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1

Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

2014-01-01

2

Protective effects of ferulic acid on hyperlipidemic diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes, when uncontrolled, causes dyslipidemia often followed by atherogenic abnormalities. The present study was focused to determine whether ferulic acid (FA), a flavonoid, has any role to play in diabetes-induced dyslipidemia. Diabetes in rats was induced with streptozotocin. The levels of blood glucose and plasma triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), cholesterol and phospholipids were elevated during diabetes. Treatment with FA significantly reduced the elevated plasma lipid and blood glucose levels; a more pronounced effect was found with low-dose ferulic acid than with high dose. Thus, our study demonstrates that ferulic acid lowers the lipid levels in diabetic rats and hence prevents further complications. PMID:14605967

Sri Balasubashini, M; Rukkumani, R; Menon, V P

2003-09-01

3

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

4

Degradation of a model pollutant ferulic acid by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of ferulic acid, by an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in this study. This strain can use ferulic acid as the sole carbon for growth. Both in mineral salt medium and in soil, more than 97% of added ferulic acid was degraded within 48h. The metabolites were identified and quantified using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Ferulic acid was first decarboxylated to 4-vinyl guaiacol and then oxidized to vanillin and vanillic acid, followed by demethylation to protocatechuic acid, which was further degraded through the ?-ketoadipate pathway. During degradation, ferulic acid decarboxylase, laccase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activities and their gene transcription levels were significantly affected by the variation of substrate and product concentrations. Moreover, ferulic acid degradation was determined to some extent by P. liquidambari laccase. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has a great potential for practical application in ferulic acid-contaminated environments. PMID:25514400

Xie, Xing-Guang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

2015-03-01

5

Ferulic acid, a dietary phenolic acid, modulates radiation effects in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective efficacy of Ferulic acid (FA) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. To study the radiation protection, mice were administered with ferulic acid intraperitoneally (i.p) (50 mg/kg body weight.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ferulic acid on the sixth day, animals were whole body exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiations. Effect of ferulic acid pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in spleen, liver and intestine was analyzed. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzymatic status and decreased lipid peroxidation marker levels were observed in ferulic acid pretreated group, when compared to the irradiated animals. Our study also shows increased % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice blood lymphocytes. Ferulic acid (50 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice lymphocytes. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by ferulic acid pretreatment. In conclusion, present study indicated ferulic acid treatment prevents radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and restored antioxidant status and histopathological changes in experimental animals. PMID:22749795

Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy; Rajendra Prasad, Nagarajan

2012-09-15

6

Screening of edible mushrooms for release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release ferulic acid from wheat bran. In the five samples tested in the present studies, cultured mycelia of four mushroom species were found to release ferulic acid, with Hericium erinaceus producing the highest ferulic acid yield at 4d of culture, reach 95.51mg\\/l in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection

Chun-yan Xie; Zhen-xin Gu; Xuejiao You; Gaixia Liu; Yuxia Tan; Hong Zhang

2010-01-01

7

Ferulic acid prevents cerebral ischemic injury-induced reduction of hippocalcin expression.  

PubMed

Intracellular calcium overload is a critical pathophysiological factor in ischemic injury. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that buffers intracellular calcium levels and protects cells from apoptotic stimuli. Ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation activity. This study investigated whether ferulic acid contributes to hippocalcin expression during cerebral ischemia and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Rats were immediately treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO and followed by assessment of cerebral infarct. Ferulic acid reduced MCAO-induced infarct regions. A proteomics approach elucidated a decrease in hippocalcin in MCAO-operated animals, ferulic acid attenuates the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin. In cultured HT22 hippocampal cells, glutamate exposure increased the intracellular Ca(2+) levels, whereas ferulic acid attenuated this increase. Moreover, ferulic acid attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. These findings can suggest the possibility that ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through modulating hippocalcine expression and regulating intracellular calcium levels. PMID:23401261

Koh, Phil-Ok

2013-07-01

8

Ferulic acid alleviates lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with increased formation of free radicals. The objective of our study was to determine whether ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid, has any role to play in diabetes induced free radical formation. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. The levels of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides and free fatty acids (FFA) increased in the liver of diabetic animals. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased in the liver. Histopathology of pancreas also shows shrunken islets. Supplementation of FA to the diabetic rats resulted in a decrease in the levels of glucose, TBARS, hydroperoxides, FFA and an increase in reduced glutathione (GSH). FA also resulted in increased activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and expansion of pancreatic islets. The effect was much pronounced with lower dose treatment. Thus our study shows that administration of ferulic acid helps in enhancing the antioxidant capacity of these diabetic animals by neutralizing the free radicals formed thereby reducing the intensity of diabetes. PMID:15162367

Balasubashini, M Sri; Rukkumani, R; Viswanathan, P; Menon, Venugopal P

2004-04-01

9

ASSOCIATION OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES AND FERULIC ACID IN GRAIN AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS L.) DIETARY FIBER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The association of ferulic acid, an alkali-extractable phenolic acid in amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthaceae) insoluble fiber (trans-ferulic acid: 620 ug/g, cis-ferulic acid: 203 ug/g), and non-starch polysaccharides was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble amaranth fiber relea...

10

Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

Ono, Kenjiro [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Hirohata, Mie [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Yamada, Masahito [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)]. E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

2005-10-21

11

Thermostable feruloyl esterase for the bioproduction of ferulic acid from triticale bran.  

PubMed

A putative alpha/beta hydrolase fold-encoding gene (locus tag TTE1809) from the genome of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a possible source of thermostable feruloyl esterase (FAE) for the production of antioxidant phenolic acids from biomass. Designated as TtFAE, the 33-kDa protein was purified to apparent homogeneity. The lipase-like sequence characteristics of TtFAE and its substrate specificity towards methyl ferulate, methyl sinapate, and methyl p-coumarate classify it as a new member of the type A FAEs. At 75 degrees C, the enzyme retained at least 95% of its original activity for over 80 min; at 80 degrees C, its half-life was found to be 50 min, rendering TtFAE a highly thermostable protein. Under different hydrolytic conditions, ferulic acid (FA) was shown to be released from feruloylated oligosaccharides prepared from triticale bran. An estimated recovery of 68 mg FA/100 g triticale bran was demonstrated by a 30% release of the total FA from triticale bran within a 5-h incubation period. Both the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values of the feruloylated oligosaccharides and free FA were also determined. Overall, this work introduces a new bacterial member to the growing family of plant cell wall degrading FAEs that at present is largely of fungal origin, and it benchmarks the bioproduction of FA from triticale bran. PMID:20127235

Abokitse, Kofi; Wu, Meiqun; Bergeron, Hélène; Grosse, Stephan; Lau, Peter C K

2010-06-01

12

Molecular spectroscopic studies on the interaction of ferulic acid with calf thymus DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between ferulic acid and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) under physiological conditions (Tris-HCl buffer solutions, pH 7.4) was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques, and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that a complex of ferulic acid with ctDNA was formed with a binding constant of K290K = 7.60 × 104 L mol-1 and K310K = 4.90 × 104 L mol-1. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (?H°), entropy change (?S°) and Gibbs free energy (?G°) were calculated to be -1.69 × 104 J mol-1, 35.36 J K-1 mol-1 and -2.79 × 104 J mol-1 at 310 K, respectively. The acting forces between ferulic acid and DNA mainly included hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Acridine orange displacement studies revealed that ferulic acid can substitute for AO probe in the AO-DNA complex which was indicative of intercalation binding. Thermal denaturation study suggested that the interaction of ferulic acid with DNA could result in the increase of the denaturation temperature, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ferulic acid. Spectroscopic techniques together with melting techniques and viscosity determination provided evidences of intercalation mode of binding for the interaction between ferulic acid and ctDNA.

Zhang, Shufang; Sun, Xuejun; Qu, Fengli; Kong, Rongmei

2013-08-01

13

Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

14

Antidepressant-like effects of ferulic acid: involvement of serotonergic and norepinergic systems.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid is a polyphenol that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The present study analyzed the antidepressant-like potential of ferulic acid using two well-validated mouse models of despair test, tail suspension and forced swim tests. The results suggested that ferulic acid treatment at doses of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (p.o.) significantly reduced the immobility time in both of these two tests. These doses that affected the depressive-like behaviors did now show any effect on locomotion counts. The further neurochemical assays suggested that ferulic acid increased monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain regions that are relative to mood disorders: the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The increased tend to serotonin and norepinephrine was also found in the hypothalamus after higher dose of ferulic acid treatment. The subsequent study suggested that monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activity was inhibited in the frontal cortex and hippocampus when treatment with 40 and 80 mg/kg ferulic acid; while MAO-B activity did not change significantly. The current study provides the first lines of evidence that serotonin and norepinephrine, but not dopamine levels were elevated in mouse hippocampus and frontal cortex after ferulic acid treatment. These changes may be attributable to the inhibition of MAO-A activities in the same brain regions. PMID:25483788

Chen, Jianliang; Lin, Dan; Zhang, Chong; Li, Gaowen; Zhang, Nianping; Ruan, Lina; Yan, Qizhi; Li, Jianxin; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Pang, Cong; Cao, Liang; Pan, Jianchun; Xu, Ying

2014-12-01

15

Synergistic inhibitory effects of p -coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data support the hypothesis that there is a synergistic phytotoxic effect whenp-coumaric and ferulic acids are found together. Equimolar mixtures of both acids showed greater reduction in sorghum seed germination, shoot elongation, and total seedling growth than either phytotoxin caused when alone. Repeated experiments showed mixtures containing 5×10-3 Mp-coumaric and 5×10-3 M ferulic acids reduced germination to 34% of

James A. Rasmussen; Frank A. Einhellig

1977-01-01

16

Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and\\/or vanillic acids and that

Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton; John O. Rawlings

1984-01-01

17

Synergistic interaction of ferulic acid with commercial hypoglycemic drugs in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. The available commercial oral antidiabetic drugs have some serious side effects; hence there is a need for new hypoglycemic agents which will have therapeutic efficacy as well as less side effects. Ferulic acid, a phytochemical, might be a good supplement to manage diabetes. We investigated the antidiabetic and antilipidemic effect of ferulic acid alone and in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin and Thiazolidinedione (THZ)). Blood glucose, plasma lipid profiles levels, liver function and kidney function markers were measured in control and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats three weeks after administrating ferulic acid and OHDs (oral hypoglycemic drugs) alone and in combinations. The histopathological analysis of the pancreas was also carried out. Ferulic acid and OHDs significantly reduced the blood glucose, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT) in diabetic rats. Same level of reduction in blood glucose levels was achieved when ferulic acid was used in combination with even reduced amounts of OHDs. It decreased most of the side effects when used in combination with THZ. Histopathological analysis showed that combinations increased the number of islets. Ferulic acid interacts synergistically with both the drugs. It might be a good supplement with the OHDs to manage diabetic complications as well as reduces the use of the later. PMID:23490007

Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Prasad, Ram; Ali, Shakir; Doble, Mukesh

2013-04-15

18

Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and their metabolites: synthesis and antioxidant properties of the sulfate derivatives of ferulic and caffeic acids and of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid.  

PubMed

The main metabolites of caffeic and ferulic acids (ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate), the most representative phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables, and the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid were synthesized, purified, and tested for their antioxidant activity in comparison with those of their parent compounds and other related phenolics. Both the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging method were used. Ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide exhibited very low antioxidant activity, while the monosulfate derivatives of caffeic acid were 4-fold less efficient as the antioxidant than caffeic acid. The acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid showed strong antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity of caffeic acid-3'-O-glucuronide and caffeic acid-4'-O-glucuronide was also studied. Our results demonstrate that some of the products of phenolic acid metabolism still retain strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, we first demonstrate the ex vivo synthesis of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid by mouse liver microsomes, in addition to the phenyl glucuronide. PMID:23157164

Piazzon, A; Vrhovsek, U; Masuero, D; Mattivi, F; Mandoj, F; Nardini, M

2012-12-19

19

Transcriptional Analysis of Lactobacillus brevis to N-Butanol and Ferulic Acid Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of anti-microbial phenolic compounds, such as the model compound ferulic acid, in biomass hydrolysates pose significant challenges to the widespread use of biomass in conjunction with whole cell biocatalysis or fermentation. Currently, these inhibitory compounds must be removed through additional downstream processing or sufficiently diluted to create environments suitable for most industrially important microbial strains. Simultaneously, product toxicity must also be overcome to allow for efficient production of next generation biofuels such as n-butanol, isopropanol, and others from these low cost feedstocks. Methodology and Principal Findings This study explores the high ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis, a lactic acid bacterium often found in fermentation processes, by global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional profile of L. brevis reveals that the presence of ferulic acid triggers the expression of currently uncharacterized membrane proteins, possibly in an effort to counteract ferulic acid induced changes in membrane fluidity and ion leakage. In contrast to the ferulic acid stress response, n-butanol challenges to growing cultures primarily induce genes within the fatty acid synthesis pathway and reduced the proportion of 19?1 cyclopropane fatty acid within the L. brevis membrane. Both inhibitors also triggered generalized stress responses. Separate attempts to alter flux through the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits and deleting cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) both failed to improve n-butanol tolerance in E. coli, indicating that additional components of the stress response are required to confer n-butanol resistance. Conclusions Several promising routes for understanding both ferulic acid and n-butanol tolerance have been identified from L. brevis gene expression data. These insights may be used to guide further engineering of model industrial organisms to better tolerate both classes of inhibitors to enable facile production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:21829598

Winkler, James; Kao, Katy C.

2011-01-01

20

Ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Dysfunction of the endothelium is regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus (DM). Unfortunately, prevention of the progression of vascular complications of DM remains pessimistic. Ferulic acid and astragaloside IV, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Angelica sinensis and Radix astragali respectively, exhibit potential cardio-protective and anti-hyperglycemic properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanism of ferulic acid and astragaloside IV against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats. After the diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin, sixty rats were divided into 6 groups (control, model, ferulic acid, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid + astragaloside IV, and metformin) and treated for 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low density lipoproteins (Ox-LDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine (Cr), nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and abdominal aorta tissue samples were collected for observing histological morphology changes of endothelium and detecting gene and protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) P65, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). We found that ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV was capable of improving the structure of the aortic endothelium wall, attenuating the increase of HbAlc, TG, TC, LDL-C and Ox-LDL, promoting the release of NO and eNOS, and inhibiting over-activation of MCP-1, TNF-?, and NF-?B P65, without damage to liver and kidney function. In conclusion, ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV exhibited significant protective effects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats through the NF-?B pathway involving decrease of Ox-LDL, increase of NO and eNOS, and activation of NF-?B P65, MCP-1 and TNF-?. PMID:25224628

Yin, Yonghui; Qi, Fanghua; Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Bo; Teng, Jialin

2014-08-01

21

Guaiacol production from ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacilli are thermophilic, acidophilic bacteria (TAB) that spoil fruit juice products by producing guaiacol. It is currently believed that guaiacol is formed by Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices as a product of ferulic acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify the precursors that can be metabolised by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to produce guaiacol and to evaluate the pathway of guaiacol production. A. acidoterrestris FB2 was incubated at 45°C for 7days in Bacillus acidoterrestris (BAT) broth supplemented with ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid, respectively. The samples were analysed every day to determine the cell concentration, the supplement concentration using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and the guaiacol concentration, using both the peroxidase enzyme colourimetric assay (PECA) and HPLC-DAD. The cell concentration of A. acidoterrestris FB2 during the 7days in all samples were above the critical cell concentration of 10(5)cfu/mL reportedly required for guaiacol production. The guaiacol produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 increased with an increase in vanillin or vanillic acid concentration and a metabolic pathway of A. acidoterrestris FB2 directly from vanillin to guaiacol was established. The high concentration of vanillic acid (1000mg/L) resulted in an initial inhibitory effect on the cells, but the cell concentration increased after day 2. Guaiacol production did not occur in the absence of either a precursor or A. acidoterrestris FB2 and guaiacol was not produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 in the samples supplemented with ferulic acid. The presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. that has the ability to produce guaiacol, as well as the substrates vanillin or vanillic acid is prerequisite for production of guaiacol. PMID:22613201

Witthuhn, R Corli; van der Merwe, Enette; Venter, Pierre; Cameron, Michelle

2012-06-15

22

Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

23

Oxidizing of ferulic acid with the use of polyoxometalates as catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of catalytic oxidation for ferulic acid with polyoxometalates used as catalysts was studied. The effect of pH and concentrations of the principal reacting components on the process kinetics was studied. A kinetic scheme of oxidation is proposed, and the values of a number of kinetic parameters of the process are determined.

Povarnitsyna, T. V.; Popova, N. R.; Bogolitsyn, K. G.; Beloglazova, A. L.; Pryakhin, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.

2010-12-01

24

Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. Results A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 ?g/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Conclusions Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies. PMID:23409923

2013-01-01

25

Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

26

Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.  

PubMed

Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s(-1), and 78.2 U mg(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation. PMID:23840666

Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

27

Ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease of ?-enolase expression in brain tissue and HT22 cells  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. ?-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of ?-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult male rats were treated with either vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after MCAO and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO. Using a proteomics approach, we found that ?-enolase expression was decreased in MCAO-injured animals treated with vehicle alone, whereas ferulic acid treatment attenuated this decrease. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment prevented MCAO injury-induced decrease in ?-enolase. Furthermore, in hippocampal-derived cell lines, glutamate exposure also decreased ?-enolase expression and ferulic acid treatment attenuated this glutamate-induced decrease in ?-enolase. These findings suggest that ferulic acid mediates a neuroprotective effect by attenuating injury-induced decreases of ?-enolase expression in neuronal cells. PMID:24707299

Gim, Sang-A

2014-01-01

28

Ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease of ?-enolase expression in brain tissue and HT22 cells.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. ?-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of ?-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult male rats were treated with either vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after MCAO and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO. Using a proteomics approach, we found that ?-enolase expression was decreased in MCAO-injured animals treated with vehicle alone, whereas ferulic acid treatment attenuated this decrease. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment prevented MCAO injury-induced decrease in ?-enolase. Furthermore, in hippocampal-derived cell lines, glutamate exposure also decreased ?-enolase expression and ferulic acid treatment attenuated this glutamate-induced decrease in ?-enolase. These findings suggest that ferulic acid mediates a neuroprotective effect by attenuating injury-induced decreases of ?-enolase expression in neuronal cells. PMID:24707299

Gim, Sang-A; Koh, Phil-Ok

2014-03-01

29

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans?1,3?pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4?hexenol and 4?hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3?pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to

Judith. L. Kinderlerer; P. V. Hatton

1990-01-01

30

Ferulic acid: a key component in grass lignocellulose recalcitrance to hydrolysis.  

PubMed

In the near future, grasses must provide most of the biomass for the production of renewable fuels. However, grass cell walls are characterized by a large quantity of hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, which are thought to reduce the biomass saccharification. Ferulic acid (FA) binds to lignin, polysaccharides and structural proteins of grass cell walls cross-linking these components. A controlled reduction of FA level or of FA cross-linkages in plants of industrial interest can improve the production of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we review the biosynthesis and roles of FA in cell wall architecture and in grass biomass recalcitrance to enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:25417596

Matias de Oliveira, Dyoni; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Rodrigues Mota, Thatiane; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Moreira-Vilar, Flávia Carolina; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Craig Mitchell, Rowan Andrew; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo; Dantas Dos Santos, Wanderley

2014-11-21

31

Synchronous fluorescence determination of ferulic acid with Ce(IV) and sodium tripolyphosphate.  

PubMed

In this study, a synchronous fluorescence detection method for ferulic acid (FA) is proposed based on a redox reaction between FA and Ce(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid medium at room temperature. It was found that FA could reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in acidic medium, and sodium tripolyphosphate could further enhance the intrinsic fluorescence of the Ce(III) produced. The enhanced extent of synchronous fluorescence intensity was in proportion to the concentration of FA over the range 3.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. The corresponding limit of determination (S/N?=?3) was 1.3 × 10(-8) mol/L. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sodium ferulate for injection sample with satisfactory results. PMID:23744595

Meng, F; Liu, P; Huang, F; Wang, L; Wu, X; Shen, L

2014-05-01

32

Ferulic acid and its therapeutic potential as a hormetin for age-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid (FA) is a polyphenol very abundant in vegetables and maize bran. Several lines of evidence have shown that FA\\u000a acts as a potent antioxidant in vitro, due to its ability to scavenge free radicals and induce a robust cell stress response\\u000a through the up-regulation of cytoprotective enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1, heat shock protein 70, extracellular signal-regulated\\u000a kinase

Eugenio Barone; Vittorio Calabrese; Cesare Mancuso

2009-01-01

33

A novel, stable, aqueous glucagon formulation using ferulic Acid as an excipient.  

PubMed

Commercial glucagon is unstable due to aggregation and degradation. In closed-loop studies, it must be reconstituted frequently. For use in a portable pump for 3 days, a more stable preparation is required. At alkaline pH, curcumin inhibited glucagon aggregation. However, curcumin is not sufficiently stable for long-term use. Here, we evaluated ferulic acid, a stable breakdown product of curcumin, for its ability to stabilize glucagon. Ferulic acid-formulated glucagon (FAFG), composed of ferulic acid, glucagon, L-methionine, polysorbate-80, and human serum albumin in glycine buffer at pH 9, was aged for 7 days at 37°C. Glucagon aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cell-based protein kinase A (PKA) assay was used to assess in vitro bioactivity. Pharmacodynamics (PD) of unaged FAFG, 7-day aged FAFG, and unaged synthetic glucagon was determined in octreotide-treated swine. No fibrils were observed in TEM images of fresh or aged FAFG. Aged FAFG was 94% intact based on HPLC analysis and there was no loss of bioactivity. In the PD swine analysis, the rise over baseline of glucose with unaged FAFG, aged FAFG, and synthetic native glucagon (unmodified human sequence) was similar. After 7 days of aging at 37°C, an alkaline ferulic acid formulation of glucagon exhibited significantly less aggregation and degradation than that seen with native glucagon and was bioactive in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this formulation may be stable for 3-7 days in a portable pump for bihormonal closed-loop treatment of T1D. PMID:25253164

Bakhtiani, Parkash A; Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R; El Youssef, Joseph; Carroll, Julie M; David, Larry L; Roberts, Charles T; Ward, W Kenneth

2015-01-01

34

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to bring about this conversion. Considerable differences in the resistance of two isolates of P. crustosum to sorbic acid were found. An isolate from coconut was more resistant than one isolated from hazelnuts. Both sorbic acid and caproic acid (hexanoic) brought about disorganization of the mitochondrial membranes in P. crustosum. It is suggested that these lipophilic acids inhibit growth by interfering with the electrochemical membrane potential across the mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2253810

Kinderlerer, J L; Hatton, P V

1990-01-01

35

Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid, umbelliferone (Ferula asafoetida), eugenol (Syzygium aromaticum) and limonene (Carum carvi) are active molluscicidal components that inhibited the activity of alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase in in vivo and in vitro exposure of Lymnaea acuminata. It was observed that ferulic acid, umbelliferone and eugenol are competitive and limonene is a competitive-non-competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase. Ferulic acid and umbelliferone are competitive, whereas eugenol and limonene are competitive-non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, respectively. PMID:18814203

Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

2009-02-01

36

Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua

2010-10-01

37

Quercetin and ferulic acid aggravate renal carcinoma in long-term diabetic victims.  

PubMed

Many phytoantioxidants have therapeutic drawbacks due to their potent prooxidant bioactivity. It is hypothesized that phytoantioxidants (PAO) are beneficial only to the early-stage diabetes mellitus (DM) and will become ineffective once renopathy occurs. Gallic acid, rutin, EGCG, ferulic acid (FA), and quercetin were tried on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rat model for a 28 week experimental period. All of these PAO were shown to be ineffective for hypoglycemic action. The incidence of cataract (50%), injured glomerules, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was very common, among which the most severely affected involved the quercetin- and the FA-treated groups. The tumorigenicity of ferulic acid is still unclear. However, for quercetin, this can be attributted to (i) the prooxidant effect, (ii) the insulin-secretagogue bioactivity, and (iii) the competitive and noncompetitive inhibition on the O-methyltransferase to enhance the estradiol-induced tumorigenesis. Conclusively, quercetin and FA are able to aggravate, if not induce, nephrocarcinoma. It is time to reevaluate the tumorigenic detrimental effect of PAO, especially those exhibiting prooxidant bioactivity. PMID:20669956

Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Ming; Lin, Li-Yun; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

2010-08-25

38

Consecutive fragmentation mechanisms of protonated ferulic acid probed by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.  

PubMed

Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm(-1). The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring. PMID:22864827

Martens, Sabrina M; Marta, Rick A; Martens, Jonathan K; McMahon, Terry B

2012-10-01

39

Consecutive Fragmentation Mechanisms of Protonated Ferulic Acid Probed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm-1. The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring.

Martens, Sabrina M.; Marta, Rick A.; Martens, Jonathan K.; McMahon, Terry B.

2012-10-01

40

Release of ferulic acid from agroindustrial by-products by the cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger I-1472  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger I-1472 was grown on sugar beet pulp to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, including feruloyl esterases. Compared to enzymatic activities measured in commercially available mixtures previously used for the release of ferulic acid, the A. niger enzymes were more various. These enzymes were tested to release ferulic acid from sugar beet pulp, maize bran, or autoclaved maize bran.

Estelle Bonnin; Luc Saulnier; Magali Brunel; Cécile Marot; Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Marcel Asther; Jean-François Thibault

2002-01-01

41

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Type Strain B7-S, Which Converts Ferulic Acid to Vanillin  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus subtilis type strain B7-S was obtained through induction with ferulic acid. Here, we present the draft genome of strain B7-S, which contains 5,313,924 bp, with a G+C content of 35.8%, 5,135 protein-coding genes, and 40 tRNA-encoding genes. PMID:24526629

Li, Suyue; Yan, Lei; Wang, Ningbo; Yan, Xiaojuan

2014-01-01

42

Anticancer Activity of Ferulic Acid-Inorganic Nanohybrids Synthesized via Two Different Hybridization Routes, Reconstruction and Exfoliation-Reassembly  

PubMed Central

We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Micrsocopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150?nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines. PMID:24453848

Choi, Ae-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

2013-01-01

43

Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

44

?-Amyloid amorphous aggregates induced by the small natural molecule ferulic acid.  

PubMed

There is an emerging interest in small natural molecules for their potential therapeutic use in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ferulic acid (FA), an antioxidant phenolic compound present in fruit and vegetables, has been proposed as an inhibitor of beta amyloid (A?) pathological aggregation. Using fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis techniques, chromatographic analysis, and confocal microscopy, we investigated the effects of FA in the early stages of A? fibrillogenesis in vitro. Our results show that FA interacts promptly with A? monomers/oligomers, interfering since the beginning with its self-assembly and finally forming amorphous aggregates more prone to destabilization. These findings highlight the molecular basis underlying FA antiamyloidogenic activity in AD. PMID:24168390

Bramanti, Emilia; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Lenci, Francesco; Sgarbossa, Antonella

2013-11-01

45

Evaluation of wound healing activity of ferulic acid in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

In diabetic patients, there is impairment in angiogenesis, neovascularisation and failure in matrix metalloproteineases (MMPs), keratinocyte and fibroblast functions, which affects wound healing mechanism. Hence, diabetic patients are more prone to infections and ulcers, which finally result in gangrene. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, rice bran and sweet corn. In this study, wound healing activity of FA was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision wound model. FA-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster as compared with diabetic wound control group. The hydroxyproline and hexosamine content increased significantly when compared with diabetic wound control. FA effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation and elevated the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and nitric oxide levels along with the increase in the serum zinc and copper levels probably aiding the wound healing process. Hence, the results indicate that FA significantly promotes wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:23236955

Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Kshirsagar, Shashank B; Sahane, Rajkumari S

2014-10-01

46

Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid?ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25446858

Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

2014-11-18

47

Ferulic acid attenuates the down-regulation of MEK/ERK/p90RSK signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid provides neuroprotective effects against a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia. Mitogen-activated protein kinases can regulate extensive intracellular processes including cell differentiation, growth, and death. This study further investigated whether ferulic acid modulates a protective mechanism through the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and its downstream targets, including 90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad during cerebral ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg) or vehicle after the onset of MCAO and brain tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. These results indicated that ferulic acid decreases the volume of the infarct area and the number of cells positive in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Although MCAO injury induces a decrease in the phosphorylation of Raf-1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced decrease in these phosphorylation levels. Ferulic acid also attenuates the injury-induced decrease in p90RSK and Bad phosphorylation levels. These findings suggest that ferulic acid prevents MCAO-induced neuronal cell death and that the MEK-ERK-p90RSK-Bad signaling pathway is involved in these neuroprotective effects. PMID:25543028

Koh, Phil-Ok

2015-02-19

48

Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  

PubMed

4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

2014-09-01

49

Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

50

Research on the adsorption property of supported ionic liquids for ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid.  

