proline: its ability to function as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of programmed cell death. Addition of proline to DARas mutant cells effectively quenched ROS levels and prevented cell death. Treating cells with inhibitors of ROS production yielded similar results. In addition, proline protected wild-type C. trifolii cells against various lethal stresses, including UV light, salt, heat, and hydrogen peroxide. These observations appear to be general because proline also protected yeast cells from lethal levels of the ROS-generating herbicide methyl viologen (paraquat), suggesting a common protective role for proline in response to oxidative stress. The ability of proline to scavenge intracellular ROS and inhibit ROS-mediated apoptosis may be an important and broad-based function of this amino acid in responding to cellular stress, in addition to its well established role as an osmolyte.

Chen, Changbin; Dickman, Martin B.

2005-01-01

352

Oxidations catalyzed by fungal peroxygenases.  

PubMed

The enzymatic oxyfunctionalization of organic molecules under physiological conditions has attracted keen interest from the chemical community. Unspecific peroxygenases (EC 1.11.2.1) secreted by fungi represent an intriguing enzyme type that selectively transfers peroxide-borne oxygen with high efficiency to diverse substrates including unactivated hydrocarbons. They are glycosylated heme-thiolate enzymes that form a separate superfamily of heme proteins. Among the catalyzed reactions are hydroxylations, epoxidations, dealkylations, oxidations of organic hetero atoms and inorganic halides as well as one-electron oxidations. The substrate spectrum of fungal peroxygenases and the product patterns show similarities both to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and classic heme peroxidases. Given that selective oxyfunctionalizations are among the most difficult to realize chemical reactions and that respectively transformed molecules are of general importance in organic and pharmaceutical syntheses, it will be worth developing peroxygenase biocatalysts for industrial applications. PMID:24607599

Hofrichter, Martin; Ullrich, René

2014-04-01

353

Evidence for specificity of cultivable bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores.  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores may play functional roles in interactions between AM fungi, plant hosts and defence against plant pathogens. To study AM fungal spore-associated bacteria (AMB) with regard to diversity, source effects (AM fungal species, plant host) and antagonistic properties, we isolated AMB from surface-decontaminated spores of Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae extracted from field rhizospheres of Festuca ovina and Leucanthemum vulgare. Analysis of 385 AMB was carried out by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile analysis, and some also identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The AMB were tested for capacity to inhibit growth in vitro of Rhizoctonia solani and production of fluorescent siderophores. Half of the AMB isolates could be identified to species (similarity index 0.6) within 16 genera and 36 species. AMB were most abundant in the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas and in a cluster of unidentified isolates related to Stenotrophomonas. The AMB composition was affected by AM fungal species and to some extent by plant species. The occurrence of antagonistic isolates depended on AM fungal species, but not plant host, and originated from G. intraradices spores. AM fungal spores appear to host certain sets of AMB, of which some can contribute to resistance by AM fungi against plant pathogens. PMID:18631178

Bharadwaj, Dharam Parkash; Lundquist, Per-Olof; Persson, Paula; Alström, Sadhna

2008-08-01

354

Plant chitinases and their roles in resistance to fungal diseases.  

PubMed

Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin, and they occur in diverse plant tissues over a broad range of crop and noncrop species. The enzymes may be expressed constitutively at low levels but are dramatically enhanced by numerous abiotic agents (ethylene, salicylic acid, salt solutions, ozone, UV light) and by biotic factors (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, fungal cell wall components, and oligosaccharides). Different classes of plant chitinases are distinguishable by molecular, biochemical, and physicochemical criteria. Thus, plant chitinases may differ in substrate-binding characteristics, localization within the cell, and specific activities. Because chitin is a structural component of the cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi, extensive research has been conducted to determine whether plant chitinases have a role in defense against fungal diseases. Plant chitinases have different degrees of antifungal activity to several fungi in vitro. In vivo, although rapid accumulation and high levels of chitinases (together with numerous other pathogenesis-related proteins) occur in resistant tissues expressing a hypersensitive reaction, high levels also can occur in susceptible tissues. Expression of cloned chitinase genes in transgenic plants has provided further evidence for their role in plant defense. The level of protection observed in these plants is variable and may be influenced by the specific activity of the enzyme, its localization and concentration within the cell, the characteristics of the fungal pathogen, and the nature of the host-pathogen interaction. The expression of chitinase in combination with one or several different antifungal proteins should have a greater effect on reducing disease development, given the complexities of fungal-plant cell interactions and resistance responses in plants. The effects of plant chitinases on nematode development in vitro and in vivo are worthy of investigation. PMID:19279806

Punja, Z K; Zhang, Y Y

1993-12-01

355

Fungal community composition in neotropical rain forests: the influence of tree diversity and precipitation.  

