Sample records for fungal ferulic acid

  1. Detoxification of ferulic acid by ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, B; Hammer, E; Wray, V; Schauer, F; Schmidt, J; Strack, D

    2003-04-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungi Laccaria amethystina and Lactarius deterrimus grown in liquid culture were used to study the fate of added ferulic acid. Laccaria amethystina degraded ferulic acid to the major metabolite vanillic acid. The intermediate vanillin was not detected. Lactarius deterrimus showed a completely different detoxification pattern. Two dimers and one trimer of ferulic acid could be identified as polymerization products of this fungus. A bioassay of the possible biological activities of ferulic acid and vanillic acid on these fungi revealed that vanillic acid was less toxic than ferulic acid for Laccaria amethystina but that both phenolic acids were toxic for Lactarius deterrimus. The results are discussed with respect to ectomycorrhizal fungal growth in the organic layer of forest soils and between living root cells of ectomycorrhizas. PMID:12682834

  2. Bioavailability of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L C; Rice-Evans, C

    1998-12-18

    There is a wealth of evidence for the powerful antioxidant properties in vitro of flavonoid components of the diet. However, few studies have been undertaken concerning the hydroxycinnamates, major constituents of fruit, some vegetables, beverages, and grains, particularly the extent to which they are absorbed in vivo from the diet. The study described here has investigated the bioavailability of ferulic acid in humans, from tomato consumption, through the monitoring of the pharmacokinetics of excretion in relation to intake. The results show that the peak time for maximal urinary excretion is approximately 7 h and the recovery of ferulic acid in the urine, on the basis of total free ferulic acid and feruloyl glucuronide excreted, is 11-25% of that ingested. PMID:9878519

  3. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  4. Amylose inclusion complexation of ferulic acid via lipophilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid is an interesting phytochemical that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, UV-absorber, and anticarcinogenic activities. These properties make it of interest in food formulations, cosmetics, polymer, and pharmaceutical applications. However, delivery of ferulic acid in...

  5. Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...

  6. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Lifu Song; Shan Lin; Zhaobin Zhang; Zixin Deng; Ping Xu

    2007-01-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration\\u000a of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using\\u000a adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen

  7. Ferulic acid: pharmacological and toxicological aspects.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Cesare; Santangelo, Rosaria

    2014-03-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) belongs to the family of phenolic acids and is very abundant in fruits and vegetables. Over the past years, several studies have shown that FA acts as a potent antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and enhancing the cell stress response through the up-regulation of cytoprotective systems, e.g. heme oxygenase-1, heat shock protein 70, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the proto-oncogene Akt. Furthermore, FA was shown to inhibit the expression and/or activity of cytotoxic enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspases and cyclooxygenase-2. Based on this evidence, FA has been proposed as a potential treatment for many disorders including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and skin disease. However, despite the great abundance of preclinical research, only a few studies were carried out in humans, the majority of which used foods containing FA, and therefore the clinical efficacy of this mode of administration needs to be further documented. New efforts and resources are needed in clinical research for the complete evaluation of FA therapeutic potential in chronic diseases. PMID:24373826

  8. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the milk and that the physiological transfer of FRA occurs from rumen to milk within 6.5 h or the first milking after dosage. Ferulic acid may affect the functionality of milk due to its antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activities. Future research will be required to elucidate whether FRA in milk is bioavailable and bioactive, and to evaluate the complete sensory and microbiological effects of increased FRA and FRA degradation products in milk. PMID:22921626

  9. Dehydrodimers of Ferulic Acid in Maize Grain Pericarp and Aleurone: Resistance Factors to Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Bily, A C; Reid, L M; Taylor, J H; Johnston, D; Malouin, C; Burt, A J; Bakan, B; Regnault-Roger, C; Pauls, K P; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT The relationship between the primary cell wall phenolic acids, dehydrodimers of ferulic acid, and maize grain resistance to Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of gibberella ear rot, was investigated. Concentrations of dehydrodimers of ferulic acid were determined in the pericarp and aleurone tissues of five inbreds and two hybrids of varying susceptibility and in a segregating population from a cross between a resistant and susceptible inbred. Significant negative correlations were found between disease severity and diferulic acid content. Even stronger correlations were observed between diferulic acid and the fungal steroid ergosterol, which is an indicator of fungal biomass in infected plant tissue. These results were consistent over two consecutive field seasons, which differed significantly for temperature and rainfall during pollination, the most susceptible stage of ear development. No correlation was found between the levels of these phenolics and deoxynivalenol levels. This is the first report of in vivo evidence that the dehydrodimers of ferulic acid content in pericarp and aleurone tissues may play a role in genotypic resistance of maize to gibberella ear rot. PMID:18943058

  10. Absorption of ferulic acid from low-alcohol beer.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L; Paganga, G; Baxter, D; Hughes, P; Rice-Evans, C

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoids and monophenolic compounds have been well-described over recent years for their properties as antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. A number of epidemiological studies implicate a role for flavonoids in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. In particular, the focus has been on flavonol-rich fruit and vegetables and flavonoid-rich beverages, especially tea and red wine. Mechanisms of protection are unclear since the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of dietary phenolics have not yet been extensively investigated. Here we report the bioavailability of ferulic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid, the major hydroxycinnamate in beer. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of urinary excretion of ferulic acid from low alcohol beer consumption in humans have been undertaken. The results show that ferulic acid is absorbed with a peak time for maximal excretion of ca. 8 h and the mean cumulative amount excreted is 5.8 +/- 3.2 mg. These findings are consistent with the uptake of ferulic acid from dietary sources, such as tomatoes, and suggest that ferulic acid is more bioavailable than individual dietary flavonoids and phenolics so far studied. PMID:10730826

  11. Ferulic acid is esterified to glucuronoarabinoxylans in pineapple cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwen G Smith; Philip J Harris

    2001-01-01

    The ester-linkage of ferulic acid (mainly E) to polysaccharides in primary cell walls of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) (Bromeliaceae) was investigated by treating a cell-wall preparation with ‘Driselase’ which contains a mixture of endo- and exo-glycanases, but no hydroxycinnamoyl esterase activity. The most abundant feruloyl oligosaccharide released was O-[5-O-(E-feruloyl)-?-l-arabinofuranosyl](1?3)-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-xylopyranose (FAXX). This indicated that the ferulic acid is ester-linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans

  12. COSMECEUTICAL ACTIVE INGREDIENT DERIVED FROM SOYBEAN OIL AND FERULIC ACID: SYNTHESIS OF APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid is a natural plant phenol widely heralded for its ability to serve as a potent antioxidant. However, the low solubility of ferulic acid in lipids prevents it from protecting lipid membranes and associated structures. In its esterified forms, ferulic acid strongly absorbs light within ...

  13. SUNSCREEN ACTIVE DERIVED FROM SOYBEAN OIL AND FERULIC ACID: SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid is a natural plant phenol widely heralded for its ability to serve as a potent antioxidant. However, the low solubility of ferulic acid in lipids prevents it from protecting lipid membranes and associated structures. In its esterified forms, ferulic acid strongly absorbs light within ...

  14. Degradation of a model pollutant ferulic acid by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing-Guang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Biodegradation of ferulic acid, by an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in this study. This strain can use ferulic acid as the sole carbon for growth. Both in mineral salt medium and in soil, more than 97% of added ferulic acid was degraded within 48 h. The metabolites were identified and quantified using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Ferulic acid was first decarboxylated to 4-vinyl guaiacol and then oxidized to vanillin and vanillic acid, followed by demethylation to protocatechuic acid, which was further degraded through the ?-ketoadipate pathway. During degradation, ferulic acid decarboxylase, laccase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activities and their gene transcription levels were significantly affected by the variation of substrate and product concentrations. Moreover, ferulic acid degradation was determined to some extent by P. liquidambari laccase. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has a great potential for practical application in ferulic acid-contaminated environments. PMID:25514400

  15. Conversion of ferulic acid into 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin and vanillic acid in model solutions of shochu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Koseki; Yasurou Ito; Shinji Furuse; Kiyoshi Ito; Kimio Iwano

    1996-01-01

    4-Vinylguaiacol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene), vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) were isolated from distilled and stored model solutions of shochu (MSS) that originally contained only ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) using a solid-phase extraction technique. These compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The amounts of the metabolites converted from ferulic acid was affected by pH, alcohol

  16. Screening of edible mushrooms for release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-yan Xie; Zhen-xin Gu; Xuejiao You; Gaixia Liu; Yuxia Tan; Hong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release ferulic acid from wheat bran. In the five samples tested in the present studies, cultured mycelia of four mushroom species were found to release ferulic acid, with Hericium erinaceus producing the highest ferulic acid yield at 4d of culture, reach 95.51mg\\/l in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection

  17. A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther

    1996-01-01

    A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

  18. Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...

  19. Determination of ferulic acid and adenosine in Angelicae Radix by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Guo; Yi Sun; Yin Sui; Famei Li

    2003-01-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography for determining ferulic acid and adenosine in Angelicae Radix was developed. A buffer solution composed of 50 mmol Lу borax, 10 mmol Lу sodium deoxycholate, and 2% methanol was found to be the most suitable electrolyte for the separation. The contents of ferulic acid and adenosine in Angelicae Radix were determined within 20 min. Good linearity

  20. Effects of ferulic acid, an allelopathic compound, on leaf expansion of cucumber seedlings grown in nutrient culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton

    1985-01-01

    Cucumber seeds and seedlings at various ages (7–19 days old) were treated with a single treatment or multiple treatments (at 2-day intervals) of ferulic acid in nutrient culture. Ferulic acid treatments of cucumber seeds during stages of germination and radicle growth did not significantly reduce subsequent seedling growth. Ferulic acid treatments to seedlings reduced leaf area, leaf expansion, and dry

  1. Effects of ferulic acid on Glomus fasciculatum and associated effects on phosphorus uptake and growth of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Wacker; Gene R. Safir; Christine T. Stephens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ferulic acid, an allelochemical produced by asparagus, on hyphal elongation and colonization of asparagus byG. fasciculatum was studied. Spore germination in vitro was not affected, but hyphal elongation decreased significantly with increasing ferulic acid concentration. In the greenhouse, mycorrhizal colonization of roots and growth of mycorrhizal asparagus decreased significantly with increasing ferulic acid concentration, while growth of

  2. Synergistic inhibitory effects of p -coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Rasmussen; Frank A. Einhellig

    1977-01-01

    The data support the hypothesis that there is a synergistic phytotoxic effect whenp-coumaric and ferulic acids are found together. Equimolar mixtures of both acids showed greater reduction in sorghum seed germination, shoot elongation, and total seedling growth than either phytotoxin caused when alone. Repeated experiments showed mixtures containing 5×10-3 Mp-coumaric and 5×10-3 M ferulic acids reduced germination to 34% of

  3. Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

    1998-01-01

    Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

  4. Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton; John O. Rawlings

    1984-01-01

    An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and\\/or vanillic acids and that

  5. Towards a high-yield bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Muheim; K. Lerch

    1999-01-01

    Natural vanillin is of high interest in the flavor market. Microbial routes to vanillin have so far not been economical as\\u000a the medium concentrations achieved have been well below 1 g?l?1. We have now screened microbial isolates from nature and known strains for their ability to convert eugenol or ferulic acid\\u000a into vanillin. Ferulic acid, in contrast to the rather

  6. Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, selected for the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin, are also able to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and feruloyl esterases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Bonnina; M Brunel; Y Gouy; L Lesage-Meessen; M Asther; J.-F Thibault

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungal strains Aspergillus niger I-1472 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL39533, previously selected for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid and vanillin respectively, were grown on sugar beet pulp. A large spectrum of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes was produced by A. niger and very few levels of feruloyl esterases were found. In contrast, P. cinnabarinus culture filtrate contained low amount

  7. Rapid degradation of ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol and vanillin by a newly isolated strain of Bacillus coagulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karmakar; R. M. Vohra; H. Nandanwar; P. Sharma; K. G. Gupta; R. C. Sobti

    2000-01-01

    A new strain Bacillus coagulans BK07 was isolated from decomposed wood-bark, based on its ability to grow on ferulic acid as a sole carbon source. This strain rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was immediately converted to vanillin and then oxidized to vanillic acid. Vanillic acid was further demethylated to protocatechuic acid. Above 95% substrate degradation was obtained within

  8. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  9. The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anabela Borges; Maria J. Saavedra; Manuel Simões

    2012-01-01

    The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 ?g ml, was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control

  10. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product. PMID:18930006

  11. Ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yonghui; Qi, Fanghua; Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Bo; Teng, Jialin

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunction of the endothelium is regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus (DM). Unfortunately, prevention of the progression of vascular complications of DM remains pessimistic. Ferulic acid and astragaloside IV, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Angelica sinensis and Radix astragali respectively, exhibit potential cardio-protective and anti-hyperglycemic properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanism of ferulic acid and astragaloside IV against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats. After the diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin, sixty rats were divided into 6 groups (control, model, ferulic acid, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid + astragaloside IV, and metformin) and treated for 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low density lipoproteins (Ox-LDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine (Cr), nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and abdominal aorta tissue samples were collected for observing histological morphology changes of endothelium and detecting gene and protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) P65, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). We found that ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV was capable of improving the structure of the aortic endothelium wall, attenuating the increase of HbAlc, TG, TC, LDL-C and Ox-LDL, promoting the release of NO and eNOS, and inhibiting over-activation of MCP-1, TNF-?, and NF-?B P65, without damage to liver and kidney function. In conclusion, ferulic acid combined with astragaloside IV exhibited significant protective effects against vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats through the NF-?B pathway involving decrease of Ox-LDL, increase of NO and eNOS, and activation of NF-?B P65, MCP-1 and TNF-?. PMID:25224628

  12. Ferulic acid may prevent infection of Cicer arietinum by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Sarma; U. P. Singh

    2003-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography analysis of different parts of Sclerotium rolfsii-infected and healthy seedlings of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was carried out to examine the status of phenolic compounds. Three major peaks that appeared consistently were identified as gallic, vanillic and ferulic acids. Gallic acid concentrations were increased in the leaves and stems of infected plants compared to healthy ones. Vanillic

  13. Monosaccharide compositions of unlignified cell walls of monocotyledons in relation to the occurrence of wall-bound ferulic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Harris; Marnix R. Kelderman; Marlene F. Kendon; Robert J. McKenzie

    1997-01-01

    The families of monocotyledons can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of ester-linked ferulic acid in their unlignified cell walls (UCW). In the Poaceae this ferulic acid is linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans, which are major components of these cell walls (CW). The hypothesis was examined that the UCW of the

  14. The anticoagulant ability of ferulic acid and its applications for improving the blood compatibility of silk fibroin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Wang; Zhen Gao; Xiaomeng Chen; Xiaojie Lian; Hesun Zhu; Jun Zheng; Lizhong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of silk fibroin (SF) was improved with ferulic acid (FA) by graft polymerization. Ferulic acid is an active ingredient of many Chinese herbal medicines, such as Chuanxiong (Rhizoma ligustici wallichii), Danggui (Angelica sinensis) and Awei (Asafoetida giantfennel), which have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases by Chinese physicians for thousands of years. The inhibitory functions of FA on

  15. A COMPLETE ENZYMATIC RECOVERY OF FERULIC ACID FROM CORN RESIDUES WITH EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES FROM NEOSARTORYA SPINOSA NRRL 185

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material...

  16. Guaiacol production from ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Witthuhn, R Corli; van der Merwe, Enette; Venter, Pierre; Cameron, Michelle

    2012-06-15

    Alicyclobacilli are thermophilic, acidophilic bacteria (TAB) that spoil fruit juice products by producing guaiacol. It is currently believed that guaiacol is formed by Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices as a product of ferulic acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify the precursors that can be metabolised by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to produce guaiacol and to evaluate the pathway of guaiacol production. A. acidoterrestris FB2 was incubated at 45°C for 7days in Bacillus acidoterrestris (BAT) broth supplemented with ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid, respectively. The samples were analysed every day to determine the cell concentration, the supplement concentration using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and the guaiacol concentration, using both the peroxidase enzyme colourimetric assay (PECA) and HPLC-DAD. The cell concentration of A. acidoterrestris FB2 during the 7days in all samples were above the critical cell concentration of 10(5)cfu/mL reportedly required for guaiacol production. The guaiacol produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 increased with an increase in vanillin or vanillic acid concentration and a metabolic pathway of A. acidoterrestris FB2 directly from vanillin to guaiacol was established. The high concentration of vanillic acid (1000mg/L) resulted in an initial inhibitory effect on the cells, but the cell concentration increased after day 2. Guaiacol production did not occur in the absence of either a precursor or A. acidoterrestris FB2 and guaiacol was not produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 in the samples supplemented with ferulic acid. The presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. that has the ability to produce guaiacol, as well as the substrates vanillin or vanillic acid is prerequisite for production of guaiacol. PMID:22613201

  17. Radiation protection of DNA by ferulic acid under in vitro and in vivo conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharmendra Kumar Maurya; Veena Prakash Salvi; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ferulic acid was studied on ?-radiation-induced relaxation of plasmid pBR322 DNA and induction of DNA strand\\u000a breaks in peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to whole body ?-radiation. Presence of 0.5 mM\\u000a ferulic acid significantly inhibited the disappearance of supercoiled (ccc) plasmid pBR322 with a dose modifying factor (DMF)\\u000a of 2.0. Intraperitoneal administration

  18. UV–VIS. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FERULIC ACID AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George X. Pan; Cameron I. Thomson; Gordon J. Leary

    2002-01-01

    The UV–Vis. absorption of ferulic acid and related compounds may be considerably augmented by substitution and environment. Among the circumstances investigated in the present study, esterification (mostly to polysaccharides in plant cell wall), dehydrodimerization and inclusion in a cellulose matrix substantially cause the absorption to increase and extend into the visible region. As a result of the combination of these

  19. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  20. Oxidizing of ferulic acid with the use of polyoxometalates as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarnitsyna, T. V.; Popova, N. R.; Bogolitsyn, K. G.; Beloglazova, A. L.; Pryakhin, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The kinetics of catalytic oxidation for ferulic acid with polyoxometalates used as catalysts was studied. The effect of pH and concentrations of the principal reacting components on the process kinetics was studied. A kinetic scheme of oxidation is proposed, and the values of a number of kinetic parameters of the process are determined.

  1. Interest of ferulic acid ethyl ester in photoprotective creams: Measure of efficacy by in vitro method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Choquenet; Celine Couteau; Eva Paparis; Laurence J. M. Coiffard

    2008-01-01

    Topical sunscreens have been used for many years on exposed areas to protect the skin from the damaging effects of ultraviolets. If the sunscreens were essential, it is suggested that they have adverse effects. We chose to study ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) as agent which could potentially be used in sunscreen products. FAEE was incorporated at various concentrations into

  2. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  3. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  4. Modifications of amino acids during ferulic acid-mediated, laccase-catalysed cross-linking of peptides.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Stensballe, Allan; Kidmose, Ulla; Degn, Peter E; Andersen, Mogens L; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2009-12-01

    Mass spectral analysis demonstrated oligomerization of peptides that had been subjected to oxidation catalysed by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor laccase. Peptide oligomerization occurred only when cysteines or tyrosines were present in the peptides. MS/MS confirmed the cross-linking in tyrosine-containing peptides to be located between tyrosine residues. Ferulic acid mediated oligomerization of cysteine-containing peptides, but prevented cross-linking of tyrosines when used in the same concentration as the peptides. This suggests an antioxidative effect of ferulic acid in relation to tyrosine oxidation, although incorporation of ferulic acid into peptide oligomers was found in some of the tyrosine-containing peptides. No other modifications to amino acid residues by laccase-catalysed oxidation were observed by mass spectroscopy. Thus, it is suggested that oxidative modifications of other amino acids observed in proteins oxidized by laccase are not major reaction products of laccase-catalysed oxidation. PMID:19905979

  5. Simple and rapid determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.

    PubMed

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  6. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  7. Ferulic Acid Stabilizes a Solution of Vitamins C and E and Doubles its Photoprotection of Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Hsiung Lin; Jing-Yi Lin; Ravindra D. Gupta; Joshua A. Tournas; James A. Burch; M. Angelica Selim; Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere; James M. Grichnik; Jan Zielinski; Sheldon R. Pinnell

    2005-01-01

    Ferulic acid is a potent ubiquitous plant antioxidant. Its incorporation into a topical solution of 15% L-ascorbic acid and 1% ?-tocopherol improved chemical stability of the vitamins (C+E) and doubled photoprotection to solar-simulated irradiation of skin from 4-fold to approximately 8-fold as measured by both erythema and sunburn cell formation. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with reduced induction of caspase-3

  8. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5 %. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49 %. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity. PMID:26026278

  9. Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Blum, U; Dalton, B R; Rawlings, J O

    1984-08-01

    An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and/or vanillic acids and that the magnitude of inhibition varied with concentration (0-2 mM), phenolic acid, and pH of the initial solution. The pH values of the initial solutions changed considerably when added to the Petri dishes containing filter paper and seeds. The final pH values after 48 hr were 6.6, 6.8, and 7.1, respectively, for the initial 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 pH solutions. The amounts of the phenolic acids in the Petri dishes declined rapidly over the 48 hr of the bioassay, and the rate of phenolic acid decline was species specific. Cucumber was subsequently chosen as the bioassay species for further study. MES buffer was used to stabilize the pH of the phenolic acid solutions which ranged between 5.5 and 5.8 for all subsequent studies. Inhibition of radicle growth declined in a curvilinear manner over the 0-2 mM concentration range. At 0.125 and 0.25 mM concentrations of ferulic acid, radicle growth of cucumber was inhibited 7 and 14%, respectively. A variety of microbial metabolic products of ferulic acid was identified in the Petri dishes and tested for toxicity. Only vanillic acid was as inhibitory as ferulic acid. The remaining phenolic acids were less inhibitory to noninhibitory. When mixtures of phenolic acids were tested, individual components were antagonistic to each other in the inhibition of cucumber radicle growth. Depending on the initial total concentration of the mixture, effects ranged from 5 to 35% lower than the sum of the inhibition of each phenolic acid tested separately. Implications of these findings to germination bioassays are discussed. PMID:24318904

  10. Differential distribution of ferulic acid to the major plasma constituents in relation to its potential as an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Castelluccio, C; Bolwell, G P; Gerrish, C; Rice-Evans, C

    1996-06-01

    The hydroxycinnamates, intermediates in the phenylpropanoid synthetic pathway, are effective in enhancing the resistance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in the order caffeic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. It is unclear whether the mode of action of ferulic acid as an antioxidant is based on its activities in the aqueous or the lipophilic phase. Partitioning of 14C-labelled ferulic acid into plasma and its components, LDL and the albumin-rich fractions, has been studied under conditions of maximum aqueous solubility. The majority of ferulic acid associates with the albumin-rich fraction of the plasma, although a proportion is also found to partition between the LDL and aqueous phases; however, ferulic acid does not associate with the lipid portion of the LDL particle, suggesting that it exerts its antioxidant properties from the aqueous phase. This is of particular interest since the results demonstrate that ferulic acid is a more effective antioxidant against LDL oxidation than the hydrophilic antioxidant ascorbic acid. PMID:8687419

  11. Purification and characterization of ferulic acid esterase from malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15).

    PubMed

    Latha, G Madhavi; Srinivas, P; Muralikrishna, G

    2007-11-14

    Ferulic acid esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) cleaves the feruloyl groups substituted at the 5'-OH group of arabinosyl residues of arabinoxylans and is known to modulate their functional properties. In this study, ferulic acid esterase from 96 h finger millet malt was purified to apparent homogeneity by three-step purification with a recovery of 3% and a fold purification of 22. The substrate p-nitrophenylferulate (PNPF) was synthesized and used to assay this enzyme spectrophotometrically. The products liberated from ragi and wheat water-soluble polysaccharides by the action of purified ragi ferulic acid esterase were identified by ESI-MS. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were found to be 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The pH and temperature stabilities of the enzyme were found to be in the range of 5.5-9.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was found to be 4.08 kJ mol(-1). The apparent K m and V max of the purified ferulic acid esterase for PNPF were 0.053 microM and 0.085 unit mL(-1), respectively. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 16.5 kDa. Metal ions such as Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+) and oxalic and citric acids enhanced the enzyme activity. The enzyme was completely inhibited by Fe(3+). Group specific reagents such as p-chloromercuric benzoate and iodoacetamide inhibited the enzyme, indicating the possible presence of cysteine residues in the active site pocket. PMID:17944530

  12. Changes in Dehydrodiferulic Acids and Peroxidase Activity against Ferulic Acid Associated with Cell Walls during Growth of Pinus pinaster Hypocotyl.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, M.; Pena, M. J.; Revilla, G.; Zarra, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids associated with hypocotyl cell walls of dark-grown seedlings of Pinus pinaster Aiton were extracted with 1 N NaOH and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main hydroxycinnamic acid found was ferulic acid. Diferulic acid dehydrodimers were also found, with the 8,8-coupled isomer (compound 11) being the dehydrodiferulate present in the highest amount. However, the 5,5-coupled isomer, commonly referred to referred to as diferulic acid, was not detected. Two truxillic acids, 4-4[prime]-dihydroxy-3-3[prime]-dimethoxy-[alpha]-truxillic acids I and II, were tentatively identified. The 8,8-coupled dehydrodiferulic acid (compound 11) was the phenolic acid that showed the most conspicuous changes with hypocotyl age as well as along the hypocotyl axis. Peroxidase activity against ferulic acid was found in the apoplastic fluid as well as being ionically and covalently bound to the cell walls. The peroxidase activity increased with hypocotyl age as well as from the subapical toward the basal region of the hypocotyls. A key role in the cell-wall stiffening of 8,8 but not 5,5 dimerization of ferulic acid catalyzed by cell-wall peroxidases is proposed. PMID:12226339

  13. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2009-02-01

    Ferulic acid, umbelliferone (Ferula asafoetida), eugenol (Syzygium aromaticum) and limonene (Carum carvi) are active molluscicidal components that inhibited the activity of alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase in in vivo and in vitro exposure of Lymnaea acuminata. It was observed that ferulic acid, umbelliferone and eugenol are competitive and limonene is a competitive-non-competitive inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase. Ferulic acid and umbelliferone are competitive, whereas eugenol and limonene are competitive-non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, respectively. PMID:18814203

  14. The effect of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein depends on the pro-oxidant used.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L C; Rice-Evans, C A

    1997-09-01

    The action of ferulic acid during the oxidation of LDL has been investigated using both copper ions and the haem protein metmyoglobin as pro-oxidants. The results demonstrate the ability of ferulic acid to act as a pro-oxidant when LDL oxidation is induced by copper at concentrations of the phenolic acid which are protective when the LDL oxidation is mediated by metmyoglobin. The suggested mechanism involves the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ by ferulic acid resulting in the production of the ferulic phenoxyl radical. PMID:9350437

  15. The Occurrence of p -coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Fossil Plant Materials and their Use as UV-proxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Blokker; Peter Boelen; Rob Broekman; Jelte Rozema

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid concentrations or ratios in (sub)fossil plant remnant as UV-B proxies relies on various aspects,\\u000a which are discussed in this paper and will be illustrated with some experimental data. A newly developed THM-micropyrolysis–gas\\u000a chromatography–mass spectrometry method was tested on various spores, pollen and other plant remains, which were analysed\\u000a for the presence of

  16. Possible contribution of cell-wall-bound ferulic acid in drought resistance and recovery in triticale seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hura, T; Hura, K; Grzesiak, S

    2009-11-01

    Studies were undertaken to estimate whether the presence of free and cell-wall-bound ferulic acid in leaf tissues can support drought resistance and its recovery under rehydration. An experiment was carried out on two genotypes of winter triticale: Lamberto and Ticino, at the propagation phase. Lamberto exhibited high content of ferulic acid bound with carbohydrates of the cell-wall under drought and rehydration. The markedly better parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence for this variety under both treatments correlated strongly and positively with the high contents of cell-wall-bound ferulic acid. The photosynthetic apparatus of Lamberto, in relation to Ticino, proved to be the more efficient after 4 weeks of drought treatment. The after-effects of soil drought better elicited the function disturbances of the photosynthetic apparatus in Ticino, which did not fully recover in comparison to Lamberto. Ferulic acid covalently bound to carbohydrates of the cell wall may act as a light filter limiting mesophyll penetration under drought conditions and can also support drought adaptation by down-regulation of leaf growth. The observed increase in the content of cell-wall-bound ferulic acid, as a response to water deficit in the leaf, could be one of the protective mechanisms induced by drought conditions. The ability to accumulate phenolic compounds in dehydrated leaves might be an additional and reliable biochemical parameter indicating the resistance of plants to drought stress. PMID:19464752

  17. Consecutive fragmentation mechanisms of protonated ferulic acid probed by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Martens, Sabrina M; Marta, Rick A; Martens, Jonathan K; McMahon, Terry B

    2012-10-01

    Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm(-1). The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring. PMID:22864827

  18. Consecutive Fragmentation Mechanisms of Protonated Ferulic Acid Probed by Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Sabrina M.; Marta, Rick A.; Martens, Jonathan K.; McMahon, Terry B.

    2012-10-01

    Protonated ferulic acid and its principle fragment ion have been characterized using infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level of theory. Due to its extensively conjugated structure, protonated ferulic acid is observed to yield three stable fragment ions in IRMPD experiments. It is proposed that two parallel fragmentation pathways of protonated ferulic acid are being observed. The first pathway involves proton transfer, resulting in the loss of water and subsequently carbon monoxide, producing fragment ions m/z 177 and 149, respectively. Optimization of m/z 177 yields a species containing an acylium group, which is supported by a diagnostic peak in the IRMPD spectrum at 2168 cm-1. The second pathway involves an alternate proton transfer leading to loss of methanol and rearrangement to a five-membered ring.

  19. Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract.