PubMed

In this paper, the preparation of new supported ionic liquids (SILs) composed of the N-methylimidazolium cation and the quinoline cation is described. They have been confirmed and evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Six kinds of different SILs included SiO(2)·Im(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·BF(4)(-), SiO(2)·Im(+)·PF(6)(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-), SiO(2)·Qu(+)·BF(4)(-) and SiO(2)·Qu(+)·PF(6)(-). The adsorption characteristics of ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA) and salicylic acid (SA) on SILs were investigated by static adsorption experiments. It was found that SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had excellent adsorption and desorption capacity to three tested phenolic compounds. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of FA, CA and SA on SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) were also studied. The saturated adsorption capacity of FA, CA and SA using SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) as adsorbent was 64.6 mg/g, 53.2 mg/g and 72.2 mg/g respectively. Using 70% ethanol as eluent, the saturated desorption efficiencies of FA, CA and SA were 97.2%, 90.3% and 96.5% respectively. Thus, SiO(2)·Qu(+)·Cl(-) had strong adsorption and separation capacity for FA, CA and SA. PMID:21543269

Du, Ni; Cao, Shuwen; Yu, Yanying

2011-06-01

51

Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105?cells?mmol?1·h?1 and 2.63 × 106 cells?mmol?1·h?1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72?h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate. PMID:23738328

Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu

2013-01-01

52

A new pro-prodrug aminoacid-based for trans-ferulic Acid and silybin intestinal release.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of a pro-prodrug able to simultaneously transport silybin, a drug possessing various pharmacological effects, and trans-ferulic acid, a known antioxidant. More specifically, l-phenylalanine-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) prop-2-en-O-(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-((2R,3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-benzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-yl)croman-4-one was synthesized by using the aminoacid l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) as carrier. Indeed, l-Phe is characterized by an intrinsic chemical reactivity due to the presence of an amino group, placed on the chiral center, and of a carboxylic group. The synthesis has been characterized first by adding silybin by means of carboxylic group and then, with the aim to confer antioxidant properties to this new carrier, by linking trans-ferulic acid to l-Phe via amino group. The so obtained derivative was then characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat liver microsomes, was evaluated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect, was also assessed. The release of silybin and trans-ferulic acid was determined in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the time. The results showed that the covalent bond between both (i) silybin; or (ii) trans-ferulic acid and the amino acid was degraded by enzymatic reactions. In addition, the pro-prodrug, showed strong antioxidant and scavenger activities. Due to these properties, this new pro-prodrug could be applied for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and it might improve the therapeutic potential of silybin which is strongly limited by its low solubility. PMID:25062426

Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Cassano, Roberta

2014-01-01

53

Determination of tacrine-6-ferulic acid in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics study.  

PubMed

Tacrine, as a drug for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD), has low efficacy owing to its single function and serious side effects. However, tacrine-6-ferulic acid (T6FA), the dimer which added ferulic acid to tacrine, has been found to be a promising multifunctional drug candidate for AD and much more potent and selective on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than tacrine. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method with electrospray ionization for the quantification of T6FA in rat plasma using tacrine-3-ferulic acid (T3FA) as internal standard and to examine its application for pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following a single liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, chromatographic separation was achieved at 25 °C on a BDS Hypersil C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 1% formic acid and methonal (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantification was achieved by monitoring the selected ions at m/z 474.2 ? 298.1 for T6FA and m/z 432.2 ? 199.0 for T3FA. The method was validated to be rapid, specific, accurate and precise over the concentration range of 0.5-1000.0 ng/mL in rat samples. Furthermore, it was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic measurement of T6FA with an oral administration at 40 mg/kg to rats. PMID:24706520

Sun, Xiuman; Zhang, Peiting; Pi, Rongbiao; Zhou, Yuting; Deng, Xuejiao; Xie, Zhiyong; Liao, Qiongfeng

2014-10-01

54

Treatment with ferulic acid to rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes: effects on oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis in the pancreatic ? cell.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid at different doses (50 mg/kg alternative day and 50 mg/kg daily) on diabetic rats and to explore the interrelationship between oxidative stress and cytokines correlates with apoptotic events in pancreatic tissue. Male Wistar rats were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Ferulic acid was administered orally for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for the biochemical estimations and pancreas was isolated for antioxidant status, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and apoptotic studies. Treatment with ferulic acid to diabetic rats significantly improved blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, and albumin levels toward normal. Furthermore, decrement of the elevated lipid peroxidation levels and increment of the reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione enzyme activities in pancreatic tissues were observed in ferulic acid-treated groups. Ferulic acid-treated rats in the diabetic group showed an improved histological appearance. Our data also revealed a significant reduction in the activity of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end-labeling and reduced expression of TGF-?1 and IL-1? in the pancreatic ?-cell of ferulic acid-treated rats. Treatment with ferulic acid daily doses produced a significant result compared to alternative dose. Collectively our results suggested that ferulic acid acts as a protective agent in diabetic rats by altering oxidative stress, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. PMID:23299178

Roy, Souvik; Metya, Satyajit Kumar; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Rahaman, Noorjaman; Ahmed, Faiqa

2013-10-01

55

Ferulic acid ameliorates nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rats  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and reperfusion 90 min later in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily treatment of the rats with FA was initiated 30 min after the surgery, and was continued for 7 days. The efficacy of FA against nerve injury was assessed by neurological deficit scores as well as pathohistological observation. The expression levels in the brain and level in the peripheral blood of erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that FA attenuated nerve injury of the hippocampus, significantly ameliorated neurological deficits, and increased EPO but not G-CSF expression in the hippocampus and the peripheral blood of ischemic rats. The findings indicate that FA has certain protective effects on the nerve injury of cerebral ischemia, and suggest that promoting EPO in the brain and peripheral blood may be one of the neuroprotective mechanisms of FA.

ZHANG, LEIMING; WANG, HONGSHENG; WANG, TIAN; JIANG, NA; YU, PENGFEI; CHONG, YATING; FU, FENGHUA

2015-01-01

56

Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10?8?M ~5.29 × 10?5?M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10?8?M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

2014-01-01

57

The protective role of ferulic acid on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure. Ferulic acid (FA), a well-established natural antioxidant, has several pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of FA on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats. Sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes, liver and kidney cells of rats were evaluated by comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured. It is found that DNA damage in sepsis+FA-treated group was significantly lower than the sepsis group. FA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the sepsis-induced rats. It seems that FA might have ameliorative effects against sepsis-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25305738

Bacanl?, Merve; Ayd?n, Sevtap; Taner, Gökçe; Gökta?, Hatice Gül; ?ahin, Tolga; Ba?aran, A Ahmet; Ba?aran, Nur?en

2014-11-01

58

Aldose reductase inhibitors zopolrestat and ferulic acid alleviate hypertension associated with diabetes: effect on vascular reactivity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors on hypertension in diabetes. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin, while AR inhibitors zopolrestat and ferulic acid were administered at 2 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and for 6 weeks afterwards. Then, blood pressure (BP) and serum level of glucose were determined. Concentration-response curves for phenylephrine (PE), KCl, and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained in isolated aorta. In addition, ACh-induced NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in aorta and histopathology were examined. Compared with the control animals, diabetes increased diastolic and systolic BP. AR inhibitors reduced diastolic BP elevation without affecting the developed hyperglycaemia. Diabetes increased the contractile response of aorta to KCl, and decreased the relaxation response to Ach, while administering AR inhibitors prevented an impaired response to ACh. Incubation of aorta isolated from diabetic animals with AR inhibitors did not affect the impaired relaxation response to ACh. In addition, AR inhibitors negated the impaired Ach-stimulated NO generation seen in aorta isolated from diabetic animals. Furthermore, diabetes was accompanied with marked infiltration of leukocytes in aortic adventitia, endothelial cell pyknosis, and increased ROS formation. AR inhibitors reduced leukocyte infiltration and inhibited endothelial pyknosis and ROS formation. In conclusion, AR inhibitors negate diabetes-evoked hypertension via ameliorating impaired endothelial relaxation and NO production. PMID:23458193

Badawy, Dina; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Fahmy, Ahmed; Azhar, Ahmad

2013-02-01

59

Effects of ferulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy is the most serious complication in diabetes mellitus. It is known that oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated that ferulic acid (FA) known as anti-oxidative agent could effect on diabetic nephropathy by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanism. We examined the effects of FA in obese diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. We treated FA to experimental rats from 26 to 45 weeks of age. We evaluated ACR, MDA and MCP-1 in 24 h urine and examined renal histopathology and morphologic change in extracted kidneys from rats. Also, we evaluated the ROS production and MCP-1 levels in cultured podocyte after FA treatment. In the FA-treated OLETF rats, blood glucose was significantly decreased and serum adiponectin levels were increased. Urinary ACR was significantly reduced in FA-treated OLETF rats compared with diabetic OLETF rats. In renal histopathology, FA-treated OLETF rats showed decreased glomerular basement membrane thickness, glomerular volume, and mesangial matrix expansion. FA treatment decreased oxidative stress markers and MCP-1 levels in 24 h urine of rats and supernatants of cultured podocyte. In conclusion, it was suggested that FA have protective and therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:21975281

Choi, Ran; Kim, Bo Hwan; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Mi Young; Hyun, Mi Ri; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Eun Soo; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Young Chul; Chung, Choon Hee

2011-12-31

60

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.  

PubMed

Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. PMID:24507903

Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2014-07-01

61

Ferulic acid supplements abrogate oxidative impairments in liver and testis in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic antioxidant, in ameliorating oxidative stress in the testis and liver of diabetic pubertal rats. Male (6 wk old) rats were rendered diabetic by an acute dose (60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) of streptozotocin (STZ) and were given oral supplementation of FA (50 mg/kg body weight/d on alternate days) for 4 weeks. The protective efficacy of FA was assessed by measuring markers of oxidative stress in the testis and liver along with the effect of stress on lipid profile in serum/testis. Terminally, the testis (cytosol and mitochondria) of STZ-administered rats exhibited a marked elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the non-diabetic controls. FA treatment completely normalized the oxidative impairments in the testis. Further, STZ-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevated protein carbonyl content in the testis were restored to normalcy by FA treatment. The protective effects of FA were also discernible in the testis in terms of restoration of activities of various antioxidant enzymes in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, STZ-induced oxidative impairments in the liver were also abrogated significantly by FA treatment. STZ-induced perturbations in serum and testicular lipid profiles in the diabetic rats were also significantly attenuated by FA treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that oral supplementation of FA can significantly mitigate diabetes-associated oxidative impairments in the testis as well as in the liver and suggests the efficacy of FA as a complementary therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes-associated oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:18795822

Thyagaraju, Badanavalu Madaiah

2008-08-01

62

Evaluation of thermo sensitivity of curcumin and quantification of ferulic acid and vanillin as degradation products by a validated HPTLC method.  

PubMed

Charismatic therapeutic potential of curcumin in biological research have triggered an interest to explore the thermal degradation pattern of curcumin, formation of ferulic acid and vanillin as degraded metabolites at different temperatures in methanol and corn oil. The results revealed 47% w/w loss of curcumin along with formation of 17% w/w vanillin and 9% w/w ferulic acid at boiling temperature of methanol while oil samples show 38.9% w/w loss of curcumin but not confirming the formation of ferulic acid and vanillin. Findings of this study revealed that formation of vanillin in methanol starts around 50°C and its concentration goes on increasing up to 70°C and then further degraded at boiling temperature of methanol. Formation of ferulic acid begins around 60°C and initially increases with rise of temperature and then decreases approaching boiling point of methanol. Vanillin as well as ferulic acid was absent in corn oil samples though degradation of curcumin was observed by reduction in peak area of curcumin. The present study was done by applying a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The method involved glass-backed HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:1:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. PMID:25631508

Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

2015-01-01

63

RP-LC Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Ferulic Acid and Isoferulic Acid in Rat Plasma After Taking Traditional Chinese Medicinal-Preparation: Guanxinning Lyophilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, simple, and accurate method for determination and pharmacokinetic study of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid in\\u000a rat plasma was developed using a reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method with UV detection. Sample preparations\\u000a were carried out by protein precipitation with the addition of methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. The resultant\\u000a residue was then reconstituted in mobile phase

Xiaorui Guo; Xiaohui Chen; Weiming Cheng; Kaiyu Yang; Yongfen Ma; Kaishun Bi

2008-01-01

64

Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.  

PubMed

Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 %?v/v?L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation. PMID:25082768

Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

2014-09-01

65

Ab initio study of potential ultrafast internal conversion routes in oxybenzone, caffeic Acid, and ferulic Acid: implications for sunscreens.  

PubMed

Oxybenzone (OB) and ferulic acid (FA) both find use in commercial sunscreens; caffeic acid (CA) differs from FA by virtue of an -OH group in place of a -OCH3 group on the aromatic ring. We report the results of ab initio calculations designed to explore the excited state nonradiative relaxation pathways that provide photostability to these molecules and the photoprotection they offer toward UV-A and UV-B radiation. In the case of OB, internal conversion (IC) is deduced to occur on ultrafast time scales, via a barrierless electron-driven H atom transfer pathway from the S1(1(1)n?*) state to a conical intersection (CI) with the ground (S0) state potential energy surface (PES). The situation with respect to CA and FA is somewhat less clear-cut, with low energy CIs identified by linking excited states to the S0 state following photoexcitation and subsequent evolution along (i) a ring centered out-of-plane deformation coordinate, (ii) the E/Z isomerism coordinate and, in the case of CA, (iii) an O-H stretch coordinate. Analogy with catechol suggests that the last of these processes (if active) would lead to radical formation (and thus potential phototoxicity), encouraging a suggestion that FA might be superior to CA as a sunscreen ingredient. PMID:25137024

Karsili, Tolga N V; Marchetti, Barbara; Ashfold, Michael N R; Domcke, Wolfgang

2014-12-26

66

Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.  

PubMed

Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin. PMID:24136472

Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

2014-01-01

67

In vivo protection of synaptosomes by ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) from oxidative stress mediated by 2,2-azobis(2-amidino-propane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) or Fe 2+\\/H 2O 2: Insight into mechanisms of neuroprotection and relevance to oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is an ester derivative of ferulic acid, the latter known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ferulic acid protects synaptosomal membrane system and neuronal cell culture systems against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation. FAEE is lipophilic and is able to penetrate lipid bilayer. Previous studies reported that

Gururaj Joshi; Marzia Perluigi; Rukhsana Sultana; Ravagna Agrippino; Vittorio Calabrese; D. Allan Butterfield

2006-01-01

68

A Validated High-performance Liquid Chromatograhy Method for Estimation of Ferulic Acid in Asafoetida and Polyherbal Preparation  

PubMed Central

A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of ferulic acid from asafoetida and a polyherbal preparation. The separation was carried out on HiQSil ODS C-18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 10% acetic acid (20:80 v/v). The developed method was validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines for various parameters such as accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and specificity; and found to be reliable. Linear regression analysis showed a good corelation between peak area and concentration with a corelation coefficient r2=0.996 in the range 200-7000 ng/ml. The developed method can be utilized for standardization of herbal formulation comprising asafoetida. PMID:24302807

Kareparamban, J. A.; Nikam, P. H.; Jadhav, A. P.; Kadam, V. J.

2013-01-01

69

Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1  

PubMed Central

The production of xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 °C and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, ?-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest ?-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of ?-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and ?-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L), which was not detected in the T. reesei culture. PMID:24294256

Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; de Sousa Paredes, Raquel; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant’Ana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

2013-01-01

70

Ferulic acid in the treatment of post-diabetes testicular damage: relevance to the down regulation of apoptosis correlates with antioxidant status via modulation of TGF-?1, IL-1? and Akt signalling.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid at different doses (50 mg kg(-1) alternative day and 50 mg kg(-1) daily) on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced post-diabetes rat testicular damage. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). Rats treated with ferulic acid were given once a day orally for 10 weeks, starting 3 days after STZ injection. Testis tissue and blood samples were collected for investigating biochemical analysis, antioxidant status, sperm parameters, and histopathological, immunohistochemical and apoptotic studies. Treatment with ferulic acid to diabetic rats significantly improved the body weight, testis weight, serum insulin level, serum testosterone level and sperm parameters (viability, motility and count). Histopathological study also revealed that ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats showed an improved histological appearance. Our data indicated that significant reduction in the activity of apoptosis by using terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling and reduced expression of transforming growth factor-?1 and interleukin-1? in the testis tissue of ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats. Conversely, it was also revealed that ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats markedly enhanced the serine/threonine protein kinase protein expression in the testis tissue. Our result suggests that ferulic acid inhibits testicular damage in diabetic rats by declining oxidative stress. PMID:23661600

Roy, Souvik; Metya, Satyajit Kumar; Rahaman, Noorjaman; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Ahmed, Faiqa

2014-01-01

71

IDENTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF A THIOACIDOLYSIS MARKER COMPOUND FOR FERULIC ACID INCORPORATION INTO ANGIOSPERM LIGNINS AND A PSEUDO-MARKER COMPOUND FOR CINNAMOYL-COA REDUCTASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced during lignification when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaia...

72

On the Origin of the Methyl Radical Loss from Deprotonated Ferulic and Isoferulic Acids: Electronic Excitation of a Transient Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of radical fragments from even-electron ions is an exception to the "even-electron rule". In this work, ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (IFA) were used as the model compounds to probe the fragmentation mechanisms and the isomeric effects on homolytic cleavage. Elimination of methyl radical and CO2 are the two competing reactions observed in the CID-MS of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-, of which losing methyl radical violates the "even-electron rule". The relative intensity of their product ions is significantly different, and thereby the two isomeric compounds can be differentiated by tandem MS. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the singlet-triplet gap and the excitation energy decrease in the transient structures, as the breaking C-O bond is lengthened. The methyl radical elimination has been rationalized as the intramolecular electronic excitation of a transient structure with an elongating C-O bond. The potential energy diagrams, completed by the addition of the energy barrier of the radical elimination, have provided a reasonable explanation of the different CID-MS behaviors of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-.

Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lv, Huiqing; Wu, Yanqing; Bian, Gaofeng; Jiang, Kezhi

2013-06-01

73

Comparison of ferulic acid content in Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Danggui-Buxue-Tang and Danggui-Sini-Tang  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the ferulic acid (FA) content of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (AS), Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) and Danggui-Sini-Tang (DST) using the same ultra performance liquid chromatography system and method. FA was eluted using an Acquity BEH C18 column (100×2.1 mm inner diameter; 1.7 ?m). A mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid was used and a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was selected. The calibration curve exhibited a good linear regression (R2=0.9997). The inter- and intra-day precision measurements of FA ranged between 0.27 and 3.03% and the recovery ranged between 98.44 and 101.64% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ?4.73%. The method was reliable and simple. The results of the chromatographic analyses indicate that the FA contents of the DBT and DST decoctions were increased compared with that of AS due to the presence of other herbs. PMID:24940440

YAO, JIA-MEI; YU, LI-JIN; CHEN, QIONG; CHEN, ZE-QI; WANG, DONG-SHENG; QIU, XIN-JIAN; ZHAO, LIN-LIN

2014-01-01

74

Comparison of ferulic acid content in Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Danggui-Buxue-Tang and Danggui-Sini-Tang.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the ferulic acid (FA) content of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (AS), Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) and Danggui-Sini-Tang (DST) using the same ultra performance liquid chromatography system and method. FA was eluted using an Acquity BEH C18 column (100×2.1 mm inner diameter; 1.7 ?m). A mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid was used and a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was selected. The calibration curve exhibited a good linear regression (R(2)=0.9997). The inter- and intra-day precision measurements of FA ranged between 0.27 and 3.03% and the recovery ranged between 98.44 and 101.64% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ?4.73%. The method was reliable and simple. The results of the chromatographic analyses indicate that the FA contents of the DBT and DST decoctions were increased compared with that of AS due to the presence of other herbs. PMID:24940440

Yao, Jia-Mei; Yu, Li-Jin; Chen, Qiong; Chen, Ze-Qi; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Qiu, Xin-Jian; Zhao, Lin-Lin

2014-05-01

75

Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.  

PubMed

Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. PMID:24167066

Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

2014-01-01

76

Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger: specificity for the phenolic moiety and binding to microcrystalline cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inducible ferulic acid esterase (FAE-Ill) has been isolated, purified and partially characterized from Aspergillus niger after growth on oat spelt xylan. The purification procedure utilized ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared almost pure by SDS-PAGE, with an apparent M, of 36000. A single band, corresponding to a pl of 3.3 was observed on

Craig B. Faulds; Gary Williamson

1994-01-01

77

Pharmacokinetic study of the prokinetic compounds meranzin hydrate and ferulic acid following oral administration of Chaihu-Shugan-San to patients with functional dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe prokinetic activity of ferulic acid derived from Ligusticum chuanxiong hort in the Chaihu-Shugan-San formula has been shown to be similar to Chaihu-Shugan-San, a popular traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional dyspepsia. The effects of meranzin hydrate, a compound isolated from Fructus aurantii in the Chaihu-Shugan-San formula, are unclear, as the pharmacokinetics have never been studied in

Xin-Jian Qiu; Xi Huang; Ze-Qi Chen; Ping Ren; Wei Huang; Feng Qin; Si-Hang Hu; Jun Huang; Juan He; Zhao-Qian Liu; Hong-Hao Zhou

2011-01-01

78

Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury  

PubMed Central

Backgroud: To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation. Materials and Methods: Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential. Results: The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic). Conclusion: Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid. PMID:23930002

Ren, Cong; Bao, Yong-rui; Meng, Xian-sheng; Diao, Yun-peng; Kang, Ting-guo

2013-01-01

79

Protective effect of the combinations of glycyrrhizic, ferulic and cinnamic acid pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to find an effective drug cocktail pretreatment to protect myocardial tissue of the heart from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanisms underlying the effects of the drug cocktail were subsequently explored in order to expand the application of Dang-gui-si-ni-tang (DGSN), a Traditional Chinese Medicine. The active components of DGSN in the serum following oral administration were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were then analyzed to show the effect of the active components in the treatment of myocardial I/R injury. An L16 (44) orthogonal experiment was utilized to determine the most effective cocktail mix and the mechanism underlying the effect of this mix on myocardial I/R injury was investigated. It was observed that FCG, a mixture of glycyrrhizic (50 mg/kg), cinnamic (200 mg/kg) and ferulic (300 mg/kg) acid, was the optimal drug cocktail present in DGSN. This was absorbed into the blood following oral administration and was shown to decrease MDA levels and increase the activity of SOD. In conclusion, the findings suggest that FCG, a combination of active ingredients in the DGSN decoction, can be absorbed into the blood and protect the myocardium from I/R injury. PMID:25574212

GAO, YUQIN; HAO, JIPING; ZHANG, HONGKAO; QIAN, GUOQIANG; JIANG, RENWANG; HU, JING; WANG, JIANING; LEI, ZHANG; ZHAO, GUOPING

2015-01-01

80

Ferulic acid: a natural antioxidant against oxidative stress induced by oligomeric A-beta on sea urchin embryo.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and impairment of multiple cognitive functions. Amyloid beta peptide (A?) is the main component of amyloid plaques observed in the brain of individuals affected by AD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, induced by A?, are among the earliest events in AD, triggering neuronal degeneration and cell death. Use of natural molecules with antioxidant properties could be a suitable strategy for inhibiting the cell death cascade. Here, by employing the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model system, and A? oligomers, we tested the effectiveness of ferulic acid (FA), a natural antioxidant, as a putative AD neuroprotective compound. By microscopic inspection we observed that FA is able to reverse morphological defects induced by A? oligomers in P. lividus embryos. In addition, FA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS), recover mitochondrial membrane potential, and block apoptotic pathways. Moreover, this model system has allowed us to obtain information about down- or up-regulation of some key molecules--Foxo3a, ERK, and p53--involved in the antioxidant mechanism. PMID:23493505

Picone, Pasquale; Nuzzo, Domenico; Di Carlo, Marta

2013-02-01

81

Ferulic acid suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways in vitro.  

PubMed

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in hepatic fibrosis. Ferulic acid (FA) has antifibrotic potential in renal and cardiac disease. However, whether FA comprises inhibitive effects of HSCs activation remains to be clarified. This study aims at evaluating the hypothesis that FA inhibits extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression by the interruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or/and Smad signaling pathways in HSC-T6. Our results indicated that FA significantly inhibited both viability and activation of HSC-T6 cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that FA dramatically inhibited the expression of ?1(I) collagen (Col-I) and fibronectin at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, FA treatment inhibited Smad transcriptional activity, as evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing SMAD response element and the luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, FA inhibition of HSCs activation involved in both focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways with independent manner. Blocking transforming growth factor-? by a neutralizing antibody caused a marked reduction in both ERK1/2 and Smad signaling. These results support FA as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25449600

Xu, Tianjiao; Pan, Zhi; Dong, Miaoxian; Yu, Chunlei; Niu, Yingcai

2015-01-01

82

Ferulic acid inhibits the transition of amyloid-?42 monomers to oligomers but accelerates the transition from oligomers to fibrils.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disease that occurs among the aging population and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Amyloid-? (A?) oligomers initiate the pathological cascade and represent a neuropathic hallmark of AD. Therefore, an approach that inhibits A? aggregation is an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound that can inhibit A?42 fibril-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. However, few studies have demonstrated that FA interacts with A?42 oligomers. Here, we investigated whether FA inhibits A?42 oligomer-induced cytotoxicity and the effect of FA on A? aggregation. Our results showed that FA reduced A?42-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, using CD spectroscopy, we found that FA inhibited the formation of the ?-sheets that are required for the A?42 monomer-to-oligomer transition but accelerated the A?42 oligomer-to-fibril transition. These phenomena were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The docking analysis between FA and A?42 monomer showed that FA may inhibit the aggregation of A?42 oligomers by blocking the hydrogen bond with the forming ?-sheets. Taken together, we have identified a novel phenomenon in which FA inhibits the formation of A?42 oligomers while accelerating the transition of A?42 oligomers to fibrils, and we have shown that FA protects against A?42-induced toxicity in vitro by preventing A?42 from forming oligomers. PMID:23727899

Cui, Lili; Zhang, Yuan; Cao, Hao; Wang, Yan; Teng, Teng; Ma, Guoda; Li, You; Li, Keshen; Zhang, Yingjiu

2013-01-01

83

Ferulic acid prevents pathological and functional abnormalities of the kidney in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the preventive effects of ferulic acid (FA) and alpha-tocopherol (AT) on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as type 2 diabetes and non-diabetes models, respectively. Two-thirds of the OLETF rats were fed 0.2% FA-containing or 0.5% AT-containing chow. Diabetic nephropathy was assessed based on urinary protein excretion and pathological changes which were scored based on the percentages of extracellular matrix area in the glomerular area. Furthermore, renal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. After 12 weeks of FA- or AT-supplementation, urinary protein in untreated-OLETF group was significantly higher than that in LETO group, thus FA-supplementation significantly decreased urinary protein excretion. Pathological scores in FA-supplemented group were significantly lower than those in untreated OLETF group. Supplementation with either FA or AT significantly prevented the elevation of TGF-beta1 mRNA expression caused by diabetes. Treatment with neither FA nor AT had a significant effect on COX-2 or ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. We have demonstrated the preventative effects of FA on diabetic nephropathy via suppression of TGF-beta1 upregulation, furthermore FA may be more potent than AT. PMID:17897750

Fujita, Atsuyo; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Doi, Asako; Okamoto, Kunihisa; Matsuno, Shohei; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Nakao, Taisei; Tsuno, Takuo; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Nanjo, Kishio

2008-01-01

84

Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P?0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P?0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet. PMID:25403190

Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

2014-12-01

85

Application of Two Newly Identified and Characterized Feruloyl Esterases from Streptomyces sp. in the Enzymatic Production of Ferulic Acid from Agricultural Biomass  

PubMed Central

Ferulic acid (FA), a component of hemicellulose in plant cell walls, is a phenolic acid with several potential applications based on its antioxidant properties. Recent studies have shown that feruloyl esterase (FAE) is a key bacterial enzyme involved in FA production from agricultural biomass. In this study, we screened a library of 43 esterases from Streptomyces species and identified two enzymes, R18 and R43, that have FAE activity toward ethyl ferulate. In addition, we characterized their enzyme properties in detail. R18 and R43 showed esterase activity toward other hydroxycinnamic acid esters as well, such as methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl sinapinate. The amino acid sequences of R18 and R43 were neither similar to each other, nor to other FAEs. We found that R18 and R43 individually showed the ability to produce FA from corn bran; however, combination with other Streptomyces enzymes, namely xylanase and ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, increased FA production from biomass such as corn bran, defatted rice bran, and wheat bran. These results suggest that R18 and R43 are effective FAEs for the enzymatic production of FA from biomass. PMID:25093500

Uraji, Misugi; Arima, Jiro; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Harazono, Koichi; Hatanaka, Tadashi

2014-01-01

86

Peroxidase activity against guaiacol, NADH, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and coniferyl alcohol in root tips of Lotus japonicus and L. corniculatus grown under low pH and aluminium stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of low pH and Al stress on the apoplastic production of H2O2 and POD activity against guaiacol, ferulic acid, coniferyl alcohol, NADH and chlorogenic acid in the root tip (RT) of two\\u000a cultivars of Lotus corniculatus and the model Lotus japonicus Gifu, with the goal to determine the possible role

Veronika Zelinová; Igor Mistrík; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Ladislav Tamás

2010-01-01

87

A potent inhibition of oxidative stress induced gene expression in neural cells by sustained ferulic acid release from chitosan based hydrogel.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely cataclysmic neurological disorder and the inhibition of oxidative stress following TBI could effectively protect the brain from further impairments. An injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/?-Glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel for the controlled release of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid (FA) to inhibit the neurological oxidative stress was demonstrated. The C/G/GP hydrogel ensures an excellent clinical expediency with a gelation temperature of 32.6°C and gelation time of 75.58s. In-vitro cytotoxicity assays of C/G/GP hydrogel and FA have revealed an excellent biocompatibility with the Neuro-2a cells. 500?M of FA was considered to be an effective concentration to reduce the oxidative stress in Neuro-2a cells. TUNEL staining images evidenced that the H2O2 induced DNA fragmentation was comprehensively controlled after FA treatment. The mRNA gene expression profiles markedly authenticate the neuroprotectivity of FA by down-regulating ROS, inflammatory and apoptosis related markers. The outcomes of this study suggest that, C/G/GP hydrogel carrying ferulic acid could effectively protect further secondary traumatic brain injury associated impairments. PMID:25686998

Dong, Guo-Chung; Kuan, Che-Yung; Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Zhao, Jiong-Yao; Sivasubramaniam, Savitha; Chang, Hwan-You; Lin, Feng-Huei

2015-04-01

88

Functional Diversity in Fungal Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Acetylenic specialized metabolites containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds are widespread, being found in fungi, vascular and lower plants, marine sponges and algae, and insects. Plants, moss, and most recently, insects, have been shown to employ an energetically difficult, sequential dehydrogenation mechanism for acetylenic bond formation. Here, we describe the cloning and heterologous expression in yeast of a linoleoyl 12-desaturase (acetylenase) and a bifunctional desaturase with ?12-/?14-regiospecificity from the Pacific golden chanterelle. The acetylenase gene, which is the first identified from a fungus, is phylogenetically distinct from known plant and fungal desaturases. Together, the bifunctional desaturase and the acetylenase provide the enzymatic activities required to drive oleate through linoleate to crepenynate and the conjugated enyne (14Z)-dehydrocrepenynate, the branchpoint precursors to a major class of acetylenic natural products. PMID:20606235

Blacklock, Brenda J.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Shepard, Michael R.; Jayasuriya, Naomi; Minto, Robert E.