PubMed

Plant diversity is considered one factor structuring soil fungal communities because the diversity of compounds in leaf litter might determine the extent of resource heterogeneity for decomposer communities. Lowland tropical rain forests have the highest plant diversity per area of any biome. Since fungi are responsible for much of the decomposition occurring in forest soils, understanding the factors that structure fungi in tropical forests may provide valuable insight for predicting changes in global carbon and nitrogen fluxes. To test the role of plant diversity in shaping fungal community structure and function, soil (0-20 cm) and leaf litter (O horizons) were collected from six established 1-ha forest census plots across a natural plant diversity gradient on the Isthmus of Panama. We used 454 pyrosequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to evaluate correlations between microbial community composition, precipitation, soil nutrients, and plant richness. In soil, the number of fungal taxa increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation, but not with plant richness. There were no correlations between fungal communities in leaf litter and plant diversity or precipitation, and fungal communities were found to be compositionally distinct between soil and leaf litter. To directly test for effects of plant species richness on fungal diversity and function, we experimentally re-created litter diversity gradients in litter bags with 1, 25, and 50 species of litter. After 6 months, we found a significant effect of litter diversity on decomposition rate between one and 25 species of leaf litter. However, fungal richness did not track plant species richness. Although studies in a broader range of sites is required, these results suggest that precipitation may be a more important factor than plant diversity or soil nutrient status in structuring tropical forest soil fungal communities. PMID:22080256

McGuire, Krista L; Fierer, Noah; Bateman, Carling; Treseder, Kathleen K; Turner, Benjamin L

2012-05-01

356

Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation.  

PubMed

Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

2014-01-01

357

DAMP signaling in fungal infections and diseases  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections and diseases predominantly affect patients with deregulated immunity. Compelling experimental and clinical evidence indicate that severe fungal diseases belong to the spectrum of fungus-related inflammatory diseases. Some degree of inflammation is required for protection during the transitional response occurring temporally between the rapid innate and slower adaptive response. However, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen eradication. The challenge now is to elucidate cellular and molecular pathways distinguishing protective vs. pathogenic inflammation to fungi. In addition to fungal ligands of pattern recognition receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), several host-encoded proteins, the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are released during tissue injury and activate innate recognition receptors. DAMPs have been shown to regulate inflammation in fungal diseases. The DAMP/receptor for advanced glycation end-products axis integrated with the PAMP/Toll-like receptors axis in the generation of the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical fungal pneumonia. These emerging themes better accommodate fungal pathogenesis in the face of high-level inflammation seen in several clinical settings and point to DAMP targeting as a novel immunomodulatory strategy in fungal diseases.

Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Esposito, Antonella; Bistoni, Francesco; Romani, Luigina

2012-01-01

358

[Current aspects of fungal spores allergy].  

PubMed

In industrialized countries the prevalence of allergic inhalant diseases is some 15-20%. More than 10% of these individuals are sensitized to fungal allergens. Many fungal spores are less than 10 microns in size, which permits penetration into the smaller airways of the lung. Bronchial provocation tests have demonstrated that fungal spores and spore extracts can cause both an early and a late phase reaction in sensitive subjects. Over 80 genera of fungi have been associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergy. Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes are the major fungal groups that contain genera known to induce and elicit allergic reactions. These groups contribute most of the spores found in air. Although ascomycetes include the greatest number of any fungal group, only a few species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum, have been investigated in a scientific manner. In recent years spores of basidiomycetes have been tested for allergenicity and some species have been determined to be allergenic, such as Calvatia cyathiformis, Ganoderma applanatum, Pleurotus ostreatus, or Psilocybe cubensis. Compared to pollen-related allergies, diagnosis of fungal allergy is often difficult. Provocative challenge with specific fungal antigens can provide a definitive diagnosis. To date, only three controlled immunotherapy trials with standardized extracts of A. alternata and C. herbarum have shown clinical efficacy. In spite of these studies, immunotherapy with fungal antigens requires further investigations. Thus, the indication for immunotherapy with fungal extracts must be judged by an experienced allergist. Apart from pharmacological management, avoiding or minimizing exposure is the front-line measure. PMID:8016603

Helbling, A; Reese, G; Horner, W E; Lehrer, S B

1994-05-28

359

Morphological findings of deep cutaneous fungal infections.  