    PubMed

    Virgili, F; Pagana, G; Bourne, L; Rimbach, G; Natella, F; Rice-Evans, C; Packer, L

    2000-04-15

    French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract (PBE) is a polyphenol-rich food supplement patented under the name of Pycnogenol and known to have strong antioxidant activity and different beneficial effects on human health. Although its biological properties have begun to be extensively studied both in vitro, in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, little is known about its bioavailability. The present study investigated the urinary excretion of free and conjugated ferulic acid, present in quantitatively detectable amounts in PBE, after oral PBE administration to human subjects. Eleven healthy adult subjects (4 women and 7men) consumed either a single dose (200 mg PBE) or two doses of PBE (100 and 200 mg, respectively) within a 48-h interval. Two days before the oral administration of PBE and during the urine sample collection period volunteers adhered to a diet low in polyphenols. Aliquots of all urine production were collected over 24 h. Free and conjugated ferulic acid was assessed in urine by HPLC using diode array detection. A close association between the dietary intake of PBE and the urinary excretion of ferulic acid was detected. Moreover, the results indicate that a considerable proportion of ferulic acid is excreted as glucuronide or sulfate after PBE consumption, varying over the range 2 to 20% between individuals. The kinetics of excretion associated with the administration of 100 mg PBE was quite similar to that obtained after 200 mg PBE. A a biphasic trend was evident in a number of subjects. All subjects studied here displayed a significant, although variable level of excretion of ferulic acid after supplementation with PBE, Thus, the data provide evidence that at least a part of the phenolic components of PBE are absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated by humans. PMID:10889455

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

    The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

  1. Effects of various mixtures of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on cucumber leaf expansion and dry matter in nutrient culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton; Jodi R. Shann

    1985-01-01

    Cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus cv. ‘Early Green Cluster’) ranging from 6 to 16 days of age were treated with various concentrations (0– 1 mM) of caffeic, ferulic,p-coumaric,p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, sinapic, syringic, and vanillic acids and mixtures of ferulic acid and one or two of the other phenolic acids. Seedlings were grown in full-strength Hoagland's solution which was changed every other day.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105?cells?mmol?1·h?1 and 2.63 × 106 cells?mmol?1·h?1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72?h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate. PMID:23738328

  3. Coencapsulation of Ferulic and Gallic acid in hp-b-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Olga, Gortzi; Styliani, Christophoridou; Ioannis, Roussis G

    2015-10-15

    The complexes formed by two polyphenols, trans-Ferulic acid (FA) and Gallic acid (GA) with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), by the spray-drying method, were studied. Encapsulation-efficiencies (EE) of the complexes prepared were evaluated by HPLC. In the case of co-encapsulation, the EE of GA was lowered, whereas that of FA was almost stable, indicating a possible antagonistic relationship between the two phenols for the HP?CD cavity. The physicochemical characterization of the complexes was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM observations revealed that the coencapsulated phenolic complex resulted in a more rounded shape outer surfaces of HP?CD than when encapsulated separately. FT-IR and DSC data indicated that the two polyphenols exhibit a possible interaction in the coencapsulated complex. The complexes showed no loss of their ability to scavenge DPPH radical relatively to the single agent at the concentrations used. PMID:25952838

  4. Simultaneous determination of ferulic acid and phthalides of Angelica sinensis based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Long; Huang, Lin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The radix of Angelica sinensis (AS) is one of the most commonly used as a herbal medicine. To investigate the geoherbalism and quality evaluation of AS, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was established to analyze and identify ferulic acid and phthalides in AS. The results showed that among samples collected in four regions, the relative contents of ferulic acid and phthalides were highest in samples collected in Gansu, and the samples from the four different regions were apparently classified into four groups. Meanwhile, the relative content in non-fumigated root was higher than after sulfur-fumigation and the sulfur-fumigated and non-fumigated samples were obviously divided into two groups by PCA. The paper establishes a systematic and objective evaluation system to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the quality of AS. PMID:25781070

  5. Structure and Mechanism of Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Lee, Soon Goo; Jez, Joseph M; Yu, Oliver

    2015-06-15

    The nonoxidative decarboxylation of aromatic acids occurs in a range of microbes and is of interest for bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. Although phenolic acid decarboxylases provide useful tools for bioindustrial applications, the molecular bases for how these enzymes function are only beginning to be examined. Here we present the 2.35-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC1; UbiD) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FDC1 shares structural similarity with the UbiD family of enzymes that are involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The position of 4-vinylphenol, the product of p-coumaric acid decarboxylation, in the structure identifies a large hydrophobic cavity as the active site. Differences in the ?2e-?5 loop of chains in the crystal structure suggest that the conformational flexibility of this loop allows access to the active site. The structure also implicates Glu285 as the general base in the nonoxidative decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by FDC1. Biochemical analysis showed a loss of enzymatic activity in the E285A mutant. Modeling of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-decaprenylbenzoate, a partial structure of the physiological UbiD substrate, in the binding site suggests that an ?30-Å-long pocket adjacent to the catalytic site may accommodate the isoprenoid tail of the substrate needed for ubiquinone biosynthesis in yeast. The three-dimensional structure of yeast FDC1 provides a template for guiding protein engineering studies aimed at optimizing the efficiency of aromatic acid decarboxylation reactions in bioindustrial applications. PMID:25862228

  6. Improvement of ferulic acid bioconversion into vanillin by use of high-density cultures of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Oddou; C. Stentelaire; L. Lesage-Meessen; M. Asther; B. Colonna Ceccaldi

    1999-01-01

    High-density cultures of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus were tested with a view to optimisation of ferulic acid bioconversion into vanillin. The dry weight was increased fourfold\\u000a by using glucose, fructose or a mixture of glucose and phospholipids as carbon source instead of maltose, the carbon source\\u000a previously used. 5?mmol l?1 vanillin, i.e. 760?mg l?1, was produced over 15?days with glucose-phospholipid medium. In

  7. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film. PMID:25439957

  8. Early stage de-etiolation increases the ferulic acid content in winter triticale seedlings under full sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Hura, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    In the presented work an attempt has been made to estimate the phenolics content and its implication for the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus in course of a plant's de-etiolation. The experiments were carried out on two genotypes of winter triticale varying in their resistance to drought. The activity of the photosynthetic apparatus was monitored by taking measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll/carotenoids content. Analyses of the total pool of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid as well as l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity were completed. The first illuminations of etiolated seedlings induced a chlorophyll synthesis, which was followed by the increasing activity of the photosynthetic apparatus in both studied genotypes. Piano exhibited a higher values of the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II primary photochemistry during de-etiolation than Imperial. These results may just indicate that for Imperial, the delivery of photons to the reaction centres exceeded the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus to transduce this energy via electron transport. An increase in the content of ferulic acid was more noticeable for Piano and seems to be a consequence of adaptation to the new light conditions. It should be taken into account, that an increase of ferulic acid content during early stage of de-etiolation, may limit the photoinhibition of photosynthesis whenever radiation is excessive for the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:20719528

  9. Leaf dehydration induces different content of phenolics and ferulic acid in drought-resistant and -sensitive genotypes of spring triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Hura, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanis?aw

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of the total pool of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid, as a photoprotector of the photosynthetic apparatus, and the activity of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), as a key enzyme in phenolics synthesis, were carried out. Measurements were performed on drought-resistant (CHD 12, CHD 147) and -sensitive (CHD 220, CHD 247) genotypes of spring triticale during flowering under increasing leaf water deficit. Additionally, the emission of blue and red fluorescence from leaves were estimated. The exclusively in the resistant triticale genotype CHD 247 observed simultaneous increase in the content of ferulic acid and the total pool of phenolic compounds as a response to the leaf water deficit seems to be a promising biochemical indicator for a reliable selection of genotypes most resistant to drought stress. For the other genotypes, an increase in the total pool of phenolic compounds is accompanied by a decrease in the content of ferulic acid. An increase in the emission of red fluorescence, correlated with the high content of phenolic compounds, indicates the possibilities of these substances participating in the mechanisms of adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to water deficit in leaf tissues. PMID:19323272

  10. Neuroprotective ferulic acid (FA)-glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for functional restoration of traumatically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lee, Seung-Young; Wu, Xiangbing; Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Park, Kinam; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-02-01

    An urgent unmet need exists for early-stage treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently methylprednisolone is the only therapeutic agent used in clinics, for which the efficacy is controversial and the side effect is well-known. We demonstrated functional restoration of injured spinal cord by self-assembled nanoparticles composed of ferulic acid modified glycol chitosan (FA-GC). Chitosan and ferulic acid are strong neuroprotective agents but their systemic delivery is difficult. Our data has shown a prolonged circulation time of the FA-GC nanoparticles allowing for effective delivery of both chitosan and ferulic acid to the injured site. Furthermore, the nanoparticles were found both in the gray matter and white matter. The in vitro tests demonstrated that nanoparticles protected primary neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Using a spinal cord contusion injury model, significant recovery in locomotor function was observed in rats that were intravenously administered nanoparticles at 2 h post injury, as compared to non-improvement by methylprednisolone administration. Histological analysis revealed that FA-GC treatment significantly preserved axons and myelin and also reduced cavity volume, astrogliosis, and inflammatory response at the lesion site. No obvious adverse effects of nanoparticles to other organs were found. The restorative effect of FA-GC presents a promising potential for treating human SCIs. PMID:24332460

  11. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10?8?M ~5.29 × 10?5?M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10?8?M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  12. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin-Jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-Lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-Dong; Wang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10(-8)?M ~5.29 × 10(-5)?M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10(-8)?M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  13. Effects of ferulic acid on antioxidant activity in Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Min; Tao, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei-Xia; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at exploring different roles of the same compound in different environment, using preparative HPLC, and the significance to investigating bio-active constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the basis of holism. In this study, the depletion of target component ferulic acid (FA) by using preparative HPLC followed by antioxidant activity testing was applied to investigate the roles of FA in Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX) and their combination (GX). The antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity testing. FA was successfully and exclusively depleted from DG, CX, and GX, respectively. By comparing the effects of the samples, it was found that FA was one of the main antioxidant constituents in DG, CX and GX, and the roles of FA were DG > CX > GX. Furthermore, the effects of FA varied at different doses in these herbs. This study provided a reliable and effective approach to clarifying the contribution of same compound in different TCMs to their bio-activities. The role of a constituent in different TCMs might be different, and a component with the same content might have different effects in different chemical environments. Furthermore, this study also suggested the potential utilization of preparative HPLC in the characterization of the roles of multi-ingredients in TCM. PMID:26073335

  14. Preparation of ferulic acid from agricultural wastes: its improved extraction and purification.

    PubMed

    Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Kishenkumar, Jyoti; Annapure, Uday

    2008-09-10

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic antioxidant present in plants, which is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry. In the present study, various agricultural wastes such as maize bran, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugar cane baggasse, pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were screened for the presence of esterified FA (EFA). Among the sources screened, maize bran was found to contain the highest amount of EFA. Pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were also found to contain traces of EFA. Alkaline extraction of EFA from maize bran was carried out using 2 M NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of EFA extraction, which resulted in a 1.3-fold increase as compared to the unoptimized conventional extraction technique. FA was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purification was carried out by adsorption chromatography using Amberlite XAD-16 followed by preparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The recovery of Amberlite XAD-16 purified FA was up to 57.97% with HPLC purity 50.89%. The fold purity achieved was 1.35. After preparative HPTLC, the maximum HPLC purity obtained was 95.35% along with an increase in fold purity up to 2.53. PMID:18707110

  15. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent. PMID:25953538

  16. Thermosensitive hydrogel made of ferulic acid-gelatin and chitosan glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Liu, Chia-Ching; Gefen, Amit; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2013-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress is involved in apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that can alter cellular phenotype and accelerate disc degeneration. Ferulic acid (FA) possesses an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the study, we developed the thermosensitive FA-gelatin/chitosan/glycerol phosphate (FA-G/C/GP) hydrogel which was applied as a sustained release system of FA to treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress. The gelation temperature of the FA-G/C/GP hydrogel was 32.17 °C. NP cells submitted to oxidative stress promoted by H(2)O(2), and post-treated with FA-G/C/GP exhibited down-regulation of MMP-3 and up-regulation aggrecan and type II collagen in mRNA level. The sulfated-glycosaminoglycan production was increased and the apoptosis was inhibited in the post-treatment group. The results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-G/C/GP hydrogel can treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress and may apply in minimally invasive surgery for NP regeneration. PMID:23399183

  17. Aldose reductase inhibitors zopolrestat and ferulic acid alleviate hypertension associated with diabetes: effect on vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Dina; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Fahmy, Ahmed; Azhar, Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors on hypertension in diabetes. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin, while AR inhibitors zopolrestat and ferulic acid were administered at 2 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and for 6 weeks afterwards. Then, blood pressure (BP) and serum level of glucose were determined. Concentration-response curves for phenylephrine (PE), KCl, and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained in isolated aorta. In addition, ACh-induced NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in aorta and histopathology were examined. Compared with the control animals, diabetes increased diastolic and systolic BP. AR inhibitors reduced diastolic BP elevation without affecting the developed hyperglycaemia. Diabetes increased the contractile response of aorta to KCl, and decreased the relaxation response to Ach, while administering AR inhibitors prevented an impaired response to ACh. Incubation of aorta isolated from diabetic animals with AR inhibitors did not affect the impaired relaxation response to ACh. In addition, AR inhibitors negated the impaired Ach-stimulated NO generation seen in aorta isolated from diabetic animals. Furthermore, diabetes was accompanied with marked infiltration of leukocytes in aortic adventitia, endothelial cell pyknosis, and increased ROS formation. AR inhibitors reduced leukocyte infiltration and inhibited endothelial pyknosis and ROS formation. In conclusion, AR inhibitors negate diabetes-evoked hypertension via ameliorating impaired endothelial relaxation and NO production. PMID:23458193

  18. Ferulic acid ameliorates nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEIMING; WANG, HONGSHENG; WANG, TIAN; JIANG, NA; YU, PENGFEI; CHONG, YATING; FU, FENGHUA

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and reperfusion 90 min later in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily treatment of the rats with FA was initiated 30 min after the surgery, and was continued for 7 days. The efficacy of FA against nerve injury was assessed by neurological deficit scores as well as pathohistological observation. The expression levels in the brain and level in the peripheral blood of erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that FA attenuated nerve injury of the hippocampus, significantly ameliorated neurological deficits, and increased EPO but not G-CSF expression in the hippocampus and the peripheral blood of ischemic rats. The findings indicate that FA has certain protective effects on the nerve injury of cerebral ischemia, and suggest that promoting EPO in the brain and peripheral blood may be one of the neuroprotective mechanisms of FA. PMID:25667662

  19. Role of ferulic acid in the amelioration of ionizing radiation induced inflammation: a murine model.

    PubMed

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co ?-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKK?/? and I?B? and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation. PMID:24854039

  20. A ferulic acid (FA)-eluting system for biodegradable magnesium stent: Cells response of HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A new drug-eluting system was designed for biodegradable magnesium stents, in which ferulic acid (FA) was used as drug due to its promotion function to endothelial cells and PHBHHx as drug delivery due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. A 5 and 10% FA were added in PHBHHx to prepare FA containing PHBHHX films. The cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation on these films was investigated in order to assess cell response of HUVECs. It was also found that FA enhanced the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability after H2 O2 injury and NO production of HUVECs were also studied. The results indicated that FA effectively inhibited H2 O2 -induced injury and promotes NO production. It was also shown that alkali treatment improved the cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation while the treatment reduces the FA release and in turn reduces the inhibition on H2 O2 -induced injury and NO production. However, alkali treatment itself had no influence on the H2 O2 induced injure and NO production. The tensile shear strength between the FA containing coating and Mg substrate was also tested. All results demonstrated that FA containing PHBHHx films exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization and could be a choice for surface modification of magnesium stent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 2758-2769, 2015. PMID:25630748

  1. Chemical stability and degradation mechanisms of ferulic acid (F.A) within various cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu-Jing; Gao, Xiang; Gong, Hui; Lin, Xin-Rong; Saint-Leger, Didier; Senee, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (F.A) receives significant interest in the beauty industry with regard to its skin-whitening and anti-oxidant properties. However, its use in cosmetics is limited due to pH- and temperature-related instabilities. In this study, we investigated the stability of F.A in eight different prototype formulae. The results confirmed that in our conditions the stability of F.A is pH- and temperature-related. Additionally, the nature of the solvent dipropylene glycol (DPPG) showed a capacity to stabilize F.A. A series of experiments was further planned for studying the mechanism of degradation of F.A. In a prototype of a cosmetic medium, F.A degrades first through a decarboxylation step, leading to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (PVG). Further, F.A and PVG are both involved in an additional reaction, resulting in the trans-conjugation dimer of PVG. The consequences of these results in formulating F.A are discussed. PMID:22152493

  2. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of ferulic and gallic acids against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Ferreira, Carla; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The increased resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is frequently attributed to the extreme and inadequate use of antibiotics and transmission of resistance within and between individuals. To counter the emergence of resistant microorganisms, considerable resources have been invested in the search for new antimicrobials. Plants synthesize a diverse array of secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) known to be involved in defense mechanisms, and in the last few years it is recognized that some of these molecules have health beneficial effects, including antimicrobial properties. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The targets of antimicrobial action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), membrane permeabilization, intracellular potassium release, physicochemical surface properties, and surface charge. It was found that FA and GA had antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested with MIC of 500 ?g/mL for P. aeruginosa, 1500 ?g/mL for E. coli, 1750 ?g/mL for S. aureus, and 2000 ?g/mL for L. monocytogenes with GA; 100 ?g/mL for E. coli and P. aeruginosa, 1100 ?g/mL and 1250 ?g/mL for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, with FA. The MBC for E. coli was 2500 ?g/mL (FA) and 5000 (GA), for S. aureus was 5000 ?g/mL (FA) and 5250 ?g/mL (GA), for L. monocytogenes was 5300 ?g/mL (FA) and 5500 ?g/mL (GA), and 500 ?g/mL for P. aeruginosa, with both phytochemicals. GA and FA led to irreversible changes in membrane properties (charge, intra and extracellular permeability, and physicochemical properties) through hydrophobicity changes, decrease of negative surface charge, and occurrence of local rupture or pore formation in the cell membranes with consequent leakage of essential intracellular constituents. The overall study emphasizes the potential of plant-derived molecules as a green and sustainable source of new broad spectrum antimicrobial products. PMID:23480526

  3. Evaluation of thermo sensitivity of curcumin and quantification of ferulic acid and vanillin as degradation products by a validated HPTLC method.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charismatic therapeutic potential of curcumin in biological research have triggered an interest to explore the thermal degradation pattern of curcumin, formation of ferulic acid and vanillin as degraded metabolites at different temperatures in methanol and corn oil. The results revealed 47% w/w loss of curcumin along with formation of 17% w/w vanillin and 9% w/w ferulic acid at boiling temperature of methanol while oil samples show 38.9% w/w loss of curcumin but not confirming the formation of ferulic acid and vanillin. Findings of this study revealed that formation of vanillin in methanol starts around 50°C and its concentration goes on increasing up to 70°C and then further degraded at boiling temperature of methanol. Formation of ferulic acid begins around 60°C and initially increases with rise of temperature and then decreases approaching boiling point of methanol. Vanillin as well as ferulic acid was absent in corn oil samples though degradation of curcumin was observed by reduction in peak area of curcumin. The present study was done by applying a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The method involved glass-backed HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:1:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. PMID:25631508

  4. Ameliorative effect of ferulic acid against renal injuries mediated by nuclear factor-kappaB during glycerol-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Ramar; Beulaja, Manikandan; Thiagarajan, Raman; Pandi, Mohan; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Prabhu, Narayanan Marimuthu; Saravanan, Rajendran; Esakkirajan, Masanam; Palanisamy, Subramanian; Dhanasekaran, Ganeshan; Nisha, Rajagopalan Girijakumari; Devi, Kasinathan; Latha, Malaikannan

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenesis of glycerol-induced myoglobinuric acute renal failure involves ischemia, vascular congestion and reactive oxygen metabolites. In this study, we have investigated for the first time, the role of ferulic acid in attenuating glycerol-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with 8?mL/kg body weight of 50% glycerol, glycerol?+?ferulic acid at the dose of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25?mg/kg body weight. After 24?h, the rats were sacrificed and the kidneys were removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Furthermore, determinations of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as antioxidant enzymes were also analyzed; blood, urine samples were collected in order to quantify renal function and nitric oxide generation, respectively. Glycerol-induced rats showed a significant increase in the level of urinary markers assessed in serum as well as kidney and these were reversed upon ferulic acid treatment. A significant increase in urine nitric oxide, serum as well as kidney LPO, decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione were observed in glycerol-induced rats. Immunohistochemical study in glycerol-induced rats demonstrated an increase in the level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B). All these effects induced by glycerol were reduced upon treatment with ferulic acid in a dose-dependent manner. To conclude, ferulic acid enhances antioxidants and decreases NF-?B, thereby protecting the cells against stress induced by glycerol. PMID:24060056

  5. Identification of Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR167 genes, involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Achterholt; H. Priefert; A. Steinbüchel

    2000-01-01

    The gene loci ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase\\/aldolase, and fcs, encoding an unusual feruloyl-CoA synthetase, which are involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by the\\u000a Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR167, were localized on a 4,000?bp PstI fragment (P40). The nucleotide sequence of P40 was determined, revealing open reading frames of 864?bp and 1,476?bp, representing\\u000a ech and fcs,

  6. Ab initio study of potential ultrafast internal conversion routes in oxybenzone, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid: implications for sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Karsili, Tolga N V; Marchetti, Barbara; Ashfold, Michael N R; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2014-12-26

    Oxybenzone (OB) and ferulic acid (FA) both find use in commercial sunscreens; caffeic acid (CA) differs from FA by virtue of an -OH group in place of a -OCH3 group on the aromatic ring. We report the results of ab initio calculations designed to explore the excited state nonradiative relaxation pathways that provide photostability to these molecules and the photoprotection they offer toward UV-A and UV-B radiation. In the case of OB, internal conversion (IC) is deduced to occur on ultrafast time scales, via a barrierless electron-driven H atom transfer pathway from the S1(1(1)n?*) state to a conical intersection (CI) with the ground (S0) state potential energy surface (PES). The situation with respect to CA and FA is somewhat less clear-cut, with low energy CIs identified by linking excited states to the S0 state following photoexcitation and subsequent evolution along (i) a ring centered out-of-plane deformation coordinate, (ii) the E/Z isomerism coordinate and, in the case of CA, (iii) an O-H stretch coordinate. Analogy with catechol suggests that the last of these processes (if active) would lead to radical formation (and thus potential phototoxicity), encouraging a suggestion that FA might be superior to CA as a sunscreen ingredient. PMID:25137024

  7. Ferulic acid inhibits UVB-radiation induced photocarcinogenesis through modulating inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ambothi, Kanagalakshmi; Prasad, N Rajendra; Balupillai, Agilan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the photochemopreventive effects of ferulic acid (FA) against chronic ultraviolet-B (290-320?nm) induced oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis in the skin of Swiss albino mice. Chronic UVB exposure (180 mJ/cm(2) for 30 weeks; thrice in a week) induced tumor formation in the mice skin that showed increased expression of carcinogenic and inflammatory markers when compared with the control animals. The intraperitoneal (FAIP) and topical (FAT) administration of FA significantly reduced the incidence of UVB-induced tumor volume and tumor weight in the mice skin. Histopathological studies revealed that both FAIP and FAT administration prevented the UVB-induced hyperplasia, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and dysplastic feature in the mice skin. Further, it has been observed that FA treatment reverted chronic UVB-induced oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) accompanied with modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-? and IL-6 in the mice skin tumor. FA treatment also modulates mutated p53, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions in the UVB-induced mice skin tumor. Thus, the results of the present study indicate ferulic acid has potential against UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the Swiss albino mice. PMID:25983265

  8. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Wilson; Robert J. Nicolosi; Benjamin Woolfrey; David Kritchevsky

    2007-01-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight

  9. Novel ferulate esterase from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria and analyses of the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a plate containing ethyl ferulate as sole carbon source, various bacteria cultures were screened for ferulate esterase (FAE). Among a dozen of species showing positive FAE, one Lactobacillus fermentum strain NRRL 1932 demonstrated the strongest activity. Using a published sequence of ferulate ...

  10. Physicochemical characteristics, hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid, P-coumaric acid) and their ratio, and in situ biodegradability: comparison of genotypic differences among six barley varieties.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqin; Yu, Peiqiang; Rossnagel, Brian G; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-06-10

    Barley contains hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid (FA; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and p-coumaric acid (PCA; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Ferulic acid is produced via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway and covalently cross-linked to polysaccharides by ester bonds and to components of lignin mainly by ether bonds. Various studies have consistently indicated that FA is among the factors most inhibitory to the biodegradability of cell wall polysaccharides. p-Coumaric acid is also covalently linked to polysaccharides (minor) and lignin (major), but does not form the inhibitory cross-linkages as FA does and is considered to represent cell wall lignification. The objectives in this study were to (1) determine genotypic differences in physicochemical characteristics in terms of (a) two major low molecular weight hydroxycinnamic acid profiles (FA, PCA, PCA-to-FA ratio, which are associated with digestion and lignification), (b) particle size distributions (mean, median), (c) hull content, and (d) digestion-resistant fiber fractions and (2) determine genotypic differences in in situ solubilization kinetics of FA and PCA. The barley varieties grown during three consecutive years (2003, 2004, and 2005) included AC Metcalfe, CDC Dolly, McLeod, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey, and CDC Cowboy. These barleys were grown at the Kernen Crop Research Farm (KCRF, University of Saskatchewan) and managed using standard agronomic production practices. Results showed that there were significant differences in hull content (P < 0.05) among the barley varieties, with Mcleod having the highest (11% DM) and CDC Dolly and CDC Helgason the lowest hull content (9% DM). Ferulic acid ranged from 555 to 663 microg/g of DM (P < 0.05). p-Coumaric acid ranged (P < 0.05) from 283 to 345 microg/g of DM. PCA-to-FA ratios ranged (P < 0.05) from 0.49 to 0.56. Mean particle size ranged (P < 0.05) from 3.06 to 3.66 mm, and median particle size ranged (P < 0.05) from 2.71 to 3.04 mm. In situ DM degradability ranged from 44 to 49%. In situ solubilized FA fractions ranged (P < 0.05) from 60 to 72% and of PCA ranged (P < 0.05) from 71 to 81%. In conclusion, CDC Dolly was best and McLeod barley was poorest as feed barley in terms of hull and FA contents. There were significant genotypic differences in FA, PCA and their ratio, hull content, particle size distribution, and in situ solubilization of FA and PCA among the barley varieties. PMID:19432476

  11. Synthesis of dehydrogenation polymers of ferulic acid with high specificity by a purified cell-wall peroxidase from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, A; Wojtaszek, P; Bolwell, G P

    1994-01-01

    A cationic (pI 8.3) wall-bound peroxidase has been purified to homogeneity from suspension-cultured cells of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The enzyme was a glycoprotein and its M(r) was 46,000 as determined by SDS/Page and h.p.l.c. gel filtration. It was localized biochemically to microsomes and the cell wall, and the latter subcellular distribution was confirmed by immunogold techniques. The native enzyme showed absorption maxima at 403, 500 and 640 nm, with an RZ (A405/A280) of 3.3. The peroxidase oxidized guaïacol and natural phenolic acids. By desorption-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry the enzyme was found to oxidize the model compound, ferulic acid, into dehydrodiferulic acid. Kinetics studies indicated an apparent Km of 113.3 +/- 22.9 microM and a Vmax of 144 mumol.min-1.nmol-1 of protein at an H2O2 concentration of 100 microM. In comparison with a second French-bean peroxidase (FBP) and horseradish peroxidase, as a model, it acted with a 6-10-fold higher specificity in this capacity. It is a member of the peroxidase superfamily of bacterial, fungal and plant haem proteins by virtue of its highly conserved amino acid sequence within the proximal and distal haem-binding sites. This is good evidence that this particular FBP may function in constructing covalent cross-linkages in the wall during development and response to pathogens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8192663

  12. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ?-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ?-hydroxy, and ?,?-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ?-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  13. A comparative study of the radical-scavenging activity of the phenolcarboxylic acids caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, with or without 2-mercaptoethanol, a thiol, using the induction period method.

    PubMed

    Kadoma, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione), a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP) method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R(.)) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO(.)) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Upon PhCOO(. )radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant) for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R(.) radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (k(inh)/k(p)) declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME) mixture (1:1 molar ratio) (A) to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME) (B) was investigated. Upon R(.) scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO(.) scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid/ME mixture was approximately 1. The reported beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid may be related to their prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the presence of GSH. PMID:18923340

  14. Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; de Sousa Paredes, Raquel; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant’Ana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2013-01-01

    The production of xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 °C and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, ?-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest ?-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and ?-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of ?-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and ?-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L), which was not detected in the T. reesei culture. PMID:24294256

  15. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Harder; I. Tetens; M. B. Let; A. S. Meyer

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of the study Firstly, to evaluate the bioavailability and potential antioxidative effects in humans of

  16. The faeA genes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis encode ferulic acid esterases involved in degradation of complex cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, R P; Michelsen, B; Poulsen, C H; Kroon, P A; van den Heuvel, R H; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G; van den Hombergh, J P; Visser, J

    1997-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a ferulic acid esterase, faeA, from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis. The A. niger and A. tubingensis genes have a high degree of sequence identity and contain one conserved intron. The gene product, FAEA, was overexpressed in wild-type A. tubingensis and a protease-deficient A. niger mutant. Overexpression of both genes in wild-type A. tubingensis and an A. niger protease-deficient mutant showed that the A. tubingensis gene product is more sensitive to degradation than the equivalent gene product from A. niger. FAEA from A. niger was identical to A. niger FAE-III (C. B. Faulds and G. Williamson, Microbiology 140:779-787, 1994), as assessed by molecular mass, pH and temperature optima, pI, N-terminal sequence, and activity on methyl ferulate. The faeA gene was induced by growth on wheat arabinoxylan and sugar beet pectin, and its gene product (FAEA) released ferulic acid from wheat arabinoxylan. The rate of release was enhanced by the presence of a xylanase. FAEA also hydrolyzed smaller amounts of ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin, but the rate was hardly affected by addition of an endo-pectin lyase. PMID:9406381

  17. Biodegradable ferulic acid-containing poly(anhydride-ester): degradation products with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-03-11

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to that of free FA, and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations. PMID:23327626

  18. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the ? position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  19. Physiological and Biochemical Tools Useful in Drought-Tolerance Detection in Genotypes of Winter Triticale: Accumulation of Ferulic Acid Correlates with Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hura, Tomasz; Grzesiak, Stanis?aw; Hura, Katarzyna; Thiemt, Elisabeth; Tokarz, Krzysztof; W?dzony, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a classification of triticale genotypes into drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive types based on field performance trials correlates with a classification based on measurements of some physiological and biochemical parameters in greenhouse conditions. In addition, an examination was carried out of whether ferulic acid, as the main origin of the blue fluorescence produced, contributes to drought tolerance. Methods Ten winter triticale genotypes were examined, five known to be drought tolerant and five drought sensitive. Measurements of the osmotic potential, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and blue and red fluorescence were performed. In addition, analysis of the total pool of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid as well as the measurements of PAL (l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) activity were carried out. Key Results In agreement with field trials, three out of five cultivars (‘Lamberto’, ‘Timbo’ and ‘Piano’) were classified as drought tolerant. However, in the case of cultivar ‘Babor’, included in the group of drought-sensitive cultivars, the values obtained for some measured parameters were close to (Fv?/Fm?, phenolics content, osmotic potential) or even better than (non-photochemical quenching, red and blue fluorescence, ferulic acid content) those for drought-tolerant genotypes. Cultivars ‘Imperial’, ‘Ticino’, ‘Trimaran’ and ‘Boreas’ were included in the drought-sensitive group, whereas cultivars ‘Focus’ and ‘Kitaro’ were included in the moderately sensitive group. Conclusions The experiments confirmed that the period of flowering, the critical phase for plants as far as water demand is concerned, is suitable for plant screening and differentiation due to their tolerance to drought. The most important criteria which enabled creation of the ranking list of plants, from those sensitive to drought to those tolerant to drought, were the ability to perform the process of osmoregulation, the efficiency of the utilization of excitation energy by the photosynthetic apparatus and the functioning of protective mechanisms involving the level of ferulic acid in leaf tissues. PMID:17684022

  20. Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Cong; Bao, Yong-rui; Meng, Xian-sheng; Diao, Yun-peng; Kang, Ting-guo

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud: To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation. Materials and Methods: Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential. Results: The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic). Conclusion: Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid. PMID:23930002

  1. Ferulic acid protects PC12 neurons against hypoxia by inhibiting the p-MAPKs and COX-2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Chieh; Peng, Yu-Fen; Hou, Chien-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Hypoxia induces cellular oxidative stress that is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on hypoxia-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effect of FA on PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia stress, in vitro. Results: FA increased cell viability, prevented membrane damage (LDH release), scavenged free radicals, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and attenuated the elevation of intracellular free Ca2+, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis (evaluated by TUNEL staining) and PGE2 production in hypoxia-stressed PC12 cells. MAPKs were activated during hypoxia. FA reduced p-p38 MAPK, caspase-3, and COX-2 activation which correlated well with diminished LDH release in PC12 cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, FA reduced lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that FA antioxidant effects could partly be involved in inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway and apoptosis through scavenging ROS in hypoxia-stressed PC12 cells.