2010-01-01

89

Neuroprotective efficacy of a combination of fish oil and ferulic acid against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in rats: behavioural and biochemical evidence.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on the central nervous system have been adequately demonstrated. However, FO supplementation at higher doses for longer duration is likely to cause oxidative stress in vivo. To overcome this, attempts have been made to enrich FO with known antioxidants/phytochemicals. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that a combination of FO with ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring phenolic compound, is likely to provide higher degree of neuroprotection. This was examined by employing 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), a well-known neurotoxin used to mimic behavioural and neurochemical features of Huntington's disease. Growing male rats administered with NPA (25 mg/kg of body weight (bw) for 4 days) were provided with either FO (2 mL/kg bw), FA (50 mg/kg bw) or FO+FA for 2 weeks. Interestingly, FO+FA not only offered significant protection against NPA-induced behavioural impairments, but also markedly attenuated oxidative stress in brain regions (striatum/cerebellum) as evidenced by the reduction in reactive species, malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Further, FO+FA combination restored the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and the levels of cytosolic calcium. In striatum, activity levels of acetylcholinesterase enzyme and dopamine levels were markedly restored among FO+FA rats. Interestingly, NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions were also attenuated among FO+FA rats. Collectively, our findings suggest the advantage of co-treatment of FO with known antioxidants to achieve a higher therapeutic benefit in the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:24669991

K M, Denny Joseph; Muralidhara

2014-04-01

90

A study for the cause of ferulic acid-induced quenching of tyrosine fluorescence and whether it is a reliable marker of intermolecular interactions or not.  

PubMed

Intrinsic fluorescence of peptides and proteins is extensively used to monitor their specific interactions with several natural and synthetic molecules known to have wide-ranging beneficial or detrimental effects on health. A consequence of these interactions would be a significant decrease of the fluorescence emission intensity of Tyrosine (Tyr) and/or Tryptophan (Trp) residues in the protein due to structural rearrangements of proteic microenvironment. However fluorescence quenching can be also caused by "trivial" artefacts. In this study we examined the effect of Ferulic acid (FA) on Tyr fluorescence. FA is a natural anti-oxidant suggested to bind to and to modify the structural properties of several proteins thus altering their biological activities. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on Tyr and on proteins containing Tyr and no Trp like beta amyloid peptides and Insulin were performed. Our results suggest that Tyr fluorescence loss can mainly result from an inner filter effect rather than from specific interactions with FA. PMID:23463293

Sgarbossa, Antonella; Lenci, Francesco

2013-05-01

91

Maize stem tissues: ferulate deposition in developing internode cell walls.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that ferulates are only deposited in the primary cell wall of grasses. To test this hypothesis, the fourth elongating, above-ground internode of maize (Zea mays l.) was sampled from three maize hybrids throughout development. Cell wall composition was determined by the Uppsala Dietary Fibre method. Ester- and ether-linked ferulates were determined by HPLC analysis of ferulic acid released from the internodes by low and high temperature alkaline treatments. Internode length increased from 9 to 152 mm over 96 days of growth, with elongation being complete in the first 12 days. More than half of the cell wall material in the maize internodes accumulated after elongation had ended. Deposition of cell wall material appeared to reach its maximum extent 40 days after sampling began, well before physiological maturity of the maize plants. Galactose and arabinose began to accumulate early in cell wall development which was presumed to be associated with primary wall growth during internode elongation. The major secondary wall constituents (analyzed as glucose, xylose, and Klason lignin) did not begin to accumulate rapidly until shortly before internode elongation ended. Ferulate ester deposition began before ferulate ethers were observed in the cell wall, but both forms of ferulate continued to accumulate in secondary cell walls, long after internode elongation had ceased. These data clearly show that contrary to the hypothesis, ferulate deposition was not restricted to the primary wall and that active lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking mediated by ferulates occurs in the secondary wall. PMID:12809714

Jung, Hans-Joachim G

2003-07-01

92

Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rat.  

PubMed

Diabetic therapeutic and antioxidative effects of an ethereal fraction of the ethanolic extract of the seed of Syzygium cumini was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. There was diminution in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle along with diminution in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase in diabetic rats when compared with controls. Hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were elevated in respect to control. Oral coadministration of the above fraction to diabetic rats resulted in significant protection in all these parameters. Histological studies of the pancreas showed a qualitative diminution in the area and volume of the islet's of Langerhans, but coadministration of the specific fraction resulted in a significant recovery of the islet's of Langerhans. Chromatography study revealed that the used fraction was ferulic acid (FA). Treatment with FA in normoglycemic rats did not show any significant change in the levels of the selected biosensors. The possible hypothesis for the therapeutic effect of FA against diabetes may be due to its pancreatic beta-cell regenerative effect and/or due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:18560627

Mandal, S; Barik, B; Mallick, C; De, D; Ghosh, D

2008-03-01

93

Pharmacokinetic comparison of the vasorelaxant compound ferulic acid following the administration of Guanxin II to healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10?8?10?3 M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2?, t1/2? and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris. PMID:24223659

LI, YUN-HUI; HUANG, XI; WANG, YANG; FAN, RONG; ZHANG, HONG-MIN; REN, PING; CHEN, YAO; ZHOU, HONG-HAO; LIU, ZHAO-QIAN; LIANG, YI-ZENG; LU, HONG-MEI

2013-01-01

94

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

95

Determination of ferulic acid by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis based on enhancement of the N-bromobutanimide-eosin-CrCl3 system in alkaline solution.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) based on the significant enhancement effect of FA on the CL signal of the N-bromobutanimide (NBS)-eosin-CrCl3 system in alkaline solution. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity is linearly related to the concentration of FA in its pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples. The corresponding linear regression equations were established over the 4.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-7) g/mL for FA tablets and 2.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-7) g/mL for plasma samples. The limit of detection for FA tablets and limit of quantification for plasma samples were 2.8 × 10(-10) g/mL (3 ?) and 3.04 × 10(-10) g/mL (10 ?), respectively. A complete analysis could be performed within 40 s, including washing and sampling, giving a throughput of ?90/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FA in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples with satisfactory results. The recoveries of pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma samples at three different concentrations were 97.8-102.6% and 96.7-104.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reactions was also discussed briefly. PMID:23436468

Shen, Guopeng; Jia, Xin; Jin, Jianwen; Pang, Li; Chen, Zheng; Du, Bin

2013-01-01

96

Effects of Ferulic Acid and ?-Oryzanol on High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. ?-Oryzanol (OZ), the ferulic acid (FA) ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic syndrome parameters. Methods Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations) for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions. Results In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD. PMID:25646799

Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

2015-01-01

97

Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ferulic Acid in Normal and Blood Deficiency Rats after Oral Administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Their Combination  

PubMed Central

Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC(0–t) and Cmax of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t1/2?, Vd, AUC(0–t) and AUC(0–?) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

2012-01-01

98

Conservation, fiber digestibility, and nutritive value of corn harvested at 2 cutting heights and ensiled with fibrolytic enzymes, either alone or with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the use of a fibrolytic enzyme product, applied at ensiling either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing bacterial additive, on the chemical composition, conservation characteristics, and in vitro degradability of corn silage harvested at either conventional or high cutting height. Triplicate samples of corn were harvested to leave stubble of either a conventional (15cm; NC) or high (45cm; HC) height above ground. Sub-samples of chopped herbage were ensiled untreated or with a fibrolytic enzyme product containing xylanases and cellulases applied either alone (ENZ) or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing silage inoculant (ENZ+FAEI). The fibrolytic enzyme treatment was applied at 2mL of enzyme product/kg of herbage dry matter (DM), and the inoculant was applied at 1.3×10(5) cfu/g of fresh herbage. Samples were packed into laboratory-scale silos, stored for 7, 28, or 70 d, and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, and samples ensiled for 70 d were also analyzed for DM losses, chemical composition, and in vitro ruminal degradability. After 70 d of ensiling, the fermentation characteristics of corn silages were generally unaffected by cutting height, whereas the neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and ash concentrations were lower and the starch concentration greater for silages made with crops harvested at HC compared with NC. After 70 d of ensiling, the acetic acid, ethanol concentrations, and the number of yeasts were greater, and the pH and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were lower, in silages produced using ENZ or ENZ+FAEI than the untreated silages, whereas ENZ+FAEI silages also incurred higher DM losses. No effect of additive treatment was observed on in vitro degradability indices after 48h ruminal incubation. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme product, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant, at ensiling did not improve corn silage fermentation or its nutritive value and resulted in some negative effects on these parameters. The effects of using a fibrolytic enzyme product at ensiling, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant, did not differ between corn harvested at either NC or HC. Silage made from HC had a greater starch content and lower fiber content than NC silage, whereas cutting height did not affect the in vitro digestibility indices. PMID:25483202

Lynch, J P; Baah, J; Beauchemin, K A

2015-02-01

99

Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.  

PubMed

In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results. PMID:24907546

Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

2014-07-01

100

Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC 3.1.3.8), could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10) provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...

101

Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha?1 each year for 6 years, yet no differences were

E. BAgtth; B. Lundgren; B. Soederstroem

1984-01-01

102

CYTOTOXIC HYDROXYLATED TRITERPENE ALCOHOL FERULATES FROM RICE BRAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates, (24S)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (1), (24R)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (2), and cycloart-23Z-ene-3 beta,25-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (3), along with known compounds cycloartenol trans-ferulate (4) a...

103

Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

2010-01-01

104

Synthesis, anti-fungal and 1,3-?-D-glucan synthase inhibitory activities of caffeic and quinic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

New derivatives of caffeic acid and quinic acid were synthesized and their anti-fungal and inhibitory activities on fungal 1,3-?-glucan synthase were determined in comparison with those of the corresponding chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the chlorogenic, quinic and caffeic acid derivatives that were coupled with an H(2)N-orn-4-(octyloxy) aniline group (1, 1b and 1c) displayed potent activities in both anti-fungal and inhibition of 1,3-glucan synthase assays. Compounds 1 and 1c inhibited the fungal membrane enzyme with the potency comparable to that of a known 1,3-?-D-glucan synthase inhibitor, aculeacin A. The results revealed that the anti-fungal activity of the chlorogenic acid derivative with a free amino group was at least partly due to inhibition of the fungal 1,3-?-glucan synthase. These results suggest that further investigation on caffeic acid derivatives may lead to the discovery of novel anti-fungal agents with drug-like properties. PMID:20813534

Ma, Chao-Mei; Abe, Takashi; Komiyama, Tadazumi; Wang, Wei; Hattori, Masao; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

2010-10-01

105

Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

2011-01-01

106

Antioxidant properties and efficacies of synthesized alkyl caffeates, ferulates, and coumarates.  

PubMed

Caffeic, ferulic, and coumaric acids were lipophilized with saturated fatty alcohols (C1-C20). The antioxidant properties of these hydroxycinnamic acids and their alkyl esters were evaluated in various assays. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficiency of the compounds was evaluated in a simple o/w microemulsion using the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. All evaluated phenolipids had radical scavenging, reducing power, and metal chelating properties. Only caffeic acid and caffeates were able to form a complex with iron via their catechol group in the phenolic ring. In the o/w emulsion, the medium chain phenolipids of the three homologues series were most efficient. The antioxidant properties and efficacies were dependent upon functional groups substituted to the ring structure and were in the following order: caffeic acid and caffeates > ferulic acid and ferulates > coumaric acid and coumarates. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the test system has an impact on the antioxidative properties measured. PMID:25457614

Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, Erwann; Laguerre, Mickaël; Bayrasy, Christelle; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2014-12-31

107

Simultaneous down-regulation of caffeic/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-methyltransferase I and cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase in the progeny from a cross between tobacco lines homozygous for each transgene. Consequences for plant development and lignin synthesis.  

PubMed

Inhibition of specific lignin biosynthetic steps by antisense strategy has previously been shown to alter lignin content and/or structure. In this work, homozygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines transformed with cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) or caffeic acid/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-methyltransferase I (COMT I) antisense sequences have been crossed and enzyme activities, lignin synthesis, and cell wall structure of the progeny have been analyzed. In single transformed parents, CCR inhibition did not affect COMT I expression, whereas marked increases in CCR activity were observed in COMT I antisense plants, suggesting potential cross talk between some genes of the pathway. In the progeny, both CCR and COMT I activities were shown to be markedly decreased due to the simultaneous repression of the two genes. In these double transformants, the lignin profiles were dependent on the relative extent of down-regulation of each individual enzyme. For the siblings issued from a strongly repressed antisense CCR parent, the lignin patterns mimicked the patterns obtained in single transformants with a reduced CCR activity. In contrast, the specific lignin profile of COMT I repression could not be detected in double transformed siblings. By transmission electron microscopy some cell wall loosening was detected in the antisense CCR parent but not in the antisense COMT I parent. In double transformants, immunolabeling of non-condensed guaiacyl-syringyl units was weaker and revealed changes in epitope distribution that specifically affected vessels. Our results more widely highlight the impact of culture conditions on phenotypes and gene expression of transformed plants. PMID:11351078

Pinçon, G; Chabannes, M; Lapierre, C; Pollet, B; Ruel, K; Joseleau, J P; Boudet, A M; Legrand, M

2001-05-01

108

Comparison of the Impact of ?-Oryzanol and Corn Steryl Ferulates on the Polymerization of Soybean Oil During Frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn steryl ferulates (CSF), oryzanol, a combination of equal amounts of CSF and oryzanol, and ferulic acid were added to\\u000a refined, bleached, deodorized, soybean oil at a concentration of 8.1–8.4 ?mol\\/g oil, which corresponded to 0.5% (w\\/w) for\\u000a the steryl ferulates. The rate of polymerized triacylglycerol (PTAG) formation was determined in three replicate, two-day\\u000a frying experiments using a miniature frying protocol

Jill K. Winkler-MoserKathy; Kathy A. Rennick; Debra A. Palmquist; Mark A. Berhow; Steven F. Vaughn

109

AMINO ACID PROFILES IN THE HAEMOLYMPH OF SILKWORM BOMBYX MORI L. INFECTED WITH FUNGAL PATHOGEN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL.  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Examined the day to day changes of amino acid profiles in the haemolymph of 5 th instar silkworm Bombyx mori L. during the development of fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. For the qualitative determination of amino acids Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was performed. The qualitative changes were observed in amino acid at different lengths on 1 st and 6 th day after inoculation of Beauveria bassiana. More number of amino acid spots were noticed on 1 st and 6 th day of inoculated larvae compared to control.

K. Rajitha; G. Savithri

110

Grass cell wall feruloylation: distribution of bound ferulate and candidate gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

The cell walls of grasses such as wheat, maize, rice, and sugar cane, contain large amounts of ferulate that is ester-linked to the cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX). This ferulate is considered to limit the digestibility of polysaccharide in grass biomass as it forms covalent linkages between polysaccharide and lignin components. Candidate genes within a grass-specific clade of the BAHD acyl-coA transferase superfamily have been identified as being responsible for the ester linkage of ferulate to GAX. Manipulation of these BAHD genes may therefore be a biotechnological target for increasing efficiency of conversion of grass biomass into biofuel. Here, we describe the expression of these candidate genes and amounts of bound ferulate from various tissues and developmental stages of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. BAHD candidate transcripts and significant amounts of bound ferulate were present in every tissue and developmental stage. We hypothesize that BAHD candidate genes similar to the recently described Oryza sativa p-coumarate monolignol transferase (OsPMT) gene (PMT sub-clade) are principally responsible for the bound para-coumaric acid (pCA), and that other BAHD candidates (non-PMT sub-clade) are responsible for bound ferulic acid (FA). There were some similarities with between the ratio of expression non-PMT/PMT genes and the ratio of bound FA/pCA between tissue types, compatible with this hypothesis. However, much further work to modify BAHD genes in grasses and to characterize the heterologously expressed proteins is required to demonstrate their function. PMID:23508643

Molinari, Hugo B. C.; Pellny, Till K.; Freeman, Jackie; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.

2013-01-01

111

Identification of target amino acids that affect interactions of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) bind fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), but inhibition specificities and kinetics vary within and among species. Purified bean PGIP inhibited all fungal PGs we tested, includingFusarium moniliforme PG. Pear PGIP, however, was only effective against Botrytis cinerea PG. Moreover, tomato PGIP inhibited B. cinerea PG more than Aspergillus niger PG. Models of codon evolution for 22 dicot

HENRIK U STOTZ; JOHN G BISHOP; CARL W BERGMANN; MARCUS KOCH; PETER ALBERSHEIM; ALAN G DARVILL; JOHN M LABAVITCH

2000-01-01

112

Identification of target amino acids that aect interactions of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) bind fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), but inhibition specificities and kinetics vary within and among species. Purified bean PGIP inhibited all fungal PGs we tested, including Fusarium moniliforme PG. Pear PGIP, however, was only eective against Botrytis cinerea PG. Moreover, tomato PGIP inhibited B. cinerea PG more than Aspergillus niger PG. Models of codon evolution for 22

J OHN G. B ISHOP; C ARL W. B ERGMANN; MARCUS K OCH

2000-01-01

113

Cardioprotective effect of sodium ferulate in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF) is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SF (110mg/kg) by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats. PMID:22701336

Xu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Haijuan; Zhao, Jiangpei; Zhao, Tongfeng

2012-01-01

114

Simultaneous enrichment of cereals with polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments by fungal solid state fermentations.  

PubMed

Four Mucor strains were tested for their ability to grow on four cereal substrates and enriched them with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and ?-carotene. M. circinelloides CCF-2617 as the best producer accumulated of both GLA and ?-carotene in high amounts during utilization of rye bran/spent malt grains (3:1). The first growth phase was characterized by rapid GLA biosynthesis, while distinct ?-carotene formation was found in the stationary fungal growth. Therefore various cultivation conditions were tested in order to optimize the yield of either GLA or ?-carotene. The fungus grown on cereal substrate supplemented with glucose produced maximal 8.5 mg ?-carotene and 12.1 g GLA in 1 kg fermented substrate, respectively. On the other hand, the highest amount of GLA in the fermented substrate (24.2 g/kg) was achieved when 30% of sunflower oil was employed to the substrate. Interestingly, ?-carotene biosynthesis was completely inhibited when either whey or linseed oil were added to the substrate. PMID:23583333

?ertík, Milan; Adamechová, Zuzana; Guothová, Lucia

2013-10-20

115

Structural elucidation of acidic fungal polysaccharides isolated from the cell-wall of genera Cylindrocladium and Calonectria.  

PubMed

The structure of acidic fungal polysaccharides, isolated from the cell wall of Cylindrocladium and Calonectria species, has been investigated by chemical analysis, methylation and reductive cleavage analyses, and 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharides have an idealized repeating unit: [formula: see text] linked to a small mannan core (< 5%), with n = 3 for Cylindrocladium penicilloides and C. quinqueseptatum and n = 5 for Calonectria theae, C. crotalariae, and C. colhounii. PMID:9345753

Ahrazem, O; Prieto, A; Leal, J A; Gómez-Miranda, B; Domenech, J; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Bernabé, M

1997-08-25

116

Inhibition of fungal spore adhesion by zosteric Acid as the basis for a novel, nontoxic crop protection technology.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To explore the potential for nontoxic crop protection technologies based on the inhibition of fungal spore adhesion, we have tested the effect of synthetic zosteric acid (p-(sulfo-oxy) cinnamic acid), a naturally occurring phenolic acid in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) plants, on spore adhesion and infection in two pathosystems: rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea and bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. We have shown that zosteric acid inhibits spore adhesion to model and host leaf surfaces and that any attached spores fail to develop appressoria, and consequently do not infect leaf cells. Low concentrations of zosteric acid that are effective in inhibiting adhesion are not toxic to either fungus or to the host. The inhibition of spore adhesion in the rice blast pathogen is fully reversible. On plants, zosteric acid reduced (rice) or delayed (bean) lesion development. These results suggest that there is potential for novel and environmentally benign crop protection technologies based on manipulating adhesion. PMID:18942950

Stanley, Michele S; Callow, Maureen E; Perry, Ruth; Alberte, Randall S; Smith, Robert; Callow, James A

2002-04-01

117

Firing range soils yield a diverse array of fungal isolates capable of organic acid production and Pb mineral solubilization.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil(-1). We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter(-1) (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health. PMID:22729539

Sullivan, Tarah S; Gottel, Neil R; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M; Schadt, Christopher W

2012-09-01

118

Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T

2001-03-13

119

Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

Kingsley, Mark T.

2001-03-13

120

Selection for Lignin and Etherified Ferulates in Three Perennial Grasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decreased lignin concentration or decreased ferulate cross-linking between arabinoxylans and lignin are two mechanisms to increase cell-wall digestibility in plants. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the genetic correlation between lignin and etherified ferulates can be altered ...

121

Enhanced transesterification of ethyl ferulate with glycerol for preparing glyceryl diferulate using a lipase in ionic liquids as reaction medium.  

PubMed

Glyceryl diferulate (DFG) is a water-soluble ester of ferulic acid. A novel ionic liquid (IL) system for enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with glycerol to produce DFG was developed. Of three ILs with different anions (BF4 (-), PF6 (-) and TF2N(-)) and cations (BDMIM, OMIM, HMIM, BMIM, and EMIM), EMIMTF2N proved the best using a commercial lipase. It had a significant protective effect against thermal inactivation of the enzyme. High EF conversion (~100 %) and DFG yield (45 %) were achieved using 45 mg enzyme/ml; temperature, 70 °C; reaction time, 12 h. PMID:23690034

Sun, Shangde; Qin, Fei; Bi, Yanlan; Chen, Jingnan; Yang, Guolong; Liu, Wei

2013-09-01

122

The cuticular fatty acids of Calliphora vicina, Dendrolimus pini and Galleria mellonella larvae and their role in resistance to fungal infection.  

PubMed

Epicuticular lipids in many terrestrial arthropods consist of vast numbers of polar and non-polar aliphatic compounds, which are mainly responsible for the water balance in these animals but can also affect conidia germination of entomopathogenic fungi. In this work the qualitative and quantitative profiles of cuticular fatty acids from three insect species differing in their susceptibility to fungal infection were studied. In an innovative approach, laser light scattering detection was coupled with HPLC in order to identify the non-chromophoric chemicals usually present in cuticular extracts. The acids identified contained from 5 to 20 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain and included unsaturated entities such as C(16:1), C(18:1), C(18:2), C(18:3) and C(20:1). There was a marked dominance of acids containing 16-18 carbon atoms. The relative contents of fatty acids in the extracted waxes varied from trace amounts to 44%. Cuticular fatty acids profile of Calliphora vicina (species resistant to fungal infection) significantly differs from profiles of Dendrolimus pini and Galleria mellonella (both species highly susceptible to fungal infection). The major difference is the presence of C(14:0), C(16:1) and C(20:0) in the cuticle of C. vicina. These three fatty acids are absent in the cuticle of D. pini while G. mellonella cuticle contains their traces. The concentrations of four fatty acids dominating in the G. mellonella larval cuticle (C(16:0), C(18:0), C(18:1) and C(18:2)) were found to fluctuate during the final larval instar and correlate with fluctuations in the susceptibility of larvae to fungal infection. The possible role of cuticular fatty acids in preventing fungal infection is discussed. PMID:18510973

Go?ebiowski, Marek; Mali?ski, Edmund; Bogu?, Mieczys?awa I; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr

2008-06-01

123

Sodium Ferulate Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Rat Balloon Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. Methods Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II) for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline) for 7 days before sacrificed. Results In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle ?-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total ?-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2? and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. Conclusion Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs. PMID:24489938

Chen, Jing; Xu, Changwu; Ding, Jiawang; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing; Hu, Qi; Jiang, Hong

2014-01-01

124

Solvent-free enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate and monostearin: optimized by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this study, enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) and monostearin for feruloylated lipids production was investigated. Enzyme screening and the effect of feruloyl acceptors on the transesterification were also studied. Effects of reaction variables (reaction temperatures, enzyme load, and reaction time) on the transesterification were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were as follows: reaction temperature 74°C, reaction time 23h, and enzyme load 20% (w/w, relative to the weight of substrates). Under these conditions, EF conversion was 98.3±1.1%, and the transesterification product was consisted of 19.2±2.1% glyceryl ferulate (FG), 32.9±1.9% diferuloylated glycerols (DFG), 36.6±2.2% feruloylated monoacylglycerols (FMAG), 9.1±2.0% feruloylated diacylglycerols (FDAG), and 0.5% ferulic acid (FA). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the regression equation was adequate for predicting EF conversion. The activation energies for hydrolysis to form FG+DFG and transesterification to form FMAG+FDAG were calculated as 22.45 and 51.05kJ/mol, respectively, based on Arrhenius law. PMID:23376620

Sun, Shangde; Song, Fanfan; Bi, Yanlan; Yang, Guolong; Liu, Wei

2012-12-15

125

Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

2002-10-15

126

Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

2003-03-04

127

Structural and Functional Studies of a Phosphatidic Acid-Binding Antifungal Plant Defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR Motif Governing Fungal Cell Entry  

PubMed Central

MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged ?-core motif composed of ?2 and ?3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA. PMID:24324798

Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghu S.; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip M.

2013-01-01

128

A novel jasmonic acid-inducible rice myb gene associates with fungal infection and host cell death.  

PubMed

Endogenous signal molecules such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play an important role in induced resistance against pathogen infection and insect herbivory. In rice seedlings, JA is an effective inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against infection of blast fungus (Pyricularia grisea). To gain further insights into JA-mediated defense signaling pathways, we isolated and characterized a pathogen- and JA-induced rice gene (JAmyb) that encodes a Myb transcription factor. The JAmyb gene was induced within 1 day after fungal infection in resistant and susceptible interactions prior to lesion formation. Unlike most defense-related genes that are activated faster and stronger in resistant interactions, JAmyb induction by blast fungus is much higher in susceptible interactions, accompanied by large lesions and extensive tissue damage. Significant induction of JAmyb also was observed during cell death and lesion formation in certain lesion mimic mutants. Interestingly, JAmyb was activated rapidly by JA or wounding, independent of de novo protein synthesis, but not by other endogenous signal molecules such as SA and abscisic acid or SAR inducers such as benzothiadiazole and probenazole. We used SA-deficient transgenic plants to further demonstrate that depletion of SA in rice did not abolish but rather enhanced blast-induced JAmyb expression. These results suggest that JAmyb is related closely to host cell death and is involved in the JA-mediated, SA-independent signaling pathways in rice. PMID:11310740

Lee, M W; Qi, M; Yang, Y

2001-04-01

129

The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.  

PubMed

Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

2014-01-01

130

Simultaneous Down-Regulation of Caffeic/5-Hydroxy Ferulic Acid-O-Methyltransferase I and Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in the Progeny from a Cross between Tobacco Lines Homozygous for Each Transgene. Consequences for Plant Development and Lignin Synthesis1  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of specific lignin biosynthetic steps by antisense strategy has previously been shown to alter lignin content and/or structure. In this work, homozygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines transformed with cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) or caffeic acid/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-methyltransferase I (COMT I) antisense sequences have been crossed and enzyme activities, lignin synthesis, and cell wall structure of the progeny have been analyzed. In single transformed parents, CCR inhibition did not affect COMT I expression, whereas marked increases in CCR activity were observed in COMT I antisense plants, suggesting potential cross talk between some genes of the pathway. In the progeny, both CCR and COMT I activities were shown to be markedly decreased due to the simultaneous repression of the two genes. In these double transformants, the lignin profiles were dependent on the relative extent of down-regulation of each individual enzyme. For the siblings issued from a strongly repressed antisense CCR parent, the lignin patterns mimicked the patterns obtained in single transformants with a reduced CCR activity. In contrast, the specific lignin profile of COMT I repression could not be detected in double transformed siblings. By transmission electron microscopy some cell wall loosening was detected in the antisense CCR parent but not in the antisense COMT I parent. In double transformants, immunolabeling of non-condensed guaiacyl-syringyl units was weaker and revealed changes in epitope distribution that specifically affected vessels. Our results more widely highlight the impact of culture conditions on phenotypes and gene expression of transformed plants. PMID:11351078

Pinçon, Gaelle; Chabannes, Matthieu; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Ruel, Katia; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Boudet, Alain M.; Legrand, Michel

2001-01-01

131

Effects of polyurethane matrices on fungal tannase and gallic acid production under solid state culture.  

PubMed

The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices. PMID:17910122

Trevino, Lucia; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

2007-10-01

132

Fungal Degradation of the Bioplastic PHB (Poly3-hydroxy-butyric acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid) is a thermoplastic polyester synthesized by Ralstonia eutropha and other bacteria as a form of intracellular carbon and energy storage and accumulated as inclusions in the cytoplasm of these bacteria. The degradation of PHB by fungi from samples collected from various environments was studied. PHB depolymerization was tested in vials containing a PHB-containing medium which were inoculated

K.-M. Lee; D. F. Gimore; M. J. Huss

2005-01-01

133

Ecological study of the fungal populations of the acidic Tinto River in southwestern Spain.  