PubMed

: Cutaneous fungal infections used to be rare in most developed countries. However, they have become more common due to immunosuppression and globalization. In this report, we summarize the histopathologic findings of the main cutaneous fungal infections that are commonly seen in daily practice, including eumycetoma, sporotrichosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, aspergillosis, zygomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, alternariosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, and chromoblastomycosis. We also include protothecosis (despite the fact that the infectious agent of this disease is algal and not fungal) and rhinosporidiosis (despite being caused by mesomycetozoea, which are not fungi). PMID:24950417

Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Arenas-Guzman, Roberto

2014-07-01

360

Fungal skin infections associated with animal contact.  

PubMed

Zoophilic dermatophytes are fungal organisms that primarily infect animals but occasionally infect humans. The most common of these are Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The clinical lesions of zoophilic fungal infections are more inflammatory than those caused by the typical anthropophilic fungi normally transmitted from person to person. To diagnose zoophilic fungal infections, a potassium hydroxide preparation of the skin scrapings may be examined microscopically or a culture may be obtained. Small lesions located anywhere except on the scalp may be treated with a topical antifungal agent. Oral griseofulvin is preferred for the treatment of scalp infections and extensive cutaneous infections. PMID:2008813

Radentz, W H

1991-04-01

361

Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

2011-01-01

362

Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom.  

PubMed

The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen. PMID:21528015

Heitman, Joseph

2011-03-01

363

Influence of Plant Phenolic Acids on Growth and Cellulolytic Activity of Rumen Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Isolated rumen bacteria were examined for growth and, where appropriate, for their ability to degrade cellulose in the presence of the hydroxycinnamic acids trans-p-coumaric acid and trans-ferulic acid and the hydroxybenzoic acids vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the most toxic of the acids examined and suppressed the growth of the cellulolytic strains Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Bacteroides succinogenes when included in a simple sugars medium at concentrations of >5 mM. The extent of cellulose digestion by R. flavefaciens and B. succinogenes but not R. albus was also substantially reduced. Examination of rumen fluid from sheep maintained on dried grass containing 0.51% phenolic acids showed the presence of phloretic acid (0.1 mM) and 3-methoxyphloretic acid (trace) produced by hydrogenation of the 2-propenoic side chain of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, respectively. The parent acids were found in trace amounts only, although they represented the major phenolic acids ingested. Phloretic and 3-methoxyphloretic acids proved to be considerably less toxic than their parent acids. All of the cellulolytic strains (and Streptococcus bovis) showed at least a limited ability to hydrogenate hydroxycinnamic acids, with Ruminococcus spp. proving the most effective. No further modification of hydroxycinnamic acids was produced by the single strains of bacteria examined. However, a considerable shortfall in the recovery of added phenolic acids was noted in media inoculated with rumen fluid. It is suggested that hydrogenation may serve to protect cellulolytic strains from hydroxycinnamic acids.

Chesson, Andrew; Stewart, Colin S.; Wallace, R. John

1982-01-01

364

PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

2009-11-30

365

The metabolism of aromatic acids by micro-organisms. Metabolic pathways in the fungi  

PubMed Central

1. The metabolic pathways of aromatic-ring fission were examined in a range of fungal genera that utilize several compounds related to lignin. 2. Most of the genera, after growth on p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate or compounds that are degraded to the latter (e.g. caffeate, ferulate or vanillate), rapidly oxidized these compounds, but not catechol. 3. Such genera possessed a protocatechuate 3,4-oxygenase and accumulated ?-carboxymuconate as the product of protocatechuate oxidation. This enzyme had a high pH optimum in most organisms; the Rhodotorula enzyme was competitively inhibited by catechol. 4. ?-Carboxymuconate was converted by all competent fungi into ?-carboxymuconolactone, which was isolated and characterized. None of the fungi produced or utilized at significant rates the corresponding bacterial intermediate ?-carboxymuconolactone. 5. The lactonizing enzymes of Rhodotorula and Neurospora crassa had a pH optimum near 5·5 and approximate molecular weights of 19000 and 190000 respectively. 6. The fungi did not degrade the isomeric (+)-muconolactone, ?-carboxymethylenebutanolide or ?-oxoadipate enol lactone at significant rates, and thus differ radically from bacteria, where ?-oxoadipate enol lactone is the precursor of ?-oxoadipate in all strains examined. 7. The end product of ?-carboxymuconolactone metabolism by extracts was ?-oxoadipate. 8. Evidence for a coenzyme A derivative of ?-oxoadipate was found during further metabolism of this keto acid. 9. A few anomalous fungi, after growth on p-hydroxybenzoate, had no protocatechuate 3,4-oxygenase, but possessed all the enzymes of the catechol pathway. Catechol was detected in the growth medium in one instance. 10. A strain of Penicillium sp. formed pyruvate but no ?-oxoadipate from protocatechuate, suggesting the existence also of a `meta' type of ring cleavage among fungi.