  2. Ferulic Acid Is a Nutraceutical ?-Secretase Modulator That Improves Behavioral Impairment and Alzheimer-like Pathology in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takashi; Tan, Jun; Town, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is required for production of amyloid-? (A?) peptides that comprise ?-amyloid plaques in brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Recent AD therapeutic interest has been directed toward a group of anti-amyloidogenic compounds extracted from plants. We orally administered the brain penetrant, small molecule phenolic compound ferulic acid (FA) to the transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis (bearing mutant human APP and presenilin-1 transgenes) and evaluated behavioral impairment and AD-like pathology. Oral FA treatment for 6 months reversed transgene-associated behavioral deficits including defective: hyperactivity, object recognition, and spatial working and reference memory, but did not alter wild-type mouse behavior. Furthermore, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular ?-amyloid deposits as well as abundance of various A? species including oligomers were decreased in FA-treated PSAPP mice. These effects occurred with decreased cleavage of the ?-carboxyl-terminal APP fragment, reduced ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 protein stability and activity, attenuated neuroinflammation, and stabilized oxidative stress. As in vitro validation, we treated well-characterized mutant human APP-overexpressing murine neuron-like cells with FA and found significantly decreased A? production and reduced amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Collectively, these results highlight that FA is a ?-secretase modulator with therapeutic potential against AD. PMID:23409038

  3. Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lalith Kumar, Venkareddy; Muralidhara

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown higher susceptibility of Children to the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure. However, experimental studies on Pb-induced neurotoxicity in prepubertal (PP) rats are limited. The present study aimed to examine the propensity of ferulic acid (FA), a commonly occurring phenolic acid in staple foods (fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee etc.) to abrogate Pb-induced toxicity. Initially, we characterized Pb-induced adverse effects among PP rats exposed to Pb acetate (1,000-3,000 ppm in drinking water) for 5 weeks in terms of locomotor phenotype, activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood, blood Pb levels and oxidative stress in brain regions. Further, the ameliorative effects of oral supplements of FA (25 mg/kg bw/day) were investigated in PP rats exposed to Pb (3,000 ppm). Pb intoxication increased the locomotor activity and FA supplements partially reversed the phenotype, while the reduced ALAD activity was also restored. FA significantly abrogated the enhanced oxidative stress in cerebellum (Cb) and hippocampus (Hc) as evidenced in terms of ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. Further, Pb-mediated perturbations in the glutathione levels and activity of enzymic antioxidants were also markedly restored. Furthermore, the protective effect of FA was discernible in striatum in terms of reduced oxidative stress, restored cholinergic activity and dopamine levels. Interestingly, reduced activity levels of mitochondrial complex I in Cb and enhanced levels in Hc among Pb-intoxicated rats were ameliorated by FA supplements. FA also decreased the number of damaged cells in cornu ammonis area CA1 and dentate gyrus as reflected by the histoarchitecture of Hc among Pb intoxicated rats. Collectively, our findings in the PP model allow us to hypothesize that ingestion of common phenolics such as FA may significantly alleviate the neurotoxic effects of Pb which may be largely attributed to its ability to abrogate oxidative stress. PMID:25322819

  4. Thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-glycerol phosphate hydrogel as a controlled release system of ferulic acid for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-10-01

    In the degenerative disc, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involves in apoptosis and senescence of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that could accelerate the degenerative process. Ferulic acid (FA) has been reported to have an excellent antioxidant property. In the study, injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel was applied as a controlled release system for FA delivery. The study was aimed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress NP cells. The results showed that the release of FA from C/G/GP hydrogel could decrease the H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Post-treatment of FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel on H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells showed up-regulation of Aggrecan and type II collagen and down-regulation of MMP-3 in mRNA level. The results of sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to DNA ratio and alcian blue staining revealed that the GAGs production of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells could reach to normal level. The results of caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining indicated that FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel decreased the apoptosis of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells. The results suggested that the C/G/GP hydrogel was very suitable for sustained delivery of FA. The FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel would be used to treat the degenerative disc in the early stage before it developed into the latter irreversible stages. PMID:21774981

  5. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  6. Measurement of caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents in plasma after coffee consumption: small intestine and colon are key sites for coffee metabolism.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe A; Marmet, Cynthia; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Williamson, Gary; Steiling, Heike

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies on coffee examined absorption of phenolic acids (PA) in the small intestine, but not the contribution of the colon to absorption. Nine healthy volunteers ingested instant soluble coffee ( approximately 335 mg total chlorogenic acids (CGAs)) in water. Blood samples were taken over 12 h, and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. Many previous studies, which used glucuronidase and sulfatase, measured only PA and did not rigorously assess CGAs. To improve this, plasma samples were analyzed after full hydrolysis by chlorogenate esterase, glucuronidase and sulfatase to release aglycone equivalents of PA followed by liquid-liquid extraction and ESI-LC-ESI-MS/MS detection. Ferulic, caffeic and isoferulic acid equivalents appeared rapidly in plasma, peaking at 1-2 h. Dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids appeared in plasma 6-8 h after ingestion (T(max=)8-12 h). Substantial variability in maximum plasma concentration and T(max) was also observed between individuals. This study confirms that the small intestine is a significant site for absorption of PA, but shows for the first time that the colon/microflora play the major role in absorption and metabolism of CGAs and PA from coffee. PMID:19937852

  7. Inhibition of citrus fungal pathogens by using lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gerez, C L; Carbajo, M S; Rollán, G; Torres Leal, G; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-08-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on pathogenic fungi was evaluated and the metabolites involved in the antifungal effect were characterized. Penicillium digitatum (INTA 1 to INTA 7) and Geotrichum citri-aurantii (INTA 8) isolated from decayed lemon from commercial packinghouses were treated with imazalil and guazatine to obtain strains resistant to these fungicides. The most resistant strains (4 fungal strains) were selected for evaluating the antifungal activity of 33 LAB strains, among which only 8 strains gave positive results. The antifungal activity of these LAB strains was related to the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and phenyllactic acid (PLA). A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the organic acids produced by the LAB cultures. The antifungal activity of lactic acid was directly related to its concentration; however, acetic acid and PLA showed a peak of activity at 52.5 and 0.8 mM, respectively, with inhibition rates similar to those obtained with Serenade((R)) (3.0 ppm) imazalil (50 ppm) and guazatine (50 ppm). Beyond the peak of activity, a reduction in effectiveness of both acetic acid and PLA was observed. Comparing the inhibition rate of the organic acids, PLA was about 66- and 600-fold more effective than acetic acid and lactic acid, respectively. This study presents evidences on the antifungal effect of selected LAB strains and their end products. Studies are currently being undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing postharvest diseases on citrus fruits. PMID:20722936

  8. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2015-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250?mm × 4.60?mm, 5??m, 110?Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48?:?52?v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0?mL/min with UV detection at 320?nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–70.0??g/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics. PMID:26075139

  9. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on High Glucose-Induced Protein Glycation, Lipid Peroxidation, and Membrane Ion Pump Activity in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sompong, Weerachat; Cheng, Henrique; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the ubiquitous phytochemical phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid. Experimental studies in diabetic models demonstrate that FA possesses multiple mechanisms of action associated with anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanism by which FA prevents diabetes-associated vascular damages remains unknown. The aim of study was to investigate the protective effects of FA on protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, membrane ion pump activity, and phosphatidylserine exposure in high glucose-exposed human erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that FA (10-100 ?M) significantly reduced the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) whereas 0.1-100 ?M concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes exposed to 45 mM glucose. This was associated with increased glucose consumption. High glucose treatment also caused a significant reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte plasma membrane which could be reversed by FA. Furthermore, we found that FA (0.1-100 ?M) prevented high glucose-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism of FA for the prevention of vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes. PMID:26053739

  10. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linjie; Gou, Yuqiang; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Li, Yingdong

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (ks) and electron-transfer coefficient (?) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24s(-1), and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) to 3.89 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) with detection limit of 2.06 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%. PMID:25063114

  11. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  12. Ferulic acid reverses the cognitive dysfunction caused by amyloid ? peptide 1-40 through anti-oxidant activity and cholinergic activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fan-Shiu; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Yang, Shu-Er; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction and oxidation stress are the dominant mechanisms of memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study describes how ferulic acid (FA) ameliorates cognitive deficits induced by mecamylamine (MECA), scopolamine (SCOP), central acetylcholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) and amyloid ? peptide (A?1-40). This study also elucidates the role of anti-oxidant enzymes and cholinergic marker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the reversal of FA from A?1-40-induced cognitive deficits in rats. At 100 mg/kg, FA attenuated impairment induced by MECA and SCOP plus MECA; however, this improvement was not blocked by the peripheral muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine methylbromide (M-SCOP). At 100 and 300 mg/kg, FA also attenuated the impairment of inhibitory passive avoidance induced by AF64A. Further, FA attenuated the performance impairment and memory deficit induced by A?1-40 in rats, as did vitamin E/C. FA reversed the deterioration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and AChE activities, and the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Vitamin E/C only selectively reversed deterioration in the hippocampus. We suggest that FA reduced the progression of cognitive deficits by activating central muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and anti-oxidant enzymes. PMID:25807957

  13. Novel tacrine-grafted Ugi adducts as multipotent anti-Alzheimer drugs: a synthetic renewal in tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Bartolini, Manuela; Egea, Javier; Romero, Alejandro; Soriano, Elena; Pudlo, Marc; Luzet, Vincent; Andrisano, Vincenza; Jimeno, María-Luisa; López, Manuela G; Wehle, Sarah; Gharbi, Tijani; Refouvelet, Bernard; de Andrés, Lucía; Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Monti, Barbara; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Decker, Michael; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2015-03-01

    Herein we describe the design, multicomponent synthesis, and biological, molecular modeling and ADMET studies, as well as in vitro PAMPA-blood-brain barrier (BBB) analysis of new tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids (TFAHs). We identified (E)-3-(hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-{8[(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-yl)amino]octyl}-N-[2-(naphthalen-2-ylamino)2-oxoethyl]acrylamide (TFAH 10?n) as a particularly interesting multipotent compound that shows moderate and completely selective inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase (IC50 =68.2?nM), strong antioxidant activity (4.29?equiv trolox in an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay), and good ?-amyloid (A?) anti-aggregation properties (65.6?% at 1:1 ratio); moreover, it is able to permeate central nervous system (CNS) tissues, as determined by PAMPA-BBB assay. Notably, even when tested at very high concentrations, TFAH 10?n easily surpasses the other TFAHs in hepatotoxicity profiling (59.4?% cell viability at 1000??M), affording good neuroprotection against toxic insults such as A?1-40 , A?1-42 , H2 O2 , and oligomycin?A/rotenone on SH-SY5Y cells, at 1??M. The results reported herein support the development of new multipotent TFAH derivatives as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25537267

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Bioactive Compound Ferulic Acid Contained in Oldenlandia diffusa on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Liang, Qing-Hua; Xiong, Xin-Gui; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dan; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to identify the active compounds in Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) decoction and the compounds absorbed into plasma, and to determine whether the absorbed compounds derived from OD exerted any anti-inflammatory effects in rats with collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. The UPLC-PDA (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Photo-Diode Array) method was applied to identify the active compounds both in the decoction and rat plasma. The absorbable compound was administered to the CIA rats, and the effects were dynamically observed. X-ray films of the joints and HE stain of synovial tissues were analyzed. The levels of IL-1? and TNF-? in the rats from each group were measured by means of ELISA. The absorbed compound in the plasma of CIA rats was identified as ferulic acid (FA), following OD decoction administration. Two weeks after the administration of FA solution or OD decoction, the general conditions improved compared to the model group. The anti-inflammatory effect of FA was inferior to that of the OD decoction (P < 0.05), based on a comparison of IL-1? TNF-? levels. FA from the OD decoction was absorbed into the body of CIA rats, where it elicited anti-inflammatory responses in rats with CIA. Conclusions. These results suggest that FA is the bioactive compound in OD decoction, and FA exerts its effects through anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:24883069

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with ferulic Acid or vitamin e individually or in combination on meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Li, L Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  16. Potential of butyric acid for control of soil-borne fungal pathogens and nematodes affecting strawberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Browning; D. B. Wallace; C. Dawson; S. R. Alm; J. A. Amador

    2006-01-01

    The effects of butyric acid were evaluated on fungal and nematode endo-parasites of strawberries under controlled laboratory conditions. Verticillium dahliae, Rhizoctonia fragariae, R. solani, Phytophthora fragariae, and a Pythium sp. were killed after a 2-d incubation in butryic acid-treated sand (0.88 and 8.8mg g?1). No fungal growth occurred in the presence of vapors from 0.1 and 1 M butyric acid

  17. Effect of tocopherols on the anti-polymerization activity of oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (SF) are ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and/or triterpene alcohols which have potential as frying oil antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-polymerization and antioxidant activity at frying temperatures of corn steryl ferulates (CSF), rice steryl f...

  18. Comparison of the impact of y-oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates on the polymerization of soybean oil during frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn steryl ferulates (CSF), oryzanol, a combination of equal amounts of CSF and oryzanol, and ferulic acid were added to refined, bleached, deodorized, soybean oil at a concentration of 8.1-8.4 µmol/g oil, which corresponded to 0.5% (w/w) for the steryl ferulates. The rate of polymerized triacylgly...

  19. Effects of Ferulic Acid and ?-Oryzanol on High-Fat and High-Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Background The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. ?-Oryzanol (OZ), the ferulic acid (FA) ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic syndrome parameters. Methods Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations) for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions. Results In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD. PMID:25646799

  20. Protein Synthesis During Fungal Spore Germination IV. Transfer Ribonucleic Acid from Germinated and Ungerminated Spores1

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.; Koski, R. Kent; El-Olemy, Mahmoud M.

    1969-01-01

    Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) fractions isolated from germinated and ungerminated spores of Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stolonifer had acceptor activity for all 20 amino acids commonly found in protein, when tested with an enzyme fraction from germinated spores. Accordingly, it is unlikely that the absence of tRNA for a particular amino acid limits protein synthesis in fungal spores. PMID:5364287

  1. Fungal Bioconversion of Agricultural By-Products to Vanillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Thibault; V Micard; C Renard; M Asther; M Delattre; L Lesage-Meessen; C Faulds; P Kroon; G Williamson; J Duarte; B. C Ceccaldi; M Tuohy; D Couteau; S Van Hulle; H.-P Heldt-Hansen

    1998-01-01

    The ester-linked ferulic acid of wheat bran and sugar-beet pulp can be converted to vanillin using biological transformation. Free ferulic acid from sugar-beet pulp and from wheat bran was almost quantitatively obtained by extensive degradation of the cell-walls using enzyme mixtures complemented with specific ferulic acid esterases. TheBasidiomycete Pycnoporus cinnabarinusthen converted the released ferulic acid to vanillin. The selection of

  2. Biotechnological applications and potential of fungal feruloyl esterases based on prevalence, classification and biochemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Isabelle; Danchin, Etienne G J; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; de Vries, Ronald P

    2008-03-01

    Feruloyl esterases are part of the enzymatic spectrum employed by fungi and other microorganisms to degrade plant polysaccharides. They release ferulic acid and other aromatic acids from these polymeric structures and have received an increasing interest in industrial applications such as in the food, pulp and paper and bio-fuel industries. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on fungal feruloyl esterases focussing in particular on the differences in substrate specificity, regulation of their production, prevalence of these enzymes in fungal genomes and industrial applications. PMID:17973091

  3. The chondroprotective effects of ferulic acid on hydrogen peroxide-stimulated chondrocytes: inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinase gene expression at the mRNA level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Chen; S. H. Yang; C. H. Chou; K. C. Yang; C. C. Wu; Y. H. Cheng; Feng-Huei Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective  The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid (FA), an antioxidant from the Chinese herb Dong-Gui [Chinese\\u000a angelica, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels], on the regulation of various genes in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated porcine chondrocytes at the mRNA level.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The effect of FA and the effective concentration of FA on porcine chondrocytes was evaluated by the lactate

  4. Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. BAgtth; B. Lundgren; B. Soederstroem

    1984-01-01

    The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha?1 each year for 6 years, yet no differences were

  5. FUNGAL RESPONSIVE FATTY ACID ACETYLENASES OCCUR WIDELY IN EVOLUTIONARILY DISTANT PLANT FAMILIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal elicitor-induced ELI12 gene from parsley has been previously shown to encode a divergent form of the delta12-oleic acid desaturase. In this report, we show that the ELI12 gene product is a fatty acid acetylenase or triple bond-forming enzyme. Expression of this enzyme in transgenic soyb...

  6. An automated dual-gradient liquid chromatography-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingfei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yifang; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Yan, Renjie

    2014-01-01

    An automated on-line SPE and innovative fast polarity switch bioanalysis method employing dual-gradient liquid chromatography (DGLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (DGLC-MS/MS) was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma after administration of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis extract or monomer. The proteins in plasma samples were precipitated using acetonitrile: methanol (1:1, v/v). Sulfamethoxazole was used as an internal standard. The DGLC system contains two high-pressure pumps. The first pump was used for on-line solid phase extraction with a Cyclone™ SPE column. Chromatographic separations were performed with the other pump on a Syncronis C18 rapid analytical column. The analytical column was eluted by a gradient program that featured an acetonitrile/methanol/water gradient (flow-rate, 0.4ml/min). DGLC afforded greater convenience for bioanalysis. All analytes were simultaneously monitored in positive- and negative-ion mode by SRM (selective reaction monitoring) using the fast polarity switch speed of TSQ Vantage™. Method validation of the assay was implemented. No significant matrix effect was observed. The LLOQ of all analytes were <1.0ng/ml. The precision, recovery and linearity of the analysis met the pre-established requirements. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in Rhizoma Chuanxiong or Angelica sinensis extracts or monomers. PMID:24140450

  7. Direct fungal fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass into itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mondala, Andro H

    2015-04-01

    Various economic and environmental sustainability concerns as well as consumer preference for bio-based products from natural sources have paved the way for the development and expansion of biorefining technologies. These involve the conversion of renewable biomass feedstock to fuels and chemicals using biological systems as alternatives to petroleum-based products. Filamentous fungi possess an expansive portfolio of products including the multifunctional organic acids itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids that have wide-ranging current applications and potentially addressable markets as platform chemicals. However, current bioprocessing technologies for the production of these compounds are mostly based on submerged fermentation, which necessitates physicochemical pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass to soluble fermentable sugars in liquid media. This review will focus on current research work on fungal production of itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids and perspectives on the potential application of solid-state fungal cultivation techniques for the consolidated hydrolysis and organic acid fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25557737

  8. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  9. CYTOTOXIC HYDROXYLATED TRITERPENE ALCOHOL FERULATES FROM RICE BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates, (24S)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (1), (24R)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (2), and cycloart-23Z-ene-3 beta,25-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (3), along with known compounds cycloartenol trans-ferulate (4) a...

  10. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. PMID:24230476

  11. Fungal hallucinogens psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol: analytical methods and biologic activities.

    PubMed

    Stebelska, Katarzyna

    2013-08-01

    Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of "magic mushrooms." The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed. PMID:23851905

  12. Antioxidant properties and efficacies of synthesized alkyl caffeates, ferulates, and coumarates.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, Erwann; Laguerre, Mickaël; Bayrasy, Christelle; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-12-31

    Caffeic, ferulic, and coumaric acids were lipophilized with saturated fatty alcohols (C1-C20). The antioxidant properties of these hydroxycinnamic acids and their alkyl esters were evaluated in various assays. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficiency of the compounds was evaluated in a simple o/w microemulsion using the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. All evaluated phenolipids had radical scavenging, reducing power, and metal chelating properties. Only caffeic acid and caffeates were able to form a complex with iron via their catechol group in the phenolic ring. In the o/w emulsion, the medium chain phenolipids of the three homologues series were most efficient. The antioxidant properties and efficacies were dependent upon functional groups substituted to the ring structure and were in the following order: caffeic acid and caffeates > ferulic acid and ferulates > coumaric acid and coumarates. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the test system has an impact on the antioxidative properties measured. PMID:25457614

  13. Bioprocess development for docosahexaenoic acid from novel fungal isolate of Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Jini, Sugatha; Hridya, Azhikodan; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2015-06-01

    Fungal cultures were isolated from soil samples collected from the Western Ghats regions of Kerala. Primary screening of isolated strains were done by Sudan black staining method and 15 lipid producing cultures were isolated. The fatty acid profiling of the positive strains were analyzed for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production. Selected oleaginous cultures were grown in submerged culture condition to study the biomass yield and poly unsaturated fatty acid, DHA production. The optimization of production process under submerged conditions was carried out using statistical experimental design and confirmation of DHA was done by GC analysis. Maximum DHA production of 150 mg/l was achieved on 4 days of incubation at submerged condition in the presence of glucose as carbon source. PMID:26155676

  14. High performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection of ferulic acid in Rubus protoplasts elicited by O-glycans from Fusarium sp. M7-1.

    PubMed

    Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Chevolot, Lionel; Iwahara, Shojiro; Takegawa, Kaoru; Furmanek, Aleksandra; Lienart, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    So far only little data have been available concerning the eliciting capacity of well defined glycan molecules isolated from plant pathogens. This study brings new information about changes in plant cells caused by fungal pathogens. Sugar fractions derived from glycoproteins isolated from the fungus Fusarium sp. M7-1 have been tested here as signaling molecules. The ability of three O-glycan fractions (named in this work inducer I, II, III) to trigger responses in Rubus protoplasts has been examined. It was found that inducer III was the most efficient as it elicited changes in the levels of phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates in relation to phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL) activation. PMID:12545209

  15. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    PubMed

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

  16. Oxidative coupling of tyrosine and ferulic acid residues: Intra- and extra-protoplasmic occurrence, predominance of trimers and larger products, and possible role in inter-polymeric cross-linking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Fry

    2004-01-01

    I discuss the range of oxidative phenolic coupling products formed from the tyrosine residues of cell wall glycoproteins and from the feruloyl residues of wall polysaccharides possibly by the action of peroxidases and\\/or laccases. In the cases of both tyrosine- and ferulate-coupling, the coupling products are not confined to dimers but include trimers and probably higher oligomers, which are sometimes

  17. Inhibition of fungal spore adhesion by zosteric Acid as the basis for a novel, nontoxic crop protection technology.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Michele S; Callow, Maureen E; Perry, Ruth; Alberte, Randall S; Smith, Robert; Callow, James A

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT To explore the potential for nontoxic crop protection technologies based on the inhibition of fungal spore adhesion, we have tested the effect of synthetic zosteric acid (p-(sulfo-oxy) cinnamic acid), a naturally occurring phenolic acid in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) plants, on spore adhesion and infection in two pathosystems: rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea and bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. We have shown that zosteric acid inhibits spore adhesion to model and host leaf surfaces and that any attached spores fail to develop appressoria, and consequently do not infect leaf cells. Low concentrations of zosteric acid that are effective in inhibiting adhesion are not toxic to either fungus or to the host. The inhibition of spore adhesion in the rice blast pathogen is fully reversible. On plants, zosteric acid reduced (rice) or delayed (bean) lesion development. These results suggest that there is potential for novel and environmentally benign crop protection technologies based on manipulating adhesion. PMID:18942950

  18. Identification of target amino acids that aect interactions of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J OHN G. B ISHOP; C ARL W. B ERGMANN; MARCUS K OCH

    2000-01-01

    Plant polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) bind fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), but inhibition specificities and kinetics vary within and among species. Purified bean PGIP inhibited all fungal PGs we tested, including Fusarium moniliforme PG. Pear PGIP, however, was only eective against Botrytis cinerea PG. Moreover, tomato PGIP inhibited B. cinerea PG more than Aspergillus niger PG. Models of codon evolution for 22

  19. Identification of target amino acids that affect interactions of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRIK U STOTZ; JOHN G BISHOP; CARL W BERGMANN; MARCUS KOCH; PETER ALBERSHEIM; ALAN G DARVILL; JOHN M LABAVITCH

    2000-01-01

    Plant polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) bind fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), but inhibition specificities and kinetics vary within and among species. Purified bean PGIP inhibited all fungal PGs we tested, includingFusarium moniliforme PG. Pear PGIP, however, was only effective against Botrytis cinerea PG. Moreover, tomato PGIP inhibited B. cinerea PG more than Aspergillus niger PG. Models of codon evolution for 22 dicot

  20. Corn and kidney bean root endoplasmic reticulum vesicles reduce a fungal iron chelate, ferrirhodotorulic acid, in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tama C. Fox; R. L. Travis

    1991-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum vesicles from both corn and kidney bean roots are capable of reducing ferrirhodotorulic acid, a fungal iron chelator, in vitro, using NADH as the reductant. In magnesium containing linear 15–45% sucrose density gradients, the activity was in a wide, high density band. The activity shifted in density to 1.07–1.08 when EDTA was included instead of magnesium. No

  1. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  2. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kingsley; Mark T

    2001-01-01

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops

  3. Rapid, Transient, and Highly Localized Induction of Plastidial omega -3 Fatty Acid Desaturase mRNA at Fungal Infection Sites in Petroselinum crispum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Kirsch; Monica Takamiya-Wik; Susanne Reinold; Klaus Hahlbrock; Imre E. Somssich

    1997-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) plants and suspension-cultured cells have been used extensively for studies of non-host-resistance mechanisms in plant\\/pathogen interactions. We now show that treatment of cultured parsley cells with a defined peptide elicitor of fungal origin causes rapid and large changes in the levels of various unsaturated fatty acids. While linoleic acid decreased and linolenic acid increased steadily for several

  4. Cryo-EM structure of fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Rhodosporidium toruloides provides insights into the evolutionary development of fungal FAS.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Manuel; Rhinow, Daniel; Zhu, Zhiwei; Mills, Deryck J; Zhao, Zongbao K; Vonck, Janet; Grininger, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fungal fatty acid synthases Type I (FAS I) are up to 2.7 MDa large molecular machines composed of large multifunctional polypeptides. Half of the amino acids in fungal FAS I are involved in structural elements that are responsible for scaffolding the elaborate barrel-shaped architecture and turning fungal FAS I into highly efficient de novo producers of fatty acids. Rhodosporidium toruloides is an oleaginous fungal species and renowned for its robust conversion of carbohydrates into lipids to over 70% of its dry cell weight. Here, we use cryo-EM to determine a 7.8-Å reconstruction of its FAS I that reveals unexpected features; its novel form of splitting the multifunctional polypeptide chain into the two subunits ? and ?, and its duplicated ACP domains. We show that the specific distribution into ? and ? occurs by splitting at one of many possible sites that can be accepted by fungal FAS I. While, therefore, the specific distribution in ? and ? chains in R. toruloides FAS I is not correlated to increased protein activities, we also show that the duplication of ACP is an evolutionary late event and argue that duplication is beneficial for the lipid overproduction phenotype. PMID:25761671

  5. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction. PMID:26003180

  6. Fungal pathogenic nucleic acid detection achieved with a microfluidic microarray device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Li, Paul C H; Yu, Hua-Zhong; Parameswaran, Ash M

    2008-03-01

    Detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products obtained from cultured greenhouse fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Didymella bryoniae has been achieved using a previously developed microfluidic microarray assembly (MMA) device. The flexible probe construction and rapid DNA detection resulted from the use of centrifugal pumping in the steps of probe introduction and sample delivery, respectively. The line arrays of the oligonucleotide probes were "printed" on a CD-like glass chip using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer plate with radial microfluidic channels, and the sample hybridizations were conducted within the spiral channels on the second plate. The experimental conditions of probe immobilization and sample hybridization were optimized, and both complementary oligonucleotides and PCR products were tested. We were able to achieve adequate fluorescent signals with a sample load as small as 0.5 nM (1 microL) for oligonucleotide samples; for PCR products, we achieved detection at the level of 3 ng. PMID:18267145

  7. The Natural Diyne-Furan Fatty Acid EV-086 Is an Inhibitor of Fungal Delta-9 Fatty Acid Desaturation with Efficacy in a Model of Skin Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B. V.; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A.; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids—but not saturated fatty acids—antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086–phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

  8. Comparison of Lactic Acid Isomers Produced by Fungal and Bacterial Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Mirdamadi; Hajar Sadeghi; Nora Sharafi; Masoud Fallahpour; Farzaneh Aziz Mohseni; Mohammad Reza Bakhtiari

    Many organisms produce lactic acid by fermentation, but most industrially important strains are from the genus Lactobacillus and Rhizopus oryzae. L(+)-Lactic acid is the only optical isomer for use in pharmaceutical and food industries because human body is only adapted to assimilate this form. In this research, six strains of Lactobacillus and four strains of R. oryzae (known as high

  9. High chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid levels in immature peaches reduce Monilinia laxa infection by interfering with fungal melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Villarino, Maria; Sandín-España, Pilar; Melgarejo, Paloma; De Cal, Antonieta

    2011-04-13

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomer, neochlorogenic acid (NCGA), were found to be the major phenolic compounds in the flesh and peel of three peach cultivars. Their concentrations are especially high in immature fruits (CGA, 151-548 mg/kg; NCGA, 85-380 mg/kg), whose resistance to the brown rot fungus, Monilinia laxa , is very high. The concentrations of these two phenolic compounds decline in maturing fruits (CGA, 77-181 mg/kg; NCGA, 30-82 mg/kg), and this decline is associated with a concomitant increase in susceptibility to brown rot infection. Other phenolic compounds found in the same HPLC chromatograms at 340 nm from each peach extract at varying sampling dates in each of the three peach cultivars were not correlated with the incidence of brown rot and appeared only in some cultivars. The incidence of brown rot for each cultivar at each sampling date was significantly negatively correlated with the NCGA (r > -0.85) and CGA (r > -0.90) contents. At concentrations that are similar to those in peach fruit, CGA does not inhibit spore germination or mycelial growth of M. laxa in culture but markedly inhibits the production of melanin-like pigments in the mycelia of M. laxa in culture (42% melanin reduction). Accordingly, we propose that the high concentrations of CGA and NGA in immature fruits might contribute to their reduced susceptibility or increased resistance to brown rot infection by interfering with fungal melanin production. PMID:21370882

  10. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fungal Diseases Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fungal diseases can affect anyone. Learning about them can help ...