PubMed

The characterization of the microbial ecology of the Tinto River, an extreme habitat with an extremely low pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, revealed an unexpected level of microbial richness. A variety of microbial eukaryotes was isolated, among them several fungal strains that were identified and their physiological characteristics studied. Ninety strains of yeast were isolated from the Tinto River. Fifty-two percent of them were capable of growth in vitro using medium amended with river water. They belong to 6 genera of basidiomycetes (Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Tremella, Holtermannia, Leucosporidium, and Mrakia) and 2 of ascomycetes (Candida and Williopsis). In addition, 349 strains of hyphomycetes belonging to 17 genera (most of them ascomycetes) were isolated and studied. Forty-four percent of the isolated filamentous fungi (154 strains) were capable of growing in vitro using medium amended with Tinto River water. Of this percentage, 19% (29 strains) belonged to the genus Penicillium (16 species) and 66% (102 strains) were included in the genera Scytalidium, Bahusakala, Phoma, and Heteroconium or showed dark sterile mycelia, which probably are of dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In addition, we characterized strains of the ascomycete genera Lecythophora and Acremonium and of the zygomycete genus Mortierella, all of them capable of growing in medium amended with river water. Statistical correlation of biological and physicochemical variables suggested a positive relationship between the dematiaceous hyphomycetes and the most extreme physicochemical conditions found in the Tinto River. Principal components analysis confirmed this relationship and also showed that the Acremonium and Lecythophora groups had environmental preferences similar to those of dematiaceous fungi. The spatial positions of the sampling sites were grouped in 2 main clusters: (i) sampling sites in the mine zone in which most of the dematiaceous, Acremonium, and Lecythophora strains were isolated and (ii) sites that were not in the mine zone and sampling station 5 from which were isolated mainly strains of fungi that were not capable of growing in the medium amended with river water and species of the Penicillium genus. PMID:15644909

López-Archilla, A I; González, A E; Terrón, M C; Amils, R

2004-11-01

134

Spectroscopic studies on the in vitro antioxidant capacity of isopentyl ferulate.  

PubMed

Essential oils have played a prominent role in research on natural products, due to the high level of bioactive constituents, which include those derived from phenylpropanoids or terpenoids. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of isopentyl ferulate (IF) employing in vitro experimental models for elimination of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)), hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as its capacity to electron transfer by reducing potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) method. In all in vitro antioxidants protocols, isopentyl ferulate showed to be potent in a concentration of 54.4nM, presenting a percentage inhibition of 91.29±0.57, 92.63±0.28, 83.62±0.18, 77.07±0.72 and 79.51±0.32% for DPPH, ABTS(+), hydroxyl, nitric oxide and TBARS level, respectively. The increase of absorbance at 700nm in the concentrations of 3.4, 6.8, 13.6, 27.2 and 54.4nM shows the reducing potential of IF. Similar results were obtained with Trolox (559nM), a hydrophilic synthetic analogue of ?-tocopherol, which is widely used as a standard antioxidant. The present study demonstrated that isopentyl ferulate has an antioxidant activity in vitro experimental models, suggesting that this compound could enhance the development of a new product with antioxidant properties. However, further in vivo studies are needed to assign possible implications in the treatment of diseases related with free radicals. PMID:25446849

Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; de Sousa, Élida B V; Costa, Iwyson Henrique F; Machado, Katia C; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2015-01-01

135

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate effectiveness on growth and root colonization of Panicum virgatum in acidic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance plant ability to grow and withstand acidic soil induced stresses. Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) was grown in pHCa 4 and 5 (soil:10 mM CaCl2, 1:1) soil (typic Hapludult) inoculated with eight isolates of AMF [Glomus (G.) clarum, G. diaphanum, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, Gigaspora (Gi.) albida, Gi. margarita, Gi. rosea and Acaulospora (A.) morrowiae

R. B. Clark; S. K. Zeto; R. W. Zobel

1999-01-01

136

Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults are at increased risk of developing opportunistic fungal infections because organ transplantation, intensive\\u000a cancer chemotherapy regimens, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents are now used more commonly, and because admission to an\\u000a intensive care unit, which carries many risk factors for fungal infection, has become commonplace in this group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal

Carol A. Kauffman

137

SYNTHESIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF 2,5-BIS-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-TETRAHYDROFURAN-3,4-DICARBOXYLIC ACID, AN UNANTICIPATED FERULATE 8-8-COUPLING PRODUCT ACYLATING CEREAL PLANT CELL WALLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new product implicated in cereal grain polysaccharide cross-linking has been authenticated by independent synthesis. Saponification of cereal grain fiber releases the RRRS/SSSR-isomer of 2,5-di-(4´-hydroxy-3´-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-dicarboxylic acid. The parent ester logically ...

138

Formation of ethyl ferulate by rice koji enzyme in sake and mirin mash conditions.  

PubMed

Formation mechanism of ethyl ferulate (EF) in sake and mirin mash conditions was investigated to understand EF level control in the manufacturing process. Rice koji formed EF from ferulic acid (FA) and ethanol and decomposed EF to FA. This did not occur in sake yeast and chemical esterification was rare. Esterification of FA and hydrolysis of EF by rice koji might be due to feruloyl esterase(s). The rice koji enzyme showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for FA in ethyl esterification and for EF in hydrolysis, but not for ethanol in the esterification reaction. Substrate specificity of the rice koji enzyme for hydroxycinnamic acids suggested that the main enzyme involved might be similar to type A feruloyl esterase. We studied the rice koji enzyme properties, short-term digestion of steamed rice grains with exogenous ethanol and small scale mirin making with pH adjustment. Our results suggested differences in the esterification and hydrolysis properties of the enzyme, in particular, different pH dependencies and different behaviors under high ethanol conditions; these factors might cause the differing EF levels in sake and mirin mashes. PMID:23597918

Hashizume, Katsumi; Ito, Toshihiko; Ishizuka, Takahiro; Takeda, Naoki

2013-08-01

139

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

140

Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response. PMID:24047645

Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

2013-11-01

141

Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+-dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response. PMID:24047645

Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

2013-01-01

142

Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

2012-01-01

143

Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.  

PubMed

Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. PMID:24941338

Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F

2014-01-01

144

Fungal Tests  

MedlinePLUS

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145

Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manifestations of fungal infections result in life-threatening conditions and the major role of the neuroradiologist is\\u000a to recognize the manifestation and make an educated guess as to the type of pathogen. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging\\u000a modality of choice, and administration of gadolinium contrast is essential to identify areas of enhancement that may be subtle.\\u000a In principle, fungal

Jens Fiehler

146

Negligible contribution from roots to soil-borne phospholipid fatty acid fungal biomarkers 18:2?6,9 and 18:1?9.  

PubMed

The phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers 18:1?9, 18:2?6,9 and 18:3?3,6,9 are commonly used as fungal biomarkers in soils. They have, however, also been found to occur in plant tissues, such as roots. Thus, the use of these PLFAs as fungal biomarkers in sieved soil, which may still contain small remains of roots, has been questioned. We used data from a recent beech tree girdling experiment to calculate the contribution of roots to these biomarkers and were able to demonstrate that not more than 0.61% of 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 in sieved soil samples originated from roots (but 4% of 18:3?3,6,9). Additionally, the abundance of the biomarker 18:2?6,9 in the soil was found to be highly correlated to ectomycorrhizal root colonization, which further corroborates its fungal origin. PLFA biomarkers were substantially reduced in vital roots from girdled trees compared to roots of control trees (by up to 76%), indicating that the major part of PLFAs measured in roots may actually originate from ectomycorrhizal fungi growing inside the roots. We calculated, that even a near to 50% reduction in fine root biomass - as observed in the girdling treatment - accounted for only 0.8% of the measured decrease of 18:2?6,9. Our results demonstrate that both 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 are suitable biomarkers for detecting fungal dynamics in soils and that especially 18:2?6,9 is a reliable biomarker to study mycorrhizal dynamics in beech forests. PMID:21633516

Kaiser, Christina; Frank, Alexander; Wild, Birgit; Koranda, Marianne; Richter, Andreas

2010-09-01

147

Negligible contribution from roots to soil-borne phospholipid fatty acid fungal biomarkers 18:2?6,9 and 18:1?9  

PubMed Central

The phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers 18:1?9, 18:2?6,9 and 18:3?3,6,9 are commonly used as fungal biomarkers in soils. They have, however, also been found to occur in plant tissues, such as roots. Thus, the use of these PLFAs as fungal biomarkers in sieved soil, which may still contain small remains of roots, has been questioned. We used data from a recent beech tree girdling experiment to calculate the contribution of roots to these biomarkers and were able to demonstrate that not more than 0.61% of 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 in sieved soil samples originated from roots (but 4% of 18:3?3,6,9). Additionally, the abundance of the biomarker 18:2?6,9 in the soil was found to be highly correlated to ectomycorrhizal root colonization, which further corroborates its fungal origin. PLFA biomarkers were substantially reduced in vital roots from girdled trees compared to roots of control trees (by up to 76%), indicating that the major part of PLFAs measured in roots may actually originate from ectomycorrhizal fungi growing inside the roots. We calculated, that even a near to 50% reduction in fine root biomass – as observed in the girdling treatment – accounted for only 0.8% of the measured decrease of 18:2?6,9. Our results demonstrate that both 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 are suitable biomarkers for detecting fungal dynamics in soils and that especially 18:2?6,9 is a reliable biomarker to study mycorrhizal dynamics in beech forests. PMID:21633516

Kaiser, Christina; Frank, Alexander; Wild, Birgit; Koranda, Marianne; Richter, Andreas

2010-01-01

148

Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers

ANITA SARAF; LENNART LARSSON; HARRIET BURGE; DONALD MILTON

149

Fungal keratitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea. Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary. PMID:21468333

Tuli, Sonal S

2011-01-01

150

Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides  

PubMed Central

Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

2011-01-01

151

Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

2012-01-01

152

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Fungal Elicitor-Induced Hypericin Production of Hypericum perforatum Cell Suspension Cultures through a Jasmonic-Acid-Dependent Signal Pathway1  

PubMed Central

Fungal elicitor prepared from the cell walls of Aspergillum niger induces multiple responses of Hypericum perforatum cells, including nitric oxide (NO) generation, jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, and hypericin production. To determine the role of NO and JA in elicitor-induced hypericin production, we study the effects of NO scavenger 2- to 4-carboxyphenyl-4,4, 5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S,S?-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)-bis-isothiourea, and inhibitors of the octadecanoid pathway on elicitor-induced NO generation, JA biosynthesis, and hypericin production. Pretreatment of the cells with cPITO and JA biosynthesis inhibitors suppresses not only the elicitor-induced NO generation and JA accumulation but also the elicitor-induced hypericin production, which suggests that both NO and JA are involved in elicitor-induced hypericin biosynthesis. S,S?-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-ethanediyl)-bis-isothiourea and cPITO inhibit both elicitor-induced NO generation and JA biosynthesis, while JA biosynthesis inhibitors do not affect the elicitor-induced NO generation, indicating that JA acts downstream of NO generation and that its biosynthesis is regulated by NO. External application of NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside induces hypericin production in the absence of fungal elicitor. Sodium-nitroprusside-induced hypericin production is blocked by JA biosynthesis inhibitors, showing that JA biosynthesis is essential for NO-induced hypericin production. The results demonstrate a causal relationship between elicitor-induced NO generation, JA biosynthesis, and hypericin production in H. perforatum cells and indicate a sequence of signaling events from NO to hypericin production, within which NO mediates the elicitor-induced hypericin biosynthesis at least partially via a JA-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:16169960

Xu, Mao-Jun; Dong, Ju-Fang; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

2005-01-01

153

Fungal bioconversion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP).  

PubMed

Ninety strains of fungi from the collection of our mycology laboratory were tested in Galzy and Slonimski (GS) synthetic liquid medium for their ability to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its by-product, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) at 100 mg l(-1), each. Evolution of the amounts of each chemical in the culture media was monitored by HPLC. After 5 days of cultivation, the best results were obtained with Aspergillus penicilloides and Mortierella isabellina for 2,4-D and with Chrysosporium pannorum and Mucor genevensis for 2,4-DCP. The data collected seemed to prove, on one hand, that the strains responses varied with the taxonomic groups and the chemicals tested, and, on the other hand, that 2,4-D was less accessible to fungal degradation than 2,4-DCP. In each case, kinetics studies with the two most efficient strains revealed that there was a lag phase of 1 day before the onset of 2,4-D degradation, whereas there was none during 2,4-DCP degradation. Moreover, 2,4-DCP was detected transiently during 2,4-D degradation. Finally, M. isabellina improved its degradation potential in Tartaric Acid (TA) medium relative to GS and Malt Extract (ME) media. PMID:16201028

Vroumsia, T; Steiman, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Benoit-Guyod, J-L

2005-09-01

154

Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100).  

PubMed

There is a constant search for new cancer treatments that are less aggressive and economically affordable. In this context, natural products extracted from plants, fungi, and microorganisms are of great interest. Pestheic acid, or dihidromaldoxin, is a chlorinated diphenylic ether extracted from the phytopathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Amphisphaeriaceae). We assessed the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects of pestheic acid in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100). A decrease in clonogenic survival was observed. Pestheic acid also induced significant increases in both micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge frequency. However, we did not observe changes in cell cycle kinetics or apoptosis induction. Reactive oxygen species induced by diphenylic ethers may explain the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of pestheic acid. The absence of repair checkpoints that we observed is probably due to the fact that the PG100 cell line lacks the TP53 gene, which is common in gastric cancers. Even though pestheic acid has had a clear cytotoxic effect, the minimal inhibitory concentration was high, which shows that pestheic acid is not an active anticancer compound under these conditions. PMID:24114206

Sousa, J M C; Matos, L A; Alcântara, D F A; Ribeiro, H F; Santos, L S; Oliveira, M N; Brito-Junior, L C; Khayat, A S; Guimarães, A C; Cunha, L A; Burbano, R R; Bahia, M O

2013-01-01

155

Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10  

PubMed Central

Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host plant growth and alleviate adverse effects of salt stress. Such fungal strain could be used for further field trials to improve agricultural productivity under saline conditions. PMID:22235902

2012-01-01

156

Coniferyl Ferulate Incorporation into Lignin Enhances the Alkaline Delignification and Enzymatic Degradation of Cell Walls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporating ester interunit linkages into lignin could facilitate fiber delignification and utilization. In model studies with maize cell walls, we examined how partial substitution of coniferyl alcohol (a normal monolignol) with coniferyl ferulate (an ester conjugate from lignan biosynthesis) alt...

157

Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.  

PubMed

A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures. PMID:10995318

Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

2000-09-01

158

Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

2013-01-01

159

Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases.  

PubMed

During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. PMID:24331004

Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles

2013-01-01

160

Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases  

PubMed Central

During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. PMID:24331004

Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles

2013-01-01

161

Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.  

PubMed

Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

2013-05-01

162

Regulation of Ferulate-5-Hydroxylase Expression in Arabidopsis in the Context of Sinapate Ester Biosynthesis1  

PubMed Central

Sinapic acid is an intermediate in syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, and in some taxa serves as a precursor for soluble secondary metabolites. The biosynthesis and accumulation of the sinapate esters sinapoylglucose, sinapoylmalate, and sinapoylcholine are developmentally regulated in Arabidopsis and other members of the Brassicaceae. The FAH1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes the enzyme ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in syringyl lignin biosynthesis and is required for the production of sinapate esters. Here we show that F5H expression parallels sinapate ester accumulation in developing siliques and seedlings, but is not rate limiting for their biosynthesis. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of F5H mRNA is distinct from that of other phenylpropanoid genes. Efforts to identify constructs capable of complementing the sinapate ester-deficient phenotype of fah1 mutants demonstrated that F5H expression in leaves is dependent on sequences 3? of the F5H coding region. In contrast, the positive regulatory function of the downstream region is not required for F5H transcript or sinapoylcholine accumulation in embryos. PMID:9880351

Ruegger, Max; Meyer, Knut; Cusumano, Joanne C.; Chapple, Clint

1999-01-01

163

Fungal Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Fungal Skin ...

164

Fungal nail infection  

MedlinePLUS

... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head Fungal nail infections are most often seen in adults. They often ...

165

Cancers mimicking fungal infections.  

PubMed

Primary and metastatic malignancies may occasionally mimic or coexist with cutaneous fungal infections. The authors report 3 cases of cancers that were initially presumed to be cutaneous fungal infections. Dermatologists should maintain a low threshold for skin biopsy in patients with persistent or refractory fungal infections. PMID:24932950

Ladizinski, Barry; Alavi, Afsaneh; Jambrosic, Jay; Mistry, Nisha; Sibbald, R Gary

2014-07-01

166

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

167

Functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. Despite such diversty, single modular iterative type I polyketide synthases (iPKSs) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. Using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on ATX, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Aspergillus terreus as a model iPKS. In addition, iPKS functions involved in fungal

Isao Fujii

2010-01-01

168

Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P. [Naval Research Lab., Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

1995-10-01

169

Oxygenation by COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) of 3-HETE (3-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), a fungal mimetic of arachidonic acid, produces a cascade of novel bioactive 3-hydroxyeicosanoids.  

PubMed

Cyclo-oxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) catalyse the oxygenation of AA (arachidonic acid) and related polyunsaturated fatty acids to endoperoxide precursors of prostanoids. COX-1 is referred to as a constitutive enzyme involved in haemostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The fungus Dipodascopsis uninucleata has been shown by us to convert exogenous AA into 3(R)-HETE [3(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid]. 3R-HETE is stereochemically identical with AA, except that a hydroxy group is attached at its C-3 position. Molecular modelling studies with 3-HETE and COX-1/2 revealed a similar enzyme-substrate structure as reported for AA and COX-1/2. Here, we report that 3-HETE is an appropriate substrate for COX-1 and -2, albeit with a lower activity of oxygenation than AA. Oxygenation of 3-HETE by COX-2 produced a novel cascade of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids, as identified with EI (electron impact)-GC-MS, LC-MS-ES (electrospray) and LC-MS-API (atmospheric pressure ionization) methods. Evidence for in vitro production of 3-hydroxy-PGE2 (3-hydroxy-prostaglandin E2) was obtained upon infection of HeLa cells with Candida albicans at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 100. Analogous to interaction of AA and aspirin-treated COX-2, 3-HETE was transformed by acetylated COX-2 to 3,15-di-HETE (3,15-dihydroxy-HETE), whereby C-15 showed the (R)-stereochemistry. 3-Hydroxy-PGs are potent biologically active compounds. Thus 3-hydroxy-PGE2 induced interleukin-6 gene expression via the EP3 receptor (PGE2 receptor 3) in A549 cells, and raised cAMP levels via the EP4 receptor in Jurkat cells. Moreover, 3R,15S-di-HETE triggered the opening of the K+ channel in HTM (human trabecular meshwork) cells, as measured by the patch-clamp technique. Since many fatty acid disorders are associated with an 'escape' of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from the b-oxidation cycle, the production of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids may be critical in modulation of effects of endogenously produced eicosanoids. PMID:15869467

Ciccoli, Roberto; Sahi, Shakti; Singh, Sandhya; Prakash, Hridayesh; Zafiriou, Maria-Patapia; Ishdorj, Ganchimeg; Kock, Johan L F; Nigam, Santosh

2005-09-15

170

RAPID 2D NMR METHOD FOR DETERMINING P-COUMARATE AND FERULATE LEVELS IN CORN (AND OTHER GRASS) CELL WALLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grass cell wall components are acylated by the hydroxycinnamates p-coumarate and ferulate. p-Coumarates largely acylate lignin sidechains, exclusively at the gamma-position, whereas ferulates primarily acylate the arabinosyl C5-position of arabinoxylans. Such components can be quantified as the corr...

171

PHENOLIC ACIDS PROFILES OF BEANS COMMONLY CONSUMED IN UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenolic acids were saponified, extracted and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography procedure with diode array detection (DAD). Three phenolic acids namely, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were detected and quantified in all dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly con...

172

Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

173

Experimental observations on fungal diagenesis of carbonate Kamal Kolo,1  

E-print Network

the possibility of sedimentary dolomite recycling in a fungal microenvironment. The results of this experimental biominerals in the natural environment. Citation: Kolo, K., E. Keppens, A. Pre´at, and P. Claeys (2007 in the fungal growth environment. These strong chelators and metal-binding acids [Gadd, 1999] form complexes

Claeys, Philippe

174

Universal fungal vaccines  

PubMed Central

The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

Hamad, Mawieh

2012-01-01

175

A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cinnamoyl esterase, ferulic acid esterase A, from Aspergillus niger releases ferulic acid and 5-5- and 8-O-4-dehydrodiferulic acids from plant cell walls. The breakage of one or both ester bonds from dehydrodimer cross-links between plant cell wall polymers is essential for optimal action of carbohydrases on these substrates, but it is not known if cinnamoyl esterases can break these cross-links

Maria-Teresa Garcia-Conesa; Paul A. Kroon; John Ralph; Fred A. Mellon; Ian J. Colquhoun; Luc Saulnier; Jean-Francois Thibault; Gary Williamson

1999-01-01

176

Penicillin amidohydrolases in fungal autolysis.  

PubMed

The production of penicillin G and penicillin V amidohydrolases or acylases (E.C.3.5.1.11) was studied during the autolysis of filamentous fungi in a mineral medium, and in the same medium with phenoxyacetic acid as inducer. In all the studied fungi, enzymes showing penicillin G and penicillin V amidohydrolase activities were found. Generally, an increase of these activities during fungal autolysis was observed. The presence of phenoxyacetic acid in the medium did not increase these activities. The activities found in the culture fluids were generally higher than that found in the mycelial extracts. Under these conditions, beta-lactamases (penicillinases) were not found. The fungi Alternaria alternata, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium oxalicum, and the species Penicillium 222 were chosen to study penicillin G and penicillin V acylases. The enzymes were precipitated with tannic acid from the culture fluid of their autolyzed cultures. Some kinetic constants of these activities were determined. PMID:2499747

Alfonso, C; Cribeiro, L; Reyes, F

1989-01-01

177

Fungal Genomics Program  

SciTech Connect

The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

Grigoriev, Igor

2012-03-12

178

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

179

Fungal Biofilm Resistance  

PubMed Central

Fungal biofilm infections have become increasingly recognised as a significant clinical problem. One of the major reasons behind this is the impact that these have upon treatment, as antifungal therapy often fails and surgical intervention is required. This places a large financial burden on health care providers. This paper aims to illustrate the importance of fungal biofilms, particularly Candida albicans, and discusses some of the key fungal biofilm resistance mechanisms that include, extracellular matrix (ECM), efflux pump activity, persisters, cell density, overexpression of drug targets, stress responses, and the general physiology of the cell. The paper demonstrates the multifaceted nature of fungal biofilm resistance, which encompasses some of the newest data and ideas in the field. PMID:22518145

Ramage, Gordon; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Williams, Craig

2012-01-01

180

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

181

Who Gets Fungal Infections?  

MedlinePLUS

... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

182

JGI Fungal Genomics Program  

SciTech Connect

Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

Grigoriev, Igor V.

2011-03-14

183

Fungal Diagnostics in Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. While standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstay of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serologic and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This chapter will review the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

Lease, Erika D.; Alexander, Barbara D.

2014-01-01

184

The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways  

PubMed Central

Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters represent hotspots for the generation of fungal metabolic diversity. PMID:25474404

Rokas, Antonis

2014-01-01

185

Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.  

PubMed

Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum. Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production. PMID:21943763

Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

2011-10-01

186

Effects of Diterpene Acids on Components of a Conifer Bark Beetle–Fungal Interaction: Tolerance by Ips pini and Sensitivity by Its Associate Ophiostoma ips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conifer resin and phloem tissue contain several phytochemical groups, composed primarily of monoterpenes, diterpene acids, and stilbene phenolics. The effects of monoterpenes and phenolics on stem-colonizing bark beetles and their associated microorganisms have been studied to some extent, but the roles of diterpene acids are largely unknown. Diterpene acids are known to have substantial feeding deterrent and growth inhibiting effects

Brian J. Kopper; Barbara L. Illman; Philip J. Kersten; Kier D. Klepzig; Kenneth F. Raffa

2005-01-01

187

Insect pathology and fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic. Their mode of action against insects appears to be due to antibiosis or feeding deterrence. Research aimed at understanding the fungal ecology of entomopathogenic fungi, and their role as fungal endophytes, could lead to a new paradigm on how to successfully use these organisms in biological control programs. PMID:18406422

Vega, Fernando E

2008-07-01

188

The Fungal Product Terreic Acid is a Covalent Inhibitor of the Bacterial Cell Wall Biosynthetic Enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (MurA)†  

PubMed Central

Terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus Aspergillus terreus. We found that terreic acid is a covalent inhibitor of the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme MurA from E. cloacae and E. coli in-vitro. The crystal structure of the MurA dead-end complex with terreic acid revealed that the quinine ring is covalently attached to the thiol group of Cys115, the molecular target of the antibiotic fosfomycin. Kinetic characterization established that the inactivation requires the presence of substrate UNAG (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine), proceeding with an inactivation rate constant of kinact = 130 M?1s?1. Although the mechanisms of inactivation are similar, fosfomycin is approximately 50 times more potent than terreic acid, and the structural consequences of covalent modification by these two inhibitors are fundamentally different. The MurA-fosfomycin complex exists in the closed enzyme conformation, with the Cys115-fosfomycin adduct buried in the active site. In contrast, the dead-end complex with terreic acid is open, free of UNAG, and has the Cys115-terreic acid adduct solvent–exposed. It appears that terreic acid reacts with Cys115 in the closed, binary state of the enzyme, but that the resulting Cys115-terreic acid adduct imposes steric clashes in the active site. As a consequence, the loop containing Cys115 rearranges, the enzyme opens and UNAG is released. The differential kinetic and structural characteristics of MurA inactivation by terreic acid and fosfomycin reflect the importance of non-covalent binding potential, even for covalent inhibitors, to ensure inactivation efficiency and specificity. PMID:20392080

Han, Huijong; Yang, Yan; Olesen, Sanne H.; Becker, Andreas; Betzi, Stephane; Schönbrunn, Ernst

2010-01-01

189

Production of fungal xylanases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of xylanases can be found in the food, feed and pulp\\/paper industry. Filamentous fungi are particularly interesting producers of this enzyme from an industrial point of view, due to the fact that they excrete xylanases into the medium. Furthermore, xylanase levels from fungal cultures are generally much higher than those from yeasts or bacteria. In addition to xylanase, fungi

Dietmar Haltrich; Bernd Nidetzky; Klaus D. Kulbe; Walter Steiner; Silvia Župan?i?

1996-01-01

190

Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage?  

PubMed Central

The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. PMID:18849463

Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

2008-01-01

191

Current Status of Nonculture Methods for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections  

PubMed Central

The incidence of invasive fungal infections has increased dramatically in recent decades, especially among immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis of these infections in a timely fashion is often very difficult. Conventional microbiologic and histopathologic approaches generally are neither sensitive nor specific, and they often do not detect invasive fungal infection until late in the course of disease. Since early diagnosis may guide appropriate treatment and prevent mortality, there has been considerable interest in developing nonculture approaches to diagnosing fungal infections. These approaches include detection of specific host immune responses to fungal antigens, detection of specific macromolecular antigens using immunologic reagents, amplification and detection of specific fungal nucleic acid sequences, and detection and quantitation of specific fungal metabolite products. This work reviews the current status and recent developments as well as problems in the design of nonculture diagnostic methods for invasive fungal infections. PMID:12097252

Yeo, Siew Fah; Wong, Brian

2002-01-01

192

Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient out- comes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-

Yanan Zhao; Steven Park; Barry N. Kreiswirth; Christine C. Ginocchio; Raphael Veyret; Ali Laayoun; Alain Troesch; David S. Perlin

2009-01-01

193

Microencapsulated bacterial cells can be used to produce the enzyme feruloyl esterase: preparation and in-vitro analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnological production of ferulic acid, a precursor of vanillin, is an attractive alternative for various industries\\u000a due to the high price and demand for natural ferulic acid. Feruloyl esterase has been identified as a key enzyme involved\\u000a in microbial transformations of ferulic acid to vanillin. Several fungal feruloyl esterases have been purified and characterized\\u000a for their use in the production

Jasmine Bhathena; Arun Kulamarva; Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska; Christopher Martoni; Satya Prakash

2007-01-01

194

Superficial fungal infections.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common. PMID:22474120

Kelly, Brendan P

2012-04-01

195

Fungal carriage in lizards.  

PubMed

The occurrence of fungi was investigated in the gut of 200 common garden lizards (Agama agama). The most important pathogenic fungus isolated was Basidiobolus haptosporus, an aetiological agent of subcutaneous zygomycosis. It was recovered from the intestinal contents of 112 (56%) lizards. Other important fungi isolated included Aspergillus spp. in 24 (12%) lizards, Candida spp. in 12 (6%), Penicillium spp. in 12 (6%) and Fusarium spp. in 12 (6%). Mucor spp. were isolated from eight (4%) male lizards only. Agamid lizards are plentiful in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. As they live in close vicinity to man, they are likely to play an important role in the spread of disease that may be caused by these fungi and its transmission to man. None of the animals investigated that yielded fungal cultures revealed any external fungal infection. PMID:9375499

Enweani, I B; Uwajeh, J C; Bello, C S; Ndip, R N

1997-09-01

196

Fungal Biosorption and Biosorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters\\u000a such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pretreatment of biomass, presence of various ligands\\u000a in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. The cell-wall fraction of biomass plays an important role in the sorption\\u000a of heavy metals. The

Thiruvenkatachari Viraraghavan; Asha Srinivasan

197

Emerging Fungal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging fungal pathogens have been increasingly reported as causes of pneumonia in severely immunocompromised patients. These\\u000a include Fusarium species, Zygomycetes, the agents of phaeohyphomycosis and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species. Hematologic patients at high risk to develop these infections are those with prolonged neutropenia and\\/or severe\\u000a T-cell immunodeficiency, typically patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapy for induction of remission, allogeneic\\u000a stem cell

Marcia Garnica; Marcio Nucci

198

Cytology of Fungal Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky; )

2001-06-18

199

Removal of diclofenac and mefenamic acid by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 and identification of their metabolites after fungal transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac (DCF) and mefenamic acid (MFA) were treated with the white rot fungus\\u000a Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. DCF completely disappeared and MFA decreased by about 90% after 6 days of treatment. It was also confirmed that the\\u000a fungus almost completely removed the acute lethal toxicity of DCF and MFA towards the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus after 6 days of

Takayuki Hata; Shingo Kawai; Hideo Okamura; Tomoaki Nishida

2010-01-01

200

Fungal Communities Associated with Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane in Soil?  