Cain, R. B.; Bilton, R. F.; Darrah, Josephine A.

1968-01-01

366

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event.

2012-01-01

367

Gene Cloning, Transcriptional Analysis, Purification, and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis displays a substrate-inducible decarboxylating activity with the following three phenolic acids: ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids. Based on DNA sequence homologies between the Bacillus pumilus ferulate decarboxylase gene (fdc) (A. Zago, G. Degrassi, and C. V. Bruschi, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:4484–4486, 1995) and the Lactobacillus plantarum p-coumarate decarboxylase gene (pdc) (J.-F. Cavin, L. Barthelmebs, and C. Diviès, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1939–1944, 1997), a DNA probe of about 300 nucleotides for the L. plantarum pdc gene was used to screen a B. subtilis genomic library in order to clone the corresponding gene in this bacterium. One clone was detected with this heterologous probe, and this clone exhibited phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) activity. The corresponding 5-kb insertion was partially sequenced and was found to contain a 528-bp open reading frame coding for a 161-amino-acid protein exhibiting 71 and 84% identity with the pdc- and fdc-encoded enzymes, respectively. The PAD gene (pad) is transcriptionally regulated by p-coumaric, ferulic, or caffeic acid; these three acids are the three substrates of PAD. The pad gene was overexpressed constitutively in Escherichia coli, and the stable purified enzyme was characterized. The difference in substrate specificity between this PAD and other PADs seems to be related to a few differences in the amino acid sequence. Therefore, this novel enzyme should facilitate identification of regions involved in catalysis and substrate specificity.

Cavin, Jean-Francois; Dartois, Veronique; Divies, Charles

1998-01-01

368

Soil science: Fungal friends against drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal-based food webs of undisturbed grasslands resist and adapt to the effects of drought more than bacterial-based food webs of agricultural soils, indicating how soil biota might be able to withstand long-term climate change.

Six, Johan

2012-04-01

369

Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.  

PubMed

The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

Robinson, Sara C

2012-02-01

370

Assessment and control of fungal allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal sensitivity is a significant cause of allergic disease. Understanding the role fungi play in allergic disease, and\\u000a how to best control exposure among those with allergy, can have imortant clinical ramifications.

Laura Dziadzio; Robert K. Bush

2001-01-01

371

Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Where you live (geography) matters. Some disease-causing fungi are more common in certain parts of the ... Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a ...

372

University of Montreal: Fungal Mitochondrial Genome Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported by the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Fungal Mitochondrial Genome Project (FMGP) is a project of B. Franz Lang and his research group at the University of Montreal. Three "goals of FMGP are to (i) sequence complete mitochondrial genomes from all major fungal lineages, (ii) infer a robust fungal phylogeny, (iii) define the origin of fungi, their protistan ancestors, and their specific phylogenetic link to the animals..." The FMGP website contains information pages for Allomyces macrogynus, Phytophthora infestans, Aspergillus nidulans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe--to name a few. Site visitors can also link to brief information sections about Global Fungal Phylogeny; tRNA editing in lower fungal mtDNAs; DNA Purification and Cell Cultures; and a collection of mitochondrial protein sequences. From Dr. Lang's homepage, visitors can view a list of numerous publications (some with hyperlinked abstracts). In addition, the FMGP site links to related research projects at the University of Montreal as well as to online fungal resources at Cornell University and the University of Georgia.

373

Fungal infection in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to dementia mainly among the elderly. This disease is characterized by the presence in the brain of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that provoke neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory processes. In the present work, we have analyzed the existence of fungal infection in Alzheimer's disease patients. A proteomic analysis provides compelling evidence for the existence of fungal proteins in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. Furthermore, PCR analysis reveals a variety of fungal species in these samples, dependent on the patient and the tissue tested. DNA sequencing demonstrated that several fungal species can be found in brain samples. Together, these results show that fungal macromolecules can be detected in brain from Alzheimer's disease patients. To our knowledge these findings represent the first evidence that fungal infection is detectable in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. The possibility that this may represent a risk factor or may contribute to the etiological cause of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. PMID:24614898

Alonso, Ruth; Pisa, Diana; Marina, Ana Isabel; Morato, Esperanza; Rábano, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis

2014-01-01

374

OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products—A gamma radiolysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

2010-12-01

375

New multifunctional surfactants from natural phenolic acids.  