  11. An efficient method for the purification of arachidonic acid from fungal single-cell oil (ARASCO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaik Ramjan Vali; Huei Ya Sheng; Yi-Hsu Ju

    2003-01-01

    PUFA, such as arachidonic acid (AA), have several pharmaceutical applications. An efficient method was developed to obtain\\u000a high-purity arachidonic acid (AA) from ARASCO, a single-cell oil from Martek (Columbia, MD). The method comprises three steps.\\u000a In the first step, AA was enriched from saponified ARASCO oil by low-temperature solvent crystallization using a polar, aprotic\\u000a solvent, which gave a FA fraction

  12. Simultaneous Down-Regulation of Caffeic/5-Hydroxy Ferulic Acid-O-Methyltransferase I and Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in the Progeny from a Cross between Tobacco Lines Homozygous for Each Transgene. Consequences for Plant Development and Lignin Synthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Pinçon, Gaelle; Chabannes, Matthieu; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Ruel, Katia; Joseleau, Jean-Paul; Boudet, Alain M.; Legrand, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of specific lignin biosynthetic steps by antisense strategy has previously been shown to alter lignin content and/or structure. In this work, homozygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines transformed with cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) or caffeic acid/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-methyltransferase I (COMT I) antisense sequences have been crossed and enzyme activities, lignin synthesis, and cell wall structure of the progeny have been analyzed. In single transformed parents, CCR inhibition did not affect COMT I expression, whereas marked increases in CCR activity were observed in COMT I antisense plants, suggesting potential cross talk between some genes of the pathway. In the progeny, both CCR and COMT I activities were shown to be markedly decreased due to the simultaneous repression of the two genes. In these double transformants, the lignin profiles were dependent on the relative extent of down-regulation of each individual enzyme. For the siblings issued from a strongly repressed antisense CCR parent, the lignin patterns mimicked the patterns obtained in single transformants with a reduced CCR activity. In contrast, the specific lignin profile of COMT I repression could not be detected in double transformed siblings. By transmission electron microscopy some cell wall loosening was detected in the antisense CCR parent but not in the antisense COMT I parent. In double transformants, immunolabeling of non-condensed guaiacyl-syringyl units was weaker and revealed changes in epitope distribution that specifically affected vessels. Our results more widely highlight the impact of culture conditions on phenotypes and gene expression of transformed plants. PMID:11351078

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate effectiveness on growth and root colonization of Panicum virgatum in acidic soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Clark; S. K. Zeto; R. W. Zobel

    1999-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance plant ability to grow and withstand acidic soil induced stresses. Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) was grown in pHCa 4 and 5 (soil:10 mM CaCl2, 1:1) soil (typic Hapludult) inoculated with eight isolates of AMF [Glomus (G.) clarum, G. diaphanum, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, Gigaspora (Gi.) albida, Gi. margarita, Gi. rosea and Acaulospora (A.) morrowiae

  14. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  15. Lamb and Cow Performance when Fed Corn Silage that has Reduced Ferulate Cross Linking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulate-mediated lignin/hemicellulose cross linking in grasses reduces in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD). Impact of ferulate cross linking on animal performance was examined in lamb digestibility and dairy cow performance trials using the seedling ferulate ester (sfe) corn mutant that reduces cro...

  16. Interesting effect of phytosterol structure on antioxidant activities of phytosteryl ferulates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In nature, phytosteryl ferulates usually occur as mixtures where the profiles of the phytosterols are influenced by the cereal source. When evaluating phytosteryl ferulates from corn and rice as potential antioxidants for frying, we found that phytosteryl ferulates from corn were superior to those f...

  17. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  18. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes in fungi isolated from diabetic pregnant women: is there any relationship between fungal alkaline and acid phosphatase activity and glycemic control?

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Dorota; Kurnatowska, Alicja; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Wilczy?ski, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Ability to respond to environmental changes and secretion of hydrolases are considered to be important for Candida virulence. In this study we determined and compared the activities of 19 different hydrolases of the fungal strains isolated from diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. We also looked for the presence of a relationship between hydrolase activities and glycemic control, and, furthermore, evaluated the influence of gestational age on the activity of hydrolases. Mycological examinations were performed for 119 diabetic pregnant women: 47 with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 72 with gestational diabetes (GDM), and for 132 healthy women (CON). Samples were collected from the vagina, rectum and oral cavity and cultured on Sabouraud media. The fungal hydrolase activities were evaluated using the API ZYM test (bioMerieux). For the 19 different fungal hydrolases tested, 13 activities were present in the isolated fungal strains. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in vaginal strains (p=0.028) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in strains from the vagina (p=0.006) and rectum (p=0.049) was significantly lower in DM than in GDM and CON women. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that fungi isolated from pregnant diabetic women have lower activity of both phosphatases compared to fungi isolated from healthy women. Furthermore, similar differences of mean ALP and ACP activities were observed in the course of pregnancy in strains from the vagina and rectum of DM and CON women. However, strains from DM had lower activity at each stage of pregnancy. The highest activity of ALP and ACP was detected at the beginning, then declined, and had the lowest values between the 24(th) and 33(rd) week of gestation. After that period the activity of both phosphatases increased. PMID:15511275

  19. Negligible contribution from roots to soil-borne phospholipid fatty acid fungal biomarkers 18:2?6,9 and 18:1?9

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Frank, Alexander; Wild, Birgit; Koranda, Marianne; Richter, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers 18:1?9, 18:2?6,9 and 18:3?3,6,9 are commonly used as fungal biomarkers in soils. They have, however, also been found to occur in plant tissues, such as roots. Thus, the use of these PLFAs as fungal biomarkers in sieved soil, which may still contain small remains of roots, has been questioned. We used data from a recent beech tree girdling experiment to calculate the contribution of roots to these biomarkers and were able to demonstrate that not more than 0.61% of 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 in sieved soil samples originated from roots (but 4% of 18:3?3,6,9). Additionally, the abundance of the biomarker 18:2?6,9 in the soil was found to be highly correlated to ectomycorrhizal root colonization, which further corroborates its fungal origin. PLFA biomarkers were substantially reduced in vital roots from girdled trees compared to roots of control trees (by up to 76%), indicating that the major part of PLFAs measured in roots may actually originate from ectomycorrhizal fungi growing inside the roots. We calculated, that even a near to 50% reduction in fine root biomass – as observed in the girdling treatment – accounted for only 0.8% of the measured decrease of 18:2?6,9. Our results demonstrate that both 18:1?9 and 18:2?6,9 are suitable biomarkers for detecting fungal dynamics in soils and that especially 18:2?6,9 is a reliable biomarker to study mycorrhizal dynamics in beech forests. PMID:21633516

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal activities of novel ricinoleate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kunduru Konda; Ravinder, Thumu; Kanjilal, Sanjit

    2012-10-15

    Syntheses of four castor oil fatty acid-based novel lipoconjugates of phenolic acids were carried out following Mitsunobu methodology. The lipid part consists of methyl ricinoleate and its saturated analogue, methyl-12-hydroxystearate and the phenolic moieties are ferulic and vanillic acid. Synthesised compounds are evaluated for antioxidant activity using three in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging assay, DSC studies for oxidative induction temperature of linoleic acid and autoxidation of linoleic acid in Tween 20 micellar medium) and compared with three widely used antioxidants in the food industry, BHT, ?-tocopherol, and dodecyl gallate. Synthesised compounds are found to exhibit good antiradical activity. These compounds also exhibited very good antifungal activity against studied fungal strains. All these results suggested the applicability of the synthesised compounds as potent lipophilic antioxidants for combating oxidative stress. PMID:23442675

  1. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diagnosis is needed, as in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections, more extensive testing may be ... mouth (thrush) Vaginal itching and discharge (yeast infection) Deep and systemic fungal infections may cause a variety ...

  2. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Fungal arthritis, also called mycotic arthritis, is a rare condition. This disease can be caused by any of the invasive types of fungi. These organisms may affect bone or joint tissue. One or more joints may ...

  3. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  4. Cr(VI) reduction by gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide, the reaction products of fungal glucose oxidase: Cooperative interaction with organic acids in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI). PMID:25577697

  5. Reduction of ferulate ether cross links in maize stover due to selection for low ferulate ester concentrations in seedlings improves cell wall digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that ferulate-mediated cross links between lignin and hemicellulose in the cell walls of grasses could be reduced by inhibition of ferulate ester biosynthesis. Further, a reduction in cross linking should lead to improved digestibility of cell wall polysaccharides. We report here tha...

  6. Cyclopaldic acid, seiridin, and sphaeropsidin A as fungal phytotoxins, and larvicidal and biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Avolio, Fabiana; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. From a preliminary screening of fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid (1), seiridin (2), sphaeropsidin A (4), and papyracillic acid (5) were evaluated for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti L. Because compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activities and 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities, further structure?activity relationship studies were initiated on these toxins. In biting-deterrence bioassays, 1, 2, 4, and 5, 3,8-didansylhydrazone of cyclopaldic acid, 1F, 5-azidopentanoate of cyclopaldic acid A, 1G, the reduced derivative of cyclopaldic acid, 1?H, isoseiridin (3), 2'-O-acetylseiridin (2A), 2'-oxoseiridin (2C), 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (4A), 8,14-methylensphaeropsidin A methyl ester (4B), and sphaeropsidin B (4C) showed activities higher than the solvent control. Sphaeropsidin B (4C) was the most active compound followed by 2A, while the other compounds were less active. Biting-deterrence activity of compound 4C was statistically similar to DEET. In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities. Based on LD50 values, compound 4 (LD50 36.8?ppm) was significantly more active than compound 1 (LD50 58.2?ppm). However, the activity of these compounds was significantly lower than permethrin. PMID:23847068

  7. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  8. Direct detection using the Drosophila DNA-repair test and isolation of a DNA-damaging mycotoxin, 5,6-dihydropenicillic acid, in fungal culture.

    PubMed

    Obana, H; Kumeda, Y; Nishimune, T; Usami, Y

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila DNA-repair test was used in an attempt to detect fungal production of DNA-damaging mycotoxins without an extraction process. 29 species of fungi, 13 Aspergillus, 12 Penicillium and four Fusarium were inoculated directly to a Drosophila medium, and the larvae were then bred in the mouldy medium. Production of DNA-damaging mycotoxin was detected directly by counting the decrease in the survival of DNA-repair-deficient flies. With the direct detection method, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. parasiticus and A. versicolor produced DNA-damaging mycotoxins. The same results were obtained with the mouldy medium extract using the standard DNA-repair test. The direct detection method was convenient for surveying the fungal production of DNA-damaging mycotoxins. The extracts of A. parasiticus and A. versicolor contained aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin, respectively. The DNA-damaging compound in the extract of A. ochraceus was isolated and purified to clear, colourless 'needles'. With nuclear magnetic resonance-mass spectroscopy spectra, the compound was confirmed to be 5,6-dihydropenicillic acid, the DNA-damaging potency of which has not been previously reported. PMID:8132162

  9. Ionic interaction of positive amino acid residues of fungal hydrophobin RolA with acidic amino acid residues of cutinase CutL1.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Tanaka, Takumi; Tsushima, Yusei; Muragaki, Kimihide; Uehara, Kenji; Takeuchi, Shunsuke; Maeda, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Youhei; Nakayama, Mayumi; Yoshimi, Akira; Abe, Keietsu

    2015-04-01

    Hydrophobins are amphipathic proteins secreted by filamentous fungi. When the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae is grown in a liquid medium containing the polyester polybutylene succinate co-adipate (PBSA), it produces RolA, a hydrophobin, and CutL1, a PBSA-degrading cutinase. Secreted RolA attaches to the surface of the PBSA particles and recruits CutL1, which then condenses on the particles and stimulates the hydrolysis of PBSA. Here, we identified amino acid residues that are required for the RolA-CutL1 interaction by using site-directed mutagenesis. We quantitatively analyzed kinetic profiles of the interactions between RolA variants and CutL1 variants by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The QCM analyses revealed that Asp142, Asp171 and Glu31, located on the hydrophilic molecular surface of CutL1, and His32 and Lys34, located in the N-terminus of RolA, play crucial roles in the RolA-CutL1 interaction via ionic interactions. RolA immobilized on a QCM electrode strongly interacted with CutL1 (K(D) ?=?6.5?nM); however, RolA with CutL1 variants, or RolA variants with CutL1, showed markedly larger KD values, particularly in the interaction between the double variant RolA-H32S/K34S and the triple variant CutL1-E31S/D142S/D171S (K(D) ?=?78.0?nM). We discuss a molecular prototype model of hydrophobin-based enzyme recruitment at the solid-water interface. PMID:25588312

  10. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  11. Quantification of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with fungal culture and determination of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, A; Larsson, L; Burge, H; Milton, D

    1997-01-01

    Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with results from fungal culture and Limulus assay. Analyses of replicate house dust samples resulted in correlations of 0.91 (ergosterol in six replicates; P < 0.01) and 0.94 (3-hydroxy fatty acids in nine replicates; P < 0.001). The amounts of ergosterol (range, 2 to 16.5 ng/mg of dust) correlated with those of total culturable fungi (range, 6 to 1,400 CFU/mg of dust) in 17 samples, (r = 0.65; P < 0.005). The amounts of endotoxin (range, 11 to 243 endotoxin units/mg of dust) measured with a modified chromogenic Limulus assay correlated with those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determined from 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis of 15 samples. The correlation coefficient depended on the chain lengths of 3-hydroxy acids used to compute the LPS content. The correlation was high (r = 0.88 +/- 0.01; P < 0.001) when fatty acid chains of 10 to 14 carbon atoms were included; the correlation was much lower when hydroxy acids of 16- or 18-carbon chains were included. In conclusion, the results of the described extraction and analysis procedure for ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids are reproducible, and the results can be correlated with fungal culture and endotoxin activity of organic dust samples. PMID:9212406

  12. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1). PMID:24772371

  13. Design of a fungal bioprocess for vanillin production from vanillic acid at scalable level by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christelle Stentelaire; Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Julie Oddou; Olivier Bernard; Georges Bastin; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Marcel Asther

    2000-01-01

    The biotechnological process of vanillin production from vanillic acid by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was scaled-up at the laboratory level. Vanillin production was studied in two types of bioreactors, a mechanically agitated and an air-lift bioreactor. In the mechanically agitated bioreactor where vanillin was produced in greater quantities, oxygen availability was studied during the growth and production phases. A maximal aeration rate

  14. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

  15. Fungal wood decay in the presence of fly ash as indicated by gravimetrics and by extractability of low molecular weight volatile organic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Piškur; Janja Zule; Mitja Piškur; Dušan Jurc; Franc Pohleven

    2009-01-01

    A mycoremediation system of wood substrate and fungal inoculum was established on an organically poor fly ash deposit at the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia. A mini-block method with beech wood samples was used to select a suitable fungal isolate for inoculation into the mycoremediation system. Pleurotus ostreatus ZIM 76 proved to be the most appropriate for further tests. Compared

  16. The promoter of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 from Arabidopsis is systemically activated by fungal pathogens and responds to methyl jasmonate but not to salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Manners; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Katrien Vermaere; Kemal Kazan; Rebecca L. Brown; Andrew Morgan; Donald J. Maclean; Mark D. Curtis; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Willem F. Broekaert

    1998-01-01

    The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. To further investigate the signalling and transcriptional processes underlying plant defensin induction, a DNA fragment containing 1184 bp and 1232 bp upstream of the transcriptional and translational start sites, respectively, was cloned by inverse PCR. To test

  17. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Reiko [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Shafiqul, Islam Md. [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ozaki, Hiroshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ushio, Hideki [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan)]. E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  20. Re-characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ach1p: fungal CoA-transferases are involved in acetic acid detoxification.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Christian B; Brock, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa mutants defective in the so-called acetyl-CoA hydrolases Ach1p and Acu-8, respectively, display a severe growth defect on acetate, which is most strongly pronounced under acidic conditions. Acetyl-CoA hydrolysis is an energy wasting process and therefore denoted as a biochemical conundrum. Acetyl-CoA hydrolases show high sequence identity to the CoA-transferase CoaT from Aspergillus nidulans. Therefore, we extensively re-characterised the yeast enzyme. Ach1p showed highest specific activity for the CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate and only a minor acetyl-CoA-hydrolase activity. Complementation of an ach1 mutant with the coaT gene reversed the growth defect on acetate confirming the in vivo function of Ach1p as a CoA-transferase. Our results imply that Ach1p is involved in mitochondrial acetate detoxification by a CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate. Thereby, Ach1p does not perform the energy wasting hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA but conserves energy by the detoxification of mitochondrial acetate. PMID:19298859

  1. Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

  2. Functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Fujii

    2010-01-01

    Fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. Despite such diversty, single modular iterative type I polyketide synthases (iPKSs) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. Using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on ATX, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Aspergillus terreus as a model iPKS. In addition, iPKS functions involved in fungal

  3. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  4. PHENOLIC ACIDS PROFILES OF BEANS COMMONLY CONSUMED IN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids were saponified, extracted and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography procedure with diode array detection (DAD). Three phenolic acids namely, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were detected and quantified in all dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly con...

  5. The sfe Maize Mutant: Reduced Ferulate Cross Linking Improves Rumen Cell Wall Degradability and Milk Production by Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A putative mutant has been identified in maize that reduces ferulate cross linking of lignin to arabinoxylan in mature stover, increases in vitro rumen cell wall degradability, and increases milk production by cows. The seedling ferulate ester (sfe) mutant was discovered in a Mu transposon-mutated p...

  6. Reduced ferulate cross link concentration is associated with improved fiber digestibility of corn stover at silage maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulate cross linking of lignin to arabinoxylan is correlated with fiber digestibility in perennial cool-season grasses; however, similar data have not been reported for warm-season grasses. Our objective was to determine if ferulate cross links are associated with fiber digestibility in corn stove...

  7. A cinnamoyl esterase from Aspergillus niger can break plant cell wall cross-links without release of free diferulic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Teresa Garcia-Conesa; Paul A. Kroon; John Ralph; Fred A. Mellon; Ian J. Colquhoun; Luc Saulnier; Jean-Francois Thibault; Gary Williamson

    1999-01-01

    A cinnamoyl esterase, ferulic acid esterase A, from Aspergillus niger releases ferulic acid and 5-5- and 8-O-4-dehydrodiferulic acids from plant cell walls. The breakage of one or both ester bonds from dehydrodimer cross-links between plant cell wall polymers is essential for optimal action of carbohydrases on these substrates, but it is not known if cinnamoyl esterases can break these cross-links

  8. Allelopathic effects of phenolic acids detected in buffalograss ( Buchloe dactyloides) clippings on growth of annual bluegrass ( Poa annua) and buffalograss seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wu; Xun Guo; M. Ali Harivandi

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen different phenolic acids were detected in water extracts of buffalograss clippings. Six of the 14 phenolic acids, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, homoveratric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid, were examined for water and base extractable tissue concentration, and their effects on growth of seedlings of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides). The tissue phenolic

  9. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  10. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  11. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  12. Organic acids as seed germination inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saviozzi; R. Riffaldi

    1994-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of aromatic and aliphatic acids was tested by a wheat seed bioassay. Wheat seed germination was found to be influenced by the number of hydroxy and methoxy groups, the molecular position of single and double hydroxy groups, the length of the aliphatic chain, as well as by the pKa of the acid solutions. Orto and meta coumaric, ferulic and

  13. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  14. The evolution of fungal metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Slot, Jason C; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-12-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters represent hotspots for the generation of fungal metabolic diversity. PMID:25474404

  15. Granuloma, fungal (Majocchi's) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This is a picture of a fungal granuloma, a large, red (erythematous) patch (plaque) with a prominent border. Within the borders of the lesion are scattered blisters (pustules) that indicate deeper ...

  16. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  17. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

  18. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  19. Simultaneous estimation of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides) using RP-HPLC with DAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjith Arimboor; K. Sarin Kumar; C. Arumughan

    2008-01-01

    A RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of nine phenolic acids including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffiec acid and ferulic acid in sea buckthorn (SB) (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries and leaves. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD, precision, accuracy and recovery and found to

  20. Engineering of a 3'-sulpho-Gal?1-4GlcNAc-specific probe by a single amino acid substitution of a fungal galectin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Hang; Tateno, Hiroaki; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Sato, Takashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yao, Xinsheng; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Among sulphated glycans, little is known about 3'-sulphation because of the lack of useful probes. In the course of molecular engineering of a fungal galectin from Agrocybe cylindracea, we found that a single substitution of Glu86 with alanine resulted in acquisition of specific binding for the 3'-sulpho-Gal?1-4GlcNAc structure. Extensive glyco-technological analysis revealed that this property was obtained in a 'loss-of-function' manner. Though this mutant (E86A) had low total affinity, it showed substantial binding to a naturally occurring N-glycan, of which the terminal galactose is 3-sulphated. Moreover, E86A specifically bound to HeLa cells, in which galactose-3-O-sulfotransferases (Gal3ST2 or Gal3ST3) were over-expressed. PMID:25762728

  1. Monolignol ferulate transferase introduces chemically labile linkages into the lignin backbone.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, C G; Mansfield, S D; Lu, F; Withers, S; Park, J-Y; Karlen, S D; Gonzales-Vigil, E; Padmakshan, D; Unda, F; Rencoret, J; Ralph, J

    2014-04-01

    Redesigning lignin, the aromatic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, to be more amenable to chemical depolymerization can lower the energy required for industrial processing. We have engineered poplar trees to introduce ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone by augmenting the monomer pool with monolignol ferulate conjugates. Herein, we describe the isolation of a transferase gene capable of forming these conjugates and its xylem-specific introduction into poplar. Enzyme kinetics, in planta expression, lignin structural analysis, and improved cell wall digestibility after mild alkaline pretreatment demonstrate that these trees produce the monolignol ferulate conjugates, export them to the wall, and use them during lignification. Tailoring plants to use such conjugates during cell wall biosynthesis is a promising way to produce plants that are designed for deconstruction. PMID:24700858

  2. Fukiic and piscidic acid esters from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa and the in vitro estrogenic activity of fukinolic acid.

    PubMed

    Kruse, S O; Löhning, A; Pauli, G F; Winterhoff, H; Nahrstedt, A

    1999-12-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid esters of fukiic acid and piscidic acid were isolated from a 50% ethanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (Ranunculaceae). Besides 2-E-caffeoylfukiic acid (fukinolic acid), 2-E-feruloylfukiic acid (cimicifugic acid A), 2-E-isoferuloylfukiic acid (cimicifugic acid B), 2-E-feruloylpiscidic acid (cimicifugic acid E) and 2-E-isoferuloylpiscidic acid (cimicifugic acid F), free caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids were isolated. The estrogenic activity of fukinolic acid was shown by increased proliferation (126% at 5 x 10(-8) M) of an estrogen dependent MCF-7 cell system with reference to estradiol (120% at 10(-10) M). PMID:10630125

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of steryl ferulate on experimental rats with non-bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinzhou; Xiong, Lina; Huang, Weisu; Cai, Huafang; Luo, Yanxi; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Baiyi

    2014-06-01

    Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways. PMID:24686498

  4. Effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Krogmeier; J. M. Bremner

    1989-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the adverse effect of plant residues on crop yields is largely or partly due to phytotoxic compounds leached from these residues or produced by their decomposition. There has been substantial support for the hypothesis that the phytotoxic compounds responsible for reduced crop yields are phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid.

  5. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  6. Fungal synthesis of exopolysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several fungal polysaccharides are currently used as thickening agents for materials ranging from enhanced oil recovery brines and drilling muds to foods. These polymers are generally produced during exponential fungal growth and appear to be normal cell wall constituents. As thickeners, they tend to be comparable to xanthan, and exhibit a similar non-Newtonian response to shear. Polymers which do not have carboxyl or amine group substituents tend to be less sensitive to high concentrations of multivalent ions, a problem in many brine and food systems. The fungal polymers have related fermentations and separations. They compete for a similar product market. Where families of polymers have a common backdone, they are susceptible to hydrolysis by the same enzymes.

  7. Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rishi Gupta; Girija Mehta; Yogender Pal Khasa; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

    2011-01-01

    The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated\\u000a for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the\\u000a P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%,

  8. Fungal degradation of polyvinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    García Trejo, A

    1988-08-01

    Certain Aspergillus and Penicillium strains isolated from soil grow well and degrade a commercial sample of polyvinyl acetate (PVA, 4.5 g liter-1) when it is used as the only carbon source. These strains showed an increase in dry weight after 11 days of incubation, along with a depletion of carbohydrates, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid. This was interpreted as an active turnover of the above metabolites during the degradation. This effect was greatly enhanced by equilibrating the carbon:nitrogen ratio by addition of yeast extract in the original culture. The increase in esterase activity and the loss of viscosity were also considered evidence of the fungal degradation. Isolation of the enzyme was attempted, but unsuccessful. PMID:3181066

  9. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicines. Laser treatments may get rid of the fungus in the nails. In some cases, you may need to have the nail removed. ... The fungal nail infection is cured by the growth of new, ... Medicines clear up fungus in about half of people who try them. ...

  10. The fungal GATA factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Scazzocchio

    2000-01-01

    The DNA-binding domains of eucaryotic GATA factors comprise a four-cysteine Zn finger and an adjacent basic region. Fungal GATA factors regulate nitrogen metabolism, light induction, siderophore biosynthesis and mating-type switching. Hydrophobic interactions determine binding-site specificity. Interactions with other factors may determine promoter specificity. One GATA factor has recently been shown to determine a drastic chromatin rearrangement.

  11. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections. PMID:25141493

  12. Current Status of Nonculture Methods for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Siew Fah; Wong, Brian

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections has increased dramatically in recent decades, especially among immunocompromised patients. However, the diagnosis of these infections in a timely fashion is often very difficult. Conventional microbiologic and histopathologic approaches generally are neither sensitive nor specific, and they often do not detect invasive fungal infection until late in the course of disease. Since early diagnosis may guide appropriate treatment and prevent mortality, there has been considerable interest in developing nonculture approaches to diagnosing fungal infections. These approaches include detection of specific host immune responses to fungal antigens, detection of specific macromolecular antigens using immunologic reagents, amplification and detection of specific fungal nucleic acid sequences, and detection and quantitation of specific fungal metabolite products. This work reviews the current status and recent developments as well as problems in the design of nonculture diagnostic methods for invasive fungal infections. PMID:12097252

  13. Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Häkkinen; M. Heinonen; S. Kärenlampi; H. Mykkänen; J. Ruuskanen; R. Törrönen

    1999-01-01

    Selected flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin) and phenolic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic and ellagic acids) were simultaneously detected from 19 berries using a simple High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method. These phenolics have been proposed to have beneficial effects on health as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. Marked differences were observed in the phenolic profiles among the berries, with certain similarities

  14. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article. PMID:20605753

  15. Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanan Zhao; Steven Park; Barry N. Kreiswirth; Christine C. Ginocchio; Raphael Veyret; Ali Laayoun; Alain Troesch; David S. Perlin

    2009-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient out- comes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-

  16. The Aspergillus nidulans proline permease as a model for understanding the factors determining substrate binding and specificity of fungal amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Gournas, Christos; Evangelidis, Thomas; Athanasopoulos, Alexandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

    2015-03-01

    Amino acid uptake in fungi is mediated by general and specialized members of the yeast amino acid transporter (YAT) family, a branch of the amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) transporter superfamily. PrnB, a highly specific l-proline transporter, only weakly recognizes other Put4p substrates, its Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue. Taking advantage of the high sequence similarity between the two transporters, we combined molecular modeling, induced fit docking, genetic, and biochemical approaches to investigate the molecular basis of this difference and identify residues governing substrate binding and specificity. We demonstrate that l-proline is recognized by PrnB via interactions with residues within TMS1 (Gly(56), Thr(57)), TMS3 (Glu(138)), and TMS6 (Phe(248)), which are evolutionary conserved in YATs, whereas specificity is achieved by subtle amino acid substitutions in variable residues. Put4p-mimicking substitutions in TMS3 (S130C), TMS6 (F252L, S253G), TMS8 (W351F), and TMS10 (T414S) broadened the specificity of PrnB, enabling it to recognize more efficiently l-alanine, l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, and glycine without significantly affecting the apparent Km for l-proline. S253G and W351F could transport l-alanine, whereas T414S, despite displaying reduced proline uptake, could transport l-alanine and glycine, a phenotype suppressed by the S130C mutation. A combination of all five Put4p-ressembling substitutions resulted in a functional allele that could also transport l-alanine and glycine, displaying a specificity profile impressively similar to that of Put4p. Our results support a model where residues in these positions determine specificity by interacting with the substrates, acting as gating elements, altering the flexibility of the substrate binding core, or affecting conformational changes of the transport cycle. PMID:25572393

  17. A rapid quantitative determination of phenolic acids in Brassica oleracea by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris S. L. Lee; Mary C. Boyce; Michael C. Breadmore

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis method to quantitatively determine the phenolic acid contents in brassica vegetables is described. Phenolic compounds were extracted from broccoli, broccolini, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower and the main hydroxycinnamic acids (sinapic, ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids) were isolated by solid phase extraction with C18 cartridges. Using an optimised method, the four analytes were

  18. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed. PMID:19069096

  19. A change of phenolic acids content in poplar leaves induced by methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu An; Ying-bai Shen; Li-juan Wu; Zhi-xiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The contents of seven different phenolic acids such as gallic acid, catechinic acid, pyrocatechol, caffeic acid, coumaric\\u000a acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in the poplar leaves (Populus Simonii × Populus Pyramibalis c. v and Populus deltoids) suffocated by Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and Methyl salicylate (MeSA) were monitored for analyzing their functions in interplant\\u000a communications by using high-pressure liquid chromatography

  20. Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

  1. Cytology of Fungal Infection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Vincelli. (University of Kentucky; )

    2001-06-18

    This resource is a laboratory exercise in plant patholgy. Students become familiar with the cytological events involved in the establishment of infection by a fungal pathogen. Upon completion of this laboratory students should understand the effect of various management practices on particular infection events, and the significance of this to disease management.Instructors and students notes are included, as well as data record sheets and discussion questions.