PubMed Central

Soil fungal communities involved in the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) were investigated. PU coupons were buried in two sandy loam soils with different levels of organic carbon: one was acidic (pH 5.5), and the other was more neutral (pH 6.7). After 5 months of burial, the fungal communities on the surface of the PU were compared with the native soil communities using culture-based and molecular techniques. Putative PU-degrading fungi were common in both soils, as <45% of the fungal colonies cleared the colloidal PU dispersion Impranil on solid medium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that fungal communities on the PU were less diverse than in the soil, and only a few species in the PU communities were detectable in the soil, indicating that only a small subset of the soil fungal communities colonized the PU. Soil type influenced the composition of the PU fungal communities. Geomyces pannorum and a Phoma sp. were the dominant species recovered by culturing from the PU buried in the acidic and neutral soils, respectively. Both fungi degraded Impranil and represented >80% of cultivable colonies from each plastic. However, PU was highly susceptible to degradation in both soils, losing up to 95% of its tensile strength. Therefore, different fungi are associated with PU degradation in different soils but the physical process is independent of soil type. PMID:17660302

Cosgrove, Lee; McGeechan, Paula L.; Robson, Geoff D.; Handley, Pauline S.

2007-01-01

201

Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

202

Fungal Community Ecology: A Hybrid Beast with a Molecular Master  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fungi play a major role in the function and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, directly influencing the structure of plant, animal, and bacterial communities through interactions that span the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Only with the advent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based molecular techniques, however, have researchers been able to look closely at the ecological forces that structure fungal communities. The recent explosion of molecular studies has greatly advanced our understanding of fungal diversity, niche partitioning, competition, spatial variability, and functional traits. Because of fungi's unique biology, fungal ecology is a hybrid beast that straddles the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. While the dual nature of this field presents many challenges, it also makes fungi excellent organisms for testing extant ecological theories, and it provides opportunities for new and unanticipated research. Many questions remain unanswered, but continuing advances in molecular techniques and field and lab experimentation indicate that fungal ecology has a bright future.

Kabir G. Peay (University of California at Berkeley;); Peter G. Kennedy (Lewis and Clark College;); Thomas D. Bruns (University of California at Berkeley;)

2008-10-01

203

Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...

204

Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Thykaer, Jette [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Adney, William S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brockman, Fred [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dhaeseleer, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Martinez, A diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, R michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Torok, Tamas [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bennett, Joan [Rutgers University; Berka, Randy [Novozymes, Inc; Briggs, Steven [University of California, San Diego; Heitman, Joseph [Duke University; Rizvi, L [Royal Ontario Museum; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Turgeon, Gillian [Cornell University; Werner-Washburne, Maggie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Himmel, Michael [ORNL

2008-01-01

205

Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.

2008-09-30

206

Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy  

SciTech Connect

To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Mycological Society.

Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Thykaer, Jette [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Adney, William S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brockman, Fred [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dhaeseleer, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Martinez, A diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, R michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Torok, Tamas [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Bennett, Joan [Rutgers University; Berka, Randy [Novozymes, Inc; Briggs, Steven [University of California, San Diego; Heitman, Joseph [Duke University; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Turgeon, Gillian [Cornell University; Werner-Washburne, Maggie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2008-01-01

207

Isolation of pyrrolocins A-C: cis- and trans-decalin tetramic acid antibiotics from an endophytic fungal-derived pathway.  

PubMed

Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1-3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1-3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135. PMID:25351193

Jadulco, Raquel C; Koch, Michael; Kakule, Thomas B; Schmidt, Eric W; Orendt, Anita; He, Haiyin; Janso, Jeffrey E; Carter, Guy T; Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R

2014-11-26

208

What Are Fungal Infections?  

PubMed Central

Yeasts and moulds now rank amongst the 10 most frequently isolated pathogens in febrile patients with an impaired immune system. Fungi are mainly opportunistic pathogens that only invade the body if a severely weakened natural defense permits them to do so. Most factors facilitating an invasive fungal infection are unavoidable because they are directly connected to the underlying diseases as well as to their treatment. Modern aggressive treatment modalities jeopardize the defense mechanisms to an extent that even fungi with a low virulence may enter the body. PMID:21625304

de Pauw, Ben E.

2011-01-01

209

Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.  

PubMed

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

2006-10-01

210

Involvement of Abscisic Acid in the Coordinated Regulation of a Stress-Inducible Hexose Transporter (VvHT5) and a Cell Wall Invertase in Grapevine in Response to Biotrophic Fungal Infection[W  

PubMed Central

Biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens alter carbohydrate metabolism in infected host tissues. Symptoms such as elevated soluble carbohydrate concentrations and increased invertase activity suggest that a pathogen-induced carbohydrate sink is established. To identify pathogen-induced regulators of carbohydrate sink strength, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure transcript levels of invertase and hexose transporter genes in biotrophic pathogen-infected grapevine (Vitis vinifera) leaves. The hexose transporter VvHT5 was highly induced in coordination with the cell wall invertase gene VvcwINV by powdery and downy mildew infection. However, similar responses were also observed in response to wounding, suggesting that this is a generalized response to stress. Analysis of the VvHT5 promoter region indicated the presence of multiple abscisic acid (ABA) response elements, suggesting a role for ABA in the transition from source to sink under stress conditions. ABA treatment of grape leaves was found to reproduce the same gene-specific transcriptional changes as observed under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Furthermore, the key regulatory ABA biosynthetic gene, VvNCED1, was activated under these same stress conditions. VvHT5 promoter::?-glucuronidase-directed expression in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was activated by infection with powdery mildew and by ABA treatment, and the expression was closely associated with vascular tissue adjacent to infected regions. Unlike VvHT1 and VvHT3, which appear to be predominantly involved in hexose transport in developing leaves and berries, VvHT5 appears to have a specific role in enhancing sink strength under stress conditions, and this is controlled through ABA. Our data suggest a central role for ABA in the regulation of VvcwINV and VvHT5 expression during the transition from source to sink in response to infection by biotrophic pathogens. PMID:20348211

Hayes, Matthew A.; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian B.

2010-01-01

211

Induction of apoptosis by fungal culture materials containing cyclopiazonic acid and T-2 toxin in primary lymphoid organs of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Thirty-six, twenty-eight-day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into three groups of 12 birds each. Two groups were fed diets containing 10 ppm cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 1ppm T-2 toxin, respectively, to determine the mechanism of cell death in spleen and thymus at 6, 12, 24, and 36 h of post-treatment. The other group served as control. T-2 toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in thymus with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment where as, no significant differences were observed between the control and CPA groups. The CPA toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in spleen with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment. No significant differences were observed between the control and T-2 toxin group even though the latter showed a slight increase in the quantity of apoptotic cells at 36 h post-treatment in spleen. The semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue from the spleen of CPA treated group exhibited crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope and shrinkage of lymphoid cells without any surrounding inflammation, the characteristics of apoptosis. The apoptotic thymocytes from T-2 fed birds appeared shrunken with condensed nucleus and showed crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope without any surrounding inflammation when compared with well-defined nuclei with dispersed chromatin in normal thymocytes. Ultrastructurally, splenocytes of the CPA treated group and thymocytes of the T-2 toxin treated birds showed apoptotic bodies characterized by crescent margination of the chromatin against the nuclear envelope. The study indicates that one route of the CPA and T-2 toxin induced cell death in lymphoid organs of broiler chicken is by apoptosis. PMID:15883725

Venkatesh, P Kamala; Vairamuthu, S; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Raj, G Dhinakar

2005-04-01

212

Fungal infections of the cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To describe key aspects of fungal infections of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical regions.Methods Review of published studies and personal observations.Observations Fungal infections of the cornea are frequently caused by species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Curvularia, and Candida. Trauma is the most important predisposing cause; ocular and systemic defects and

P A Thomas; PA Thomas

2003-01-01

213

Fungal fimbriae are composed of collagen.  

PubMed

Fungal fimbriae are surface appendages that were first described on the haploid cells of the smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum. They are long (1-20 microm), narrow (7 nm) flexuous structures that have been implicated in cellular functions such as mating and pathogenesis. Since the initial description, numerous fungi from all five phyla have been shown to produce fimbriae on their extracellular surfaces. The present study analyses the protein component of M.violaceum fimbriae. The N-terminus and three internal amino acid sequences were determined. All four show a strong similarity to sequences which are characteristic of the collagen gene family. Enzymatic digests and immunochemical analyses support this finding. Based on these results, it is suggested that the proteinaceous subunits of fimbriae should be termed fungal collagens. Previously, collagen has been found only among members of the kingdom Animalia where it is the principal component of the animal extracellular matrix and is the most abundant animal protein. The unexpected finding of collagen in the members of the Mycota suggests that it may have evolved from a common ancestor that existed before the divergence of fungi and animals. Further, native fungal fimbriae can function as a mammalian extracellular matrix component. They can act as a substratum which permits animal cells to adhere, spread, and proliferate in a manner similar to animal collagens. The implications of this finding to both phylogeny and pathology are discussed. PMID:8887535

Celerin, M; Ray, J M; Schisler, N J; Day, A W; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Laudenbach, D E

1996-09-01

214

Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.  

PubMed

Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of ?-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, ?-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

2014-10-01

215

Preparative separation of triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran oil using a high performance counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

A novel method for the separation of two major triterpene alcohol ferulates from rice bran oil (RBO) was developed using a high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC). A two-phase solvent system of n-hexane-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) was applied to purify cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF) and 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) from RBO. The yields were 20.50±2.60 mg CAF and 12.62±1.15 mg 24-mCAF from 390 mg RBO through a two-step separation procedure. The purities of the two compounds were 97.97±0.90% and 95.50±0.75%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their chemical structures were confirmed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and (1)H, (13)C and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This represents the first report on direct separation of CAF and 24-mCAF from RBO by HPCCC. PMID:23561190

Liu, Man; Yang, Fei; Shi, Haiming; Akoh, Casimir C; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2013-08-15

216

PHENOLIC ACIDS, LIPIDS AND PROTEINS IN CORN FIBER GUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An arabinoxylan (hemicellulose B), termed "Corn fiber gum" (CFG), is obtained by the alkaline extraction of corn kernel pericarp and/or endosperm fractions of corn fiber (1). Two classes of phytochemicals, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) and lipids were released, when CFG was hydroly...

217

Evolutionary Studies on Uricases of Fungal Endosymbionts of Aphids and Planthoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Aphids belonging to the three genera Tuberaphis, Glyphinaphis, and Cerataphis contain extracellular fungal symbionts that resemble endocellular yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. Whereas the symbiont\\u000a of planthoppers has a uricase (urate oxidase; EC 1.7.3.3) and recycles uric acid that the host stores, no uric acid was found\\u000a in Tuberaphis styraci, and its fungal symbiont did not exhibit the uricase activity.

Yuichi Hongoh; Hajime Ishikawa

2000-01-01

218

Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

2013-01-01

219

Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth  

PubMed Central

Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

2013-01-01

220

Effect of sodium ferulate on delayed rectifier K+ currents in PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on voltage-activated K+ channels, the delayed rectifier K+ current (Ik) in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells was recorded using the automated patch-clamp method. The results indicated that following the application of SF, the Ik in PC12 cells was significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The analysis of activation kinetic curves and inactivation kinetic curves of Ik showed that SF had an effect on the activation and inactivation kinetics. Following the application of 15.3 ?M SF, the activation curve of the Ik of PC12 cells was shifted to positive potentials and the inactivation curve of the Ik of PC12 cells was shifted to negative potentials. This study revealed that the delayed rectifier K+ currents of PC12 cells were inhibited following SF treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism may be associated with the delayed activation and enhanced inactivation of Ik-associated channels. PMID:25120634

WANG, WEI; WANG, YUYUN; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; SUN, MENGMENG; ZHU, XIAOYIN

2014-01-01

221

Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... international autopsy survey. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1992;11:99-109. Pagano L, Akova M, ... Consigny PH. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013;56:861-9. Böhme A, Ruhnke M, ...

222

Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFI) relies on the critical assessment of clinical presentation, associated risk\\u000a factors, and careful interpretation of the appropriate diagnostic tests. Frequently, clinicians have to initiate antifungal\\u000a therapy based on their clinical suspicion and without having made a definitive diagnosis, particularly in cancer or other\\u000a critically ill patients. To complicate diagnosis, isolation of fungal organisms

Dionissios Neofytos; Kieren Marr

223

Glycoprotein Inhibitors of Fungal Polygalacturonases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) have been identified in many plants, including pear, tomato and bean, and have\\u000a been suggested to contribute to host defense against fungal pathogens. PGIPs from various plant sources differ in their inhibition\\u000a of polygalacturonases (PGs) from fungal pathogens. Based on inhibition selectivity of individual PGIPs, transgenic expression\\u000a of heterologous PGIPs provides an experimental system in which

Ann L. T. Powell; Henrik U. Stotz; John M. Labavitch; Alan B. Bennett

224

Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation. PMID:20598166

2010-01-01

225

Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†  

PubMed Central

Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted ?-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

226

Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae.  

PubMed

Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study was to characterise several of these pathogens using morphology, culture characteristics, and DNA sequence data of the rRNA-ITS and LSU genes. In some cases additional genes such as TEF 1-? and CHS were also sequenced. Based on the results of this study, several novel species and genera are described. Brunneosphaerella leaf blight is shown to be caused by three species, namely B. jonkershoekensis on Protea repens, B. nitidae sp. nov. on Protea nitida and B. protearum on a wide host range of Protea spp. (South Africa). Coniothyrium-like species associated with Coniothyrium leaf spot are allocated to other genera, namely Curreya grandicipis on Protea grandiceps, and Microsphaeropsis proteae on P. nitida (South Africa). Diaporthe leucospermi is described on Leucospermum sp. (Australia), and Diplodina microsperma newly reported on Protea sp. (New Zealand). Pyrenophora blight is caused by a novel species, Pyrenophora leucospermi, and not Drechslera biseptata or D. dematoidea as previously reported. Fusicladium proteae is described on Protea sp. (South Africa), Pestalotiopsis protearum on Leucospermum cuneiforme (Zimbabwe), Ramularia vizellae and R. stellenboschensis on Protea spp. (South Africa), and Teratosphaeria capensis on Protea spp. (Portugal, South Africa). Aureobasidium leaf spot is shown to be caused by two species, namely A. proteae comb. nov. on Protea spp. (South Africa), and A. leucospermi sp. nov. on Leucospermum spp. (Indonesia, Portugal, South Africa). Novel genera and species elucidated in this study include Gordonomyces mucovaginatus and Pseudopassalora gouriqua (hyphomycetes), and Xenoconiothyrium catenata (coelomycete), all on Protea spp. (South Africa). PMID:22403475

Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Swart, L; Denman, S; Taylor, J E; Bezuidenhout, C M; Palm, M E; Marincowitz, S; Groenewald, J Z

2011-12-01

227

Preparation and characterization of sodium ferulate entrapped bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for liver targeting.  

PubMed

Sodium ferulate (SF) loaded nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation procedure and subsequent cross-linking of the wall material of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Several factors in the nanoencapsulation process, such as the addition rate of the desolvation agent, composition of BSA and SF solution, amount of the cross-linker glutaraldehyde, were investigated to elucidate their influences on the particle size, zeta potential, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of the resulted nanoparticles. The obtained spherical nanoparticles were negative charged with zeta potential from -20 to -40 mV, and characterized between 100 and 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. In the condition of introducing 1.0 mL 8% glutareldehyde per mg of BSA, the drug entrapment efficiency (EE) of 80% (w/w) and loading capacity of about 16% (w/w) could be achieved for the cross-linked BSA nanoparticles with SF encapsulated (SF-BSA-NP). And the drug EE was decreased along with the increasing amount of glutareldehyde used for cross-linking. The in vitro drug release properties of SF-BSA-NP behaved with an initial burst effect and then sustained-release stage. To some extent, the drug release rate could be adjusted by cross-linking with different amount of glutaraldehyde. Compared with SF solution, SF-BSA-NP showed a much higher drug distribution into liver and a lower drug concentration in other tissues, after intravenously injected to mice. So, BSA based nanoparticles might be a suitable controlled released carrier for the freely water-soluble drug SF and further hepatic targeted drug delivery. PMID:17870261

Li, Feng-Qian; Su, Hua; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Quan-Gang; Fei, Yi-Bo; Pan, Yong-Hua; Hu, Jin-Hong

2008-02-12

228

Effects of sodium ferulate on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and osteoarthritis in rats.  

PubMed

1. Oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis are involved in the aetiology and pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). Sodium ferulate (SF) has been demonstrated to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions in cardiovascular, hepatic and diabetic disorders. These findings suggest that SF may have beneficial effects on OA. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of SF in an in vivo rat OA model, as well as in vitro in human OA chondrocytes. 2. Rats were divided into the following groups: (i) an untreated control group; (ii) papain-induced OA; (iii) OA rats treated with 0.1 or 0.5% SF; and (iv) normal rats injected with 0.5% SF intra-articularly. Human chondrocytes from OA patients were cultured before being stimulated with 2 ng/mL interleukin-1? and subsequently treated with SF (125, 250 and 500 ?mol/L). The effects of SF were evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. 3. In OA rats, SF treatment dose-dependently reversed pathological changes in OA cartilage, decreased BAX-immunopositive chondrocytes and increased Bcl-2-immunopositive chondrocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-1 and an increase in tissue-specific inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. In vitro, SF enhanced chondrocyte proliferation and decreased nitric oxide production and apoptosis. 4. The results demonstrate that SF dose-dependently suppresses pathological processes in both in vitro and in vivo OA models. Thus, SF could be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OA. PMID:19298533

Shang, Liang; Qin, Jun; Chen, Liao-Bin; Liu, Bao-Xin; Jacques, Magdalou; Wang, Hui

2009-09-01

229

Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

2014-01-01

230

FSRD: fungal stress response database  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to different types of environmental stress is a common part of life for today’s fungi. A deeper understanding of the organization, regulation and evolution of fungal stress response systems may lead to the development of novel antifungal drugs and technologies or the engineering of industrial strains with elevated stress tolerance. Here we present the Fungal Stress Response Database (http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd) aimed to stimulate further research on stress biology of fungi. The database incorporates 1985 fungal stress response proteins with verified physiological function(s) and their orthologs identified and annotated in 28 species including human and plant pathogens, as well as important industrial fungi. The database will be extended continuously to cover other fully sequenced fungal species. Our database, as a starting point for future stress research, facilitates the analysis of literature data on stress and the identification of ortholog groups of stress response proteins in newly sequenced fungal genomes. Database URL: http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd PMID:23757396

Karányi, Zsolt; Holb, Imre; Hornok, László; Pócsi, István; Miskei, Márton

2013-01-01

231

Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.  

PubMed

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 ?g/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene. PMID:24994472

Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2014-12-01

232

The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged  

PubMed Central

Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8) according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. PMID:25230677

Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

2014-01-01

233

Fungal biotransformation of furanocoumarins by Aspergillus niger  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a number of detoxification processes. Prevalent fungal detoxification pathways for aromatic compounds include the formation of sulfate and glycosidated conjugates. Such fungal metabolism has been extensively studied as models of mammalian metabo...

234

Fungal cell wall vaccines: an update  

PubMed Central

This discussion is intended to be an overview of current advances in the development of fungal cell wall vaccines with an emphasis on Candida; it is not a comprehensive historical review of all fungal cell wall vaccines. Selected, more recent, innovative strategies for developing fungal vaccines will be highlighted. Both scientific and logistical obstacles related to the development of, and clinical use of, fungal vaccines will be discussed. PMID:22267544

Edwards, John E.

2012-01-01

235

Fungal induced corrosion of wire rope exposed in humid atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was observed on the interiors of wooden spools and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments were designed to demonstrate a causal relationship between storage conditions, fungal growth, and localized corrosion.

Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

1995-03-01

236

The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and\\/or mycelial cells may

Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Ursula Denk; Verena Pöll; Raphaela Rid; Michael Breitenbach

2008-01-01

237

Airborne fungal fragments and allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to fungi, particularly in water damaged indoor environments, has been thought to exacerbate a number of adverse health effects, ranging from subjective symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive difficulties or memory loss to more definable diseases such as allergy, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Understanding the role of fungal exposure in these environments has been limited by methodo- logical difficulties in

Brett J. Green; Euan R. Tovey; Jason K. Sercombe; Francoise M. Blachere; Donald H. Beezhold; Detlef Schmechel

2006-01-01

238

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

239

Biomineralization and formulation of endosulfan degrading bacterial and fungal consortiums.  

PubMed

Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants and in this study, a microbial consortium consisting of bacterial strains and fungal strains were originally obtained from endosulfan contaminated agricultural soils. Identification of the bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA sequences revealed the isolates to be Halophilic bacterium JAS4, Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5, and Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, whereas the fungal isolates were identified by 18S rRNA sequences and the isolates were Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6, Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 and Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12. The biodegradation of endosulfan was monitored by using HPLC and FTIR analysis. The bacterial and fungal consortium could degrade 1000?mg l(-1) of endosulfan efficiently in aqueous medium and in soil. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded samples in the aqueous medium by bacterial and fungal consortium showed bands at 1400 and 950?cm(-1) which are the characteristics of COOH group and acid dimer band respectively. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used for the formulation of microbial consortium and to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains. PMID:25454517

Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam

2014-11-01

240

Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

2014-05-01

241

Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications  

PubMed Central

Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

2013-01-01

242

Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.

2013-01-01

243

Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Caffeine exerts positive effects on cognitive and behavioral processes, especially in sub-optimal conditions when arousal\\u000a is low. Apart from caffeine, coffee contains other compounds including the phenolic compounds ferulic acid, caffeic acid,\\u000a and the chlorogenic acids, which have purported antioxidant properties. The chlorogenic acids are the most abundant family\\u000a of compounds found in coffee, yet their effects on cognition and

Vanessa Cropley; Rodney Croft; Beata Silber; Chris Neale; Andrew Scholey; Con Stough; Jeroen Schmitt

244

Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.  

PubMed

Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from ?-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash. PMID:24962084

Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

2014-12-01

245

Fungal Infections: The Stubborn Cases  

PubMed Central

Despite development of numerous antifungal preparations, mycotic infections persist, because of inaccurate diagnosis leading to inappropriate therapy, drug failure, non-compliance or resistance of the organism to antifungal medication. Direct KOH examination is the simplest method of proving the existence of a fungus. Fungal infections tend to be overdiagnosed; disorders which do not improve with three to four weeks of treatment should be reassessed before being labelled ‘stubborn’. Griseofulvin is effective treatment for all dermatophytes, but has certain side effects. Newer topical antifungals are also effective, but no single drug cures all fungal infections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:20469387

Adam, John E.

1982-01-01

246

Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S

2012-01-01

247

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

248

Structural aspects of fungal allergens.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents. PMID:25413498

Crameri, Reto

2015-03-01

249

Compatible solutes and fungal development  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are components that can be quickly accumulated and degraded inside fungal cells. They do not disturb the functioning of proteins and protect the cell under adverse conditions. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Solomon and co-workers evaluate the role of mannitol, one of these components, in Stagonospora nodorum, a plant-pathogenic fungus, and find surprising effects on the development of spores and spore-forming structures. PMID:16987106

Dijksterhuis, Jan; de Vries, Ronald P.

2006-01-01

250

Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

2013-12-01

251

Systems Biology of Fungal Infection  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy. PMID:22485108

Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmächer, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

2012-01-01

252

Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.  

PubMed

A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering <10% inhibition. The cultures which prevent aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

Shantha, T

1999-01-01

253

Chemical ecology mediated by fungal endophytes in grasses.  

PubMed

Defensive mutualism is widely accepted as providing the best framework for understanding how seed-transmitted, alkaloid producing fungal endophytes of grasses are maintained in many host populations. Here, we first briefly review current knowledge of bioactive alkaloids produced by systemic grass-endophytes. New findings suggest that chemotypic diversity of the endophyte-grass symbiotum is far more complex, involving multifaceted signaling and chemical cross-talk between endophyte and host cells (e.g., reactive oxygen species and antioxidants) or between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies (e.g., volatile organic compounds, and salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways). Accumulating evidence also suggests that the tight relationship between the systemic endophyte and the host grass can lead to the loss of grass traits when the lost functions, such as plant defense to herbivores, are compensated for by an interactive endophytic fungal partner. Furthermore, chemotypic diversity of a symbiotum appears to depend on the endophyte and the host plant life histories, as well as on fungal and plant genotypes, abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, and their interactions. Thus, joint approaches of (bio)chemists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, and ecologists are urgently needed to fully understand the endophyte-grass symbiosis, its coevolutionary history, and ecological importance. We propose that endophyte-grass symbiosis provides an excellent model to study microbially mediated multirophic interactions from molecular mechanisms to ecology. PMID:23797930

Saikkonen, Kari; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo

2013-07-01

254

Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.  

PubMed

A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

Kennedy, Peter; Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

2014-01-01

255

Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks  

PubMed Central

In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs. PMID:23469260

McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

256

Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities  

PubMed Central

A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

2014-01-01

257

Uptake and continued metabolic activity of azotobacter within fungal protoplasts.  

PubMed

Uptake of vegetative cells of Azotobacter vinelandii into protoplasts of the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon sp. can be induced by treatment with polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 6000). An L-form of the bacteria has been selected for within the differentiated fungal mycelium which is capable of acetylene reduction and nitrogen fixation, as confirmed by nitrogen-15 assays; this allows the fungus to grow on media lacking any combined nitrogen. The fungus grows and reduces acetylene on concentrations of antibiotics that prevent the growth and activity of free-living Azotobacter. Electron microscopy has revealed modified mitochondrial forms or included bacterial L-forms surrounded by an extra fungal membrane within the hyphae of the modified strains. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, a storage product of Azotobacter cysts, has also been identified in the hyphae. This would appear to be the first report of the transgenosis for acetylene reduction activity and nitrogen fixation into a eukaryote cell. PMID:17792751

Giles, K L; Whitehead, H

1976-09-17

258

Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters  

PubMed Central

The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

Benedict, Kaitlin

2014-01-01

259

Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.  

PubMed

The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

2014-03-01

260

Fungal Fragments as Indoor Air Biocontaminants  

PubMed Central

The aerosolization process of fungal propagules of three species (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Cladosporium cladosporioides) was studied by using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. We discovered that fungal fragments are aerosolized simultaneously with spores from contaminated agar and ceiling tile surfaces. Concentration measurements with an optical particle counter showed that the fragments are released in higher numbers (up to 320 times) than the spores. The release of fungal propagules varied depending on the fungal species, the air velocity above the contaminated surface, and the texture and vibration of the contaminated material. In contrast to spores, the release of fragments from smooth surfaces was not affected by air velocity, indicating a different release mechanism. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments cannot be predicted on the basis of the number of spores. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with monoclonal antibodies produced against Aspergillus and Penicillium fungal species showed that fragments and spores share common antigens, which not only confirmed the fungal origin of the fragments but also established their potential biological relevance. The considerable immunological reactivity, the high number, and the small particle size of the fungal fragments may contribute to human health effects that have been detected in buildings with mold problems but had no scientific explanation until now. This study suggests that future fungal spore investigations in buildings with mold problems should include the quantitation of fungal fragments. PMID:12089037

Górny, Rafa? L.; Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Schmechel, Detlef; Robine, Enric; Boissier, Marjorie; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

2002-01-01

261

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi that inhabit healthy plant tissues without  

E-print Network

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Abstract Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi examined to date and may be important, but often overlooked, components of fungal biodiversity. In two (2000) 3 : 267±274 I N T R O DU C T I O N Fungi comprise only & 72 000 described species, but the true

California at Berkeley, University of

262

In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25029106

Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

2014-08-01

263

Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

2014-01-01

264

Superficial fungal infections in children.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

2014-04-01

265

OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products—A gamma radiolysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

2010-12-01

266

Simple Phenolic Acids in Flours Prepared from Canadian Wheat: Relationship to Ash Content, Color, and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(3):337-343 Simple phenolic acid levels were determined on pooled millstreams of five different classes of Canadian wheat milled to ~75, 80, and 85% extraction. Pooled flours and whole grain were analyzed by reversed- phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to establish endogenous levels of insoluble bound, soluble esterified, and free pheno- lic acids. Only ferulic acid was detected in

D. W. Hatcher; J. E. Kruger

1997-01-01

267

Nitric oxide mediates hypocrellin accumulation induced by fungal elicitor in submerged cultures of Shiraia bambusicola.  

PubMed

Multiple responses of Shiraia bambusicola, including nitric oxide (NO) generation, hypocrellins production and salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis, were induced by a fungal elicitor prepared from the mycelium of Aspergillum niger. Both the NO donator, sodium nitroprusside, and SA enhanced hypocrellin production without the fungal elicitor. However, the NO scavenger, 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4, 5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) and the SA biosynthesis inhibitor, cinnamic acid (CA), inhibited hypocrellin accumulation in the presence of the elicitor. cPTIO also inhibited SA production induced by the A. niger elicitor. CA failed to inhibit NO production but it significantly inhibited hypocrellin accumulation. Aspergillum niger elicitor induced an NO burst, SA accumulation, and hypocrellin production in S. bambusicola. Therefore, the fungal elicitor was involved in the signaling pathway, which is a mechanism different from that of higher plants. PMID:25214226

Du, Wen; Liang, Jiandong; Han, Yanfeng; Yu, Jianping; Liang, Zongqi

2015-01-01

268

Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities  

E-print Network

Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities Diversity and Species Interactions During/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities ­ Diversity and Species Interactions are formed. Species interactions are thought to affect community development, but the mycelial dynamics

269

Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

270

Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

271

Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

2011-01-01

272

Host genetics and opportunistic fungal infections.  

PubMed

Current knowledge on the human pathophysiology of fungal infections highlights the crucial role of genetic pitfalls in specific immunity pathways that determine, together with other risk factors, the predisposition to and clinical outcome of fungal disease. In several studies, associations between gene polymorphisms and genetic errors have been implicated in an immunodeficiency phenotype and an increased incidence of opportunistic fungal diseases. The major challenge is to fully understand the complex interactions between genetic variations and multiple factors, and their relative contributions to the final clinical fungal disease phenotype. The aim of this review is to present updated knowledge on immunity genetics and susceptibility to medically relevant fungal diseases, such as those caused by Candida, Aspergillus, and certain other more rare fungi. PMID:25274142

Pana, Z-D; Farmaki, E; Roilides, E

2014-12-01

273

Fungal natural products in research and development.  