PubMed

Several new multifunctional molecules derived from natural sources such as amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acids were synthesized. They exhibit various activities such as emulsifying, UV-protecting, and radical scavenging, thereby conforming to the latest requirements for cosmetic ingredients. The synthesis comprises only a few steps: (i) the amino acid, the acid groups of which are protected by esterification, is coupled with ferulic or caffeic acid; (ii) the p-hydroxyl group of the cinnamic derivative reacts with dodecyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate (the resulting compounds are highly lipophilic and tested as water/oil (W/O) emulsifiers); (iii) these molecules, by deprotonating the acid groups of the amino acids, with successive salification, are more hydrophilic, with stronger O/W emulsifying properties. The new multifunctional surfactants might prove useful for the treatment of multiple skin conditions, including loss of cellular antioxidants, damage from free radicals, damage from UV, and others. PMID:22142033

Centini, Marisanna; Rossato, Maria Sole; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Stefanoni, Sara; Anselmi, Cecilia

2012-01-11

376

FaaPred: a SVM-based prediction method for fungal adhesins and adhesin-like proteins.  

PubMed

Adhesion constitutes one of the initial stages of infection in microbial diseases and is mediated by adhesins. Hence, identification and comprehensive knowledge of adhesins and adhesin-like proteins is essential to understand adhesin mediated pathogenesis and how to exploit its therapeutic potential. However, the knowledge about fungal adhesins is rudimentary compared to that of bacterial adhesins. In addition to host cell attachment and mating, the fungal adhesins play a significant role in homotypic and xenotypic aggregation, foraging and biofilm formation. Experimental identification of fungal adhesins is labor- as well as time-intensive. In this work, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method for the prediction of fungal adhesins and adhesin-like proteins. The SVM models were trained with different compositional features, namely, amino acid, dipeptide, multiplet fractions, charge and hydrophobic compositions, as well as PSI-BLAST derived PSSM matrices. The best classifiers are based on compositional properties as well as PSSM and yield an overall accuracy of 86%. The prediction method based on best classifiers is freely accessible as a world wide web based server at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/faap. This work will aid rapid and rational identification of fungal adhesins, expedite the pace of experimental characterization of novel fungal adhesins and enhance our knowledge about role of adhesins in fungal infections. PMID:20300572

Ramana, Jayashree; Gupta, Dinesh

2010-01-01

377

FaaPred: A SVM-Based Prediction Method for Fungal Adhesins and Adhesin-Like Proteins  

PubMed Central

Adhesion constitutes one of the initial stages of infection in microbial diseases and is mediated by adhesins. Hence, identification and comprehensive knowledge of adhesins and adhesin-like proteins is essential to understand adhesin mediated pathogenesis and how to exploit its therapeutic potential. However, the knowledge about fungal adhesins is rudimentary compared to that of bacterial adhesins. In addition to host cell attachment and mating, the fungal adhesins play a significant role in homotypic and xenotypic aggregation, foraging and biofilm formation. Experimental identification of fungal adhesins is labor- as well as time-intensive. In this work, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method for the prediction of fungal adhesins and adhesin-like proteins. The SVM models were trained with different compositional features, namely, amino acid, dipeptide, multiplet fractions, charge and hydrophobic compositions, as well as PSI-BLAST derived PSSM matrices. The best classifiers are based on compositional properties as well as PSSM and yield an overall accuracy of 86%. The prediction method based on best classifiers is freely accessible as a world wide web based server at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/faap. This work will aid rapid and rational identification of fungal adhesins, expedite the pace of experimental characterization of novel fungal adhesins and enhance our knowledge about role of adhesins in fungal infections.

Ramana, Jayashree; Gupta, Dinesh

2010-01-01

378

Comparative FTIR study of a new fungal rhodopsin.  