  2. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  3. Ferulic Acid as a Component of a Glycoprotein from Wheat Flour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fausch; W. Kündig; H. Neukom

    1963-01-01

    IT has already been shown that the water-soluble wheat flour pentosans can be separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography into five fractions: a pure arabinoxylan and four glycoprotein fractions1. For the peculiar gelation of aqueous flour extracts by oxidizing agents2 the principal glycoprotein fraction (No. 2) could be responsible3,4. This fraction contains 80-90 per cent polysaccharide (components: xylose, arabinose and galactose) and

  4. Characterization of arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses from sugar beet pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Oosterveld; Gerrit Beldman; Henk A. Schols; Alphons G. J. Voragen

    2000-01-01

    Pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp to yield fractions representing homogalacturonans, rhamnogalacturonans, arabinans and relatively small amounts of glucomannans and xyloglucans. The homogalacturonans had an apparent molecular weight of 21 kDa and contained relatively high amounts of methyl esters and relatively low amounts of acetyl groups as compared with the ramified ‘hairy’ regions. Three populations which originated from

  5. Biotransformation of Eugenol to Ferulic Acid by a Recombinant Strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorg Overhage; Alexander Steinbuchel; Horst Priefert

    2002-01-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is the charac- teristic aroma component of the vanilla pod and is used in a broad range of flavors for foods, confectionery, and beverages; as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes and cosmetics; and for pharmaceuticals. The main production of vanillin is done via chemical synthesis from guaiacol and lignin (9). The increasing customer-led demand for natural flavors has

  6. Isolation of Pyrrolocins A–C: cis- and trans-Decalin Tetramic Acid Antibiotics from an Endophytic Fungal-Derived Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1–3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1–3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135. PMID:25351193

  7. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens. PMID:24860135

  8. Severe Asthma with Fungal Sensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritesh Agarwal

    A new phenotype of asthma has been described recently, namely severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS). SAFS can be\\u000a conceptualized as a continuum of fungal sensitization, with asthma at one end and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis\\u000a at the other. It is diagnosed by the presence of severe asthma, fungal sensitization, and exclusion of allergic bronchopulmonary\\u000a aspergillosis. Because of the paucity of

  9. Phenolic acids affect photosynthesis and protein synthesis by isolated leaf cells of velvet-leaf.

    PubMed

    Mersie, W; Singh, M

    1993-07-01

    The effects ofp-coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic, and vanillic acids on photosynthesis and protein synthesis by isolated leaf cells of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik) were investigated. Photosynthesis and protein synthesis were measured in cell suspensions by the incorporation of(14)CO2 and [(14)C]leucine, respectively. None of the tested phenolic acids except vanillic reduced photosynthesis by more than 50% at the highest concentration and 30 min of incubation. At 100?M concentrations and 60-min incubation periods,p-coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic, and vanillic acids inhibited photosynthesis by 33, 37, 57, and 65%, respectively. Ferulic acid was the most inhibitory to protein synthesis and reduced the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine by 50% at about 1.0?M after 60 min of incubation. At the highest concentrations tested in this study, vanillic and ferulic acids were inhibitory to photosynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, whereas chlorogenic andp-coumaric acids did not inhibit either physiological process. The maximum inhibition of protein synthesis by chlorogenic acid was 19% and by vanillic acid was 28% at 100?M concentrations. Chlorogenic, vanillic, andp-cou-maric acids at 0.1?M caused increased protein synthesis over the untreated control. Overall, photosynthesis was more sensitive than protein synthesis to the four phenolic acids tested. PMID:24249162

  10. Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

    2006-10-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

  11. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  12. Phenolic acids of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose ( Oenothera biennis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zadernowski; M. Naczk; H. Nowak-Polakowska

    2002-01-01

    The composition of phenolic acids, both free and liberated from esters and glycosides, was determined in evening primrose\\u000a and borage seeds by GC and MS. The free phenolic acid fraction was predominant in these seeds. Protocatechuic acid was the\\u000a principal phenolic acid of the free and esterified phenolic acids in evening primrose seeds. Ferulic acid represented a high\\u000a proportion of

  13. Presowing Hardening of the Host with Phenolic Acids Reduces Induction of Seed Germination in the Root Parasite Striga asiatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharathalakshmi; Jayachandra

    1980-01-01

    Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze, a root parasite, causes severe loss of yield in sorghum and several other crops. The seeds of the parasite are induced to germinate by a stimulant in the host root exudate. Presowing hardening of the host with vanillic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid (25 ppm) reduces the induction of seed germination in the parasite by

  14. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... up the amount of fungal spores in the air. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in hospitalized patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on many ...

  15. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited. PMID:23175562

  16. Fungal effectors and plant susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Libera; Lanver, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Tanaka, Shigeyuki; Liang, Liang; Tollot, Marie; Zuccaro, Alga; Reissmann, Stefanie; Kahmann, Regine

    2015-04-29

    Plants can be colonized by fungi that have adopted highly diverse lifestyles, ranging from symbiotic to necrotrophic. Colonization is governed in all systems by hundreds of secreted fungal effector molecules. These effectors suppress plant defense responses and modulate plant physiology to accommodate fungal invaders and provide them with nutrients. Fungal effectors either function in the interaction zone between the fungal hyphae and host or are transferred to plant cells. This review describes the effector repertoires of 84 plant-colonizing fungi. We focus on the mechanisms that allow these fungal effectors to promote virulence or compatibility, discuss common plant nodes that are targeted by effectors, and provide recent insights into effector evolution. In addition, we address the issue of effector uptake in plant cells and highlight open questions and future challenges. PMID:25923844

  17. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of ?-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, ?-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

  18. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE RESPONSES TO FUNGAL INFECTION IN ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme activity and transcript level of key flavonoid precursor enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), were monitored alfalfa seedlings that had been challenged with the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum trifolii. Inoculation...

  19. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  20. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  1. [Fungal endogenous endophthalmitis].

    PubMed

    Bodaghi, B

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis of bacterial or fungal origin is a rare condition, accounting for 5 to 10% of all endophthalmitis cases. Different risk factors have been identified and ocular involvement is usually due to one or multiple systemic infectious abscesses with variable virulence. Clinical symptoms may initially mimic a panuveitis and will delay diagnostic confirmation. Ancillary tests will determine the infectious source and isolate the causative agent. Specific therapy is based on systemic and intravitreal antibiotics or antifungals associated with a pars plana vitrectomy in severe cases. Despite an aggressive therapeutic strategy, visual prognosis remains guarded. Education of ophthalmologists and infectious disease specialists may decrease diagnostic delay so that specific antimicrobial agents can be initiated promptly and thus avoid a permanent blindness. PMID:21126800

  2. Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Som G.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Only a handful of the many fungal species on our planet cause infections in humans. Despite many medical advances, invasive fungal infections have skyrocketed in recent years and pose a growing health problem in both immune-competent and -deficient hosts. Recent strides in our understanding of fungal immunity have raised the prospect that vaccines against fungi can be developed that are effective, safe and able to elicit lasting immunity even in immune deficient individuals. We discuss progress in vaccine development and understanding mechanisms of protection against fungi including in patients with impaired CD4+ T-cell immunity. PMID:24583636

  3. Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted ?-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

  4. Can fungal biopesticides control malaria? 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Matt B; Read, Andrew F

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has raised the prospect of using insect fungal pathogens for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In the past, microbial control of insect pests in both medical and agricultural sectors has generally had limited...

  5. Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

  6. Glycoprotein Inhibitors of Fungal Polygalacturonases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann L. T. Powell; Henrik U. Stotz; John M. Labavitch; Alan B. Bennett

    \\u000a Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) have been identified in many plants, including pear, tomato and bean, and have\\u000a been suggested to contribute to host defense against fungal pathogens. PGIPs from various plant sources differ in their inhibition\\u000a of polygalacturonases (PGs) from fungal pathogens. Based on inhibition selectivity of individual PGIPs, transgenic expression\\u000a of heterologous PGIPs provides an experimental system in which

  7. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  8. Interaction of cellulase with three phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Yue; Ou, Shiyi

    2013-06-01

    The activity of cellulase against filter paper was enhanced by 28.32% and 15.17% after the addition of 0.83 mg/ml of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively, and by 10.15% after the addition of salicylic acid at 0.67 mg/ml. The effects of three phenolic acids on the structure of cellulase were investigated via ultraviolet spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Ultraviolet spectroscopic results indicated that the peak absorbance of cellulase significantly increased and exhibited a 4-5 nm redshift after the addition of the three phenolic acids, suggesting that the phenolic acids strongly interacted with the enzyme. Fluorescence investigation of the interaction between the enzyme and the phenolic acids showed that ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid covalently reacted with the aromatic amino acid residues in cellulase, whereas salicylic acid interacted non-covalently with cellulase. CD analysis revealed that the addition of the phenolic acids significantly decreased ?-helix content but increased ?-sheet and random coil contents. The possible mechanism underlying the effects of these phenolic acids on cellulase activity was also discussed. PMID:23411209

  9. Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

    2000-01-01

    The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

  10. Eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors influence mortality of Pieris brassicae larvae co-injected with fungal conidia.

    PubMed

    Tunaz, Hasan

    2006-11-01

    Influence of fungal species (conidia spores) on mortality of Pieris brassicae larvae differed when injected into the larvae. The effects of B. bassiana (ARSEF-1151) were expressed in a conidial dose-dependent manner on mortality of the larvae. An increased and faster mortality of the larvae followed B. bassiana (ARSEF-1151) infection when the spores were co-injected with the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (dexamethasone, naproxen, phenidone, esculetin). These compounds express different modes of action. These lethal effects were reversed when dexamethasone was injected with eicosanoid precursor arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Nodulation is the predominant cellular reaction to bacterial and fungal injection in insects. Injection of each of five fungal species showed that nodulation intensity varies according to infecting fungal species. These findings support the idea that virulent effects of entomopathogenic, fungal species can be increased when P. brassicae immune systems are suppressed. PMID:17048247

  11. Effect of sodium ferulate on delayed rectifier K+ currents in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; WANG, YUYUN; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; SUN, MENGMENG; ZHU, XIAOYIN

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on voltage-activated K+ channels, the delayed rectifier K+ current (Ik) in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells was recorded using the automated patch-clamp method. The results indicated that following the application of SF, the Ik in PC12 cells was significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The analysis of activation kinetic curves and inactivation kinetic curves of Ik showed that SF had an effect on the activation and inactivation kinetics. Following the application of 15.3 ?M SF, the activation curve of the Ik of PC12 cells was shifted to positive potentials and the inactivation curve of the Ik of PC12 cells was shifted to negative potentials. This study revealed that the delayed rectifier K+ currents of PC12 cells were inhibited following SF treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism may be associated with the delayed activation and enhanced inactivation of Ik-associated channels. PMID:25120634

  12. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions. PMID:25895944

  13. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Swart, L; Denman, S; Taylor, J E; Bezuidenhout, C M; Palm, M E; Marincowitz, S; Groenewald, J Z

    2011-12-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study was to characterise several of these pathogens using morphology, culture characteristics, and DNA sequence data of the rRNA-ITS and LSU genes. In some cases additional genes such as TEF 1-? and CHS were also sequenced. Based on the results of this study, several novel species and genera are described. Brunneosphaerella leaf blight is shown to be caused by three species, namely B. jonkershoekensis on Protea repens, B. nitidae sp. nov. on Protea nitida and B. protearum on a wide host range of Protea spp. (South Africa). Coniothyrium-like species associated with Coniothyrium leaf spot are allocated to other genera, namely Curreya grandicipis on Protea grandiceps, and Microsphaeropsis proteae on P. nitida (South Africa). Diaporthe leucospermi is described on Leucospermum sp. (Australia), and Diplodina microsperma newly reported on Protea sp. (New Zealand). Pyrenophora blight is caused by a novel species, Pyrenophora leucospermi, and not Drechslera biseptata or D. dematoidea as previously reported. Fusicladium proteae is described on Protea sp. (South Africa), Pestalotiopsis protearum on Leucospermum cuneiforme (Zimbabwe), Ramularia vizellae and R. stellenboschensis on Protea spp. (South Africa), and Teratosphaeria capensis on Protea spp. (Portugal, South Africa). Aureobasidium leaf spot is shown to be caused by two species, namely A. proteae comb. nov. on Protea spp. (South Africa), and A. leucospermi sp. nov. on Leucospermum spp. (Indonesia, Portugal, South Africa). Novel genera and species elucidated in this study include Gordonomyces mucovaginatus and Pseudopassalora gouriqua (hyphomycetes), and Xenoconiothyrium catenata (coelomycete), all on Protea spp. (South Africa). PMID:22403475

  14. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two ?-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs. PMID:25182423

  15. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  16. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  17. Metal Toxicity Affects Fungal and Bacterial Activities in Soil Differently

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, R. M. C. P.; Tobor-Kap?on, M. A; Bååth, E.

    2004-01-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  18. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    PubMed Central

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution. PMID:21966249

  19. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8) according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. PMID:25230677

  20. The diversity of fungal genome.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed genomic information of 172 fungal species among different fungal genomes and found that fungal genomes are very diverse in nature. In fungi, the diversity of genomes varies from 8.97 Mb to 177.57 Mb. The average genome sizes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi are 36.91 and 46.48 Mb respectively. But higher genome size is observed in Oomycota (74.85 Mb) species, a lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. The average coding genes of Oomycota species are almost doubled than that of Acomycota and Basidiomycota fungus. PMID:25866485

  1. Genomic Organization of Fungal Plant Pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent large scale genomic sequencing of fungal phytopathogens has revolutionized the study of plant pathogenesis. Initially, having whole genome sequence (WGS) data for individual fungal genomes has accelerated classical forward and reverse genetic approaches for identifying pathogenicity genes...

  2. Fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, A; Prasanna Kumar, S; Somu, L; Sudhir, B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of fungal laryngitis is often overlooked in immunocompetent patients because it is commonly considered a disease of the immunocompromised. Further confusion is caused by clinical and histological similarity to more common conditions like Leukoplakia. Demonstration of hyperkeratosis particularly if associated with intraepithelial neutrophils on biopsy should trigger a search for fungus using specialized stains. These patients usually present with hoarseness of voice. Pain is present inconsistently along with dysphagia and odynophagia. We present three cases of fungal laryngitis in immunocompetent patients out of which one underwent microlaryngeal surgery with excision biopsy. All these patients responded well with oral antifungal therapy. PMID:24533421

  3. Decarboxylation of Substituted Cinnamic Acids by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated during Malt Whisky Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Sylvie; Priest, Fergus G.

    2000-01-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation. PMID:11097909

  4. The Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate and Oxymatrine Combination on Paraquat-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Pei, Xiaokun; Xu, Mengxin; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Chunlei; Mu, Keying; Liu, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggested that sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) combination had synergistic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that SF and OMT combination treatment might have protective effects on paraquat-induced acute lung injury. In our study, the Swiss mice were randomly divided into seven groups, including control, paraquat (PQ), SF (6.2 mg/Kg/day); OMT (13.8 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (3.1 + 6.9; 6.2 + 13.8 and 12.3 + 27.7 mg/Kg/day). The mortality and death time were monitored. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups including control, PQ, SF (3.1 mg/Kg/day); OMT (6.9 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (1.6 + 3.4; 3.1 + 6.9 and 6.2 + 13.8 mg/Kg/day). The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, lung histopathologic changes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were analysed. Compared with PQ group, the mortality significantly decreased and the death time prolonged in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of mice. Also in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of rats, the increased lung W/D ratio and histopathological score induced by PQ injection were significantly decreased; the levels of CRP, IL-6, NF-?B and MDA in serum and lung homogenate were significantly decreased; the SOD activities in serum and lung homogenate were improved. These results suggested that SF and OMT combination had an obvious protective effect on PQ-induced lung injury. The anti-in?ammatory and antioxidant effect might be involved in the mechanism. PMID:25901166

  5. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  6. Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

  7. Can fungal biopesticides control malaria?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. Read; Matthew B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has raised the prospect of using insect fungal pathogens for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In the past, microbial control of insect pests in both medical and agricultural sectors has generally had limited success. We propose that it might now be possible to produce a cheap, safe and green tool for the control of malaria,

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  9. Genomic adaptation: a fungal perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Pain; Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    2008-01-01

    This month's Genome Watch focuses on the genome sequences of several fungal species with distinct and varied lifestyles. These range from a saprophytic existence in dung to symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with plant roots to parasitism of grain. Analyses of the genome sequences reveal how evolution has played a crucial part in shaping the genetic make-up of these fungi to enable

  10. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  11. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-01

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence. PMID:26094784

  12. Effect of overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pad1p on the resistance to phenylacrylic acids and lignocellulose hydrolysates under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Nilvebrant, N O; Jönsson, L J

    2001-10-01

    Lignocellulose hydrolysates, obtained by acid hydrolysis for production of bioethanol, contain, in addition to fermentable sugars, compounds that inhibit the fermenting micro-organism. One approach to alleviate the inhibition problem is to use genetic engineering to introduce increased tolerance. Phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (Pad1p) catalyses a decarboxylation step, by which aromatic carboxylic acids are converted to the corresponding vinyl derivatives. Pad1p-overexpressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in synthetic medium in the presence of model compounds, ferulic acid [(2 E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid] and cinnamic acid [(2 E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid], as well as in a dilute acid hydrolysate of spruce to examine the resistance against fermentation inhibitors. Overexpression of S. cerevisiae phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (Pad1p) resulted in an improved growth rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, and in a dilute acid hydrolysate of spruce. Vinyl guaiacol (2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol) was identified as a major metabolite of ferulic acid, and dihydroferulic acid [3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propanoic acid] was detected under oxygen-limited conditions. Styrene (vinylbenzene) and dihydrocinnamic acid (3-phenylpropanoic acid) were identified as metabolites of cinnamic acid. Transformants overexpressing Pad1p had the ability to convert ferulic and cinnamic acid at a faster rate than a control transformant (PAD(C)) not overexpressing Pad1p. This enabled faster growth for Pad1p-overexpressing transformants under both aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. Pad1p activity was also studied using non-growing cells. The overexpressing transformants showed approximately tenfold higher activity than PAD(C). The Pad1p overexpressing transformants also showed a 22-25% faster glucose consumption rate, a 40-45% faster mannose consumption rate, and a 24-29% faster ethanol production rate in the dilute acid hydrolysate of spruce. PMID:11693915

  13. Alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids with improved antioxidant activity and lipophilicity protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Jorge; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E Manuela; Miri, Ramin; Tavakkoli, Marjan; Pourali, Samaneh; Saso, Luciano; Borges, Fernanda; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2012-04-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds present in dietary plants, which possess considerable antioxidant activity. In order to increase the lipophilicity of HCAs, with the aim of improving their cellular absorption and expansion of their use in lipophilic media, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been synthesized. All caffeate esters had a slightly lower DPPH IC(50) (13.5-14.5 ?M) and higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (1490-1588 mM quercetin/mole [mMQ/mole]) compared to caffeic acid (16.6 ?M and 1398 mMQ/mole, respectively) in antioxidant assays. In contrast, ferulate esters were less active in DPPH (56.3-74.7 ?M) and FRAP assays (193-262 mMQ/mole) compared to ferulic acid (44.6 ?M and 324 mMQ/mole, respectively). Redox properties of HCAs were in line with their antioxidant capacities, so that compounds with higher antioxidant activities had lower oxidation potentials. Measurement of partition coefficients disclosed the higher lipophilicity of the esters compared to parent compounds. All esters of caffeic acid significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal PC12 cell death assessed by MTT assay at 5 and 25 ?M. However, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ferulate esters were not able to protect the cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that alkyl esterification of some HCAs augments their antioxidant properties as well as their lipophilicity and as a consequence, improves their cell protective activity against oxidative stress. These compounds could have useful applications in conditions where oxidative stress plays a pathogenic role. PMID:22210493

  14. Natural maize phenolic acids for control of aflatoxigenic fungi on maize.

    PubMed

    Nesci, A; Gsponer, N; Etcheverry, M

    2007-06-01

    Natural phytochemicals may be an alternative to synthetic chemicals for controlling fungal growth and mycotoxin production in stored maize. A key to progress in this field is to select the best natural maize phytochemicals to be applied in a storage maize ecosystem. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the natural phytochemicals trans-cinnamic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) alone at concentrations of 20 to 30 mM and in 5 combinations on Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare populations and aflatoxin B(1) production. Studies on Aspergillus population and aflatoxin B(1) production were carried out in maize grain in relation to a water activity a(w) of 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.93. CA and FA at concentrations of 25 to 30 mM, respectively, and CA-FA mixture T9 (25 + 30 mM) were the treatments most effective at inhibiting A. flavus and A. parasiticus population at all a(w) assayed after 11 d of incubation. At all a(w) values, the mixture CA-FA T9 (25 + 30 mM) completely inhibited (100%) aflatoxin B(1) production by both strains at a(w)= 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.93. Decreased aflatoxin B(1) levels in comparison with the control were observed with mixtures CA-FA T6 (10 + 25 mM), T7 (20 + 20 mM), and T8 (20 + 30 mM) of both strains in the majority of a(w) assayed. The data show that CA and FA could be considered as effective fungitoxicants for A. flavus and A. parasiticus in maize in the a(w) range 0.99 to 0.93. The information obtained shows promise for controlling aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize. PMID:17995741

  15. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  16. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zengyan; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Wenxin

    2006-11-01

    The well-resolved absorption spectra of the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and chlorogenic acid, were measured over the frequency region from 0.3 to 2.0 THz at 294 K with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Theoretical calculation was applied to assist the analysis and assignment of the individual THz absorption spectra of the HCA derivatives with density functional theory (DFT). The distinctive spectral features were originated from the collective motion of molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric function of the four HCA derivatives were also obtained. PMID:19669446

  17. Tracking Fungal Community Responses to Maize Plants by DNA- and RNA-Based Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kuramae, Eiko E.; Verbruggen, Erik; Hillekens, Remy; de Hollander, Mattias; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1?=?47 days and t2?=?104 days of plant age) in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM) cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA). The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most “active” fungi (as recovered via RNA). Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production). Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time. PMID:23875012

  18. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  19. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  20. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-?-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-?-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  1. Fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, M A; Freeman, J P; McMillan, D C; Cerniglia, C E

    1985-08-01

    The fungal metabolism of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was studied. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with BPDP for 7 days, and the metabolites formed were separated by thin-layer, gas-liquid, or high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral techniques. C. elegans metabolized BPDP predominantly at the tert-butyl moiety to form the carboxylic acid 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate. In addition, 4-hydroxy-4'-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)triphenyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, diphenyl phosphate, 4-(2-carboxy-2-propyl)diphenyl phosphate, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propionic acid, and phenol were detected. Similar metabolites were found in the 28 fungal cultures which were examined for their ability to metabolize BPDP. Experiments with [14C]BPDP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 70% of the BPDP after 7 days and that the ratio of organic-soluble metabolites to water-soluble metabolites was 8:2. The results indicate that fungi preferentially oxidize BPDP at the alkyl side chain and at the aromatic rings to form hydroxylated derivatives. The trace levels of mono- and diaryl metabolites and the low level of phosphotriesterase activity measured in C. elegans indicate that phosphatase cleavage is a minor pathway for fungal metabolism of BPDP. PMID:4051482

  2. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  3. Mesoscale Analyses of Fungal Networks

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We give a brief application of mesoscopic response functions (MRFs) to a large set of networks of fungi and slime moulds. We construct "structural networks" by estimating cord conductances (which yield edge weights) from experimental data and "functional networks" by calculating edge weights based on how much nutrient traffic is predicted to occur on each edge. Both types of networks have the same topology, and we compute MRFs for both families of networks to illustrate two different ways of constructing taxonomies to compare large sets of fungal and slime-mould networks to each other. We demonstrate that network taxonomies allow objective groupings of networks across species, treatments, and laboratories. We believe that the groupings that we have derived through our structural and functional taxonomic analyses of fungal networks could be of considerable assistance to biologists in their attempts to capture the impact of treatment combinations on network behaviour.

  4. Approaches to Fungal Genome Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Brian J.; Zeng, Qiandong; Pearson, Matthew D.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Wortman, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal genome annotation is the starting point for analysis of genome content. This generally involves the application of diverse methods to identify features on a genome assembly such as protein-coding and non-coding genes, repeats and transposable elements, and pseudogenes. Here we describe tools and methods leveraged for eukaryotic genome annotation with a focus on the annotation of fungal nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We highlight the application of the latest technologies and tools to improve the quality of predicted gene sets. The Broad Institute eukaryotic genome annotation pipeline is described as one example of how such methods and tools are integrated into a sequencing center’s production genome annotation environment. PMID:22059117

  5. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  6. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmächer, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy. PMID:22485108

  7. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  8. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  9. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

  10. The fungal vacuole: composition, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, D J; Herman, P K; Emr, S D

    1990-01-01

    The fungal vacuole is an extremely complex organelle that is involved in a wide variety of functions. The vacuole not only carries out degradative processes, the role most often ascribed to it, but also is the primary storage site for certain small molecules and biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and polyphosphate, plays a role in osmoregulation, and is involved in the precise homeostatic regulation of cytosolic ion and basic amino acid concentration and intracellular pH. These many functions necessitate an intricate interaction between the vacuole and the rest of the cell; the vacuole is part of both the secretory and endocytic pathways and is also directly accessible from the cytosol. Because of the various roles and properties of the vacuole, it has been possible to isolate mutants which are defective in various vacuolar functions including the storage and uptake of metabolites, regulation of pH, sorting and processing of vacuolar proteins, and vacuole biogenesis. These mutants show a remarkable degree of genetic overlap, suggesting that these functions are not individual, discrete properties of the vacuole but, rather, are closely interrelated. Images PMID:2215422

  11. [Invasive fungal disease: conventional or molecular mycological diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; López-Soria, Leyre M; Ezpeleta, Guillermo

    2012-11-01

    Diagnosis of invasive mycoses is a difficult challenge due to the limitations and low sensitivity of traditional microbiology methods which lead to diagnostic and therapeutic delays. The aim of this review is to summarise the state of the art of the molecular diagnosis of invasive fungal disease and to clarify its current role in the clinical practice. Conventional microbiological methods could be complemented with molecular methods in the rapid and definitive identification of fungal isolates. Biomarkers (?-glucan, galactomannan) are very useful in immunocompromised patients and have been included as probable invasive mycoses by the EORTC/MSG. Nucleic acid detection is currently used as a complementary tool for diagnosis. However, PCR can be very useful in mould invasive mycoses. Finally, the combined detection using biomarkers can improve the diagnosis. However, their applicability in the microbiology laboratory is not so easy and further studies are required for the appropriate evaluation of its clinical usefulness. PMID:22206948

  12. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  13. Potential of Evening Primrose, Borage, Black Currant, and Fungal Oils in Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Edward Barre

    2001-01-01

    Evening primrose (EPO), borage (BO), black currant (BCO), and fungal (FUO) oils are receiving increasing attention for their potential in human medicine. In part, this interest arises from the conversion of ?-linolenic acid [GLA, 18:3 (n–6)], contained in the oils (table 1), to dihomo-?-linolenic acid [DGLA, 20:3 (n–6)] and in the case of BCO and sometimes FUO, ?-linolenic acid [ALA

  14. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species.

    PubMed

    Qi, B; Moe, W M; Kinney, K A

    2002-04-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids ( n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxiiproduced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. PMID:11956756

  15. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  16. Growth and reproduction of fungal feeding Collembola as affected by fungal species, melanin and mixed diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Scheu; Frauke Simmerling

    2004-01-01

    Fungal feeding soil invertebrates feed on a wide spectrum of fungal species suggesting that mixed diets increase fitness. We investigated relationships between food preferences for seven saprophytic fungal species\\/forms and fitness parameters (mortality, growth, time to reproduction, reproduction, egg size) in two Collembola species, Folsomia candida and Protaphorura armata. The fungal species\\/forms studied included the wild type and a melanin-deficient

  17. Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

  18. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections Overall, most serious fungal infections ... They are most common among people with weak immune systems. People with certain health conditions may need to ...