PubMed

To date approximately 100?000 fungal species are known although far more than one million are expected. The variety of species and the diversity of their habitats, some of them less exploited, allow the conclusion that fungi continue to be a rich source of new metabolites. Besides the conventional fungal isolates, an increasing interest in endophytic and in marine-derived fungi has been noticed. In addition new screening strategies based on innovative chemical, biological, and genetic approaches have led to novel fungal metabolites in recent years. The present review focuses on new fungal natural products published from 2009 to 2013 highlighting the originality of the structures and their biological potential. Furthermore synthetic products based on fungal metabolites as well as new developments in the uses or the biological activity of known compounds or new derivatives are discussed. PMID:25122538

Schueffler, Anja; Anke, Timm

2014-10-01

274

Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants  

PubMed Central

Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2014-01-01

275

Plant Chitinases and Their Roles in Resistance to Fungal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin, and they occur in diverse plant tissues over a broad range of crop and noncrop species. The enzymes may be expressed constitutively at low levels but are dramatically enhanced by numerous abiotic agents (ethylene, salicylic acid, salt solutions, ozone, UV light) and by biotic factors (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, fungal cell wall components, and oligosaccharides). Different classes of plant chitinases are distinguishable by molecular, biochemical, and physicochemical criteria. Thus, plant chitinases may differ in substrate-binding characteristics, localization within the cell, and specific activities. Because chitin is a structural component of the cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi, extensive research has been conducted to determine whether plant chitinases have a role in defense against fungal diseases. Plant chitinases have different degrees of antifungal activity to several fungi in vitro. In vivo, although rapid accumulation and high levels of chitinases (together with numerous other pathogenesis-related proteins) occur in resistant tissues expressing a hypersensitive reaction, high levels also can occur in susceptible tissues. Expression of cloned chitinase genes in transgenic plants has provided further evidence for their role in plant defense. The level of protection observed in these plants is variable and may be influenced by the specific activity of the enzyme, its localization and concentration within the cell, the characteristics of the fungal pathogen, and the nature of the host-pathogen interaction. The expression of chitinase in combination with one or several different antifungal proteins should have a greater effect on reducing disease development, given the complexities of fungal-plant cell interactions and resistance responses in plants. The effects of plant chitinases on nematode development in vitro and in vivo are worthy of investigation. PMID:19279806

Punja, Zamir K.; Zhang, Ye-Yan

1993-01-01

276

Synthesis and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of caffeic acid dimers derived from Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The synthesis of two caffeoyl-coumarin conjugates, derived from sagecoumarin, has been accomplished, starting from ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and sesamol. Both compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities at micromolar concentrations against HIV-1 integrase in 3'-end processing reaction but were less effective against HIV-1 replication in a single-round infection assay of HeLa-beta-gal-CD4+ cells. PMID:16183277

Bailly, Fabrice; Queffelec, Clémence; Mbemba, Gladys; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Cotelle, Philippe

2005-11-15

277

Comparison of soil fungal\\/bacterial ratios in a pH gradient using physiological and PLFA-based techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the total microbial biomass and the fungal\\/bacterial ratio estimated using substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in combination with the selective inhibition technique and using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) technique in a pH gradient (3.0–7.2) consisting of 53 mature broad-leaved forest soils. A fungal\\/bacterial biomass index using the PLFA technique was calculated using the PLFA 18:2?6,9 as an indicator

E. Bååth; T.-H. Anderson

2003-01-01

278

Using lipid analysis and hyphal length to quantify AM and saprotrophic fungal abundance along a soil chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the use of signature fatty acids and direct hyphal counts as tools to detect and quantify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprotrophic fungal (SF) biomass in three Hawaiian soils along a natural soil fertility gradient. Phospholipids16:1?5c and 18:2?6,9c were used as an index of AM and saprotrophic fungal biomass, respectively. Both phospholipid analysis and hyphal length indicated that the

T. C. Balser; K. K. Treseder; M. Ekenler

2005-01-01

279

Bacterial and fungal growth in total parenteral nutrition solutions,.  

PubMed

The most serious complication of prolonged intravenous infusion of hypertonic dextrose and amino acids is infection. Frequently, the etiology is fungal rather than bacterial. Previous authors have suggested that bacterial survival and growth in the solutions is suppressed by (a) high dextrose concentration, (b) high osmolality, or (c) low pH. This paper presents evidence that proposals (a) and (b) are untenable and (c) is only partly responsible. We call attention to the presence of a factor that is antibacterial but not antifungal; namely, a high concentration of glycine. PMID:2102

Failla, M L; Benedict, C D; Weinberg, E D

1975-01-01

280

Efficient screening of fungal cellobiohydrolase class I enzymes for thermostabilizing sequence blocks by  

E-print Network

., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2009;106:5610­5615) in formulating application-specific cellulase mixtures space for desirable amino acid blocks. Keywords: biofuel/cellulase/directed evolution/protein recombination/protein thermostability/CBH I/Cel7A Introduction The high cost of the fungal cellulase mixtures

Arnold, Frances H.

281

Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...

282

Secretomes: the fungal strike force.  

PubMed

Microorganisms, although being very diverse because they comprise prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria or eukaryotic organisms such as fungi, all share an essential exodigester function. The consequence is their essential need to have a secretome adapted to their environment. The selection pressure exerted by environmental constraints led to the emergence of species with varying complexity in terms of composition of their secretomes. This review on fungal secretomes highlights the extraordinary variability among these organisms, even within the same species, and hence the absolute necessity to fully characterize all their components in the aims of understanding the fundamental mechanisms responsible for secretome plasticity and developing applications notably toward a better control of diseases caused by these pathogens. PMID:23349114

Girard, Vincent; Dieryckx, Cindy; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

2013-02-01

283

Regulation of fungal secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Fungi produce a multitude of low-molecular-mass compounds known as secondary metabolites, which have roles in a range of cellular processes such as transcription, development and intercellular communication. In addition, many of these compounds now have important applications, for instance, as antibiotics or immunosuppressants. Genome mining efforts indicate that the capability of fungi to produce secondary metabolites has been substantially underestimated because many of the fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under standard cultivation conditions. In this Review, I describe our current understanding of the regulatory elements that modulate the transcription of genes involved in secondary metabolism. I also discuss how an improved knowledge of these regulatory elements will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the physiological and ecological functions of these important compounds and will pave the way for a novel avenue to drug discovery through targeted activation of silent gene clusters. PMID:23178386

Brakhage, Axel A

2013-01-01

284

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event. PMID:23095575

2012-01-01

285

Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in mixed temperate forests.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were studied along a chronosequence of forest development after stand-replacing disturbance. Previous studies of ECM succession did not use molecular techniques for fungal identification or lacked replication, and none examined different host species. Four age classes of mixed forests were sampled: 5-, 26-, 65-, and 100-yr-old, including wildfire-origin stands from all four classes and stands of clearcut origin from the youngest two classes. Morphotyping and DNA sequences were used to identify fungi on ECM root tips. ECM fungal diversities were lower in 5-yr-old than in older stands on Douglas-fir, but were similar among age classes on paper birch. Host-specific fungi dominated in 5-yr-old stands, but host generalists were dominant in the oldest two age classes. ECM fungal community compositions were similar in 65- and 100-yr-old stands but differed among all other pairs of age classes. Within the age range studied, site-level ECM fungal diversity reached a plateau by the 26-yr-old age class, while community composition stabilized by the 65-yr-old class. Simple categories such as 'early stage', 'multi stage', and 'late stage' were insufficient to describe fungal species' successional patterns. Rather, ECM fungal succession may be best described in the context of stand development. PMID:17888121

Twieg, Brendan D; Durall, Daniel M; Simard, Suzanne W

2007-01-01

286

Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides such as ?- and ?-glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors. PMID:25353009

Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.

2014-01-01

287

Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

2013-01-01

288

PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

2009-11-30

289

Fungal communities associated with phytoedaphic communities in the semiarid southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fungal populations, diversity, and the community composition of fungal groups were determined among soils from 11 plant communities occurring in the semiarid Southwest. In general, soils associated with treeland plant communities had significantly higher fungal populations than the soils associated with shrub or grassland plant communities. In contrast, the diversity and evenness of fungal groups were higher in soils

P. R. Fresquez; Richard E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

1988-01-01

290

Co-cultivation of antifungal Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 393 and Aspergillus nidulans, evaluation of effects on fungal growth and protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal inhibitory effects of strain Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 393, producing broad-spectrum antifungal compounds, were evaluated. A co-cultivation method was set up to monitor effects on fungal growth and protein expression of growing Aspergillus nidulans with L. plantarum MiLAB 393. The effects of inhibitory metabolites produced by L. plantarum MiLAB 393, cyclo(l-Phe–l-Pro), lactic acid and 3-phenyllactic acid, were also investigated

Katrin Ström; Johan Schnürer; Petter Melin

2005-01-01

291

Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

2005-06-01

292

Gravimetric screening method for fungal decay of paper: inoculation with Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

The European standard test EN 113 for fungal degradation of solid wood has been adapted for degradation of paper by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). Fungal degradation of paper sheets may potentially be used for screening different wood preservatives on paper instead of solid wood. The paper samples showed higher relative mass losses compared to wood, and samples pretreated with boric acid, copper sulfate and polymerized linseed oil were successfully tested for biodegradation using the paper sheet method. The results on paper degradation were compared with wood, both as wood blocks (according to standard test) and wood cut in sections forming layered structures mimicking paper layers. PMID:19495565

Råberg, Ulrika; Hafrén, Jonas

2009-10-01

293

Fungal contamination of mini peak flow meters.  

PubMed

Sixteen peak expiratory flow meters from the Outpatient Department of Solihull Hospital were dismantled for inspection and washing. Fungal contamination was found in all 16 machines with visible contamination in four. PMID:2623219

Ayres, J G; Whitehead, J; Boldy, D A; Dyas, A

1989-11-01

294

Standard methods for fungal brood disease research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper we describe the disease symptoms and protocols commonly used in research of honey bee fungal diseases chalkbrood and stonebrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis and Aspergillus spp. respectively....

295

Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.  

PubMed

The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

Robinson, Sara C

2012-02-01

296

(Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.  

PubMed

To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi. PMID:25037051

Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

2014-11-01

297

Soil science: Fungal friends against drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal-based food webs of undisturbed grasslands resist and adapt to the effects of drought more than bacterial-based food webs of agricultural soils, indicating how soil biota might be able to withstand long-term climate change.

Six, Johan

2012-04-01

298

The structure and function of fungal cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

Nozawa, Y.

1984-01-01

299

Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.  

PubMed

Consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western USA, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. To explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in New Mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. Endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea. Fungal cultures grew very slowly and sporadically produced subcylindrical conidia with very dark transverse septa. All cultured endophytes produced the alkaloid swainsonine, which causes locoism. Endophyte-infected locoweed populations produced swainsonine, and the swainsonine level of endophyte strains in vitro was highly correlated with the swainsonine level of their host plant populations. The rDNA ITS from mycelia from four endophyte isolates and beta-tubulin encoding regions from mycelia of 18 fungal endophyte isolates were amplified using PCR and the nucleic acid sequences were analyzed. The nucleic acid sequences of the beta-tubulin encoding regions were essentially identical among all the endophytes regardless of plant genus and locations. Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia. However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. PMID:14531620

Braun, Karen; Romero, Jennifer; Liddell, Craig; Creamer, Rebecca

2003-08-01

300

Fungal phytases: characteristics and amelioration of nutritional quality and growth of non-ruminants.  

PubMed

Fungal phytases are histidine acid phosphatases, a subclass of acid phosphatases, which catalyse the hydrolysis of phytic acid resulting in the release of phosphate moieties and thus mitigate its antinutritional properties. The supplementation of feed with phytases increases the bioavailability of phosphorus and minerals in non-ruminant animals and reduces the phosphorus pollution due to phosphorus excretion in the areas of intensive livestock production. Although phytases are reported in plants, animals and micro-organisms, fungal sources are used extensively for the production of phytases on a commercial scale. Phytases have been produced by fungi in both solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). The fungal phytases are high molecular weight proteins ranging from 35 to 500 kDa. They are optimally active within pH and temperature ranges between 4.5 and 6.0, and 45 and 70 °C respectively. Phytate degradation leads to amelioration in the nutritional status of foods and feeds by improving the availability of minerals, phosphorus and proteins in non-ruminant animals and human beings and thus mitigates the environmental phosphorus pollution. Our article focuses on the role of fungal phytases in improving nutritional value of foods and feeds with concomitant increase in growth of non-ruminant animals and mitigating environmental phosphorus pollution. PMID:25132310

Singh, B; Satyanarayana, T

2014-07-31

301

Fusarium and Scedosporium: Emerging Fungal Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium spp. have emerged as important fungal pathogens during the last decades causing significant morbidity and mortality especially\\u000a in immunocompromised patients. The two fungal genera possess several biological and clinical characteristics in common, most\\u000a notably the very high mortality of the diseases caused by them, and thus they are discussed together.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fusarium spp. are ubiquitus fungi commonly

Emmanuel Roilides; John Dotis; Aspasia Katragkou

302

Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections  

PubMed Central

The human immune system is capable of recognizing and degrading chitin, an important cell wall component of pathogenic fungi. In the context of host-immune responses to fungal infections, herein we review the particular contributions and interplay of fungus and chitin recognition, and chitin-degrading enzymes, known as chitinases. The mechanisms of host chitinase responses may have implications for diagnostic assays as well as novel therapeutic approaches for patients that are at risk of contracting fatal fungal infections. PMID:22187561

Vega, Karina; Kalkum, Markus

2012-01-01

303

Fungal Infections in Transplant Recipients Receiving Alemtuzumab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have used an anti-T-cell agent, alemtuzumab, as induction or conversion therapy to achieve a calcineurin (CNI) and steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen. We identified recipients who developed systemic fungal infections after the initiation of alemtuzumab and looked at their outcomes. The study population consisted of all pancreas transplant recipients who received alemtuzumab. Only invasive fungal infections were included in the

D. S. Nath; R. Kandaswamy; R. Gruessner; D. E. R. Sutherland; D. L. Dunn; A. Humar

2005-01-01

304

Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago] [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL] [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

2014-01-01

305

Watershed-Scale Fungal Community Characterization along a pH Gradient in a Subsurface Environment Cocontaminated with Uranium and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J.; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A.; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

2014-01-01

306

Watershed-scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

2014-03-01

307

Fungal Keratitis – Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12–69), 6 out of 17 (35%) cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86%) IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. PMID:24474933

Nielsen, E.; Heegaard, S.; Prause, J.U.; Ivarsen, A.; Mortensen, K.L.; Hjortdal, J.

2013-01-01

308

Fungal transformations of uranium oxides.  

PubMed

The biogeochemical activities of free-living and symbiotic fungi must be acknowledged in attempts to understand uranium cycling and dispersal in the environment. Although the near-surface geochemistry of uranium is very complex and a wide variety of mineral phases is known, uranium trioxide (UO3) and triuranium octaoxide (U(3)O(8)) can be used as well characterized models in the study of biotransformations. We have used a complex methodological approach involving advanced solid state speciation and scanning electron microscopy to study the ability of saprotrophic, ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi to transform these model oxides. This study has revealed that fungi exhibit a high uranium oxide tolerance, and possess the ability to solubilize UO3 and U(3)O(8) and to accumulate uranium within the mycelium to over 80 mg (g dry weight)(-1) biomass. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium speciation within the biomass showed that in most of the fungi the uranyl ion was coordinated to phosphate ligands, but in ectomycorrhizal fungi mixed phosphate/carboxylate coordination was observed. Abundant uranium precipitates associated with phosphorus were found in the mycelium and encrusted the hyphae. Some of the fungi caused the biomineralization of well-crystallized uranyl phosphate minerals of the meta-autunite group. This is the first experimental evidence for fungal transformations of uranium solids and the production of secondary mycogenic uranium minerals. PMID:17564604

Fomina, M; Charnock, J M; Hillier, S; Alvarez, R; Gadd, G M

2007-07-01

309

Atopic cough and fungal allergy.  

PubMed

We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of "idiopathic cough" in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as "a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT)," which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

2014-10-01

310

Protective effects of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) on mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Swiss male mice were randomly divided into a control group, CLP group, three SF + OMT groups (3.1+6.9; 6.2+13.8 and 12.3+27.7 mg/kg), SF (6.2 mg/kg) group and OMT (13.8 mg/kg) group. Eight hours after the administration of the drugs, the survival rates and survival times of the animals were monitored. In addition, the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the serum; the C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in the serum and lung and liver homogenates; and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) levels in the lung and liver homogenates were measured. The bacterial load in the serum was also studied. Following treatment with the combination of SF and OMT, the survival rate increased and the survival time was prolonged; CLP-induced increases in the lung W/D ratio and the levels of ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6, IFN-? and MDA were significantly reduced; and the SOD activity levels were increased, compared with those of the untreated animals with CLP-induced sepsis. These results indicated that the combination of SF and OMT induced protective effects against CLP-induced lethal sepsis of mice. The possible mechanism of these effects may be associated with the alleviation of systemic inflammation and diminishment of oxidative injury. PMID:24940428

XU, MENGXIN; WANG, WEI; PEI, XIAOKUN; SUN, SONGMEI; XU, MINGBO; LIU, ZHIFENG

2014-01-01

311

Pathogenic Roles for Fungal Melanins  

PubMed Central

Melanins represent virulence factors for several pathogenic fungi; the number of examples is growing. Thus, albino mutants of several genera (in one case, mutated precisely in the melanizing enzyme) exhibit decreased virulence in mice. We consider the phenomenon in relation to known chemical properties of melanin, beginning with biosynthesis from ortho-hydroquinone precursors which, when oxidized enzymatically to quinones, polymerize spontaneously to melanin. It follows that melanizing intermediates are cross-linking reagents; melanization stabilizes the external cell wall against hydrolysis and is thought to determine semipermeability in the osmotic ram (the appressorium) of certain plant pathogens. Polymeric melanins undergo reversible oxidation-reduction reactions between cell wall-penetrating quinone and hydroquinone oxidation states and thus represent polymeric redox buffers; using strong oxidants, it is possible to titrate the melanin on living cells and thereby demonstrate protection conferred by melanin in several species. The amount of buffering per cell approximately neutralizes the amount of oxidant generated by a single macrophage. Moreover, the intermediate oxidation state, the semiquinone, is a very stable free radical and is thought to trap unpaired electrons. We have suggested that the oxidation state of external melanin may be regulated by external Fe(II). An independent hypothesis holds that in Cryptococcus neoformans, an important function of the melanizing enzyme (apart from melanization) is the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), thereby forestalling generation of the harmful hydroxyl radical from H2O2. Thus, problems in fungal pathogenesis have led to evolving hypotheses regarding melanin functioning. PMID:11023965

Jacobson, Eric S.

2000-01-01

312

Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity.  

PubMed

Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal treatment conditions were compared. A 4-week fungal treatment reduced the concentration of resin acids and triglycerides by 40% and 100%, respectively, but neither lowered the energy requirements of the TMP process nor significantly affected the morphological fiber characteristics and the physical pulp properties. The pre-treatment led to slightly poorer optical properties. The Trametes versicolor fungal treatment contributed to a less toxic effluent and improved the biodegradability. A treatment of 2-3 weeks appears optimal. PMID:16517156

van Beek, Teris A; Kuster, Bram; Claassen, Frank W; Tienvieri, Taisto; Bertaud, Frédérique; Lenon, Gilles; Petit-Conil, Michel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

2007-01-01

313

Combinatorialization of fungal polyketide synthase-Peptide synthetase hybrid proteins.  

PubMed

The programming of the fungal polyketide synthase (PKS) is quite complex, with a simple domain architecture leading to elaborate products. An additional level of complexity has been found within PKS-based pathways where the PKS is fused to a single module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to synthesize polyketides conjugated to amino acids. Here, we sought to understand the communication between these modules that enable correct formation of polyketide-peptide hybrid products. To do so, we fused together the genes that are responsible for forming five highly chemically diverse fungal natural products in a total of 57 different combinations, comprising 34 distinct module swaps. Gene fusions were formed with the idea of testing the connection and compatibility of the PKS and NRPS modules mediated by the acyl carrier protein (ACP), condensation (C) and ketoreductase (KR) domains. The resulting recombinant gene fusions were analyzed in a high-yielding expression platform to avail six new compounds, including the first successful fusion between a PKS and NRPS that make highly divergent products, and four previously reported molecules. Our results show that C domains are highly selective for a subset of substrates. We discovered that within the highly reducing (hr) PKS class, noncognate ACPs of closely related members complement PKS function. We intercepted a pre-Diels-Alder intermediate in lovastatin synthesis for the first time, shedding light on this canonical fungal biochemical reaction. The results of these experiments provide a set of ground rules for the successful engineering of hr-PKS and PKS-NRPS products in fungi. PMID:25436464

Kakule, Thomas B; Lin, Zhenjian; Schmidt, Eric W

2014-12-24

314

The effect of silver nanoparticles on seasonal change in arctic tundra bacterial and fungal assemblages.  

PubMed

The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half that of control soils, a decrease in signature bacterial fatty acids, and changes in both richness and evenness in bacterial and fungal DNA sequence assemblages. Prominent after Ag NP-treatment were Hypocreales fungi, which increased to 70%, from only 1% of fungal sequences under control conditions. Genera within this Order known for their antioxidant properties (Cordyceps/Isaria) dominated the fungal assemblage after NP addition. In contrast, sequences attributed to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales bacteria appeared vulnerable to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. This combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular studies clearly demonstrate that Ag NPs can severely disrupt the natural seasonal progression of tundra assemblages. PMID:24926877

Kumar, Niraj; Palmer, Gerald R; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K

2014-01-01

315

The Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Seasonal Change in Arctic Tundra Bacterial and Fungal Assemblages  

PubMed Central

The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half that of control soils, a decrease in signature bacterial fatty acids, and changes in both richness and evenness in bacterial and fungal DNA sequence assemblages. Prominent after Ag NP-treatment were Hypocreales fungi, which increased to 70%, from only 1% of fungal sequences under control conditions. Genera within this Order known for their antioxidant properties (Cordyceps/Isaria) dominated the fungal assemblage after NP addition. In contrast, sequences attributed to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales bacteria appeared vulnerable to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. This combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular studies clearly demonstrate that Ag NPs can severely disrupt the natural seasonal progression of tundra assemblages. PMID:24926877

Kumar, Niraj; Palmer, Gerald R.; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K.

2014-01-01

316

Incidence and Outcome of Documented Fungal Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Background: Fungal endocarditis, the most severe form of infective endocarditis, is characterized by excessive mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of fungal endocarditis to improve the management of these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, vegetations on the mitral or tricuspid valves and embolic material surgically removed from the patients with suspected infective endocarditis between December 2009 and November 2011 were examined for fungal infection by direct smear and culture, and the susceptibility patterns of the isolated species were determined. Then, blood samples were cultured on BACTEC media and real-time PCR was done with blood and tissue samples. Results: Of the 31 patients with suspected infective endocarditis who did not respond to antibacterial therapy, 11 had confirmed fungal endocarditis. The most frequent predisposing risk factors were previous surgery and drug abuse. The organisms isolated were Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans. Resistance to amphotericin B and itraconazole was observed in Aspergillus species, and to fluconazole in Candida albicans. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood and tissue samples. Conclusions: Fungal endocarditis should be considered in the patients not responsive to antimicrobials. Moreover, management of these patients can be improved with molecular diagnostic methods and by determining the susceptibility patterns of the etiologic agents.

Badiee, Parisa; Amirghofran, Ahmad Ali; Ghazi Nour, Mohammad; Shafa, Masih; Nemati, Mohammad Hassan

2014-01-01

317

Fungal spores as potential ice nuclei in fog/cloud water and snow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: In discussions about climate change and precipitation frequency biological ice nucleation has become an issue. While bacterial ice nucleation (IN) is already well characterized and even utilized in industrial processes such as the production of artificial snow or to improve freezing processes in food industry, less is known about the IN potential of fungal spores which are also ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A recent study performed at a mountain top in the Rocky Mountains suggests that fungal spores and/or pollen might play a role in increased IN abundance during periods of cloud cover (Bowers et al. 2009). In the present work concentrations of fungal spores in fog/cloud water and snow were determined. EXPERIMENTAL: Fog samples were taken with an active fog sampler in 2008 in a traffic dominated area and in a national park in São Paulo, Brazil. The number concentrations of fungal spores were determined by microscopic by direct enumeration by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR Gold nucleic acid gel stain (Bauer et al. 2008). RESULTS: In the fog water collected in the polluted area at a junction of two highly frequented highways around 22,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted. Fog in the national park contained 35,000 spores mL-1. These results were compared with cloud water and snow samples from Mt. Rax, situated at the eastern rim of the Austrian Alps. Clouds contained on average 5,900 fungal spores mL-1 cloud water (1,300 - 11,000) or 2,200 spores m-3 (304 - 5,000). In freshly fallen snow spore concentrations were lower than in cloud water, around 1,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted (Bauer et al. 2002). In both sets of samples representatives of the ice nucleating genus Fusarium could be observed. REFERENCES: Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., Puxbaum, H. (2002). The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols. Atmos. Res. 64, 109-119. Bauer, H., Schueller, E., Weinke, G. Berger, A., Hitzenberger, R., Marr, I.L., Puxbaum, H. (2008). Significant contributions of fungal spores to the organic carbon and to the aerosol mass balance of the urban atmospheric aerosol. Atmos. Environ. 42, 5542-5549. Bowers, R.M., Lauber, C.L., Wiedinmyer, C., Hamady, M., Hallar, A.G., Fall, R., Knight, R., Fierer, N. (2009). Characterization of airborne microbial communities at a high-elevation site and their potential to act as atmospheric ice nuclei. Appl. Environ. Microbiol: 75, 5121-5130.

Bauer, Heidi; Goncalves, Fabio L. T.; Schueller, Elisabeth; Puxbaum, Hans

2010-05-01

318

Genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis.  

PubMed

A gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in Talaromyces stipitatus (Penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. A minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropA encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropB encodes a FAD-dependent monooxygenase which dearomatizes 3-methylorcinaldehyde via hydroxylation at C-3; and tropC encodes a non-heme Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the oxidative ring expansion to the tropolone nucleus via hydroxylation of the 3-methyl group. The tropA gene was characterized by heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, whereas tropB and tropC were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified TropB and TropC proteins converted 3-methylorcinaldehyde to a tropolone in vitro. Finally, knockout of the tropD gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, indicated its place as the next gene in the pathway, probably responsible for hydroxylation of the 6-methyl group. Comparison of the T. stipitatus tropolone biosynthetic cluster with other known gene clusters allows clarification of important steps during the biosynthesis of other fungal compounds including the xenovulenes, citrinin, sepedonin, sclerotiorin, and asperfuranone. PMID:22508998

Davison, Jack; al Fahad, Ahmed; Cai, Menghao; Song, Zhongshu; Yehia, Samar Y; Lazarus, Colin M; Bailey, Andrew M; Simpson, Thomas J; Cox, Russell J

2012-05-15

319

Fungal nitrilases as biocatalysts: Recent developments.  

PubMed

Of the numerous putative fungal nitrilases available from protein databases only a few enzymes were purified and characterized. The purified nitrilases from Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Aspergillus niger share a preference for (hetero)aromatic nitriles, temperature optima between 40 and 50 degrees C and pH optima in the slightly alkaline region. On the other hand, they differ in their chemoselectivity, i.e. their tendency to produce amides as by-products. The production of fungal nitrilases is increased by up to three orders of magnitude on the addition of 2-cyanopyridine to the culture media. The whole-cell and subcellular biocatalysts were immobilized by various methods (LentiKats(R); adsorption on hydrophobic or ion exchange resins; cross-linked enzyme aggregates). Operational stability was examined using continuous stirred membrane bioreactors. Fungal nitrilases appear promising for biocatalytic applications and biodegradation of nitrile environmental contaminants. PMID:19427375

Martínková, Ludmila; Vejvoda, Vojtech; Kaplan, Ondrej; Kubác, David; Malandra, Anna; Cantarella, Maria; Bezouska, Karel; Kren, Vladimír

2009-01-01

320

Efficient genetic analysis of fungal samples.  

PubMed

We present a method for rapid genetic analysis of small amounts of fungal material. Sterile glass slides, sufficiently small to fit in a standard PCR tube, were placed on agar inside a Petri dish. After a few days, fungal cultures start to overgrow the glass slides. Glass slides with attached mycelium were harvested, analysed microscopically, and placed into a standard PCR tube. Conserved primers flanking the ITS regions of rDNA repeat were used in a direct PCR with the fungal material. Sequence data were generated to be included in phylogenetic analyses to investigate the relationships of the studied mycorrhizal fungi from orchids. The mycelium attached to glass slides was also used for an in situ hybridization experiment using fluorescent labelled oligonucleotides as probes. Fluorescent signal was found throughout the cytoplasm when a probe specific to a site in the nuclear small subunit rRNA is used. PMID:10794184

de los Ríos, A; Deutsch, G; Grube, M

2000-05-01

321

The future of fungal susceptibility testing.  

PubMed

The antifungal treatment failures and the emergence of resistant fungal strains have stimulated the need for reproducible and clinically relevant antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST). While the standard reference methods are not intended for routine use, commercial methods are widely used for performing AFST. However, to accelerate AFST and to improve the detection of antifungal resistance, which is the most challenging goal of AFST, novel assays have been developed. Following brief drug exposures of fungal cells, the new antifungal susceptibility end points seem to provide a reliable means of identifying fungal isolates, which harbor mutations that have been associated with antifungal resistance. This article summarizes the recent progress in AFST that is destined to enhance its clinical utility in the near future. PMID:25302953

Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

2014-01-01

322

The population biology of fungal invasions.  

PubMed

Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life-history traits are particularly unfavorable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25469955

Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

2014-12-01

323

Fungal Pathogens: Survival and Replication within Macrophages.  