PubMed

Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a light-driven proton pump of halophilic Archaea , and BR-like proton-pumping rhodopsins have been discovered in Bacteria and Eucarya as well. Leptosphaeria rhodopsin (LR) and Phaeosphaeria Rhodopsin 2 (PhaeoRD2) are both fungal rhodopsins in such a functional class, even though they belong to different branches of the phylogenetic tree. In this study, we compared light-induced structural changes in the K, L, and M photointermediates for PhaeoRD2, LR, and BR using low-temperature Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We observed a strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecule in PhaeoRD2 (water O-D stretch in D(2)O at 2258 cm(-1)) as well as in LR and BR. This observation provided additional experimental evidence to the concept that strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecule is the functional determinant of light-driven proton pumping. The difference FTIR spectra for all the K, L, and M states are surprisingly similar between PhaeoRD2 and LR, but not for BR. PhaeoRD2 is more homologous to LR than to BR, but the difference is small. The amino acid identities between PhaeoRD2 and LR, and between PhaeoRD2 and BR are 34.5% and 30.2%, respectively. In addition, the amino acids uniquely identical for the fungal rhodopsins are located rather far from the retinal chromophore. In fact, the amino acid identities within 4 Å from retinal are the same among PhaeoRD2, LR, and BR. For more than 100 amino acids located within 12 Å from retinal, the identities are 48.7% between PhaeoRD2 and LR, 46.0% between PhaeoRD2 and BR, and 47.8% between LR and BR. These results suggest that protein core structures are equally different among the three rhodopsins. Thus, the identical FTIR spectra between PhaeoRD2 and LR (but not BR), even for the K state, indicate that fungal rhodopsins possess some common structural motif and dynamics not obvious from the amino acid sequences. PMID:22973982

Ito, Hiroyasu; Sumii, Masayo; Kawanabe, Akira; Fan, Ying; Furutani, Yuji; Brown, Leonid S; Kandori, Hideki

2012-10-01

379

Diagnostic pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of subcutaneous fungal infection in renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at increased risk of the development of a variety of skin infections that can result from graft-preserving immuno-suppressive therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine cytomorphological findings of fungal subcutaneous swelling in seven RTRs and to analyze diagnostic pitfalls in fungal cytology. A retrospective review of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears of subcutaneous swelling with positive fungal elements in RTRs from 2008 to 2010 was performed. We had seven cases (all males; age range, 34-58 years, mean, 46.3 years). The time interval between the renal transplantation and appearance of swelling ranged from 8 to 19 months (mean, 13.4 months). The swelling was located on lower limb (six cases) and arm (one case). The lesion was solitary (six cases) and multiple (one case). The cytology of aspirated material showed branched septate fungal hyphae in six cases. These were well delineated on Periodic acid schiffs (PAS) and chromic silver methenamine (CSM) stains. One case showed presence of faint, thin walled, broad ribbon like hyphae. Culture of aspirated material was performed in four cases which grew phaeohyphomycosis in all. Histology of excised tissue showed numerous septate, branched, pigmented fungal elements suggestive of pheohyphomycosis in four cases and broad ribbon hyphae suggestive of zygomycosis in one case. All of our cases responded well with anti-fungal treatment. Fungal infection can manifest as subcutaneous swelling in RTRs. It is often severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to diagnose. FNAC is an important diagnostic tool which is simple, cost effective and rapid method. PMID:21381226

Jaiswal, Sushila; Vij, Mukul; Prasad, Narayan; Kaul, Anupama; Marak, Rungmei S K; Pandey, Rakesh

2012-03-01

380

Comparison and Validation of Some ITS Primer Pairs Useful for Fungal Metabarcoding Studies  

PubMed Central

Current metabarcoding studies aiming to characterize microbial communities generally rely on the amplification and sequencing of relatively short DNA regions. For fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operon has been accepted as the formal fungal barcode. Despite an increasing number of fungal metabarcoding studies, the amplification efficiency of primers is generally not tested prior to their application in metabarcoding studies. Some of the challenges that metabarcoding primers should overcome efficiently are the amplification of target DNA strands in samples rich in non-target DNA and environmental pollutants, such as humic acids, that may have been co-extracted with DNA. In the current study, three selected primer pairs were tested for their suitability as fungal metabarcoding primers. The selected primer pairs include two primer pairs that have been frequently used in fungal metabarcoding studies (ITS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4) and a primer pair (ITS86F/ITS4) that has been shown to efficiently amplify the ITS2 region of a broad range of fungal taxa in environmental soil samples. The selected primer pairs were evaluated in a 454 amplicon pyrosequencing experiment, real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments and in silico analyses. Results indicate that experimental evaluation of primers provides valuable information that could aid in the selection of suitable primers for fungal metabarcoding studies. Furthermore, we show that the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair outperforms other primer pairs tested in terms of in silico primer efficiency, PCR efficiency, coverage, number of reads and number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained. These traits push the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair forward as highly suitable for studying fungal diversity and community structures using DNA metabarcoding.

Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Declerck, Stephan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

2014-01-01

381

Efficacy of natamycin to control fungal growth in natural black olive fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of natamycin as a fungal control agent in natural black olive fermentation according to the traditional anaerobic system was studied. Black Conservolea olives were subjected to spontaneous fermentation in 8% (w/v) NaCl brine solution (control treatment) or brine supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) natamycin (active compound) for an overall period of 60 days. The changes in the microbial association (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae), pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, and volatile compounds were monitored throughout fermentation. The initial microbiota consisted of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae. The addition of natamycin in the brine inhibited the growth of yeasts, without affecting the population dynamics of bacteria, resulting in a more vigorous fermentation with higher titratable acidity compared to spontaneous control process. Moreover, the presence of natamycin inhibited mould spoilage caused by the development of fungal mycelium on the surface of the brine during the traditional anaerobic fermentation system employed widely in Greece in natural black olive processing. Natamycin could be an important component of a processing system to control fungal growth in natural black olive fermentation and at the same time it has the potential to enhance the process by favouring the growth of the indigenous population of lactic acid bacteria against other competing microorganisms. PMID:21356474

Hondrodimou, O; Kourkoutas, Y; Panagou, E Z

2011-05-01

382

Fungal infections in transplant recipients receiving alemtuzumab.  

PubMed

Recently, we have used an anti-T-cell agent, alemtuzumab, as induction or conversion therapy to achieve a calcineurin (CNI) and steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen. We identified recipients who developed systemic fungal infections after the initiation of alemtuzumab and looked at their outcomes. The study population consisted of all pancreas transplant recipients who received alemtuzumab. Only invasive fungal infections were included in the analysis (eg, fungemia, meningitis, or pneumonia; fungal urinary tract infections were excluded). The organism was confirmed by culture, histopathology, or latex antigen test. Between February 2003 and February 2004, a total of 121 pancreas transplant recipients received alemtuzumab-56 as part of induction, and 65 as part of conversion. Of these, 8 (6.6%) developed an invasive fungal infection; 2 (3.6%) recipients as part of induction therapy and 6 (9.2%) as part of conversion therapy. Mean recipient age was 42.1 years. The mean length of time from alemtuzumab administration (first dose) to the diagnosis of the fungal infection was 115.9 days (range 5 to 318). The organisms identified initially were: Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Aspergillus, and Candida. Overall, 3 (38%) of the eight patients died during ongoing treatment of their fungal infection: two from sepsis, one due to myocardial infarction. The other five recipients were treated successfully and have functioning grafts. The initial therapeutic agents used included: amphotericin B/liposomal AMB (n = 6), voriconazole (n = 3), capsofungin (n = 2), and fluconazole (n = 1). The use of alemtuzumab as induction or conversion therapy in pancreas transplant recipients may predispose patients to the development of systemic fungal infections. It would be important to determine what the most appropriate prophylaxis regimen would be for these patients. PMID:15848579

Nath, D S; Kandaswamy, R; Gruessner, R; Sutherland, D E R; Dunn, D L; Humar, A

2005-03-01

383

Permeabilization of Fungal Membranes by Plant Defensins Inhibits Fungal Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon inter- action with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in fungi. Membrane permeabilization induced by plant defensins in Neurospora crassa was biphasic, depending on the plant defensin dose. At high defensin levels (10 to 40 mM),

KARIN THEVISSEN; FRANKY R. G. TERRAS; WILLEM F. BROEKAERT

1999-01-01

384

Calystegines in Calystegia sepium do not inhibit fungal growth and invertase activity but interact with plant invertase.  

PubMed

Calystegines are alkaloidal glycosidase inhibitors. They accumulate predominantly in young and meristemic parts of Calystegia sepium (Convolvulaceae). C. sepium, bindweed, infests meadows and cereal fields and is difficult to control chemically. Fungal pathogens against C. sepium are established as mycoherbicides. Stagonospora convolvuli LA39 attacks C. sepium and does not affect crop plants, but young plants of C. sepium are less susceptible to the fungus. The interaction of Stagonospora convolvuli with calystegines was investigated. Further, endophytic fungi of several classes were isolated from wild-grown Calystegia sepium leaves, and selected strains were tested for interaction with calystegines. Fungal growth on agar containing calystegines was not affected considerably. Plants in climate chambers were infected with an endophyte, Phomopsis, and with the fungal pathogen, Stagonospora convolvuli. Calystegine levels were measured in infected and non-infected plant tissues. Accumulation depended on developmental stage of the plant tissue and was not influenced by infection. Acid invertase was measured from fungal mycelia and from infected and non-infected plant tissues. Fungal acid invertase activity was not inhibited by 10 mM calystegine B (2), while invertase from C. sepium leaves was inhibited. It is concluded that calystegines do not inhibit fungal development and sucrose consumption under the conditions of the present investigation, but may act by redirection of plant carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:15045673

Höke, D; Dräger, B

2004-01-01

385

Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters  

PubMed Central

Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

2010-01-01

386

Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes.