  19. Investigation of the metabolic fate of dihydrocaffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Poquet, Laure; Clifford, Michael N; Williamson, Gary

    2008-03-01

    The antioxidant dihydrocaffeic acid is a dietary constituent and a microbial metabolite of flavonoids. Orally administered to rats, dihydrocaffeic acid was very rapidly absorbed most probably by the gastric or duodenal epithelium and excreted in urine as free and conjugated forms. LC-MS2 analysis of plasma and urine samples allowed confident identification of the dihydrocaffeic acid metabolites. The parent compound was glucuronidated, sulphated or methylated, on one of the hydroxyl groups present on its phenyl ring. All the dihydrocaffeic acid metabolites peaked in plasma within the first 30min following ingestion, suggesting a metabolism possibly by the gastric or duodenal cells and by the liver. Using in vitro and ex vivo models of the intestinal epithelium and the liver, the identity and source of the metabolites detected in vivo were examined. The data obtained suggest that, in rats, intestinal cells are more able to glucuronidate dihydrocaffeic acid, whereas liver favours sulphation. Moreover, glucuronidation, sulphation and methylation seem to be regio-selective, preferably on the 3-OH of dihydrocaffeic acid. The methyl conjugate, dihydroferulic acid, was shown to be oxidized into ferulic acid by intestinal and hepatic cells, which were also able to perform the reverse reaction, the reduction of ferulic acid into dihydroferulic acid. As a conclusion, the main form of dihydrocaffeic acid circulating in plasma after its ingestion is a mixture of different primary and secondary metabolites. PMID:18154874

  20. Fungal spores: hazardous to health?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G

    1999-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer. PMID:10423389

  1. Effects of phenolic acids on germination and early growth of herbaceous woodland plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Kuiters

    1989-01-01

    Four herbaceous plant species from woodland (clearings),Deschampsia flexuosa, Scrophularia nodosa, Senecio sylvaticus, andChamaenerion angustifolium, were tested for their sensitivity to phenolic acids. Seven commonly occurring phenolic compounds were used in a germination experiment in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 mM, i.e., salicylic,p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, caffeic, vanillic,p-coumaric, and ferulic acids. Germination was delayed rather than inhibited. Radicle elongation was strongly affected;

  2. [Multifocal fungal infections in patients after renal transplantation undergoing immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Kurnatowska, Ilona; Chrzanowski, Witold; Kacprzyk, Feliks; Kurnatowska, Alicja

    2003-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of fungi in monofocal and multifocal infections in renal transplant recipients and the characteristics of 60 species and intraspecies features of fungal strains isolated from the organ ontocenoses: oral cavity, rectum and genital organs in 32 patients undergoing permanent immunosuppression after renal transplantation. Fungal strains were recovered in 66 out of 96 samples (68.2% off all renal transplant recipients). There were in ontocenoses: oral cavity (65.6%), rectum (37.5%) and genital organs (25.0%). Monofocals mycosis were found only in 21.9% of the patients. Multifocal infections occurred in 68.2% and contained ontocenoses of oral cavity and rectum (34.4%) the most frequently. Trifocal infection occurred in 12.5% of all examined renal transplant recipients. Fungal strains identified using API 20 C and API 20 C AUX (bioMérieux). The activity of 19 hydrolases was investigated using API ZYM. From among 41 strains of fungi the following were found: Candida albicans (31 strains), Candida glabrata (5), Candida guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (2) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1). The enzymograms were described for all strains and the highest activity was noted in case of: leucine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, esterase, naphtol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. The presence high mean of activity of this enzymes means high pathogenicity of C. albicans strains. PMID:14974373

  3. China's fungal genomics initiative: a whitepaper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiqiang An; Chengshu Wang; Xingzhong Liu; Joan W. Bennett

    2010-01-01

    Fungal genomics is becoming one of the focal interests within the Chinese mycological community and advances in genomics will, no doubt, accelerate the pace of mycological research in China. Simultaneously, the challenge will be how to capture the full potential of genomics by maximizing and prioritizing the resources within the Chinese mycological community. The 2009 China Fungal Genome Initiative Symposium

  4. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  5. Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an intensive research on fungal decolorization of dye wastewater. It is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes. This paper examines various fungi, living or dead cells, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanisms involved; reports some elution and regeneration methods for fungal biomass; summarizes the present

  6. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  7. Fungal Biofilms and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Falkler, William A.; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Candida species, including the novel opportunistic pathogen Candida dubliniensis, are now emerging as major agents of nosocomial infections. Many such manifestations of infections associated with the formation of Candida biofilms include those occurring on devices such as indwelling intravascular catheters. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to conventional therapy because of resistance to antimicrobial agents. This resistance could be in part due to the surface-induced upregulation of drug efflux pumps. Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of the currently available conventional antifungal agents, which implies that antimicrobial drugs that specifically target biofilm-associated infections are needed. The novel classes of antifungal agents, the lipid formulation of amphotericins, and the echinocandins have demonstrated unique antifungal activity against the resistant Candida biofilms, providing a breakthrough in the treatment of life-threatening invasive systemic mycoses. The use of drugs effective in combating biofilm-associated infections could lead to major developments in the treatment of fungal implant infections. PMID:15078591

  8. Comparison of soil fungal\\/bacterial ratios in a pH gradient using physiological and PLFA-based techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bååth; T.-H. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    We have compared the total microbial biomass and the fungal\\/bacterial ratio estimated using substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in combination with the selective inhibition technique and using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) technique in a pH gradient (3.0–7.2) consisting of 53 mature broad-leaved forest soils. A fungal\\/bacterial biomass index using the PLFA technique was calculated using the PLFA 18:2?6,9 as an indicator

  9. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  10. Plant Chitinases and Their Roles in Resistance to Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Punja, Zamir K.; Zhang, Ye-Yan

    1993-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin, and they occur in diverse plant tissues over a broad range of crop and noncrop species. The enzymes may be expressed constitutively at low levels but are dramatically enhanced by numerous abiotic agents (ethylene, salicylic acid, salt solutions, ozone, UV light) and by biotic factors (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, fungal cell wall components, and oligosaccharides). Different classes of plant chitinases are distinguishable by molecular, biochemical, and physicochemical criteria. Thus, plant chitinases may differ in substrate-binding characteristics, localization within the cell, and specific activities. Because chitin is a structural component of the cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi, extensive research has been conducted to determine whether plant chitinases have a role in defense against fungal diseases. Plant chitinases have different degrees of antifungal activity to several fungi in vitro. In vivo, although rapid accumulation and high levels of chitinases (together with numerous other pathogenesis-related proteins) occur in resistant tissues expressing a hypersensitive reaction, high levels also can occur in susceptible tissues. Expression of cloned chitinase genes in transgenic plants has provided further evidence for their role in plant defense. The level of protection observed in these plants is variable and may be influenced by the specific activity of the enzyme, its localization and concentration within the cell, the characteristics of the fungal pathogen, and the nature of the host-pathogen interaction. The expression of chitinase in combination with one or several different antifungal proteins should have a greater effect on reducing disease development, given the complexities of fungal-plant cell interactions and resistance responses in plants. The effects of plant chitinases on nematode development in vitro and in vivo are worthy of investigation. PMID:19279806

  11. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most common morphologies exhibited by filamentous microorganisms; (b) how hydrodynamic conditions affect morphology and physiology in filamentous cultures; and (c) techniques using digital image analysis to characterize the viability of filamentous microorganisms and mass transfer in multiphase dispersions. Representative case studies of fungi (Trichoderma harzianum and Pleurotus ostreatus) exhibiting different typical morphologies (disperse mycelia and pellets) are discussed. PMID:25652005

  12. Caffeic acid derivatives in artichoke extract are metabolised to phenolic acids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rechner, A R; Pannala, A S; Rice-Evans, C A

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the absorption and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates from artichoke extract by determining the urinary excretion of the conjugates. Ten healthy, non smoking volunteers (5 female, 5 male) were given three capsules containing artichoke extract every 4 h (0, 4, 8 h) following two days of a low-polyphenol diet. One capsule contained 320 mg of artichoke extract equivalent to 34.3 +/- 0.6 mg/g hydroxycinnamates (caffeic acid derivatives) and 5.6 +/- 0.1 mg/g flavonoids. Polyphenols and phenolic acids present in the artichoke extract were not detected in the urine either as conjugates or aglycones. However, ferulic, isoferulic, dihydroferulic and vanillic acid were identified as major metabolites after beta-glucuronidase treatment of urine. The amount excreted as well as the ratio to that of creatinine, a biomarker for the general excretion rate, increased significantly on the study day compared to the pre-supplementation day. Thus, the caffeic acid esters found in the artichoke extract capsule are absorbed, metabolised and excreted as methylated phenolic acids such as ferulic, isoferulic, dihydroferulic and vanillic acid. PMID:11697200

  13. The distribution of phenolic acids in pumpkin’s hull-less seed, skin, oil cake meal, dehulled kernel and hull

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Draginja Peri?in; Vera Krimer; Svetlana Trivi?; Ljiljana Radulovi?

    2009-01-01

    The phenolic acids in whole hull-less seed, its skin and oil cake meal, dehulled kernel and hull of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) were separated into free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms, which were then identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. In all samples, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, trans-p-coumaric, ferulic, trans-sinapic acids and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were quantified. Caffeic acid

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in mixed temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Twieg, Brendan D; Durall, Daniel M; Simard, Suzanne W

    2007-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were studied along a chronosequence of forest development after stand-replacing disturbance. Previous studies of ECM succession did not use molecular techniques for fungal identification or lacked replication, and none examined different host species. Four age classes of mixed forests were sampled: 5-, 26-, 65-, and 100-yr-old, including wildfire-origin stands from all four classes and stands of clearcut origin from the youngest two classes. Morphotyping and DNA sequences were used to identify fungi on ECM root tips. ECM fungal diversities were lower in 5-yr-old than in older stands on Douglas-fir, but were similar among age classes on paper birch. Host-specific fungi dominated in 5-yr-old stands, but host generalists were dominant in the oldest two age classes. ECM fungal community compositions were similar in 65- and 100-yr-old stands but differed among all other pairs of age classes. Within the age range studied, site-level ECM fungal diversity reached a plateau by the 26-yr-old age class, while community composition stabilized by the 65-yr-old class. Simple categories such as 'early stage', 'multi stage', and 'late stage' were insufficient to describe fungal species' successional patterns. Rather, ECM fungal succession may be best described in the context of stand development. PMID:17888121

  15. Characterization of two anti-fungal lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SH-B10

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Chen; Nan Wang; Xuemei Wang; Jiangchun Hu; Shujin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SH-B10 isolated from deep-sea sediment produces two anti-fungal lipopeptides that were purified by bioactivity-guided fractionation based on acid precipitation, vacuum flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. The two compounds were identified by tandem Q-TOF mass spectroscopy as C16 fengycin A (1) and a new fengycin with an aminobutyric acid at position 6 of the peptide backbone (2). Both compounds

  16. [Current aspects of fungal spores allergy].

    PubMed

    Helbling, A; Reese, G; Horner, W E; Lehrer, S B

    1994-05-28

    In industrialized countries the prevalence of allergic inhalant diseases is some 15-20%. More than 10% of these individuals are sensitized to fungal allergens. Many fungal spores are less than 10 microns in size, which permits penetration into the smaller airways of the lung. Bronchial provocation tests have demonstrated that fungal spores and spore extracts can cause both an early and a late phase reaction in sensitive subjects. Over 80 genera of fungi have been associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergy. Ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes are the major fungal groups that contain genera known to induce and elicit allergic reactions. These groups contribute most of the spores found in air. Although ascomycetes include the greatest number of any fungal group, only a few species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum, have been investigated in a scientific manner. In recent years spores of basidiomycetes have been tested for allergenicity and some species have been determined to be allergenic, such as Calvatia cyathiformis, Ganoderma applanatum, Pleurotus ostreatus, or Psilocybe cubensis. Compared to pollen-related allergies, diagnosis of fungal allergy is often difficult. Provocative challenge with specific fungal antigens can provide a definitive diagnosis. To date, only three controlled immunotherapy trials with standardized extracts of A. alternata and C. herbarum have shown clinical efficacy. In spite of these studies, immunotherapy with fungal antigens requires further investigations. Thus, the indication for immunotherapy with fungal extracts must be judged by an experienced allergist. Apart from pharmacological management, avoiding or minimizing exposure is the front-line measure. PMID:8016603

  17. Bioconversion of ferulate into vanillin by Escherichia coli strain JM109\\/pBB1 in an immobilized-cell reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. TORRE; D. DE FAVERI; P. PEREGO; M. RUZZI; P. BARGHINI; R. GANDOLFI; A. CONVERTI

    The present work deals with a novel bioconversion of ferulate into vanillin using resting cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109\\/pBB1 as a biocatalyst. Biomass recy- cling from four successive bioconversion steps demonstrated the possibility of employing the proposed resting cell system for the continuous production of vanillin. Among the test- ed immobilization supports (polyurethane, synthetic sponge and porous glass) the

  18. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  19. Contamination of dairy products by fungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lafont, P; Siriwardana, M G; DeBoer, E

    1990-01-01

    The contamination of dairy products with various mycotoxins or other undesirable fungal metabolites can be attributed a.o. to ingestion of contaminated feed or the accidental development of molds and by consequence the excretion of fungal metabolites into the intermediate product. Different dairy products of commercial origin were examined: milk powder, reconstituted infant milk powder, and cheese. In addition to that, environmental factors contributing to the formation of the undesired fungal metabolites were studied. It was found that the presence of mycotoxins in dairy products is more related to the environmental factors causing mold growth on dairy products than to the ingestion of moldy feed by the cow. PMID:2254866

  20. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides such as ?- and ?-glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors. PMID:25353009

  1. Macroscopic pigmentation in a dematiaceous fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, S T; Katsev, D A; Mondino, B J; Pettit, T H

    1991-05-01

    The diagnosis of fungal keratitis can be difficult and is often delayed. The distinction between moniliaceous and dematiaceous (pigmented) keratomycoses is not commonly possible on clinical examination. We report a case of a Curvularia lunata fungal keratitis in a 40-year-old patient who presented with diffuse brown pigmentation throughout the ulcer bed. Histologic staining and growth on Sabourad's dextrose agar demonstrated the brown pigmentation characteristic of this pigmented fungus. We call attention to this clinical pigmentation as a helpful clue in the detection of dematiaceous fungal keratitis. PMID:2055034

  2. Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

  3. Efficacy of natamycin to control fungal growth in natural black olive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hondrodimou, O; Kourkoutas, Y; Panagou, E Z

    2011-05-01

    The effect of natamycin as a fungal control agent in natural black olive fermentation according to the traditional anaerobic system was studied. Black Conservolea olives were subjected to spontaneous fermentation in 8% (w/v) NaCl brine solution (control treatment) or brine supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) natamycin (active compound) for an overall period of 60 days. The changes in the microbial association (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae), pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, and volatile compounds were monitored throughout fermentation. The initial microbiota consisted of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae. The addition of natamycin in the brine inhibited the growth of yeasts, without affecting the population dynamics of bacteria, resulting in a more vigorous fermentation with higher titratable acidity compared to spontaneous control process. Moreover, the presence of natamycin inhibited mould spoilage caused by the development of fungal mycelium on the surface of the brine during the traditional anaerobic fermentation system employed widely in Greece in natural black olive processing. Natamycin could be an important component of a processing system to control fungal growth in natural black olive fermentation and at the same time it has the potential to enhance the process by favouring the growth of the indigenous population of lactic acid bacteria against other competing microorganisms. PMID:21356474

  4. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage?

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml?1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  5. Fungal phytases: characteristics and amelioration of nutritional quality and growth of non-ruminants.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-08-01

    Fungal phytases are histidine acid phosphatases, a subclass of acid phosphatases, which catalyse the hydrolysis of phytic acid resulting in the release of phosphate moieties and thus mitigate its antinutritional properties. The supplementation of feed with phytases increases the bioavailability of phosphorus and minerals in non-ruminant animals and reduces the phosphorus pollution due to phosphorus excretion in the areas of intensive livestock production. Although phytases are reported in plants, animals and micro-organisms, fungal sources are used extensively for the production of phytases on a commercial scale. Phytases have been produced by fungi in both solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). The fungal phytases are high molecular weight proteins ranging from 35 to 500 kDa. They are optimally active within pH and temperature ranges between 4.5 and 6.0, and 45 and 70 °C respectively. Phytate degradation leads to amelioration in the nutritional status of foods and feeds by improving the availability of minerals, phosphorus and proteins in non-ruminant animals and human beings and thus mitigates the environmental phosphorus pollution. Our article focuses on the role of fungal phytases in improving nutritional value of foods and feeds with concomitant increase in growth of non-ruminant animals and mitigating environmental phosphorus pollution. PMID:25132310

  6. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago] [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL] [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  7. Watershed-Scale Fungal Community Characterization along a pH Gradient in a Subsurface Environment Cocontaminated with Uranium and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J.; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A.; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

  8. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    PubMed

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment. The results indicate that tea tree oil was the most effective antifungal agent tested, and may have industrial application for the remediation of fungal contamination in residential and occupational buildings. PMID:26042369

  9. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%?4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment. The results indicate that tea tree oil was the most effective antifungal agent tested, and may have industrial application for the remediation of fungal contamination in residential and occupational buildings. PMID:26042369

  10. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/81, 85.19%) specimens were detected a mixed infection of bacteria and fungi. However, only 25 (25/81, 30.86%) specimens resulted in fungal growth. There were 12 (12/81, 14.81%) specimens with fungal infections alone. The cultured fungi included 36 strains belonging to five genera, and most of them were Aspergillus spp. (30/36, 83.3%). The cultured bacteria included 94 strains belonging to 16 genera, and the most frequently seen was Staphylococcus spp. (23/94, 35.94%). When it was fungal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mixed infection, the fungal growth was inhibited (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Patients with fungal ball usually have mixed fungal and bacterial infections. The fungi from these samples are sometimes difficult to culture, which may be the result of the inhibition by bacteria in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli?O157 on fungal colonies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. PMID:23919289

  12. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli?O157 on fungal colonies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. PMID:23919289

  13. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we describe the disease symptoms and protocols commonly used in research of honey bee fungal diseases chalkbrood and stonebrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis and Aspergillus spp. respectively....

  14. Serpentine soils promote ectomycorrhizal fungal SARA BRANCO*

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Serpentine soils promote ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity SARA BRANCO*­ *Committee on Evolutionary Abstract Serpentine soils impose physiological stresses that limit plant establishment and diversity. The degree to which serpentine soils entail constraints on other organisms is, however, poorly understood

  15. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples. PMID:25731032

  16. Fungal colonization of exotic substrates in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett E. Arenz; Benjamin W. Held; Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history of polar exploration and up to recent times, wood and other exotic materials have been brought to the\\u000a Antarctic continent and left there. While the possible transportation of exotic fungal species on these materials is sometimes\\u000a considered, the effects of these exotic substrates on indigenous fungal communities have not been previously evaluated. This\\u000a study reports results from

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Gago, S; Cuenca-Estrella, M; León, C; Miro, J M; Nuñez Boluda, A; Ruiz Camps, I; Sole, A; Denning, D W

    2015-02-01

    Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections, based on epidemiological data, are essential in order to inform public health priorities given the lack of resources dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of these serious fungal diseases. However, epidemiology of these infections is largely unknown, except for candidaemia and cryptococcosis. The aim of this work is to calculate the burden of serious fungal infections in Spain. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Spain were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. Around 8.1 million people suffer a fungal infection every year. Most of them are skin or mucosal infections causing no deaths. Candidaemia is more common than in other European countries and has risen by 1.88-fold in frequency in the last decade (8.1 cases × 100,000). Good estimates of invasive aspergillosis (2.75 cases × 100,000) and mucormycosis (0.04 × 100,000) are available. Fungal infections with a high mortality such as invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and mucormycosis are not numerous in Spain, but they affect those with severe underlying diseases and are therefore linked to poor outcomes. Additional studies are required, especially for high burden diseases such as recurrent thrush in women (?9000 cases × 100,000 women), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (126 cases × 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (198 cases × 100,000). PMID:25658565

  18. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. PMID:25469955

  19. Fungal infection in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ruth; Pisa, Diana; Marina, Ana Isabel; Morato, Esperanza; Rábano, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to dementia mainly among the elderly. This disease is characterized by the presence in the brain of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that provoke neuronal cell death, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory processes. In the present work, we have analyzed the existence of fungal infection in Alzheimer's disease patients. A proteomic analysis provides compelling evidence for the existence of fungal proteins in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. Furthermore, PCR analysis reveals a variety of fungal species in these samples, dependent on the patient and the tissue tested. DNA sequencing demonstrated that several fungal species can be found in brain samples. Together, these results show that fungal macromolecules can be detected in brain from Alzheimer's disease patients. To our knowledge these findings represent the first evidence that fungal infection is detectable in brain samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. The possibility that this may represent a risk factor or may contribute to the etiological cause of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. PMID:24614898

  20. The amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L; Crous, Pedro W; Redhead, Scott A; Reynolds, Don R; Samson, Robert A; Seifert, Keith A; Taylor, John W; Wingfield, Michael J; Abaci, Ozlem; Aime, Catherine; Asan, Ahmet; Bai, Feng-Yan; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Begerow, Dominik; Berikten, Derya; Boekhout, Teun; Buchanan, Peter K; Burgess, Treena; Buzina, Walter; Cai, Lei; Cannon, Paul F; Crane, J Leland; Damm, Ulrike; Daniel, Heide-Marie; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Druzhinina, Irina; Dyer, Paul S; Eberhardt, Ursula; Fell, Jack W; Frisvad, Jens C; Geiser, David M; Geml, József; Glienke, Chirlei; Gräfenhan, Tom; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; de Gruyter, Johannes; Guého-Kellermann, Eveline; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hibbett, David S; Hong, Seung-Beom; de Hoog, G Sybren; Houbraken, Jos; Huhndorf, Sabine M; Hyde, Kevin D; Ismail, Ahmed; Johnston, Peter R; Kadaifciler, Duygu G; Kirk, Paul M; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lagneau, Paul-Emile; Lévesque, C André; Liu, Xingzhong; Lombard, Lorenzo; Meyer, Wieland; Miller, Andrew; Minter, David W; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Norvell, Lorelei; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M; Oziç, Rasime; Pennycook, Shaun R; Peterson, Stephen W; Pettersson, Olga V; Quaedvlieg, William; Robert, Vincent A; Ruibal, Constantino; Schnürer, Johan; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Shivas, Roger; Slippers, Bernard; Spierenburg, Henk; Takashima, Masako; Ta?k?n, Evrim; Thines, Marco; Thrane, Ulf; Uztan, Alev Haliki; van Raak, Marcel; Varga, János; Vasco, Aida; Verkley, Gerard; Videira, Sandra I R; de Vries, Ronald P; Weir, Bevan S; Yilmaz, Neriman; Yurkov, Andrey; Zhang, Ning

    2011-06-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented. PMID:22679594

  1. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

  2. Accumulation of phenolic acid conjugates and betacyanins, and changes in the activities of enzymes involved in feruloylglucose metabolism in cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bokern; Victor Wray; Dieter Strack

    1991-01-01

    Cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum accumulate various soluble secondary phenolic metabolites such as the hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-ß-glucoside, vanillic acid-ß-glucoside, the hydroxycinnamic acid acylglycosides 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-ß-glucose, 1-O-feruloyl-ß-glucose, 1-O-sinapoyl-ß-glucose and 1-O-feruloyl-(ß-1,2-glucuronosyl)-ß-glucose, the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloylaspartate, and the betacyanins betanin, amaranthin and celosianin II. In addition, accumulation of the insoluble cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids with ferulic acid as the major component

  3. Accumulation of phenolic acid conjugates and betacyanins, and changes in the activities of enzymes involved in feruloylglucose metabolism in cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bokern; Victor Wray; Dieter Strack

    1991-01-01

    Cell-suspension cultures ofChenopodium rubrum accumulate various soluble secondary phenolic metabolites such as the hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-ß-glucoside, vanillic acid-ß-glucoside, the hydroxycinnamic acid acylglycosides 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-ß-glucose, 1-O-feruloyl-ß-glucose, 1-O-sinapoyl-ß-glucose and 1-O-feruloyl-(ß-1,2-glucuronosyl)-ß-glucose, the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloylaspartate, and the betacyanins betanin, amaranthin and celosianin II. In addition, accumulation of the insoluble cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids with ferulic acid as the major component occurs

  4. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  5. Fungal allergy and respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, S M; Wilson, J D; Newhook, F J

    1985-05-01

    An aerobiological study of three different localities of the Auckland region using Burkard volumetric spore traps was conducted for a 12 month period from September 1979 to August 1980. High counts were recorded of various types of fungal spores of both unknown and recognised potential allergens but the basidiospore group was dominant at all sites forming greater than 50% of the total air spora. Seasonal periodicities as well as regional variations in spore concentrations of five generic group viz Ganoderma, Leptosphaeria, Cladosporium, Alternaria and Aspergillus-Penicilium were recorded. These exhibited summer and/or autumn peaks. The diel periodicities recorded for Ganoderma and Leptosphaeria were of nocturnal type. Cladosporium was diurnal and Aspergillus-Penicillium did not display any clear periodicity. The hospital admissions of acute asthma sufferers were recorded for the period January 1979 to December 1980. The seasonal pattern of airborne basidiospores of the region and the pattern of acute asthma admissions indicate a close relationship between the two. PMID:3858721

  6. Novel biomarkers of the metabolism of caffeic acid derivatives in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rechner, A R; Spencer, J P; Kuhnle, G; Hahn, U; Rice-Evans, C A

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate biomarkers of the bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamate derivatives through the determination of the pharmacokinetics of their urinary elimination and identification of the metabolites excreted. Coffee was used as a rich source of caffeic acid derivatives and human supplementation was undertaken. The results show a highly significant increase in the excretion of ferulic, isoferulic, dihydroferulic acid (3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid), and vanillic acid postsupplementation relative to the levels presupplementation. Thus, ferulic, isoferulic, and dihydroferulic acids are specific biomarkers for the bioavailability and metabolism of dietary caffeic acid esters. Isoferulic acid is a unique biomarker as it is not a dietary component, however, dihydroferulic acid may well derive from other flavonoids with a structurally related B-ring. 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid has also been identified as an indicator for bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds, and shows a highly significant excretion increase postsupplementation. The results reveal isoferulic acid (and possibly dihydroferulic acid) as novel markers of caffeoyl quinic acid metabolism. PMID:11368919

  7. The effect of silver nanoparticles on seasonal change in arctic tundra bacterial and fungal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niraj; Palmer, Gerald R; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half that of control soils, a decrease in signature bacterial fatty acids, and changes in both richness and evenness in bacterial and fungal DNA sequence assemblages. Prominent after Ag NP-treatment were Hypocreales fungi, which increased to 70%, from only 1% of fungal sequences under control conditions. Genera within this Order known for their antioxidant properties (Cordyceps/Isaria) dominated the fungal assemblage after NP addition. In contrast, sequences attributed to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales bacteria appeared vulnerable to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. This combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular studies clearly demonstrate that Ag NPs can severely disrupt the natural seasonal progression of tundra assemblages. PMID:24926877

  8. Phenolic Acids in Wheat Coleoptile Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    The phenolic constituent of nonvascular cell walls of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles, which yields vanillin upon nitrobenzene oxidation, is not lignin as I previously claimed. It seems to be mainly ferulic acid bonded to carbohydrate, probably by an ester linkage. The acid is associated with a fraction of the wall rich in arabinose and xylose, although it is not known whether it is esterified directly with these pentose residues. The phenolic-carbohydrate complex is released by cellulase, but not by pronase or a mixture of hemicellulases. PMID:16658778

  9. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    E-print Network

    12 Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi Jon K. Magnuson and Linda L. Lasure 1. Introduction Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less vis- ible impact on human well

  10. Incidence and Outcome of Documented Fungal Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Amirghofran, Ahmad Ali; Ghazi Nour, Mohammad; Shafa, Masih; Nemati, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungal endocarditis, the most severe form of infective endocarditis, is characterized by excessive mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of fungal endocarditis to improve the management of these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, vegetations on the mitral or tricuspid valves and embolic material surgically removed from the patients with suspected infective endocarditis between December 2009 and November 2011 were examined for fungal infection by direct smear and culture, and the susceptibility patterns of the isolated species were determined. Then, blood samples were cultured on BACTEC media and real-time PCR was done with blood and tissue samples. Results: Of the 31 patients with suspected infective endocarditis who did not respond to antibacterial therapy, 11 had confirmed fungal endocarditis. The most frequent predisposing risk factors were previous surgery and drug abuse. The organisms isolated were Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans. Resistance to amphotericin B and itraconazole was observed in Aspergillus species, and to fluconazole in Candida albicans. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood and tissue samples. Conclusions: Fungal endocarditis should be considered in the patients not responsive to antimicrobials. Moreover, management of these patients can be improved with molecular diagnostic methods and by determining the susceptibility patterns of the etiologic agents. PMID:25614858

  11. Modelling combat strategies in fungal mycelia.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Graeme P

    2012-07-01

    Fungal mycelia have a well-established role in nutrient cycling and are widely used as agents in biological control and in the remediation of polluted landscapes. Competition and combat between different fungal communities is common in these contexts and its outcome impacts on local biodiversity and the success of such biotechnological applications. In this investigation a mathematical model representing mycelia as a system of partial differential equations is used to simulate combat between two fungal colonies growing into a nutrient-free domain. The resultant equations are integrated numerically and the model simulates well-established outcomes of combat between fungal communities. The outcome of pairwise combat is shown to depend on numerous factors including the suppression of advancing hyphae in rivals, the degradation of a rival's established biomass and the utilization and redistribution of available nutrient resources. It is demonstrated how non-transitive hierarchies in fungal communities can be established through switching mechanisms, mirroring observations reported in experimental studies, and how specialized defensive structures can emerge through changes in the redistribution of internal resources. PMID:22554954

  12. Protective effects of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice

    PubMed Central

    XU, MENGXIN; WANG, WEI; PEI, XIAOKUN; SUN, SONGMEI; XU, MINGBO; LIU, ZHIFENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) on mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Swiss male mice were randomly divided into a control group, CLP group, three SF + OMT groups (3.1+6.9; 6.2+13.8 and 12.3+27.7 mg/kg), SF (6.2 mg/kg) group and OMT (13.8 mg/kg) group. Eight hours after the administration of the drugs, the survival rates and survival times of the animals were monitored. In addition, the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the serum; the C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in the serum and lung and liver homogenates; and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) levels in the lung and liver homogenates were measured. The bacterial load in the serum was also studied. Following treatment with the combination of SF and OMT, the survival rate increased and the survival time was prolonged; CLP-induced increases in the lung W/D ratio and the levels of ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6, IFN-? and MDA were significantly reduced; and the SOD activity levels were increased, compared with those of the untreated animals with CLP-induced sepsis. These results indicated that the combination of SF and OMT induced protective effects against CLP-induced lethal sepsis of mice. The possible mechanism of these effects may be associated with the alleviation of systemic inflammation and diminishment of oxidative injury. PMID:24940428

  13. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Jack; al Fahad, Ahmed; Cai, Menghao; Song, Zhongshu; Yehia, Samar Y.; Lazarus, Colin M.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Simpson, Thomas J.; Cox, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    A gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in Talaromyces stipitatus (Penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. A minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropA encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropB encodes a FAD-dependent monooxygenase which dearomatizes 3-methylorcinaldehyde via hydroxylation at C-3; and tropC encodes a non-heme Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the oxidative ring expansion to the tropolone nucleus via hydroxylation of the 3-methyl group. The tropA gene was characterized by heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, whereas tropB and tropC were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified TropB and TropC proteins converted 3-methylorcinaldehyde to a tropolone in vitro. Finally, knockout of the tropD gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, indicated its place as the next gene in the pathway, probably responsible for hydroxylation of the 6-methyl group. Comparison of the T. stipitatus tropolone biosynthetic cluster with other known gene clusters allows clarification of important steps during the biosynthesis of other fungal compounds including the xenovulenes, citrinin, sepedonin, sclerotiorin, and asperfuranone. PMID:22508998

  14. Kinetics and Intensity of the Expression of Genes Involved in the Stress Response Tightly Induced by Phenolic Acids in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène Licandro-Seraut; Jérôme Gury; Ngoc Phuong Tran; Lise Barthelmebs; Jean-François Cavin

    2008-01-01

    In Lactobacillus plantarum, PadR, the negative transcriptional regulator of padA encoding the phenolic acid decarboxylase, is divergently oriented from padA. Moreover, it forms an operonic structure with usp1, a genewhose products display homology with proteins belonging to the UspA family of universal stress proteins. PadR is inactivated by the addition of p-coumaric, ferulic or caffeic acid to the culture medium.