PubMed

The innate immune system is a critical line of defense against pathogenic fungi. Macrophages act at an early stage of infection, detecting and phagocytizing infectious propagules. To avoid killing at this stage, fungal pathogens use diverse strategies ranging from evasion of uptake to intracellular parasitism. This article will discuss five of the most important human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidiodes immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum) and consider the strategies and virulence factors adopted by each to survive and replicate within macrophages. PMID:25384769

Gilbert, Andrew S; Wheeler, Robert T; May, Robin C

2014-11-10

324

Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall  

PubMed Central

Recent findings indicate that fungi use vesicular transport to deliver substances across their cell walls. Fungal vesicles are similar to mammalian exosomes and could originate from cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies. Vesicular transport enables the export of large molecules across the cell wall, and vesicles contain lipids, proteins and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Concentration of fungal products in vesicles could increase their efficiency in food acquisition and/or delivering potentially noxious substances to other cells, such as amoebae or phagocytes. The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis. PMID:19299133

Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Williamson, Peter; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

2014-01-01

325

Fatal fungal infection: the living dead.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon infection mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which is also known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is often caused by bacteria, but can also be caused and complicated by fungus. We report a case of bacterial necrotizing fasciitis that was complicated by a fatal fungal infection, a rare clinical presentation affecting the upper limbs, head and neck, in a young diabetic female patient. It was an unsuspected case of fungal infection with mucormycosis, which proved to be fatal due to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25352577

Narayanan Ml, Sankar; Narayanan, C D; Kindo, Anupma J; Arora, Apurva; Haridas, Priya A

2014-01-01

326

Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics.  

PubMed

Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. PMID:15670526

Rashid, Muhammad; Bari, Arfan ul; Majeed, Shahid; Tariq, Khalid Mehmood; Haq, Inam ul; Niwaz, Azhar

2005-01-01

327

Fungal nail infections: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

1) Fungal nail infection, or onychomycosis, mainly affects toenails. Infections are generally asymptomatic. Spontaneous regressions, but also complications, appear to be rare. Discomfort and cosmetic complaint are occasionally reported; 2) After a review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure, we examined the diagnosis and management of fungal nail infections; 3) Clinical signs of fungal nail infections are non-specific. Alternative diagnoses include psoriasis and nail microtrauma. Nail hyperkeratosis and leukonychia are useful diagnostic pointers. Matrix involvement has important implications in the choice of treatment; 4) Detection of fungal structures by direct examination of a nail sample is strongly suggestive of fungal nail infection. In contrast, cases of negative direct examination with positive culture must be interpreted with caution, as contamination is frequent; 5) Antifungal lacquers (5% amorolfine and 8% ciclopirox) applied to the nails cure about 30% of fungal infections and sometimes cause mild irritation. There is no firm evidence that these solutions are any more effective than other topical antifungals applied daily to the affected nail. Trimming, filing or grinding the nail, in addition to these drug treatments, is likely to be beneficial, but these measures have not been evaluated; 6) Chemical nail destruction with a combination of urea and bifonazole, followed by treatment with an antifungal ointment, can be used when the nail is markedly thickened. Non-comparative trials have shown cure rates close to 70% at three months when the matrix is not involved, and 40% with matrix involvement. Drug application is inconvenient and local reactions are frequent. Surgical nail avulsion carries a risk of local infection and permanent nail dystrophy; 7) Oral terbinafine is effective in more than 50% of cases but its cutaneous, hepatic and haematological adverse effects are severe in about 1 in 2000 patients and can be life-threatening; 8) It is better to treat Candida nail infections with oral azoles (ketonazole, itraconazole) than with terbinafine. These treatments carry a risk of serious adverse effects and numerous drug interactions; 9) Fungal nail infections are usually mild. Treatments with potentially severe adverse effects must therefore be used with caution. It is better not to treat fungal nail infections if the risks outweigh the expected benefits. PMID:19391293

2009-02-01

328

MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource  

SciTech Connect

MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

2012-03-16

329

Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 2013. Chen GL, Chen Y, Zhu CQ, Yang CD, Ye S. Invasive fungal ... CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing ...

330

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-print Network

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

331

Invasion of the Central Nervous System by Cryptococcus neoformans Requires a Secreted Fungal Metalloprotease  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cryptococcus spp. cause life-threatening fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in patients with a compromised immune system. Why Cryptococcus neoformans has this remarkable tropism for the CNS is not clear. Recent research on cerebral pathogenesis of C. neoformans revealed a predominantly transcellular migration of cryptococci across the brain endothelium; however, the identities of key fungal virulence factors that function specifically to invade the CNS remain unresolved. Here we found that a novel, secreted metalloprotease (Mpr1) that we identified in the extracellular proteome of C. neoformans (CnMpr1) is required for establishing fungal disease in the CNS. Mpr1 belongs to a poorly characterized M36 class of fungalysins that are expressed in only some fungal species. A strain of C. neoformans lacking the gene encoding Mpr1 (mpr1?) failed to breach the endothelium in an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). A mammalian host infected with the mpr1? null strain demonstrated significant improvement in survival due to a reduced brain fungal burden and lacked the brain pathology commonly associated with cryptococcal disease. The in vivo studies further indicate that Mpr1 is not required for fungal dissemination and Mpr1 likely targets the brain endothelium specifically. Remarkably, the sole expression of CnMPR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a robust migration of yeast cells across the brain endothelium, demonstrating Mpr1’s specific activity in breaching the BBB and suggesting that Mpr1 may function independently of the hyaluronic acid-CD44 pathway. This distinct role for Mpr1 may develop into innovative treatment options and facilitate a brain-specific drug delivery platform. PMID:24895304

Vu, Kiem; Tham, Rick; Uhrig, John P.; Thompson, George R.; Na Pombejra, Sarisa; Jamklang, Mantana; Bautos, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

332

Exposure to host or fungal PGE? abrogates protection following immunization with Candida-pulsed dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Candida albicans produces an immunomodulatory oxylipin from arachidonic acid that is structurally identical to host prostaglandin E? (PGE?). In terms of host immune responses, PGE? can promote Th2 responses, which are non-protective against fungal infections. We investigated the effect of host or fungal PGE? on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) cytokine production, and the ability to immunize mice against systemic infection with C. albicans. We used GM-CSF to produce myeloid DCs (GM-DCs) and FLT-3L to enrich for plasmacytoid DCs (FL-DCs). In the presence of hyphae, PGE? promoted Th2 cytokine production and suppressed Th1 cytokine production. Immunization with yeast-pulsed DCs but not hyphae-pulsed DCs lead to a reduction in kidney fungal burden during systemic infection, which was most dramatic with FL-DCs. However, exposure to either host or fungal PGE? during antigenic stimulation abrogated the ability of yeast-pulsed DCs to protect against infection. The lack of protection was associated with a trend towards reduced Th1 cytokines and increased Th2 cytokines in the spleen. However, the pattern of protection did not completely match cytokine expression. Locally, in FL-DC pulsed mice, reduced Th1 and exacerbated Th2 and Th17 cytokines were only detected in the kidneys of mice that did not show reductions in fungal burden after vaccination. This indicates that host or fungal PGE? can shift adaptive responses in favor of the pathogen and that uncontrolled Th17 responses are detrimental during systemic infection. PMID:21077736

Kundu, Gitanjali; Noverr, Mairi C

2011-05-01

333

Fungal His-Tagged Nitrilase from Gibberella intermedia: Gene Cloning, Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrilase is an important member of the nitrilase superfamiliy. It has attracted substantial interest from academia and industry for its function of converting nitriles directly into the corresponding carboxylic acids in recent years. Thus nitrilase has played a crucial role in production of commercial carboxylic acids in chemical industry and detoxification of nitrile-contaminated wastes. However, conventional studies mainly focused on the bacterial nitrilase and the potential of fungal nitrilase has been far from being fully explored. Research on fungal nitrilase gene expression will advance our understanding for its biological function of fungal nitrilase in nitrile hydrolysis. Methodology/Principal Findings A fungal nitrilase gene from Gibberella intermedia was cloned through reverse transcription-PCR. The open reading frame consisted of 963 bp and potentially encoded a protein of 320 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 35.94 kDa. Furthermore, the catalytic triad (Glu-45, Lys-127, and Cys-162) was proposed and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) and the recombinant protein with His6-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 45°C and pH 7.8. This nitrilase was specific towards aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. The kinetic parameters Vmax and Km for 3-cyanopyridine were determined to be 0.81 µmol/min·mg and 12.11 mM through Hanes-Woolf plot, respectively. 3-Cyanopyridine (100 mM) could be thoroughly hydrolyzed into nicotinic acid within 10 min using the recombinant strain with the release of about 3% nicotinamide and no substrate was detected. Conclusions/Significance In the present study, a fungal nitrilase was cloned from the cDNA sequence of G. intermedia and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami (DE3). The recombinant strain displayed good 3-cyanopyridine degradation efficiency and wide substrate spectrum. This fungal nitrilase might be a potential candidate for industrial applications in carboxylic acids production. PMID:23226336

Gong, Jin-Song; Li, Heng; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Wu, Yan; Shi, Jing-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2012-01-01

334

Fungal infections in cancer patients: An international autopsy survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to estimate the frequency of fungal infections among cancer patients, a survey of autopsy examinations was conducted in multiple institutions in Europe, Japan and Canada. Fungal infections were identified most often in leukemic patients and transplant recipients (25 % each). Fifty-eight percent of fungal infections were caused byCandida spp. and 30 % byAspergillus spp. There was considerable

G. Bodey; B. Bueltmann; W. Duguid; D. Gibbs; H. Hanak; M. Hotchi; G. Mall; P. Martino; F. Meunier; S. Milliken; S. Naoe; M. Okudaira; D. Scevola; J. van't Wout

1992-01-01

335

Outcomes of fungal interactions are determined by soil invertebrate grazers  

E-print Network

LETTER Outcomes of fungal interactions are determined by soil invertebrate grazers Thomas W resource availability. We show that invertebrate grazers can exert selective pressures on fungal decomposer invertebrate communities will have direct consequences for fungal-mediated nutrient cycling in woodland soils

Bruns, Tom

336

Efficacy of topical silver against fungal burn wound pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fungal infections of burn wounds have become an important cause of burn-associated morbidity and mortality. The nature of fungal infections dictates aggressive treatment to minimize the morbidity associated with these infections. Persons with large total body surface area burns are particularly susceptible to fungal infections and are treated in such a manner as to minimize their risk of infection.

J. B. Wright; K. Lam; D. Hansen; R. E. Burrell

1999-01-01

337

Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare disorder in which the phagocytes fail to pro- duce hydrogen peroxide. The patients are predisposed to bacterial and fungal infec- tions. Prophylactic antibiotics and interferon gamma have reduced bacterial infec- tions, but there is also the danger of life-threatening fungal infections. We assessed the efficacy of itraconazole as prophylaxis against serious fungal infections

John I. Gallin; David W. Alling; Harry L. Malech; Robert Wesley; Deloris Koziol; Beatriz Marciano; Eli M. Eisenstein; Maria L. Turner; Ellen S. DeCarlo; Judith M. Starling; Steven M. Holland

2003-01-01

338

Fungal conservation in Scotland: Recent progress and future priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, fungal conservation in Scotland has made substantial progress, particularly as a result of field surveys undertaken in support of the Biodiversity Action Plans developed for selected species. Results are presented from four recent surveys: (i) fungal diversity in conifer plantations, (ii) hydnoid (‘tooth’) fungi in coniferous forests, (iii) grassland fungi, (iv) fungal survey of the Mar Lodge

A. C. Newton; E. Holden; R. Watling; L. M. Davy

2003-01-01

339

Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.  

PubMed

Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is ?-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with ?-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

2014-11-18

340

Fungal secondary metabolism — from biochemistry to genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of natural product chemistry concerns a group of compounds known as secondary metabolites. These low-molecular-weight metabolites often have potent physiological activities. Digitalis, morphine and quinine are plant secondary metabolites, whereas penicillin, cephalosporin, ergotrate and the statins are equally well known fungal secondary metabolites. Although chemically diverse, all secondary metabolites are produced by a few common biosynthetic pathways, often in

Nancy P. Keller; Geoffrey Turner; Joan W. Bennett

2005-01-01

341

Fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of filamentous fungi together with bacteriological parameters was assessed in 126 samples of still bottled mineral water of eight different commercial brands in Argentina. In spoiled samples with visible mycelium growth, the most frequently isolated fungal species were Penicillium citrinum, P. glabrum, other Penicillium species, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata. In unspoiled samples, the genera found were Penicillium,

Daniel Cabral; Virginia E Fernández Pinto

2002-01-01

342

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

2014-01-01

343

Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

344

Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One important mechanism for insect pest control is the use of fungal entomopathogens. Even though these organisms have been studied for more than 100 years, their effective use in the field remains elusive. Recently, however, it has been discovered that many of these entomopathogenic fungi play addi...

345

The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

346

Fungal association with sessile marine invertebrates  

PubMed Central

The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture – as well as metagenomic – and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include “core” residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal–fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals. PMID:24860565

Yarden, Oded

2014-01-01

347

ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA. Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

348

Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future.  

PubMed

The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and map-based cloning from model organisms, but, currently, the availability of many sequenced fungal genomes allows their cloning from additional fungi by a combination of comparative and functional genomics. It is believed that most Avr genes encode effectors that facilitate virulence by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity and induce effector-triggered immunity in plants containing cognate resistance proteins. In resistant plants, effectors are directly or indirectly recognized by cognate resistance proteins that reside either on the plasma membrane or inside the plant cell. Indirect recognition of an effector (also known as the guard model) implies that the virulence target of an effector in the host (the guardee) is guarded by the resistance protein (the guard) that senses manipulation of the guardee, leading to activation of effector-triggered immunity. In this article, we review the literature on fungal effectors and some pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including those of some fungi for which no gene-for-gene relationship has been established. PMID:19849781

De Wit, Pierre J G M; Mehrabi, Rahim; Van den Burg, Harrold A; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

2009-11-01

349

Moisture dynamics and fungal susceptibility of plywood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineered wood products are widely used in construction and transportation. Plywood has one of the best physical and mechanical properties for application under moist conditions in use class 3, i.e. exterior exposure without ground contact. Yet a profound knowledge of their moisture dynamics and fungal susceptibility is a prerequisite for proper use. In this paper the results of more than

Jan Van den Bulcke; Imke De Windt; Nele Defoirdt; Jordi De Smet; Joris Van Acker

2011-01-01

350

Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are among the most feared complications of patients being treated for a hematological malignancy. Currently, most serious IFI occur in patients with acute leukemia and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. continue to be the main pathogens, the proportion of patients infected by non-albicans species of Candida and other

R. Martino; M. Subirà

2002-01-01

351

Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and ?-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

2009-01-01

352

Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ...

353

Fungal fruit rots of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and control of the three main fungal fruit rots of kiwifruit in New Zealand is reviewed. Field rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, affects immature fruits on the vines. Storage rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affects harvested fruits during cold storage. Ripe rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, affects harvested fruits during post-storage ripening.

S. R. Pennycook

1985-01-01

354

Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules. PMID:23608474

Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Zi, Jiachen; Wang, Siyuan; Gage, David; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

2013-07-01

355

Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p < 0.01) in the fragmentation percentage between different air velocities for the three generation methods, namely the direct, the fan and the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST) methods. The percentage of fragmentation also proved to be dependent on fungal species. The study found that there was no fragmentation for any of the fungal species at an air velocity ?0.4 m s -1 for any method of generation. Fluorescent signals, as well as mathematical determination also showed that the fungal fragments were derived from spores. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments measured by the UVAPS under controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

356

The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and garlic mustard introductions on native AM fungal diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced, non-native organisms are of global concern, because biological invasions can negatively affect local communities.\\u000a Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities have not been well studied in this context. AM fungi are abundant in most soils,\\u000a forming symbiotic root-associations with many plant species. Commercial AM fungal inocula are increasingly spread worldwide,\\u000a because of potentially beneficial effects on plant growth. In contrast,

Alexander M. KochPedro; Pedro M. Antunes; E. Kathryn Barto; Don Cipollini; Daniel L. Mummey; John N. Klironomos

2011-01-01

357

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

358

Inhibitory activities of propolis and its promising component, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, against amyloidogenesis of human transthyretin.  

PubMed

Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric serum protein associated with amyloidoses such as familial amyloid polyneuropathy and senile systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid fibril formation of TTR can be inhibited through stabilization of the TTR tetramer by the binding of small molecules. In this study, we examined the inhibitory potency of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its derivatives. Thioflavin T assay showed that CAPE suppressed the amyloid fibril formation of TTR. Comparative analysis of the inhibitory potencies revealed that phenethyl ferulate was the most potent among the CAPE derivatives. The binding of phenethyl ferulate and the selected compounds to TTR were confirmed by the 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid displacement and X-ray crystallography. It was also demonstrated that Bio 30, which is a CAPE-rich commercially available New Zealand propolis, inhibited TTR amyloidogenesis and stabilized the TTR tetramer. These results suggested that a propolis may be efficient for preventing TTR amyloidosis. PMID:25314129

Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kosaka, Yuto; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki

2014-11-13

359

Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease.  

PubMed

Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

Roy, René M; Klein, Bruce S

2013-08-01

360

Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

361

A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

2013-01-01

362

Life histories of hosts and pathogens predict patterns in tropical fungal plant diseases.  

PubMed

Plant pathogens affect the fitness of their hosts and maintain biodiversity. However, we lack theories to predict the type and intensity of infections in wild plants. Here we demonstrate using fungal pathogens of tropical plants that an examination of the life histories of hosts and pathogens can reveal general patterns in their interactions. Fungal infections were more commonly reported for light-demanding than for shade-tolerant species and for evergreen rather than for deciduous hosts. Both patterns are consistent with classical defence theory, which predicts lower resistance in fast-growing species and suggests that the deciduous habit can reduce enemy populations. In our literature survey, necrotrophs were found mainly to infect shade-tolerant woody species whereas biotrophs dominated in light-demanding herbaceous hosts. Far-red signalling and its inhibitory effects on jasmonic acid signalling are likely to explain this phenomenon. Multiple changes between the necrotrophic and the symptomless endophytic lifestyle at the ecological and evolutionary scale indicate that endophytes should be considered when trying to understand large-scale patterns in the fungal infections of plants. Combining knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of pathogen resistance with classical defence theory enables the formulation of testable predictions concerning general patterns in the infections of wild plants by fungal pathogens. PMID:24171899

García-Guzmán, Graciela; Heil, Martin

2014-03-01

363

The Use of Fluorogenic Substrates To Measure Fungal Presence and Activity in Soil  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to determine if 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled enzyme substrates could be used to detect and quantify specific components of chitinase and cellulase activities as specific indicators of the presence and activity of fungal biomass. The fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide and MUF ?-d-lactoside were used for the detection and quantification of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAGase) and endo 1,4-?-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4)/cellobiohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.91) (CELase), respectively. Culture screenings on solid media showed a widespread ability to produce NAGase among a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi on media with and without added chitin. NAGase activity was expressed only in a limited number of bacteria and on media supplemented with chitin. The CELase activity was observed only in a limited number of fungi and bacteria. Bacterial CELase activity was expressed on agar media containing a cellulose-derived substrate. In soil samples, NAGase activity was significantly correlated with estimates of fungal biomass, based on the content of two fungus-specific indicator molecules, 18:2?6 phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and ergosterol. CELase activity was significantly correlated with the PLFA-based estimate of fungal biomass in the soil, but no correlation was found with ergosterol-based estimates of fungal biomass. PMID:9464399

Miller, Morten; Palojärvi, Ansa; Rangger, Andrea; Reeslev, Morten; Kjøller, Annelise

1998-01-01

364

Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of ?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of ?-helix and an increase in the amounts of ?-sheet and turn structures.

Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

2014-01-01

365

Changes in soluble and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics in the sugarcane stems of young plants from highly resistant cv.\\u000a My 5514 and susceptible cv. B 42231, inoculated or not inoculated with smut sporidia, was studied. The ratio of inoculated\\u000a to uninoculated plants of some cell wall-bound phenolics, such as ferulic, caffeic, and syringic acids increased for the resistant\\u000a cv. My

Rocío Santiago; Roberto de Armas; Blanca Fontaniella; Carlos Vicente; María-Estrella Legaz

2009-01-01

366

In vitro anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal effects of new SbIII carboxylates  

PubMed Central

Ring opening of phthalic anhydride has been carried out in acetic acid with glycine, ?-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield, respectively, 2-{[(carboxymethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (I), 2-{[(2-carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (II), 2-{[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (III), and 2-[(4-carboxyanilino)carbonyl]benzoic acid (IV). Compounds I-IV have been employed as ligands for Sb(III) center (complexes V-VIII) in aqueous medium. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra proved the deprotonation of carboxylic protons and coordination of imine group and thereby tridentate behaviour of the ligands as chelates. Elemental, MS, and TGA analytic data confirmed the structural hypothesis based on spectroscopic results. All the compounds have been assayed in vitro for anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities against five leishmanial strains L. major (JISH118), L. major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO), L. tropica (K27), L. infantum (LEM3437), L. mex mex (LV4), and L. donovani (H43); and Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Fumigants, Aspergillus Niger, and Fusarium Solani. Compound VII exhibited good anti-leishmanial as well as anti-fungal impacts comparable to reference drugs.

2011-01-01

367

Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph. PMID:10905611

Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

2000-01-01

368

The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

2014-01-01

369

Functional Profiling of Human Fungal Pathogen Genomes.  

PubMed

Fungal infections are challenging to diagnose and often difficult to treat, with only a handful of drug classes existing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic fungi cause human disease is imperative. Here, we discuss how the development and use of genome-scale genetic resources, such as whole-genome knockout collections, can address this unmet need. Using work in Saccharomcyes cerevisiae as a guide, studies of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans have shown how the challenges of large-scale gene deletion can be overcome, and how such collections can be effectively used to obtain insights into mechanisms of pathogenesis. We conclude that, with concerted efforts, full genome-wide functional analysis of human fungal pathogen genomes is within reach. PMID:25377143

Goranov, Alexi I; Madhani, Hiten D

2014-11-01

370

Rodentborne fungal pathogens in wetland agroecosystem  

PubMed Central

The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too. PMID:24031825

Thomas, Manuel; Abraham Samuel, K.; Kurian, Punnen

2012-01-01

371

Fungal nitrilases as biocatalysts: Recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the numerous putative fungal nitrilases available from protein databases only a few enzymes were purified and characterized. The purified nitrilases from Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Aspergillus niger share a preference for (hetero)aromatic nitriles, temperature optima between 40 and 50 °C and pH optima in the slightly alkaline region. On the other hand, they differ in their

Ludmila Martínková; Vojt?ch Vejvoda; Ond?ej Kaplan; David Kubá?; Anna Malandra; Maria Cantarella; Karel Bezouška; Vladimír K?en

2009-01-01

372

Fungal Scleral Keratitis Caused by Phomopsis phoenicicola?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of scleral keratitis caused by Phomopsis phoenicicola. Pterygium surgery was a predisposing factor, and the patient was treated with natamycin and fluconazole eye drops and oral fluconazole. The fungus was identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus and confirmed on the basis of its typical pycnidia and conidia. PMID:21450952

Gajjar, Devarshi U.; Pal, Anuradha K.; Parmar, Trilok J.; Arora, Anshul I.; Ganatra, Darshini A.; Kayastha, Forum B.; Ghodadra, Bharat K.; Vasavada, Abhay R.

2011-01-01

373

Molecular biology and immunology of fungal allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi are non-chlorophyllus microorganisms, which constitutes the main source of outdoor and indoor allergens. The antigens\\u000a present in the spores and fragments of hyphae induce allergic responses in sensitized patients. The frequently recognized\\u000a fungi associated with asthma include Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. With the advent of molecular\\u000a biology techniques a number of fungal genes encoding relevant allergens have been

Viswanath P. Kurup; Banani Banerjee; Kevin J. Kelly; Jordan N. Fink

2000-01-01

374

Comparative Evolutionary Histories of Fungal Chitinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gene duplication and loss play important roles in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content.\\u000a Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes are frequently exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related\\u000a genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study\\u000a of gene duplication and loss, as

Magnus Karlsson; Jan Stenlid

375

Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes  

PubMed Central

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

376

Iatrogenic fungal infections of central nervous system.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic fungal infections of the central nervous system had been considered a medical curiosity. Generally, they are a rare isolated complication of neurosurgical procedures, but periodically these infections are observed in larger populations as a result of exposure to contaminated materials during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. In the last year, an epidemic of iatrogenic fungal central nervous system disease accompanied the use of fungal-contaminated compounded methylprednisolone distributed by one facility, heightening the attention given to this infectious disorder. As of May 6, 2013, 758 individuals from 20 US states have developed meningitis and/or spinal or paraspinal infection because of contaminated methylprednisolone from the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Massachusetts, and 58 deaths have been reported. A total of 12 different fungi have been identified; Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous environmental fungus rarely associated with human disease previously, has been the most commonly isolated pathogen. Meningitis has dominated the clinical presentation, accounting for more than half of the cases, but spinal and paraspinal infections, arachnoiditis, and stroke have also been observed. The diagnosis can be challenging as the organisms may be fastidious. An assay for ?-D-glycan has been proposed as an effective adjunctive test for E. rostratum infection. The current therapeutic recommendation is a 6 mg/kg dose of voriconazole every 12 h followed by liposomal amphotericin B. In some instances, surgical debridement and drainage may be necessary. PMID:24078440

Lahoti, Sourabh; Berger, Joseph R

2013-11-01

377

Health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure.  

PubMed

Occupational and environmental health professionals are confronted with issues concerning the health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure. This article reviews current data on the health effects of indoor mold exposure and provides practical suggestions for occupational and environmental health practitioners regarding how best to manage these exposures based on published human studies. We conducted MEDLINE searches and reviewed all English language studies on indoor mold exposure (visible survey or objective sampling) and human health effects published from 1966 to November 2002. The main findings of the studies are analyzed in conjunction with plausible association of health effects and fungal exposure. Five case control studies, 17 cross-sectional surveys, and 7 case reports met the selection criteria. Current evidence suggests that excessive moisture promotes mold growth and is associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms due to irritation, allergy, and infection. However, specific human toxicity due to inhaled fungal toxins has not been scientifically established. Methods for measuring indoor bioaerosol exposure and health assessment are not well standardized, making interpretation of existing data difficult. Additional studies are needed to document human exposure-disease and dose-response relationships. PMID:12791550

Fung, Frederick; Hughson, William G

2003-07-01

378

The filamentous fungal gene expression database (FFGED).  

PubMed

Filamentous fungal gene expression assays provide essential information for understanding systemic cellular regulation. To aid research on fungal gene expression, we constructed a novel, comprehensive, free database, the filamentous fungal gene expression database (FFGED), available at http://bioinfo.townsend.yale.edu. FFGED features user-friendly management of gene expression data, which are assorted into experimental metadata, experimental design, raw data, normalized details, and analysis results. Data may be submitted in the process of an experiment, and any user can submit multiple experiments, thus classifying the FFGED as an "active experiment" database. Most importantly, FFGED functions as a collective and collaborative platform, by connecting each experiment with similar related experiments made public by other users, maximizing data sharing among different users, and correlating diverse gene expression levels under multiple experimental designs within different experiments. A clear and efficient web interface is provided with enhancement by AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and through a collection of tools to effectively facilitate data submission, sharing, retrieval and visualization. PMID:20025988

Zhang, Zhang; Townsend, Jeffrey P

2010-03-01

379

Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.  

PubMed

Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

2015-06-01

380

AM symbiosis alters phenolic acid content in tomato roots  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize the roots of most plants to establish a mutualistic symbiosis leading to important benefits for plant health. We have recently shown that AM symbiosis alters both transcriptional and hormonal profiles in tomato roots, many of these changes related to plant defense. Here, we analytically demonstrate that the levels of other important defense-related compounds as phenolic acids are also altered in the symbiosis. Both caffeic and chlorogenic acid levels significantly decreased in tomato roots upon mycorrhization, while ferulic acid increased. Moreover, in the case of caffeic acid a differential reduction was observed depending on the colonizing AM fungus. The results confirm that AM associations imply the regulation of plant defense responses, and that the host changes may vary depending on the AM fungus involved. The potential implications of altered phenolic acid levels on plant control over mycorrhizal colonization and in the plant resistance to pathogens is discussed. PMID:21490421

Flors, Victor; García, Juan M; Pozo, Maria J

2010-01-01

381

Fungal community composition and metabolism under elevated CO(2) and O(3).  

PubMed

Atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) concentrations are increasing due to human activity and both trace gases have the potential to alter C cycling in forest ecosystems. Because soil microorganisms depend on plant litter as a source of energy for metabolism, changes in the amount or the biochemistry of plant litter produced under elevated CO(2) and O(3) could alter microbial community function and composition. Previously, we have observed that elevated CO(2) increased the microbial metabolism of cellulose and chitin, whereas elevated O(3) dampened this response. We hypothesized that this change in metabolism under CO(2) and O(3) enrichment would be accompanied by a concomitant change in fungal community composition. We tested our hypothesis at the free-air CO(2) and O(3) enrichment (FACE) experiment at Rhinelander, Wisconsin, in which Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, and Acer saccharum were grown under factorial CO(2) and O(3) treatments. We employed extracellular enzyme analysis to assay microbial metabolism, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to determine changes in microbial community composition, and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to analyze the fungal community composition. The activities of 1,4-beta-glucosidase (+37%) and 1,4,-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (+84%) were significantly increased under elevated CO(2), whereas 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity (-25%) was significantly suppressed by elevated O(3). There was no significant main effect of elevated CO(2) or O(3) on fungal relative abundance, as measured by PLFA. We identified 39 fungal taxonomic units from soil using DGGE, and found that O(3) enrichment significantly altered fungal community composition. We conclude that fungal metabolism is altered under elevated CO(2) and O(3), and that there was a concomitant change in fungal community composition under elevated O(3). Thus, changes in plant inputs to soil under elevated CO(2) and O(3) can propagate through the microbial food web to alter the cycling of C in soil. PMID:16205953

Chung, Haegeun; Zak, Donald R; Lilleskov, Erik A

2006-02-01

382

Evaluation of ozone for preventing fungal influenced corrosion of reinforced concrete bridges over the River Nile, Egypt.  