Struck, M.F.; Gille, J.

2013-01-01

387

[Fungal infections in children with malignant disease].  

PubMed

Intensified chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation result in severe and prolonged granulocytopenia with an increased risk of invasive fungal infections. The major fungal species that cause serious infections in cancer patients are Candida species and Aspergillus species. The main features of Candida infection in this context are oropharyngeal candidiasis and Candida esophagitis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, also known as hepatosplenic candidiasis, and candidemia. Aspergillus can cause severe lung infection but also sinusal or CNS infection. Because invasive fungal infections are severe and often life-threatening, preventive and empirical managements have become standard practice. An increasing number of antifungal drugs is now available, notably lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B), new azoles with broad spectrum of activity and echinocandin. PMID:21596284

Michel, G

2011-05-01

388

Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Burn wound infection (BWI) is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA) (30–60%), full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC), hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI), in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly, improvement in topical antifungal therapy with mould activity and implementation of appropriate systemic antifungal therapy guided by antifungal susceptibility may improve the outcome for severely injured burn victims.

Capoor, Malini R.; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tiwari, Vinay Kumar; Narayanan, Ravi Prakash

2010-01-01

389

Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

2006-09-01

390

Fungal spores as potential ice nuclei in fog/cloud water and snow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: In discussions about climate change and precipitation frequency biological ice nucleation has become an issue. While bacterial ice nucleation (IN) is already well characterized and even utilized in industrial processes such as the production of artificial snow or to improve freezing processes in food industry, less is known about the IN potential of fungal spores which are also ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A recent study performed at a mountain top in the Rocky Mountains suggests that fungal spores and/or pollen might play a role in increased IN abundance during periods of cloud cover (Bowers et al. 2009). In the present work concentrations of fungal spores in fog/cloud water and snow were determined. EXPERIMENTAL: Fog samples were taken with an active fog sampler in 2008 in a traffic dominated area and in a national park in São Paulo, Brazil. The number concentrations of fungal spores were determined by microscopic by direct enumeration by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR Gold nucleic acid gel stain (Bauer et al. 2008). RESULTS: In the fog water collected in the polluted area at a junction of two highly frequented highways around 22,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted. Fog in the national park contained 35,000 spores mL-1. These results were compared with cloud water and snow samples from Mt. Rax, situated at the eastern rim of the Austrian Alps. Clouds contained on average 5,900 fungal spores mL-1 cloud water (1,300 - 11,000) or 2,200 spores m-3 (304 - 5,000). In freshly fallen snow spore concentrations were lower than in cloud water, around 1,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted (Bauer et al. 2002). In both sets of samples representatives of the ice nucleating genus Fusarium could be observed. REFERENCES: Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., Puxbaum, H. (2002). The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols. Atmos. Res. 64, 109-119. Bauer, H., Schueller, E., Weinke, G. Berger, A., Hitzenberger, R., Marr, I.L., Puxbaum, H. (2008). Significant contributions of fungal spores to the organic carbon and to the aerosol mass balance of the urban atmospheric aerosol. Atmos. Environ. 42, 5542-5549. Bowers, R.M., Lauber, C.L., Wiedinmyer, C., Hamady, M., Hallar, A.G., Fall, R., Knight, R., Fierer, N. (2009). Characterization of airborne microbial communities at a high-elevation site and their potential to act as atmospheric ice nuclei. Appl. Environ. Microbiol: 75, 5121-5130.

Bauer, Heidi; Goncalves, Fabio L. T.; Schueller, Elisabeth; Puxbaum, Hans

2010-05-01

391

Genetic Susceptibility to Fungal Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Most fungal infections in humans occur in the setting of iatrogenic immunosuppression or HIV infection. In the absence of these factors, fungi cause mild, self-limited infections that typically involve mucocutaneous surfaces. Hence, when persistent or recurrent mucocutaneous infections (chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis [CMC]) or invasive fungal infections (IFIs) develop in a “normal” host, they are indicative of genetic defects causing innate or adaptive immune dysfunction. In this review, recent developments concerning genetic and immunologic factors that affect the risk for IFIs and CMC are critically discussed.

Lionakis, Michail S.

2012-01-01

392

The Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Seasonal Change in Arctic Tundra Bacterial and Fungal Assemblages  

PubMed Central

The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half t