  15. Fungal His-Tagged Nitrilase from Gibberella intermedia: Gene Cloning, Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jin-Song; Li, Heng; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Wu, Yan; Shi, Jing-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrilase is an important member of the nitrilase superfamiliy. It has attracted substantial interest from academia and industry for its function of converting nitriles directly into the corresponding carboxylic acids in recent years. Thus nitrilase has played a crucial role in production of commercial carboxylic acids in chemical industry and detoxification of nitrile-contaminated wastes. However, conventional studies mainly focused on the bacterial nitrilase and the potential of fungal nitrilase has been far from being fully explored. Research on fungal nitrilase gene expression will advance our understanding for its biological function of fungal nitrilase in nitrile hydrolysis. Methodology/Principal Findings A fungal nitrilase gene from Gibberella intermedia was cloned through reverse transcription-PCR. The open reading frame consisted of 963 bp and potentially encoded a protein of 320 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 35.94 kDa. Furthermore, the catalytic triad (Glu-45, Lys-127, and Cys-162) was proposed and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) and the recombinant protein with His6-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 45°C and pH 7.8. This nitrilase was specific towards aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. The kinetic parameters Vmax and Km for 3-cyanopyridine were determined to be 0.81 µmol/min·mg and 12.11 mM through Hanes-Woolf plot, respectively. 3-Cyanopyridine (100 mM) could be thoroughly hydrolyzed into nicotinic acid within 10 min using the recombinant strain with the release of about 3% nicotinamide and no substrate was detected. Conclusions/Significance In the present study, a fungal nitrilase was cloned from the cDNA sequence of G. intermedia and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami (DE3). The recombinant strain displayed good 3-cyanopyridine degradation efficiency and wide substrate spectrum. This fungal nitrilase might be a potential candidate for industrial applications in carboxylic acids production. PMID:23226336

  16. Chemosensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using phenolic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the theory behind use of chemosensitization to control fungal pathogens. Oxidative stress response systems of fungal pathogens play important roles in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during host defense or environmental factors. Therefore, oxidati...

  17. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES

    E-print Network

    ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

  18. Prevalence of fungal hyphae in potentially malignant lesions and conditions—does its occurrence play a role in epithelial dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Hongal, Bhagyalaxmi Praveen; Kulkarni, Venkatesh V; Deshmukh, Revati Shailesh; Joshi, Priya Shirish; Karande, Prasad Prakash; Shroff, Adil S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is a major public health problem in India. A key factor that has led to lack of improvement in prognosis of oral cancer over the years, is delay in diagnosis and treatment. In many instances, a significant proportion of oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from premalignant lesions and conditions. Identification of such lesions and conditions is very important in order to prevent malignant transformation. The role of fungal infections has been studied and holds promise as an indicator to predict malignant transformation. So we designed a study to analyze the prevalence of fungal hyphae in biopsies of patients with clinically diagnosed cases of premalignant lesions and conditions. Aims and Objectives: To determine and compare the prevalence of fungal hyphae in biopsies of patients with clinically diagnosed cases of potentially malignant lesions and conditions and to assess the possible association between the degree of epithelial dysplasia and presence or absence of fungal hyphae. Materials and Methods: Clinically suspected and histopathologically diagnosed 70 cases of potentially malignant lesions and conditions (29 leukoplakia, 16 submucous fibrosis and 25 lichen planus) made up the study group. Three tissue sections (5?m) of each were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), periodic acid–Schiff's reagent (PAS) and Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS) and evaluated for fungal hyphae. The data collected was statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: The estimated prevalence of fungal hyphae in cases with or without dysplasia in leukoplakia was 41.4%, lichen planus 36% and submucous fibrosis 25%. There was a significant association between degree of epithelial dysplasia with presence or absence of fungal hyphae in all the study groups. Conclusion: Presence of fungal hyphae in potentially malignant lesions and conditions may prove to be a useful indicator in predicting malignant transformation.

  19. Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Williamson, Peter; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fungi use vesicular transport to deliver substances across their cell walls. Fungal vesicles are similar to mammalian exosomes and could originate from cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies. Vesicular transport enables the export of large molecules across the cell wall, and vesicles contain lipids, proteins and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Concentration of fungal products in vesicles could increase their efficiency in food acquisition and/or delivering potentially noxious substances to other cells, such as amoebae or phagocytes. The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis. PMID:19299133

  20. Fungal Pathogens: Survival and Replication within Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Andrew S; Wheeler, Robert T; May, Robin C

    2014-11-10

    The innate immune system is a critical line of defense against pathogenic fungi. Macrophages act at an early stage of infection, detecting and phagocytizing infectious propagules. To avoid killing at this stage, fungal pathogens use diverse strategies ranging from evasion of uptake to intracellular parasitism. This article will discuss five of the most important human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidiodes immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum) and consider the strategies and virulence factors adopted by each to survive and replicate within macrophages. PMID:25384769

  1. Fatal fungal infection: the living dead

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan ML, Sankar; Narayanan, C. D.; Kindo, Anupma J.; Arora, Apurva; Haridas, Priya A.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon infection mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which is also known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is often caused by bacteria, but can also be caused and complicated by fungus. We report a case of bacterial necrotizing fasciitis that was complicated by a fatal fungal infection, a rare clinical presentation affecting the upper limbs, head and neck, in a young diabetic female patient. It was an unsuspected case of fungal infection with mucormycosis, which proved to be fatal due to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25352577

  2. Fatal fungal infection: the living dead.

    PubMed

    Narayanan Ml, Sankar; Narayanan, C D; Kindo, Anupma J; Arora, Apurva; Haridas, Priya A

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon infection mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which is also known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is often caused by bacteria, but can also be caused and complicated by fungus. We report a case of bacterial necrotizing fasciitis that was complicated by a fatal fungal infection, a rare clinical presentation affecting the upper limbs, head and neck, in a young diabetic female patient. It was an unsuspected case of fungal infection with mucormycosis, which proved to be fatal due to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25352577

  3. Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Anton Y; Hogan, Deborah A; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2010-05-01

    Whether it is in the setting of disease or in a healthy state, the human body contains a diverse range of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. The interactions between these taxonomically diverse microorganisms are highly dynamic and dependent on a multitude of microorganism and host factors. Human disease can develop from an imbalance between commensal bacteria and fungi or from invasion of particular host niches by opportunistic bacterial and fungal pathogens. This Review describes the clinical and molecular characteristics of bacterial-fungal interactions that are relevant to human disease. PMID:20348933

  4. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. PMID:24269825

  5. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  6. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of ?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of ?-helix and an increase in the amounts of ?-sheet and turn structures.

  7. Azole fungicides - understanding resistance mechanisms in agricultural fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Price, Claire L; Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew Gs; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2015-08-01

    Plant fungal pathogens can have devastating effects on a wide range of crops, including cereals and fruit (such as wheat and grapes), causing losses in crop yield, which are costly to the agricultural economy and threaten food security. Azole antifungals are the treatment of choice; however, resistance has arisen against these compounds, which could lead to devastating consequences. Therefore, it is important to understand how these fungicides are used and how the resistance arises in order to tackle the problem fully. Here, we give an overview of the problem and discuss the mechanisms that mediate azole resistance in agriculture (point mutations in the CYP51 amino acid sequence, overexpression of the CYP51 enzyme and overexpression of genes encoding efflux pump proteins). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25914201

  8. Seasonality of root fungal colonization in low-alpine herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ruotsalainen; H. Väre; M. Vestberg

    2002-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungal colonization of Alchemilla glomerulans, Carex vaginata, Ranunculus acris ssp. pumilus and Trollius europaeus growing in low-alpine meadows in the Finnish subarctic were studied at different times during the growing season. Fungal colonization was correlated to soil soluble phosphorus (P) concentration. The influence of flower bud removal on fungal colonization was investigated

  9. Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John I. Gallin; David W. Alling; Harry L. Malech; Robert Wesley; Deloris Koziol; Beatriz Marciano; Eli M. Eisenstein; Maria L. Turner; Ellen S. DeCarlo; Judith M. Starling; Steven M. Holland

    2003-01-01

    background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare disorder in which the phagocytes fail to pro- duce hydrogen peroxide. The patients are predisposed to bacterial and fungal infec- tions. Prophylactic antibiotics and interferon gamma have reduced bacterial infec- tions, but there is also the danger of life-threatening fungal infections. We assessed the efficacy of itraconazole as prophylaxis against serious fungal infections

  10. The specific role of fungal community structure on soil aggregation and carbon sequestration: results from long-term field study in a paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Rajasekaran; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a crucial soil property that affects soil biota, biogeochemical processes and C sequestration. The relationship between soil aggregate stability and soil C cycling is well known but the influence of specific fungal community structure on this relationship is largely unknown in paddy soils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term fertilisation (mineral fertiliser-MIN; farmyard manure-FYM; groundnut oil cake-GOC) effects on soil fungal community shifts associated with soil aggregates under rice-monoculture (RRR) and rice-legume-rice (RLR) systems. Fungal and bacterial communities were characterized using phospholipid fatty acids, and glucosamine and muramic acid were used as biomarkers for fungal and bacterial residues, respectively. Microbial biomass C and N, fungal biomass and residues were significantly higher in the organic fertiliser treatments than in the MIN treatment, for all aggregate sizes under both crop rotation systems. In general, fungal/bacterial biomass ratio and fungal residue C/bacterial residue C ratio were significantly higher in macroaggregate fractions (> 2000 and 250-2000 ?m) than in microaggregate fractions (53-250 and <53 ?m). In both crop rotation systems, the long-term application of FYM and GOC led to increased accumulation of saprotrophic fungi (SF) in aggregate fractions > 2000 ?m. In contrast, we found that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was surprisingly higher in aggregate fractions > 2000 ?m than in aggregate fraction 250-2000 ?m under MIN treatment. The RLR system showed significantly higher AMF biomass and fungal residue C/ bacterial residue C ratio in both macroaggregate fractions compared to the RRR system. The strong relationships between SF, AMF and water stable aggregates shows the specific contribution of fungi community on soil aggregate stability. Our results highlight the fact that changes within fungal community structure play an important role in shaping the soil aggregate stability and C sequestration in tropical agricultural ecosystems.

  11. Fungal association with sessile marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yarden, Oded

    2014-01-01

    The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture – as well as metagenomic – and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include “core” residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal–fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals. PMID:24860565

  12. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and ?-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  13. Fungal Nail Infections in Tehran, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Zaini; M Mahmoudi; ASA Mehbod; P Kordbacheh; M Safara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis results from invasion of the nail plate by dermatophytes, yeasts or mould species of fungi. The objective was to determine the etiological agents of onychomycosis. Methods: A total of 549 patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis were examined for causative fungal agents. Both direct microscopy and the cultures of the nail material were performed to identify the causative agents

  14. Decolorization of textile dyes by fungal pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozfer Yesilada; Dilek Asma; Seval Cing

    2003-01-01

    Decolorization of various dyes by pellets of white rot fungi was studied. All fungal pellets used could remove more than 75% of the color of these dyes in 24 h. Effect of various conditions such as initial pH, concentration of dye, amount of pellet, temperature and agitation on Astrazone blue dye decolorization activity of Funalia trogii was tested and the

  15. Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One important mechanism for insect pest control is the use of fungal entomopathogens. Even though these organisms have been studied for more than 100 years, their effective use in the field remains elusive. Recently, however, it has been discovered that many of these entomopathogenic fungi play addi...

  16. Fungi and fungal toxins as weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Russell; M. PATERSON

    2006-01-01

    Recent aggressive attacks on innocent citizens have resulted in governments increasing security. However, there is a good case for prevention rather than reaction. Bioweapons, mycotoxins, fungal biocontrol agents (FBCA), and even pharmaceuticals contain, or are, toxins and need to be considered in the context of the new paradigm. Is it desirable to dis- cuss such issues? None of the fungi

  17. Fungi and fungal toxins as weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Russell M. PATERSON

    2006-01-01

    Recent aggressive attacks on innocent citizens have resulted in governments increasing security. However, there is a good case for prevention rather than reaction. Bioweapons, mycotoxins, fungal biocontrol agents (FBCA), and even pharmaceuticals contain, or are, toxins and need to be considered in the context of the new paradigm. Is it desirable to discuss such issues? None of the fungi are

  18. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

  19. Fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Cabral; Virginia E Fernández Pinto

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of filamentous fungi together with bacteriological parameters was assessed in 126 samples of still bottled mineral water of eight different commercial brands in Argentina. In spoiled samples with visible mycelium growth, the most frequently isolated fungal species were Penicillium citrinum, P. glabrum, other Penicillium species, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata. In unspoiled samples, the genera found were Penicillium,

  20. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA. Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  1. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  2. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is ?-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with ?-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  3. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  4. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martino; M. Subirà

    2002-01-01

    . Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are among the most feared complications of patients being treated for a hematological malignancy. Currently, most serious IFI occur in patients with acute leukemia and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. continue to be the main pathogens, the proportion of patients infected by non-albicans species of Candida and other

  5. Allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease without clinical asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J J Glancy; J L Elder; R McAleer

    1981-01-01

    During a retrospective survey of patients with pulmonary shadows and blood eosinophilia between the years 1965 and 1980, 42 patients were found with allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease. Eleven of these had no clinical evidence of asthma. Three of these 11 had hypersensitivity to fungi other than Aspergillus sp. In the absence of asthma there was some difficulty in making a

  6. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  7. Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    PubMed

    Metin, Ahmet; Dilek, Nursel; Demirseven, Duriye Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are widespread, regardless of age and gender, in populations all around the world and may affect the skin and skin appendages. Although there are thousands of fungal infections from various genera and families in nature, those that are pathogenic for humans and nesting in skin folds are limited in number. The prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. PMID:26051058

  8. Health Effects of Indoor Fungal Bioaerosol Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Fung; William G. Hughson

    2003-01-01

    Occupational and environmental health professionals are confronted with issues concerning the health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure. This article reviews current data on the health effects of indoor mold exposure and provides practical suggestions for occupational and environmental health practitioners regarding how best to manage these exposures based on published human studies. We conducted MEDLINE searches and reviewed all

  9. Metabolism of rosmarinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, T; Ohsawa, K

    1998-08-01

    The urine of rats administered rosmarinic acid (7) orally contained seven metabolites, which were identified as trans-caffeic acid 4-O-sulfate (1), trans-m-coumaric acid 3-O-sulfate (2), trans-ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate (3), trans-caffeic acid (4), m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (5), trans-m-coumaric acid (6), and unchanged rosmarinic acid (7) by spectroscopic and chemical data. The total cumulative amount of 1-7 excreted in the urine 48 h after the oral administration of rosmarinic acid was approximately 31.8% of the dose administered. On the other hand, the metabolites attributed to rosmarinic acid could not be found in the bile. Orally administered rosmarinic acid may thus be concluded to be excreted in the urine rather than in the bile, with cleavage of ester bonds, selective para-dehydroxylation, methylation, and sulfate-conjugation. Metabolites 2, 3, 5, and 6 were also detected in the plasma. PMID:9722482

  10. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw?

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  11. In vitro anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal effects of new SbIII carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ring opening of phthalic anhydride has been carried out in acetic acid with glycine, ?-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield, respectively, 2-{[(carboxymethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (I), 2-{[(2-carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (II), 2-{[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (III), and 2-[(4-carboxyanilino)carbonyl]benzoic acid (IV). Compounds I-IV have been employed as ligands for Sb(III) center (complexes V-VIII) in aqueous medium. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra proved the deprotonation of carboxylic protons and coordination of imine group and thereby tridentate behaviour of the ligands as chelates. Elemental, MS, and TGA analytic data confirmed the structural hypothesis based on spectroscopic results. All the compounds have been assayed in vitro for anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities against five leishmanial strains L. major (JISH118), L. major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO), L. tropica (K27), L. infantum (LEM3437), L. mex mex (LV4), and L. donovani (H43); and Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Fumigants, Aspergillus Niger, and Fusarium Solani. Compound VII exhibited good anti-leishmanial as well as anti-fungal impacts comparable to reference drugs.

  12. ?-Linolenic acid concentrates from borage and evening primrose oil fatty acids via lipase-catalyzed esterification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. K. Syed Rahmatullah; V. K. S. Shukla; K. D. Mukherjee

    1994-01-01

    ?-Linolenic acid (GLA, all-cis 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid) has been enriched from fatty acids of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil to 93% from the initial concentration of 20% by lipase-catalyzed selective esterification of the fatty acids\\u000a withn-butanol in the presence ofn-hexane as solvent. The immobilized fungal lipase preparation, Lipozyme, used as biocatalyst, preferentially esterified palmitic,\\u000a stearic, oleic and linoleic acids and

  13. N-trimethylchitosan/alginate layer-by-layer self assembly coatings act as "fungal repellents" to prevent biofilm formation on healthcare materials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fuguang; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Wen, Jianchuan; Sun, Yuyu

    2015-02-18

    Fungal biofilm formation on healthcare materials is a significant clinical concern, often leading to medical-device-related infections, which are difficult to treat. A novel fungal repellent strategy is developed to control fungal biofilm formation. Methylacrylic acid (MAA) is grated onto poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based biomaterials via plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. A cationic polymer, trimethylchitosan (TMC), is synthesized by reacting chitosan with methyl iodide. Sodium alginate (SA) is used as an anionic polymer. TMC/SA multilayers are coated onto the MAA-grafted PMMA via layer-by-layer self-assembly. The TMC/SA multilayer coatings significantly reduce fungal initial adhesion, and effectively prevent fungal biofilm formation. It is concluded that the anti-adhesive property of the surface is due to its hydrophilicity, and that the biofilm-inhibiting action is attributed to the antifungal activity of TMC as well as the chelating function of TMC and SA, which may have acted as fungal repellents. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-immersion tests show that the biofilm-modulating effect of the multilayer coatings is stable for more than 4 weeks. Furthermore, the presence of TMC/SA multilayer coatings improves the biocompatibility of the original PMMA, offering a simple, yet effective, strategy for controlling fungal biofilm formation. PMID:25295485

  14. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Mat?awska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed. PMID:11370291

  15. Microbes on the Cliff: Alpine Cushion Plants Structure Bacterial and Fungal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Roy, J.; Albert, C. H.; Ibanez, S.; Saccone, P.; Zinger, L.; Choler, P.; Clément, J.-C.; Lavergne, S.; Geremia, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants affect the spatial distribution of soil microorganisms, but the influence of the local abiotic context is poorly documented. We investigated the effect of a single plant species, the cushion plant Silene acaulis, on habitat conditions, and microbial community. We collected soil from inside (In) and outside (Out) of the cushions on calcareous and siliceous cliffs in the French Alps along an elevation gradient (2,000–3,000?masl). The composition of the microbial communities was assessed by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to characterize the response of the microbial beta-diversity to soil parameters (total C, total N, soil water content, N-NH4+,N-NO3-, and pH). Cushions affected the microbial communities, modifying soil properties. The fungal and bacterial communities did not respond to the same abiotic factors. Outside the cushions, the bacterial communities were strongly influenced by bedrock. Inside the cushions, the bacterial communities from both types of bedrock were highly similar, due to the smaller pH differences than in open areas. By contrast, the fungal communities were equally variable inside and outside of the cushions. Outside the cushions, the fungal communities responded weakly to soil pH. Inside the cushions, the fungal communities varied strongly with bedrock and elevation as well as increases in soil nutrients and water content. Furthermore, the dissimilarities in the microbial communities between the In and Out habitats increased with increasing habitat modification and environmental stress. Our results indicate that cushions act as a selective force that counteracts the influence of the bedrock and the resource limitations on the bacterial and fungal communities by buffering soil pH and enhancing soil nutrients. Cushion plants structure microbial communities, and this effect increases in stressful, acidic and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:23543612

  16. Microbes on the cliff: alpine cushion plants structure bacterial and fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Roy, J; Albert, C H; Ibanez, S; Saccone, P; Zinger, L; Choler, P; Clément, J-C; Lavergne, S; Geremia, R A

    2013-01-01

    Plants affect the spatial distribution of soil microorganisms, but the influence of the local abiotic context is poorly documented. We investigated the effect of a single plant species, the cushion plant Silene acaulis, on habitat conditions, and microbial community. We collected soil from inside (In) and outside (Out) of the cushions on calcareous and siliceous cliffs in the French Alps along an elevation gradient (2,000-3,000?masl). The composition of the microbial communities was assessed by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to characterize the response of the microbial beta-diversity to soil parameters (total C, total N, soil water content, [Formula: see text], and pH). Cushions affected the microbial communities, modifying soil properties. The fungal and bacterial communities did not respond to the same abiotic factors. Outside the cushions, the bacterial communities were strongly influenced by bedrock. Inside the cushions, the bacterial communities from both types of bedrock were highly similar, due to the smaller pH differences than in open areas. By contrast, the fungal communities were equally variable inside and outside of the cushions. Outside the cushions, the fungal communities responded weakly to soil pH. Inside the cushions, the fungal communities varied strongly with bedrock and elevation as well as increases in soil nutrients and water content. Furthermore, the dissimilarities in the microbial communities between the In and Out habitats increased with increasing habitat modification and environmental stress. Our results indicate that cushions act as a selective force that counteracts the influence of the bedrock and the resource limitations on the bacterial and fungal communities by buffering soil pH and enhancing soil nutrients. Cushion plants structure microbial communities, and this effect increases in stressful, acidic and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:23543612

  17. PHYMYCO-DB: A Curated Database for Analyses of Fungal Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahé, Stéphane; Duhamel, Marie; Le Calvez, Thomas; Guillot, Laetitia; Sarbu, Ludmila; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Collin, Olivier; Dufresne, Alexis; Kiers, E. Toby; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background In environmental sequencing studies, fungi can be identified based on nucleic acid sequences, using either highly variable sequences as species barcodes or conserved sequences containing a high-quality phylogenetic signal. For the latter, identification relies on phylogenetic analyses and the adoption of the phylogenetic species concept. Such analysis requires that the reference sequences are well identified and deposited in public-access databases. However, many entries in the public sequence databases are problematic in terms of quality and reliability and these data require screening to ensure correct phylogenetic interpretation. Methods and Principal Findings To facilitate phylogenetic inferences and phylogenetic assignment, we introduce a fungal sequence database. The database PHYMYCO-DB comprises fungal sequences from GenBank that have been filtered to satisfy stringent sequence quality criteria. For the first release, two widely used molecular taxonomic markers were chosen: the nuclear SSU rRNA and EF1-? gene sequences. Following the automatic extraction and filtration, a manual curation is performed to remove problematic sequences while preserving relevant sequences useful for phylogenetic studies. As a result of curation, ?20% of the automatically filtered sequences have been removed from the database. To demonstrate how PHYMYCO-DB can be employed, we test a set of environmental Chytridiomycota sequences obtained from deep sea samples. Conclusion PHYMYCO-DB offers the tools necessary to: (i) extract high quality fungal sequences for each of the 5 fungal phyla, at all taxonomic levels, (ii) extract already performed alignments, to act as ‘reference alignments’, (iii) launch alignments of personal sequences along with stored data. A total of 9120 SSU rRNA and 672 EF1-? high-quality fungal sequences are now available. The PHYMYCO-DB is accessible through the URL http://phymycodb.genouest.org/. PMID:23028445

  18. Rodentborne fungal pathogens in wetland agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Manuel; Abraham Samuel, K.; Kurian, Punnen

    2012-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too. PMID:24031825

  19. Functional profiling of human fungal pathogen genomes.

    PubMed

    Goranov, Alexi I; Madhani, Hiten D

    2015-03-01

    Fungal infections are challenging to diagnose and often difficult to treat, with only a handful of drug classes existing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic fungi cause human disease is imperative. Here, we discuss how the development and use of genome-scale genetic resources, such as whole-genome knockout collections, can address this unmet need. Using work in Saccharomcyes cerevisiae as a guide, studies of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans have shown how the challenges of large-scale gene deletion can be overcome, and how such collections can be effectively used to obtain insights into mechanisms of pathogenesis. We conclude that, with concerted efforts, full genome-wide functional analysis of human fungal pathogen genomes is within reach. PMID:25377143

  20. Evolutionary Reshaping of Fungal Mating Pathway Scaffold Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Côte, Pierre; Sulea, Traian; Dignard, Daniel; Wu, Cunle; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play central roles in the function of many signaling pathways. Among the best-studied examples are the Ste5 and Far1 proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These proteins contain three conserved modules, the RING and PH domains, characteristic of some ubiquitin-ligating enzymes, and a vWA domain implicated in protein-protein interactions. In yeast, Ste5p regulates the mating pathway kinases while Far1p coordinates the cellular polarity machinery. Within the fungal lineage, the Basidiomycetes and the Pezizomycetes contain a single Far1-like protein, while several Saccharomycotina species, belonging to the CTG (Candida) clade, contain both a classic Far1-like protein and a Ste5-like protein that lacks the vWA domain. We analyzed the function of C. albicans Ste5p (Cst5p), a member of this class of structurally distinct Ste5 proteins. CST5 is essential for mating and still coordinates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) cascade elements in the absence of the vWA domain; Cst5p interacts with the MEK kinase (MEKK) C. albicans Ste11p (CaSte11p) and the MAPK Cek1 as well as with the MEK Hst7 in a vWA domain-independent manner. Cst5p can homodimerize, similar to Ste5p, but can also heterodimerize with Far1p, potentially forming heteromeric signaling scaffolds. We found direct binding between the MEKK CaSte11p and the MEK Hst7p that depends on a mobile acidic loop absent from S. cerevisiae Ste11p but related to the Ste7-binding region within the vWA domain of Ste5p. Thus, the fungal lineage has restructured specific scaffolding modules to coordinate the proteins required to direct the gene expression, polarity, and cell cycle regulation essential for mating. PMID:21249169

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Champion, Mia D.; Holder, Jason W.; Muszewska, Anna; Goldberg, Jonathan; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo; Ferreira, Márcia Eliana da Silva; Garcia, Ana Maria; Grynberg, Marcin; Gujja, Sharvari; Heiman, David I.; Henn, Matthew R.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; León-Narváez, Henry; Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ma, Li-Jun; Malavazi, Iran; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Morais, Flavia V.; Pereira, Maristela; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Sykes, Sean M.; Teixeira, Marcus Melo; Vallejo, Milene C.; Walter, Maria Emília Machado Telles; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zucker, Jeremy; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Haas, Brian J.; McEwen, Juan G.; Nino-Vega, Gustavo; Puccia, Rosana; San-Blas, Gioconda; Soares, Celia Maria de Almeida; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts. PMID:22046142

  2. Accumulation of phenolic acid conjugates and betacyanins, and changes in the activities of enzymes involved in feruloylglucose metabolism in cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L.

    PubMed

    Bokern, M; Wray, V; Strack, D

    1991-05-01

    Cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum accumulate various soluble secondary phenolic metabolites such as the hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-?-glucoside, vanillic acid-?-glucoside, the hydroxycinnamic acid acylglycosides 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-?-glucose, 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose, 1-O-sinapoyl-?-glucose and 1-O-feruloyl-(?-1,2-glucuronosyl)-?-glucose, the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloylaspartate, and the betacyanins betanin, amaranthin and celosianin II. In addition, accumulation of the insoluble cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids with ferulic acid as the major component occurs parallel to culture growth. The changes of three pivotal enzymatic activities, all O-transferases which are involved in the formation of the dominant ferulic acid conjugates, were determined. These are (i) uridine 5'-diphosphate(UDP)glucose-hydroxycinnamic acid O-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1), (ii) UDP-glucuronic acid:1-O-hydroxycin-namoyl-?-glucose O-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1) and (iii) 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-?-glucose:amaranthin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1). The patterns of metabolite accumulation associated with these enzyme activities show that the hydroxycinnamic acid-glucose esters play a central role as metabolically active intermediates in the secondary metabolism of Ch. rubrum. Two cell lines of this culture (CH, CHN), differing in their betacyanin content, were compared with respect to this metabolism. A markedly higher total betacyanin content in the CHN line might possibly be the consequence of an increased supply of the key precursor for betalain biosynthesis, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). In addition, the enhanced accumulation of celosianin II in the CHN line correlates well with a higher activity of the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of ferulic acid from 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose to amaranthin. PMID:24194079

  3. Fungal Biofilms in the Clinical Lab Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyotsna Chandra; Pranab K. Mukherjee; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum

    2010-01-01

    Device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within polysaccharide-rich extracellular\\u000a matrix) formed by pathogens on surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from infections associated with catheters and dentures, and both Candida and Fusarium are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections such as fungal keratitis. These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility\\u000a to most

  4. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Microbial Contributions to Stable Soil OC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.; Egerton-Warburton, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal OC can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2 month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. Additionally, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes were among the dominant fungal species involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycetes. At the end of the 2 month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibit varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16 and C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue, others maintaining steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (e.g. C18), and some increasing in concentration throughout the degradation (e.g. C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties, including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker distributions, and OC turnover times.