PubMed

Fungal influenced corrosion (FIC) of some corroded sites in three selected bridges [Embaba bridge (E-bridge), Kasr al-Nile-bridge (K-bridge) and University bridge (U-bridge)] located over the River Nile in Egypt were investigated. Six fungal species, belong to 12 fungal genera, were isolated from the corroded reinforced concrete of the three tested bridges. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was screened for the most dominant fungal species (Fusarium oxysporium) which showed in all tested bridges that indicated the presence of amine group accompanied with polysaccharides contents. FIC of the most deteriorated bridge (K-bridge) was documented with FTIR. The association of fungal spores with corrosion products was recorded with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Evaluation of ozone for preventing FIC of the K-bridge was carried out by recording the corrosion rate and the corresponding inhibition efficiency (IE%). No mycelial growth with 100% IE was observed at 3 ppm ozone concentration after 120 min exposure time. With longer duration of ozone exposure, the membrane permeability of F. oxysporium was compromised as indicated by protein and nucleic acid leakages accompanied with lipid and tryptophan oxidation. The total intracellular and extracellular proteins of F. oxysporium were run on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated the increasing of the supernatant protein on the expense of the cellular protein bands with extending ozone exposure time (0-80 min). PMID:20820884

Geweely, Neveen S I

2011-04-01

383

De novo production of metabolites by fungal co-culture of Trichophyton rubrum and Bionectria ochroleuca.  

PubMed

The co-cultivation of fungi has recently been described as a promising strategy to induce the production of novel metabolites through possible gene activation. A large screening of fungal co-cultures in solid media has identified an unusual long-distance growth inhibition between Trichophyton rubrum and Bionectria ochroleuca. To study metabolite induction in this particular fungal interaction, differential LC-MS-based metabolomics was performed on pure strain cultures and on their co-cultures. The comparison of the resulting fingerprints highlighted five de novo induced compounds, which were purified using software-oriented semipreparative HPLC-MS. One metabolite was successfully identified as 4?-hydroxysulfoxy-2,2?-dimethylthielavin P (a substituted trimer of 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid). The nonsulfated form, as well as three other related compounds, were found in the pure strain culture of B. ochroleuca. PMID:23734767

Bertrand, Samuel; Schumpp, Olivier; Bohni, Nadine; Monod, Michel; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

2013-06-28

384

Accumulation of cadmium, lead, and nickel by fungal and wood biosorbents  

SciTech Connect

Native fungal biomass of fungi Absidia orchids, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus nugricans, and modified spruce sawdust (Picea engelmanii) sequestered metals in the following decreasing preference: Pb>Cd>Ni. The highest metal uptake was q{sub max}=351 mg Pb/g for A. orchidis biomass. P. chrysogenum biomass could accumulate cadmium best at 56 mg Cd/G. The sorption of nickel was the weakest always at >5 mg Ni/g. The spruce sawdust was modified by crosslinking, oxidation to acidic oxoforms, and by substitution. The highest metal uptake was observed in phosorylated sawdust reaching q{sub max}=224 mg Pb/g, 56 mg Cd/g, and 26 mg Ni/g. The latter value is comparable to the value of nickel sorption by wet commercial resin Duolite GT-73. Some improvement in metal uptake was also observed after reinforcement of fungal biomass. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

1995-05-01

385

Phenolic acids and flavonoids in nonfermented and fermented red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify phenolic acids and flavonoids in the red sorghum variety PAN 3860 and to determine changes in their concentrations during fermentation with lactobacilli. Sorghum sourdoughs fermented with two binary strain combinations, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus reuteri , were compared to chemically acidified controls. Four glycerol esters were tentatively identified, caffeoylglycerol, dicaffeoylglycerol, coumaroyl-caffeoylglycerol, and coumaroyl-feruloylglycerol, that have previously not been detected in sorghum. Chemical acidification resulted in hydrolysis of phenolic acid esters and flavonoid glucosides. During lactic fermentation, phenolic acids, phenolic acid esters, and flavonoid glucosides were metabolized. Analysis of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and naringenin-glucoside contents in single-strain cultures of lactobacilli demonstrated that glucosidase, phenolic acid reductase, and phenolic acid decarboxylase activities contributed to polyphenol metabolism. This study demonstrates that microbial fermentation of sorghum affects the content of polyphenols and can influence the nutritional value and antimicrobial activity of sorghum. PMID:20677784

Svensson, Louise; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Lutz, Daise Lopes; Schieber, Andreas; Gänzle, Michael G

2010-08-25

386

Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods were applied to qualitatively determinate free phenolic acids and those liberated by acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the flowers and leaves of G. robusta and G. squarrosa. The presence of eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids was determined. Quantitative estimate of phenolic acids, expressed as caffeic acid, has been analyzed by the method described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII. The content of phenolic acids in G. robusta reached 7.33 mg/g and 6.23 mg/g for flowers and leaves, respectively. The flowers and leaves of G. squarrosa were characterized by similar level of phenolic acids, namely 6.81 mg/g and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. PMID:22876612

Nowak, S?awomira; Rychli?ska, Izabela

2012-01-01

387

Post-traumatic fungal endophthalmitis—a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo study the incidence, clinical presentation, and the response of anti-fungals in cases of fungal endophthalmitis following open globe injury.MethodsThis is a prospective study of eight cases of post-traumatic fungal endophthalmitis among 110 patients who presented to us with open globe injury between August 2003 and January 2005. Patients with panophthalmitis were eviscerated and rest received intravitreal amphotericin B. Pars

A Gupta; R Srinivasan; S Kaliaperumal; I Saha

2008-01-01

388

Current Thoughts in Fungal Keratitis: Diagnosis and Treatment.  

PubMed

Fungal keratitis remains a challenging and often elusive diagnosis in geographic regions where it is endemic. Marred by delays in diagnosis, the sequelae of corneal fungal infections, though preventable, can be irreversible. Recent studies and advances in the arena have broadened the approach and treatment to mycotic keratitis. This review will discuss current diagnostic modalities of fungal keratitis and will particularly focus on treatment regimens. It will also explore future therapeutic models and critique the potential benefit of each. PMID:24040467

Ansari, Zubair; Miller, Darlene; Galor, Anat

2013-09-01

389

Accumulation of phenolic acid conjugates and betacyanins, and changes in the activities of enzymes involved in feruloylglucose metabolism in cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L.  

PubMed

Cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum accumulate various soluble secondary phenolic metabolites such as the hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-?-glucoside, vanillic acid-?-glucoside, the hydroxycinnamic acid acylglycosides 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-?-glucose, 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose, 1-O-sinapoyl-?-glucose and 1-O-feruloyl-(?-1,2-glucuronosyl)-?-glucose, the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloylaspartate, and the betacyanins betanin, amaranthin and celosianin II. In addition, accumulation of the insoluble cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids with ferulic acid as the major component occurs parallel to culture growth. The changes of three pivotal enzymatic activities, all O-transferases which are involved in the formation of the dominant ferulic acid conjugates, were determined. These are (i) uridine 5'-diphosphate(UDP)glucose-hydroxycinnamic acid O-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1), (ii) UDP-glucuronic acid:1-O-hydroxycin-namoyl-?-glucose O-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1) and (iii) 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-?-glucose:amaranthin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1). The patterns of metabolite accumulation associated with these enzyme activities show that the hydroxycinnamic acid-glucose esters play a central role as metabolically active intermediates in the secondary metabolism of Ch. rubrum. Two cell lines of this culture (CH, CHN), differing in their betacyanin content, were compared with respect to this metabolism. A markedly higher total betacyanin content in the CHN line might possibly be the consequence of an increased supply of the key precursor for betalain biosynthesis, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). In addition, the enhanced accumulation of celosianin II in the CHN line correlates well with a higher activity of the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of ferulic acid from 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose to amaranthin. PMID:24194079

Bokern, M; Wray, V; Strack, D

1991-05-01

390

Intimate bacterial–fungal interaction triggers biosynthesis of archetypal polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Fungi produce numerous low molecular weight molecules endowed with a multitude of biological activities. However, mining the full-genome sequences of fungi indicates that their potential to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. Because most of the biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions, one of the major challenges is to understand the physiological conditions under which these genes are activated. Thus, we cocultivated the important model fungus Aspergillus nidulans with a collection of 58 soil-dwelling actinomycetes. By microarray analyses of both Aspergillus secondary metabolism and full-genome arrays and Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we demonstrate at the molecular level that a distinct fungal-bacterial interaction leads to the specific activation of fungal secondary metabolism genes. Most surprisingly, dialysis experiments and electron microscopy indicated that an intimate physical interaction of the bacterial and fungal mycelia is required to elicit the specific response. Gene knockout experiments provided evidence that one induced gene cluster codes for the long-sought after polyketide synthase (PKS) required for the biosynthesis of the archetypal polyketide orsellinic acid, the typical lichen metabolite lecanoric acid, and the cathepsin K inhibitors F-9775A and F-9775B. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that orthologs of this PKS are widespread in nature in all major fungal groups, including mycobionts of lichens. These results provide evidence of specific interaction among microorganisms belonging to different domains and support the hypothesis that not only diffusible signals but intimate physical interactions contribute to the communication among microorganisms and induction of otherwise silent biosynthesis genes. PMID:19666480

Schroeckh, Volker; Scherlach, Kirstin; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Shelest, Ekaterina; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Schuemann, Julia; Martin, Karin; Hertweck, Christian; Brakhage, Axel A.

2009-01-01

391

Fungal biogeography. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.  

PubMed

Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework. PMID:25430773

Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Põlme, Sergei; Kõljalg, Urmas; Yorou, Nourou S; Wijesundera, Ravi; Villarreal Ruiz, Luis; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Thu, Pham Quang; Suija, Ave; Smith, Matthew E; Sharp, Cathy; Saluveer, Erki; Saitta, Alessandro; Rosas, Miguel; Riit, Taavi; Ratkowsky, David; Pritsch, Karin; Põldmaa, Kadri; Piepenbring, Meike; Phosri, Cherdchai; Peterson, Marko; Parts, Kaarin; Pärtel, Kadri; Otsing, Eveli; Nouhra, Eduardo; Njouonkou, André L; Nilsson, R Henrik; Morgado, Luis N; Mayor, Jordan; May, Tom W; Majuakim, Luiza; Lodge, D Jean; Lee, Su See; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kohout, Petr; Hosaka, Kentaro; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Henkel, Terry W; Harend, Helery; Guo, Liang-dong; Greslebin, Alina; Grelet, Gwen; Geml, Jozsef; Gates, Genevieve; Dunstan, William; Dunk, Chris; Drenkhan, Rein; Dearnaley, John; De Kesel, André; Dang, Tan; Chen, Xin; Buegger, Franz; Brearley, Francis Q; Bonito, Gregory; Anslan, Sten; Abell, Sandra; Abarenkov, Kessy

2014-11-28

392

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

393

Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

394

Root Exudates Regulate Soil Fungal Community Composition and Diversity?  

PubMed Central

Plants are in constant contact with a community of soil biota that contains fungi ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic. A few studies have demonstrated a critical role of chemical communication in establishing highly specialized relationships, but the general role for root exudates in structuring the soil fungal community is poorly described. This study demonstrates that two model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula) are able to maintain resident soil fungal populations but unable to maintain nonresident soil fungal populations. This is mediated largely through root exudates: the effects of adding in vitro-generated root exudates to the soil fungal community were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the results observed for plants grown in those same soils. This effect is observed for total fungal biomass, phylotype diversity, and overall community similarity to the starting community. Nonresident plants and root exudates influenced the fungal community by both positively and negatively impacting the relative abundance of individual phylotypes. A net increase in fungal biomass was observed when nonresident root exudates were added to resident plant treatments, suggesting that increases in specific carbon substrates and/or signaling compounds support an increased soil fungal population load. This study establishes root exudates as a mechanism through which a plant is able to regulate soil fungal community composition. PMID:18083870

Broeckling, Corey D.; Broz, Amanda K.; Bergelson, Joy; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2008-01-01

395

Superficial fungal infections of the male genitalia: a review.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the genitals are probably more common than realized; however, relatively few reports concerning fungal genital infections exist in the literature. In this review, the fungal microbiota of the penis are highlighted, and the epidemiological characteristics of Candida balanitis, penile pityriasis versicolor, and tinea genitalis are addressed. In addition, the benefits of circumcision on male genital infections are included. However, systemic mycoses affecting the penis and/or scrotum will not be addressed in this review. To obtain a reliable diagnosis of genital fungal infections, medical history, clinical examination, and mycological and histological investigations of the lesions are critical. PMID:21668404

Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Izol, Volkan; Ilkit, Macit

2011-08-01

396

Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.  

PubMed

Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

2012-09-15

397

Synergy between xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 10 and family 11 and a feruloyl esterase in the release of phenolic acids from cereal arabinoxylan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioconversion of waste residues (by-products) from cereal processing industries requires the cooperation of enzymes able to degrade xylanolytic and cellulosic material. The type A feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus niger, AnFaeA, works synergistically with (1?4)-?-d-xylopyranosidases (xylanases) to release monomeric and dimeric ferulic acid (FA) from cereal cell wall-derived material. The esterase was more effective with a family 11 xylanase from

C. B. Faulds; G. Mandalari; R. B. Lo Curto; G. Bisignano; P. Christakopoulos; K. W. Waldron

2006-01-01

398

Removal of Uranium(VI) from Solution by Fungal Biomass and Fungal Wall--Related Biopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillium digitatum mycelium can accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride. Azide present during the uptake tests does not inhibit the process. Killing the fungal biomass in boiling water or by treatment with alcohols, dimethyl sulfoxide, or potassium hydroxide increases the uptake capability to about 10,000 parts per million (dry weight). Formaldehyde killing does not enhance the uranium uptake.

M. Galun; P. Keller; D. Malki; H. Feldstein; E. Galun; S. M. Siegel; B. Z. Siegel

1983-01-01

399

Animal models to investigate fungal biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Microbial biofilms play an essential role in several infectious diseases and are defined as extensive communities of sessile organisms irreversibly associated with a surface, encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), and exhibiting enhanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Forming a biofilm provides the microbes protection from environmental stresses due to contaminants, nutritional depletion, or imbalances, but is dangerous to human health due to their inherent robustness and elevated resistance.The use of indwelling medical devices (e.g., central venous catheters, CVCs) in current therapeutic practice is associated with 80-90 % of hospital-acquired bloodstream and deep tissue infections. Most cases of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) involve colonization of microorganisms on catheter surfaces where they form a biofilm. Additionally, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum were the causative organisms of the 2005/2006 outbreak of contact lens-associated fungal keratitis in the United States, Europe, the UK, and Singapore, and these infections involved formation of biofilms on contact lens. Fungal biofilm formation is studied using a number of techniques, involving the use of a wide variety of substrates and growth conditions. In vitro techniques involving the use of confocal scanning laser/scanning electron microscopy, metabolic activity assay, dry weight measurements, and antifungal susceptibility assays are increasingly used by investigators to quantify and evaluate biofilm morphology. However, there are not many in vivo models used to validate biofilm-associated infections. In this protocol, we describe a clinically relevant rabbit model of C. albicans biofilm-associated catheter infection to evaluate the morphology, topography, and architecture of fungal biofilms. We also describe a murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis.Evaluation of the formation of fungal biofilms on catheters in vivo, their analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative catheter culture (QCC), and treatment of biofilms using antimicrobial lock therapy can be completed in ~20-25 days using the described methods. The rabbit model has utility in evaluating the efficacy of lock solutions. In addition, the murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis enables characterizing/comparing the formation of Fusarium biofilms on contact lenses in vitro and determining their role in vivo. PMID:24664831

Chandra, Jyotsna; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

2014-01-01

400

Fungal prophylaxis in neonates: a review article.  

PubMed

Fungemia is a serious problem within neonatal intensive care units around the world. Premature infants are at high risk for this complication, which is often fatal. Prophylaxis for invasive fungal infection has been practiced worldwide in different settings and with various patient groups. Both oral and intravenous drugs have been used with some success. In the population of preterm infants, oral nystatin, intravenous fluconazole, and intravenous amphotericin B have all been cited as possible drugs for prophylactic use. Intravenous fluconazole has emerged as the best choice for chemoprophylaxis in premature infants. PMID:24472884

Lollis, Tyner R; Bradshaw, Wanda T

2014-02-01

401

3D structures of fungal partitiviruses.  

PubMed

Partitiviruses constitute one of the nine currently recognized families of viruses with encapsidated, double-stranded (ds)RNA genomes. The partitivirus genome is bisegmented, and each genome segment is packaged inside a separate viral capsid. Different partitiviruses infect plants, fungi, or protozoa. Recent studies have shed light on the three-dimensional structures of the virions of three representative fungal partitiviruses. These structures include a number of distinctive features, allowing informative comparisons with the structures of dsRNA viruses from other families. The results and comparisons suggest several new conclusions about the functions, assembly, and evolution of these viruses. PMID:23498903

Nibert, Max L; Tang, Jinghua; Xie, Jiatao; Collier, Aaron M; Ghabrial, Said A; Baker, Timothy S; Tao, Yizhi J

2013-01-01

402

Dispersed Polyphosphate in Fungal Vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/Pisolithus tinctorius  

E-print Network

Dispersed Polyphosphate in Fungal Vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/Pisolithus tinctorius. 1999. Dispersed polyphos- phate in fungal vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/ Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizas. Fungal Genetics Biology 28, 21­33. Ectomycorrhizas produced be- tween Pisolithus tinctorius

Vesk, Peter

403

Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Ocala, FL, USA). Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex mold was identified in specimens from BBG-exposed case-patients and an unopened BBG vial. Bipolaris hawaiiensis mold was identified in specimens from triamcinolone-exposed case-patients. Exposure to either product was the only factor associated with case status. Of 40 case-patients for whom data were available, 39 (98%) lost vision. These concurrent outbreaks, associated with 1 compounding pharmacy, resulted in a product recall. Ensuring safety and integrity of compounded medications is critical for preventing further outbreaks associated with compounded products. PMID:24447640

Mikosz, Christina A.; Smith, Rachel M.; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Török, Thomas J.; Mascola, Laurene

2014-01-01

404

The temperature response of fungal enzyme kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular enzymes produced and excreted by microbes mediate the decomposition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) -containing compounds in their environment. Climate change has the potential to alter the rate of decomposition especially in high latitude regions where stocks of recalcitrant, or long-lived, C are abundant. This project compares extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across ten fungi strains within the model family Neurospora in order to assess the range of variation in temperature sensitivities of fungal enzyme Vmax and Km. Vmax values of most enzymes tested increased exponentially,which was hypothesized and consistant with thermodynamic principles. We also hypothesized that Neurospora strains would exhibit different EEA temperature sensitivities based on their native climate. We observed strain-dependent variation in enzyme temperature responses consistent with strain-specific adaptation to local conditions. Since fungi are the major decomposers of organic carbon in high-latitude ecosystems, an increase in EEA in-situ would result in higher carbon dioxide emissions. These findings suggest a shift in fungal processing of soil organic carbon and nutrients in response to changing climate.

Curran, M.; Lu, Y.; Taylor, J.; Allison, S. D.

2013-12-01

405

Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

2010-01-01

406

Fungal Melanins Differ in Planar Stacking Distances  

PubMed Central

Melanins are notoriously difficult to study because they are amorphous, insoluble and often associated with other biological materials. Consequently, there is a dearth of structural techniques to study this enigmatic pigment. Current models of melanin structure envision the stacking of planar structures. X ray diffraction has historically been used to deduce stacking parameters. In this study we used X ray diffraction to analyze melanins derived from Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Wangiella dermatitides and Coprinus comatus. Analysis of melanin in melanized C. neoformans encapsulated cells was precluded by the fortuitous finding that the capsular polysaccharide had a diffraction spectrum that was similar to that of isolated melanin. The capsular polysaccharide spectrum was dominated by a broad non-Bragg feature consistent with origin from a repeating structural motif that may arise from inter-molecular interactions and/or possibly gel organization. Hence, we isolated melanin from each fungal species and compared diffraction parameters. The results show that the inferred stacking distances of fungal melanins differ from that reported for synthetic melanin and neuromelanin, occupying intermediate position between these other melanins. These results suggest that all melanins have a fundamental diffracting unit composed of planar graphitic assemblies that can differ in stacking distance. The stacking peak appears to be a distinguishing universal feature of melanins that may be of use in characterizing these enigmatic pigments. PMID:22359541

Casadevall, Arturo; Nakouzi, Antonio; Crippa, Pier R.; Eisner, Melvin

2012-01-01

407

Standard methods for fungal brood disease research  

PubMed Central

Summary Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases. PMID:24198438

Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

2013-01-01

408

Management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis  

PubMed Central

Aim: To report the management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis (POFE) after failed pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and antifungal therapy. Settings and Design: Tertiary Care Referral Centre in North India. Retrospective, single institution, interventional case-series. Materials and Methods: Six patients with microbiologically proven recurrent post-operative fungal endophthalmitis refractory to conventional management were included. The final recurrence was managed with intraocular lens (IOL) explantation and re-PPV. Main outcome measures included preserved globe anatomy, visual acuity and retinal status. ‘Anatomical success’ was defined as preserved anatomy of the globe, and absence of signs of inflammation. ‘Functional success’ was defined as an attached retina and a best corrected visual acuity of better than 20/400. Results: Of the six cases of POFE, five were culture positive [Aspergillus flavus (1), Aspergillus fumigatus (2), Candida albicans (1) and Candida glabrata (1)] and one was smear positive for yeast. All recurred (mean recurrences, 4) despite a mean of 2.17 PPVs and intravitreal amphotericin B. No recurrences were observed after IOL explantation with re – PPV (median follow-up, 37 months). Pre-study defined criteria for successful ‘anatomical’ and ‘functional’ outcomes were achieved in 83.3% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: This report highlights the effective role of combined IOL explantation with PPV in managing recurrent POFE. PMID:24618484

Vinekar, Anand; Dogra, Mangat R; Avadhani, Kavitha; Gupta, Vishali; Gupta, Amod; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2014-01-01

409

Fungal endophthalmitis associated with compounded products.  

PubMed

Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck's Compounding Lab (Ocala, FL, USA). Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex mold was identified in specimens from BBG-exposed case-patients and an unopened BBG vial. Bipolaris hawaiiensis mold was identified in specimens from triamcinolone-exposed case-patients. Exposure to either product was the only factor associated with case status. Of 40 case-patients for whom data were available, 39 (98%) lost vision. These concurrent outbreaks, associated with 1 compounding pharmacy, resulted in a product recall. Ensuring safety and integrity of compounded medications is critical for preventing further outbreaks associated with compounded products. PMID:24447640

Mikosz, Christina A; Smith, Rachel M; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F; Harris, Julie R; Lockhart, Shawn R; Török, Thomas J; Mascola, Laurene; Park, Benjamin J

2014-02-01

410

A fungal analog for newfoundland ediacaran fossils?  

PubMed

We propose that some of the more conspicuous Ediacaran fossils from the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, including Aspidella, Charnia, and Charniodiscus, were biologically similar to members of the Kingdom Fungi. These organisms were multicellular or multinuclear, lived below the photic zone, could not move or defoul themselves, did not exhibit taphonomic shrinkage, and were not transported or moved. Aspidella, in particular, appears to exhibit indeterminate growth without a maximum size constraint, and appears to show growth zonations similar to modern mycelia. Other fossils from this deposit exhibit a fractal-like growth pattern. Together, these features falsify algal, lichen, and metazoan interpretations of these fossils, yet reflect characteristics of modern fungal mycelia. We emphasize that although no Mistaken Point fossil appears to be a metazoan, not all of the Mistaken Point taxa, and not all of the Ediacaran organisms in general, can reasonably be interpreted using a fungal analogy. Furthermore, the hypothesis that these fossils were functionally fungus-like need not imply that the organisms were members of the crown-group Fungi. We propose further tests for evaluating both this functional hypothesis and the phylogenetic hypothesis that these organisms were members of the total-group Fungi. PMID:21680417

Peterson, Kevin J; Waggoner, Ben; Hagadorn, James W

2003-02-01

411

Synthesis and assembly of fungal melanin  

PubMed Central

Melanin is a unique pigment with myriad functions that is found in all biological kingdoms. It is multifunctional, providing defense against environmental stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) light, oxidizing agents and ionizing radiation. Melanin contributes to the ability of fungi to survive in harsh environments. In addition, it plays a role in fungal pathogenesis. Melanin is an amorphous polymer that is produced by one of two synthetic pathways. Fungi may synthesize melanin from endogenous substrate via a 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) intermediate. Alternatively, some fungi produce melanin from l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa). The detailed chemical structure of melanin is not known. However, microscopic studies show that it has an overall granular structure. In fungi, melanin granules are localized to the cell wall where they are likely cross-linked to polysaccharides. Recent studies suggest the fungal melanin may be synthesized in internal vesicles akin to mammalian melanosomes and transported to the cell wall. Potential applications of melanin take advantage of melanin's radioprotective properties and propensity to bind to a variety of substances. PMID:22173481

Casadevall, Arturo

2015-01-01

412

Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis  

PubMed Central

Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyomyositis, psoas abscess, Staphylococcus aureus myositis, group A streptococcal necrotizing myositis, group B streptococcal myositis, clostridial gas gangrene, and nonclostridial myositis. Fungal myositis is rare and usually occurs among immunocompromised hosts. Parasitic myositis is most commonly a result of trichinosis or cystericercosis, but other protozoa or helminths may be involved. A parasitic cause of myositis is suggested by the travel history and presence of eosinophilia. Viruses may cause diffuse muscle involvement with clinical manifestations, such as benign acute myositis (most commonly due to influenza virus), pleurodynia (coxsackievirus B), acute rhabdomyolysis, or an immune-mediated polymyositis. The diagnosis of myositis is suggested by the clinical picture and radiologic imaging, and the etiologic agent is confirmed by microbiologic or serologic testing. Therapy is based on the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen. PMID:18625683

Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

2008-01-01

413

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Characterization of fungal communities associated with the bark  

E-print Network

methods are necessary to adequately describe fungal richness. Fungal assemblages on insects from was the most abundant species. This result was not unexpected, as insects were trapped not at the peak. Ubiquitous endophytes of trees or common airborne fungi were present both in outbreak and in control areas

California at Berkeley, University of

414

Fungal Deterioration of Barrier Concrete used in Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal biogeochemical activity over a long-term scale may have negative environmental consequences for the management of barrier materials used in nuclear waste disposal. Fungal deterioration of barrier concrete was studied in microcosms simulating a heterogeneous environment with an external source of nutrients for the fungi. Fungi successfully colonized barrier concrete, generally avoiding granite aggregates, and biochemically (by excretion of protons

M. Fomina; V. S. Podgorsky; S. V. Olishevska; V. M. Kadoshnikov; I. R. Pisanska; S. Hillier; G. M. Gadd

2007-01-01

415

Ris-PhD-20(EN) Interactions Between Fungal Plant  

E-print Network

Risø-PhD-20(EN) Interactions Between Fungal Plant Pathogens on Leaves. Especially simultaneous: Interactions between fungal plant pathogens on leaves. Especially simultaneous development of Rhynchosporium organic and conventional cereal production, and generally several species of pathogenic fungi are found

416

ORIGINAL PAPER Characterization of the fungal microflora in raw milk  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Characterization of the fungal microflora in raw milk and specialty cheeses microbial ecosystem is complex, and the presence of non- starter adventitious microorganisms in milk may the composition and diversity of the fungal flora of raw milk destined for cheesemaking from 19 dairy farms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Fungal Diversity Identification of Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus, Acacia  

E-print Network

Fungal Diversity 103 Identification of Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pinus). Identification of Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pinus in Venezuela. Fungal Diversity 25: 103-125. Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are pathogens of many plantation trees, including species of Acacia

418

Topical Voriconazole as a Novel Treatment for Fungal Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paecilomyces lilacinus is a fungal pathogen which is generally resistant to amphotericin B and certain other antifungals and is an uncommon cause of devastating fungal keratitis. In the present studies, we evaluated topical voriconazole as therapy for P. lilacinus keratitis in rabbits. Thirty eyes of 15 rabbits were studied. In five animals, the uninfected left eye was treated twice daily

William Sponsel; Nancy Chen; Demi Dang; Gianmarco Paris; John Graybill; Laura K. Najvar; Lei Zhou; Kwok-Wai Lam; Randolph Glickman; Frank Scribbick

2006-01-01

419

Ocular Fungal Isolates and Antifungal Susceptibility in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

? PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of ocular fungal isolates and antifungal susceptibility in vitro. ? DESIGN: A retrospective case-series descriptive study. ? METHODS: Two thousand one hundred and seventy- nine specimens collected from Tongren Hospital during 2001 to 2004 were identified at the Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology. Fungal culture-positive rate, antifungal susceptibility in vitro, and genus distribution of

SUN XUGUANG; WANG ZHIXIN; WANG ZHIQUN; LUO SHIYUN

420

Effect of Cover Crops on Soil Fungal Diversity and Biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of various cover crops (sordan, mustard, canola, honeysweet, and fallow) to influence soil fungal biomass and diversity were tested in a potato field in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were randomly selected from each cover crop plot and soil fungal communitie...

421

Topographic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in human skin.  

PubMed

Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the microbial landscape of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases, including athlete's foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms and provides a home for diverse commensal microbiota. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also have major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with those that are available for bacteria. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes. Here we sequenced and analysed fungal communities of 14?skin sites in 10?healthy adults. Eleven core-body and arm sites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia, with only species-level classifications revealing fungal-community composition differences between sites. By contrast, three foot sites--plantar heel, toenail and toe web--showed high fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that physiologic attributes and topography of skin differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of the contribution of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities to the maintainenace of human health and to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

2013-06-20

422

Fungal Parasitism: Life Cycle, Dynamics and Impact on Cyanobacterial Blooms  

E-print Network

Fungal Parasitism: Life Cycle, Dynamics and Impact on Cyanobacterial Blooms Me´lanie Gerphagnon Abstract Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Fungal Granuloma following Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy for Infantile Hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is increasingly being used in the treatment of hydrocephalus in infancy. Infective complications rarely occur following ETV and fungal infections or granulomas have not been reported so far. The authors report the occurrence and management of a fungal granuloma incidentally detected during a repeat ventriculoscopy for a non-functioning ETV. PMID:23573400

Kariyattil, Rajeev; Panikar, Dilip

2013-01-01