  5. Fungal community composition and metabolism under elevated CO(2) and O(3).

    PubMed

    Chung, Haegeun; Zak, Donald R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2006-02-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) concentrations are increasing due to human activity and both trace gases have the potential to alter C cycling in forest ecosystems. Because soil microorganisms depend on plant litter as a source of energy for metabolism, changes in the amount or the biochemistry of plant litter produced under elevated CO(2) and O(3) could alter microbial community function and composition. Previously, we have observed that elevated CO(2) increased the microbial metabolism of cellulose and chitin, whereas elevated O(3) dampened this response. We hypothesized that this change in metabolism under CO(2) and O(3) enrichment would be accompanied by a concomitant change in fungal community composition. We tested our hypothesis at the free-air CO(2) and O(3) enrichment (FACE) experiment at Rhinelander, Wisconsin, in which Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, and Acer saccharum were grown under factorial CO(2) and O(3) treatments. We employed extracellular enzyme analysis to assay microbial metabolism, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to determine changes in microbial community composition, and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to analyze the fungal community composition. The activities of 1,4-beta-glucosidase (+37%) and 1,4,-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (+84%) were significantly increased under elevated CO(2), whereas 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity (-25%) was significantly suppressed by elevated O(3). There was no significant main effect of elevated CO(2) or O(3) on fungal relative abundance, as measured by PLFA. We identified 39 fungal taxonomic units from soil using DGGE, and found that O(3) enrichment significantly altered fungal community composition. We conclude that fungal metabolism is altered under elevated CO(2) and O(3), and that there was a concomitant change in fungal community composition under elevated O(3). Thus, changes in plant inputs to soil under elevated CO(2) and O(3) can propagate through the microbial food web to alter the cycling of C in soil. PMID:16205953

  6. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

  7. Evolution of virulence in fungal plant pathogens: exploiting fungal genomics to control plant disease.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Barbara J; Lowe, Rohan G T; Marcroft, Stephen J; van de Wouw, Angela P

    2015-01-01

    The propensity of a fungal pathogen to evolve virulence depends on features of its biology (e.g. mode of reproduction) and of its genome (e.g. amount of repetitive DNA). Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans, a pathogen of Brassica napus (canola), can evolve and overcome disease resistance bred into canola within three years of commercial release of a cultivar. Avirulence effector genes are key fungal genes that are complementary to resistance genes. In L. maculans these genes are embedded within inactivated transposable elements in genomic regions where they are readily mutated or deleted. The risk of resistance breakdown in the field can be minimised by monitoring disease severity of canola cultivars and virulence of fungal populations using high throughput molecular assays and by sowing canola cultivars with different resistance genes in subsequent years. This strategy has been exploited to avert yield losses due to blackleg disease in Australia. PMID:25725000

  8. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of hydroxycinnamic acids, quercetin, and cyanidin 3-glucoside in hypercholesterolemic erythrocytes (in vitro study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Duchnowicz; Marlena Broncel; Anna Pods?dek; Maria Koter-Michalak

    Objective  Four polyphenols: ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid (hydroxycinnamic acids), quercetin (flavonol) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (anthocyanin) were selected, and their\\u000a antioxidant properties and their influence on cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic and normal erythrocytes were\\u000a investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  To determine the effect of phenolic compounds, we prospectively studied cholesterol concentration, lipid peroxidation and\\u000a membranes fluidity. Whole-blood and isolated erythrocytes (2% hematocrit) were incubated for

  9. Fungal Periprosthetic Joint Infection of the Hip: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schoof, Benjamin; Jakobs, Oliver; Schmidl, Stefan; Klatte, Till Orla; Frommelt, Lars; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25874063

  10. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2014-05-01

    Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated <10%. Conjugated, and not just the free, PA are significant contributors to total urinary excretion. PMID:24180593

  11. Root fungal symbionts interact with mammalian herbivory, soil nutrient availability and specific habitat conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Anna L; Eskelinen, Anu

    2011-07-01

    Herbivory, competition and soil fertility interactively shape plant communities and exhibit an important role in modifying conditions for host-dependent fungal symbionts. However, field studies on the combined impacts of natural herbivory, competition and soil fertility on root fungal symbionts are rare. We asked how mammalian herbivory, fertilization, liming and plant-plant competition affect the root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi of the dicot herb, Solidago virgaurea. The 2-year full-factorial experiment was conducted in two contrasting habitats: non-acidic and acidic mountain tundra. We found that herbivory increased arbuscular colonization (i.e. the site of resource exchange) at fertile non-acidic sites, where vegetation was rich in species having AMF symbionts, whereas at infertile acidic sites, where plants having AMF symbiont are scarce, the response was the opposite. Herbivory of the host plant negatively affected DSE hyphal and sclerotial colonization in unfertilized plots, possibly due to reduced carbon flow from the host plant while there was no effect of herbivory in fertilized plots. DSE colonization was highest in unfertilized exclosures where soil nutrient concentrations were also lowest. Liming had a negative effect on DSE hyphal colonization, and its effect also interacted with herbivory and the habitat. Biomass removal of the neighboring plants did not affect the root colonization percent of either arbuscules or DSE. Our results show that the impacts of aboveground mammalian herbivory, soil nutrient availability and specific habitat conditions on belowground root fungal symbionts are highly dependent on each other. Arbuscule response to herbivory appeared to be regulated by specific habitat conditions possibly caused by differences in the AMF availability in the soil while DSE response was associated with availability of host-derived carbon. Our result of the relationship between herbivory and soil nutrients suggests an important role of DSE in ecosystem processes. PMID:21301877

  12. MycoCosm portal: gearing up for 1000 fungal genomes.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, Igor V; Nikitin, Roman; Haridas, Sajeet; Kuo, Alan; Ohm, Robin; Otillar, Robert; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Zhao, Xueling; Korzeniewski, Frank; Smirnova, Tatyana; Nordberg, Henrik; Dubchak, Inna; Shabalov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MycoCosm is a fungal genomics portal (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi), developed by the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute to support integration, analysis and dissemination of fungal genome sequences and other 'omics' data by providing interactive web-based tools. MycoCosm also promotes and facilitates user community participation through the nomination of new species of fungi for sequencing, and the annotation and analysis of resulting data. By efficiently filling gaps in the Fungal Tree of Life, MycoCosm will help address important problems associated with energy and the environment, taking advantage of growing fungal genomics resources. PMID:24297253

  13. Fungal volatile organic compounds and their role in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Bennett, Joan W

    2015-04-01

    All odorants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e., low molecular weight compounds that easily evaporate at normal temperatures and pressure. Fungal VOCs are relatively understudied compared to VOCs of bacterial, plant, or synthetic origin. Much of the research to date on fungal VOCs has focused on their food and flavor properties, their use as indirect indicators of fungal growth in agriculture, or their role as semiochemicals for insects. In addition, research into fungal volatiles has also taken place to monitor spoilage, for purposes of chemotaxonomy, for use in biofilters and for biodiesel, to detect plant and animal disease, for "mycofumigation," and with respect to plant health. As methods for the analysis of gas phase molecules have improved, it has become apparent that fungal VOC are more chemically varied and more biologically active than has generally been realized. In particular, there is increasing data that show that fungal VOCs frequently mediate interactions between organisms within and across different ecological niches. The goal of this mini review is to orchestrate data on fungal VOCs obtained from disparate disciplines as well as to draw attention to the ecological importance of fungal VOCs in signaling between different species. Technologies and approaches that are common in one area of research are often unknown in others, and the study of fungal VOCs would benefit from more cross talk between subdisciplines. PMID:25773975

  14. Root Exudates Regulate Soil Fungal Community Composition and Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Broeckling, Corey D.; Broz, Amanda K.; Bergelson, Joy; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are in constant contact with a community of soil biota that contains fungi ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic. A few studies have demonstrated a critical role of chemical communication in establishing highly specialized relationships, but the general role for root exudates in structuring the soil fungal community is poorly described. This study demonstrates that two model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula) are able to maintain resident soil fungal populations but unable to maintain nonresident soil fungal populations. This is mediated largely through root exudates: the effects of adding in vitro-generated root exudates to the soil fungal community were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the results observed for plants grown in those same soils. This effect is observed for total fungal biomass, phylotype diversity, and overall community similarity to the starting community. Nonresident plants and root exudates influenced the fungal community by both positively and negatively impacting the relative abundance of individual phylotypes. A net increase in fungal biomass was observed when nonresident root exudates were added to resident plant treatments, suggesting that increases in specific carbon substrates and/or signaling compounds support an increased soil fungal population load. This study establishes root exudates as a mechanism through which a plant is able to regulate soil fungal community composition. PMID:18083870

  15. Role of hydroxycinnamic acids in the infection of maize silks by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Butrón, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Souto, Xose C; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-09-01

    In the current study, the hydroxycinnamic acids in silks of diverse maize inbred lines differing in Fusarium resistance were determined at several times after inoculation with Fusarium graminearum or sterile water as control. The main objective was to determine the possible relationship between the hydroxycinnamic acid changes in silks and ear rot resistance. Several changes in the cell-wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acid concentrations were observed after inoculation with F. graminearum, although these changes were not directly correlated with genotypic resistance to this fungus. Ester-bound ferulic acid decreased, probably due to degradation of hemicellulose by hydrolytic enzymes produced by Fusarium spp., while p-coumaric acid and diferulates showed slight increases that, in conjunction, did not result in delayed F. graminearum progression through the silks. It is important to note that the decrease of ferulic acid in the F. graminearum treatment was faster in susceptible than in resistant genotypes, suggesting a differential hemicellulose degradation in silk tissues. Therefore, the ability of the maize genotypes to slow down that process through hemicellulose structural features or xylanase inhibitors needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:21635140

  16. Removal of Uranium(VI) from Solution by Fungal Biomass and Fungal Wall--Related Biopolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Galun; P. Keller; D. Malki; H. Feldstein; E. Galun; S. M. Siegel; B. Z. Siegel

    1983-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum mycelium can accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride. Azide present during the uptake tests does not inhibit the process. Killing the fungal biomass in boiling water or by treatment with alcohols, dimethyl sulfoxide, or potassium hydroxide increases the uptake capability to about 10,000 parts per million (dry weight). Formaldehyde killing does not enhance the uranium uptake.

  17. Structure and Mechanism of Chitin Deacetylase from the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum,

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    . Before the fungal hyphae can successfully pen- etrate and gain access to host tissue, the fungus has-7). Studies of cell wall composition of invasive fungal hyphae suggest that exposed fungal chitin polymers

  18. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  19. Fungal skin infections in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Virgili, Annarosa; Zampino, Maria Rosaria; Mantovani, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Transplantation is now currently and increasingly performed for the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. Today the kidney, heart, lung, heart-lung, liver, pancreas, kidney-pancreas, small bowel and bone marrow are being transplanted. The immunological status of patients receiving such transplants exposes them to the risk of developing bacterial, viral and fungal infections. The etiological agents of mycotic diseases involving the skin of transplant recipients range from the common dermatophytes through yeasts such as Candida spp., Malassezia spp. and dimorphic fungi to the emerging molds Fusarium spp. and Pseudallescheria boydii. The very wide spectrum of fungi causing cutaneous disease produces equally varied clinical aspects. Lesions may be typical, but are very often aspecific or ambiguous. Cutaneous lesions may be the sign of a trivial mycotic disease or the marker of a disseminated, potentially lethal fungal illness, so great attention should be given to their early recognition. Cutaneous manifestations due to Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., dematiaceous fungi and Pityrosporum folliculitis are usually observed early after transplant, cryptococcosis more than 6 months later, while the frequency of dermatophytoses increases as time goes by. Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis may appear any time after transplantation. The management of the more severe forms of cutaneous mycosis in transplant recipients is difficult. Besides the fact that early recognition is not easy, there are also problems regarding the effectiveness and the toxicity of the therapy and drug-drug interactions. Prophylactic measures to avoid fungal contamination must be performed during hospitalization; patients should be taught how to avoid contamination, not only during the first period after transplantation, when high dosage immunosuppressive drugs are given, but also later when a normal lifestyle is resumed. PMID:11817966

  20. Toward Developing a Universal Treatment for Fungal Disease Using Radioimmunotherapy Targeting Common Fungal Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, R. A.; Guimaraes, A. J.; Hopcraft, S.; Jiang, Z.; Bonilla, K.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Del Poeta, M.; Torosantucci, A.; Cassone, A.; Nosanchuk, J. D.; Casadevall, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated the ability of radiolabeled antibodies recognizing the cryptococcal polysaccharide capsule to kill Cryptococcus neoformans both in vitro and in infected mice. This approach, known as radioimmunotherapy (RIT), uses the exquisite ability of antibodies to bind antigens to deliver microbicidal radiation. To create RIT reagents which would be efficacious against all major medically important fungi, we have selected monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common surface fungal antigens such as heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), which is found on the surface of diverse fungi; beta (1,3)-glucan, which is a major constituent of fungal cell walls; ceramide which is found at the cell surface, and melanin, a polymer present in the fungal cell wall. Methods MAbs 4E12, an IgG2a to fungal HSP60; 2G8, an IgG2b to beta-(1,3)-glucan; and 6D2, an IgM to melanin, were labeled with the alpha particle emitting radionuclide 213-Bismuth (213Bi) using the chelator CHXA”. B11, an IgM antibody to glucosylceramide, was labeled with the beta emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re). Model organisms Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans were used to assess the cytotoxicity of these compounds after exposure to either radiolabeled mAbs or controls. Results 213Bi-mAbs to HSP60 and to the beta-(1,3)-glucan each reduced the viability of both fungi by 80–100%.The 213Bi-6D2mAb to melanin killed 22%of C. neoformans, but did not kill C. albicans. B11 mAb against fungal ceramide was effective against wild-type C. neoformans, but was unable to kill a mutant lacking the ceramide target. Unlabeled mAbs and radiolabeled irrelevant control mAbs caused no killing. Conclusion Our results suggest that it is feasible to develop RIT against fungal pathogens by targeting common antigens and such an approach could be developed against fungal diseases for which existing therapy is unsatisfactory. PMID:22048869

  1. What is new in fungal pharmacotherapeutics?

    PubMed

    Routt, Ethan T; Jim, Shelbi C; Zeichner, Joshua A; Kircik, Leon H

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 20-25% of the population worldwide is affected by superficial cutaneous mycoses (SCM). SCM are cutaneous fungal infections with a wide array of systemic and topical treatment options. However, successful therapeutic outcomes are limited by patient non-adherence, medication side effects, potential drug interactions, antifungal resistance and disease recurrence. Advances in formulation technology have allowed for the development of more effective and safer therapies. In this article we will review several new and emerging pharmacotherapeutics for onychomycosis and tinea pedis. PMID:24719057

  2. Fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Daniel; Fernández, PintoVirginiaE

    2002-01-30

    The occurrence of filamentous fungi together with bacteriological parameters was assessed in 126 samples of still bottled mineral water of eight different commercial brands in Argentina. In spoiled samples with visible mycelium growth, the most frequently isolated fungal species were Penicillium citrinum, P. glabrum, other Penicillium species, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata. In unspoiled samples, the genera found were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Aspergillus and Phoma. Only three of the 126 samples failed to meet the required microbiological standards because they were found to contain faecal streptococci. PMID:11843415

  3. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae as a screening system for fungal toxins.

    PubMed

    Harwig, J; Scott, P M

    1971-06-01

    Concentrations resulting in 50% mortality, determined with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae exposed to known mycotoxins for 16 hr, were (mug/ml): aflatoxin G(1), 1.3; diacetoxyscirpenol, 0.47; gliotoxin, 3.5; ochratoxin A, 10.1; and sterigmatocystin, 0.54. 4-Acetamido-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid gamma-lactone gave no mortality at 10 mug/ml. Used as a screening system involving discs saturated with solutions of known mycotoxins, the larvae were relatively sensitive to aflatoxin B(1), diacetoxyscirpenol, gliotoxin, kojic acid, ochratoxin A, rubratoxin B, sterigmatocystin, stemphone, and T-2 toxin. Quantities of 0.2 to 2 mug/disc caused detectable mortality. The larvae were only moderately sensitive to citrinin, patulin, penicillic acid, and zearalenone which were detectable at 10 to 20 mug/disc. They were relatively insensitive to griseofulvin, luteoskyrin, oxalic acid, and beta-nitropropionic acid. The disc screening method indicated that 27 out of 70 fungal isolates from foods and feeds grown in liquid or solid media produced chloroform-extractable toxic material. Examination of toxic extracts by thin-layer chromatography for 17 known mycotoxins showed that the toxicity of eight isolates could be attributed to aflatoxin B(1) and B(2), kojic acid, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, or ochratoxin A. Nine out of 32 of these fungal isolates grown in four liquid media yielded toxic culture filtrates from at least one medium. Chemical tests for kojic, oxalic, and beta-nitropropionic acids showed the presence of one or two of these compounds in filtrates of seven of these nine isolates. PMID:5105681

  4. Growth and interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils from limestone and acid rock habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid M. van Aarle; Bengt Söderström; Pål Axel Olsson

    2003-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) development in different soil types, and the influence of AM fungal hyphae on their original soil were investigated. Plantago lanceolata, which can grow in soils of a very wide pH range, was grown in two closely related limestone soils and an acid soil from rock habitats. Plants were colonised by the indigenous AM fungal community. The use

  5. Production of protein-rich fungal biomass in an airlift bioreactor using vinasse as substrate.

    PubMed

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Issarapayup, Kerati; Pavasant, Prasert; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The potential for large-scale production of an edible fungus, Rhizopus oligosporus, on a liquid residue from sugar-to-ethanol production, vinasse, was investigated. An airlift bioreactor (2.5-L working volume) was used for cultivating the fungus on 75% (v/v) vinasse with nutrient supplementation (nitrogen and phosphorus) at 37°C and pH 5.0. Aeration rates were varied from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0 volume(air)/volume(liquid)/min (vvm). The fungal biomass yield depended on the aeration rate, and the highest fungal biomass obtained was 8.04±0.80 (g(biomass increase)/g(initial biomass)) at 1.5vvm. The observed reductions in organic content by 80% (as soluble chemical oxygen demand) suggest the potential of recycling treated effluent as process water for in-plant use or for land applications. The fungal biomass contained ~50% crude protein and the essential amino acids contents were comparable to commercial protein sources for aquatic feeds (fishmeal and soybean meal), with the exception of methionine and phenylalanine. PMID:23434806

  6. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is activated via Toll, but not Imd signal pathway in response to fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-A; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-07-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) catalyzes hydrolysis of phospholipids at sn-2 position and usually releases arachidonic acid, which is oxygenated into various eicosanoids that mediate innate immune responses in insects. PLA(2) activities were measured in both immune-associated tissues of hemocyte and fat body in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Upon challenge of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, the PLA(2)s were significantly activated in both hemocyte and fat body. The fungal infection also induced gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as two attacins, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, hemolin, and transferrin of S. exigua. RNA interference of Toll or Imd signal pathway using double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) specific to SeToll or SeRelish suppressed specific AMP gene expressions, in which dsRNA specific to SeToll suppressed two attacins, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, hemolin, and transferrin I, while dsRNA specific to SeRelish suppressed only cecropin. Interestingly, dsRNA specific to SeToll also significantly inhibited the activation of PLA(2) in response to the fungal infection, but dsRNA specific to SeRelish did not. Eicosanoid-dependent hemocyte nodulation was inhibited by dsRNA specific to SeToll but was not by dsRNA specific to SeRelish. These results suggest that eicosanoid biosynthesis is activated via Toll, but not Imd signal pathway in response to fungal infection in S. exigua. PMID:22569137

  7. Master thesis Classifying fungal species from environmental sequences bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    and cannot be cultured. To cope with this modern mycology need to develop strategies for classifying speciesMaster thesis Classifying fungal species from environmental sequences ­ bioinformatics analysis fungal diversity is current described largely because most species have no visible fruiting structures

  8. Treatment of fungal infections in hematology and oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Böhme; Markus Ruhnke; Dieter Buchheidt; Meinolf Karthaus; Hermann Einsele; Stefan Guth; Gudrun Heussel; Claus-Peter Heussel; Christian Junghanss; Winfried K. Kern; Thomas Kubin; Georg Maschmeyer; Orhan Sezer; Gerda Silling; Thomas Südhoff; Andrew J. Ullmann

    2003-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Oncology presents their guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections in patients with hematological and oncological malignancies. These guidelines are evidence-based, considering study results, case reports and expert opinions, using the evidence criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The recommendations for major fungal complications in

  9. Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum

    E-print Network

    Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

    REPORT Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum mycorrhizal fungal spore communities and mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) of a tropical rain forest soil and control plots. Seedlings of both plant species grown in control cores had significantly higher arbuscular-mycorrhizal

  10. Bat White-Nose Syndrome: An Emerging Fungal Pathogen?

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    Bat White-Nose Syndrome: An Emerging Fungal Pathogen? David S. Blehert,1 * Alan C. Hicks,2 Melissa T he first evidence of bat white-nose syn- drome (WNS) was documented in a photo- graph taken at Howes characterized as a condition of hibernating bats and was named for the visually striking white fungal growth

  11. Fungal Deterioration of Barrier Concrete used in Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fomina; V. S. Podgorsky; S. V. Olishevska; V. M. Kadoshnikov; I. R. Pisanska; S. Hillier; G. M. Gadd

    2007-01-01

    Fungal biogeochemical activity over a long-term scale may have negative environmental consequences for the management of barrier materials used in nuclear waste disposal. Fungal deterioration of barrier concrete was studied in microcosms simulating a heterogeneous environment with an external source of nutrients for the fungi. Fungi successfully colonized barrier concrete, generally avoiding granite aggregates, and biochemically (by excretion of protons

  12. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  13. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in ?-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium. PMID:22791475

  14. Fungal otomastoiditis: a case series in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Reena; Nair, Reshmi M; Kavalakkat, Frankie Jose

    2014-01-01

    Fungal otomastoiditis is a rare condition and is usually associated with host immunodeficiency. It is difficult to diagnose, and many cases are fatal. Treatment consists of surgical debridement, attempts to control the underlying immunological condition and antifungal chemotherapy. Individual case reports in immunocompetent patients have been published previously. We report a case series of seven with fungal otomastoiditis, all in immunocompetent patients. PMID:24605314

  15. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Polak; Anna Jarosz-Wilko?azka

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system

  16. Chemogenomic analysis of fungal stress-response systems using phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pathogens can cause major problems for both agriculture and human health. By infecting crop plants, fungi cause the plant to die or spoil its productivity. Some fungi actually produce toxic substances that are harmful, if ingested. Fungal infections of humans can also result in major health p...

  17. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim E. Cutler; George S. Deepe Jr; Bruce S. Klein

    2006-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the

  18. Use of Fungal Blood Cultures in an Academic Medical Center?

    PubMed Central

    Kosmin, Aaron R.; Fekete, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of fungal blood cultures in our hospital. They added little compared to routine culture results, but clinicians ordered them for sicker patients, when facing diagnostic uncertainty, or after prior candidemia. We need a practical guideline for when to order fungal blood cultures. PMID:18799698

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Characterization of the fungal microflora in raw milk

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Characterization of the fungal microflora in raw milk and specialty cheeses microbial ecosystem is complex, and the presence of non- starter adventitious microorganisms in milk may the composition and diversity of the fungal flora of raw milk destined for cheesemaking from 19 dairy farms

  20. Experimental observations on fungal diagenesis of carbonate Kamal Kolo,1

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    spectroscopy and stable isotopes (C and O) revealed an extensive fungally induced diagenesis. The results substrates on the original attacked surfaces produced microscale stratification. Stable isotope analysis in their isotopic signatures. The C and O isotopes of biomineralized material within the fungal mass were

  1. Edaphic sorting drives arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Edaphic sorting drives arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly in a serpentine/non-serpentine. Edaphic sorting drives arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly in a serpentine/non-serpentine mosaic landscape. Ecosphere 3(5):42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES12-00059.1 Abstract. Serpentine soil

  2. Mechanical, Optical, and Barrier Properties of Soy Protein Film As Affected by Phenolic Acid Addition.

    PubMed

    Insaward, Anchana; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Mahawanich, Thanachan

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of phenolic acid addition on properties of soy protein film. Ferulic (FE), caffeic (CA), and gallic (GA) acids as well as their oxidized products were used in this study. Phenolic acid addition was found to have a significant effect (p ? 0.05) on the mechanical properties of the film. GA-containing films exhibited the highest tensile strength and elongation at break, followed by those with added CA and FE, respectively. Oxidized phenolic acids were shown to produce a film with higher tensile strength and elongation at break than their unoxidized counterparts. Phenolic acid addition also affected film color and transparency. As compared to the control, phenolic-containing film samples demonstrated reduced water vapor permeability and water solubility and increased contact angle, especially at high concentrations of oxidized phenolic acid addition. PMID:25349098

  3. Fungal adaptation to extremely high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gostin?ar, Cene; Lenassi, Metka; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypersaline environments support substantial microbial communities of selected halotolerant and halophilic organisms, including fungi from various orders. In hypersaline water of solar salterns, the black yeast Hortaea werneckii is by far the most successful fungal representative. It has an outstanding ability to overcome the turgor loss and sodium toxicity that are typical for hypersaline environments, which facilitates its growth even in solutions that are almost saturated with NaCl. We propose a model of cellular responses to high salt concentrations that integrates the current knowledge of H. werneckii adaptations. The negative impact of a hyperosmolar environment is counteracted by an increase in the energy supply that is needed to drive the energy-demanding export of ions and synthesis of compatible solutes. Changes in membrane lipid composition and cell-wall structure maintain the integrity and functioning of the stressed cells. Understanding the salt responses of H. werneckii and other fungi (e.g., the halophilic Wallemia ichthyophaga) will extend our knowledge of fungal stress tolerance and promote the use of the currently unexploited biotechnological potential of fungi that live in hypersaline environments. PMID:22050822

  4. Marine subsurface eukaryotes: the fungal majority.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Beaudoin, David; Gast, Rebecca; Biddle, Jennifer F; Teske, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the microbial communities of deep subsurface sediments have indicated the presence of Bacteria and Archaea throughout the sediment column. Microbial eukaryotes could also be present in deep-sea subsurface sediments; either bacterivorous protists or eukaryotes capable of assimilating buried organic carbon. DNA- and RNA-based clone library analyses are used here to examine the microbial eukaryotic diversity and identify the potentially active members in deep-sea sediment cores of the Peru Margin and the Peru Trench. We compared surface communities with those much deeper in the same cores, and compared cores from different sites. Fungal sequences were most often recovered from both DNA- and RNA-based clone libraries, with variable overall abundances of different sequence types and different dominant clone types in the RNA-based and the DNA-based libraries. Surficial sediment communities were different from each other and from the deep subsurface samples. Some fungal sequences represented potentially novel organisms as well as ones with a cosmopolitan distribution in terrestrial, fresh and salt water environments. Our results indicate that fungi are the most consistently detected eukaryotes in the marine sedimentary subsurface; further, some species may be specifically adapted to the deep subsurface and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients. PMID:21199255

  5. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis due to Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Caterina; Seminari, Elena; Pusateri, Alessandro; Mangione, Francesca; Lallitto, Fabiola; Esposto, Maria Carmela; Pagella, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of Curvularia lunata infection in an immunocompetent male with an initial diagnosis of suspected left side allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), treated surgically. He had a relapse of nasal polyposis and underwent a surgical revision under local anaesthesia with endoscopic nasal polypectomy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen showed an inflammatory polyp of the paranasal sinuses, with eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration, but without evidence of fungi. However, Curvularia spp fungus grew in cultures of nasal sinus drainage and bioptical specimens. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing as C. lunata. The patient was then treated with itraconazole (200 mg BID for 4 weeks), mometasone furoate nasal spray (100 mcg BID for 6 months) and normal saline nasal irrigations. At the last follow-up endoscopic evaluation after 19 month from treatment, the patient was symptomless and free from disease. No polyp recurrence nor seromucous discharges were noticed. This first case of C. lunata-associated AFRS reported in Italy, highlights the difficulty of this diagnosis and the usefulness of molecular identification of the fungal species involved. PMID:24858653

  6. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases. PMID:24198438

  7. Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Stephen A.; Penn, Christopher C.; Negvesky, Gerald J.; Butrus, Salim I.

    2000-01-01

    The unique structure of the human eye as well as exposure of the eye directly to the environment renders it vulnerable to a number of uncommon infectious diseases caused by fungi and parasites. Host defenses directed against these microorganisms, once anatomical barriers are breached, are often insufficient to prevent loss of vision. Therefore, the timely identification and treatment of the involved microorganisms are paramount. The anatomy of the eye and its surrounding structures is presented with an emphasis upon the association of the anatomy with specific infection of fungi and parasites. For example, filamentous fungal infections of the eye are usually due to penetrating trauma by objects contaminated by vegetable matter of the cornea or globe or, by extension, of infection from adjacent paranasal sinuses. Fungal endophthalmitis and chorioretinitis, on the other hand, are usually the result of antecedent fungemia seeding the ocular tissue. Candida spp. are the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis, although initial infection with the dimorphic fungi may lead to infection and scarring of the chorioretina. Contact lens wear is associated with keratitis caused by yeasts, filamentous fungi, and Acanthamoebae spp. Most parasitic infections of the eye, however, arise following bloodborne carriage of the microorganism to the eye or adjacent structures. PMID:11023963

  8. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  9. Cultured fungal associates from the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galkiewicz, Julia P.; Stellick, Sarah H.; Gray, Michael A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa provides important habitat to many deep-sea fishes and invertebrates. Studies of the microbial taxa associated with L. pertusa thus far have focused on bacteria, neglecting the microeukaryotic members. This is the first study to culture fungi from living L. pertusa and to investigate carbon source utilization by the fungal associates. Twenty-seven fungal isolates from seven families, including both filamentous and yeast morphotypes, were cultured from healthy L. pertusa colonies collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico, the West Florida Slope, and the western Atlantic Ocean off the Florida coast. Isolates from different sites were phylogenetically closely related, indicating these genera are widely distributed in association with L. pertusa. Biolog™ Filamentous Fungi microtiter plates were employed to determine the functional capacity of a subset of isolates to grow on varied carbon sources. While four of the isolates exhibited no growth on any provided carbon source, the rest (n=10) grew on 8.3–66.7% of carbon sources available. Carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids were the most commonly metabolized carbon sources, with overlap between the carbon sources used and amino acids found in L. pertusa mucus. This study represents the first attempt to characterize a microeukaryotic group associated with L. pertusa. However, the functional role of fungi within the coral holobiont remains unclear.

  10. Peptidotriazoles with antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Güell, Imma; Micaló, Lluís; Cano, Laura; Badosa, Esther; Ferre, Rafael; Montesinos, Emilio; Bardají, Eduard; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We designed and prepared peptidotriazoles based on the antimicrobial peptide BP100 (LysLysLeuPheLysLysIleLeuLysTyrLeu-NH(2)) by introducing a triazole ring in the peptide backbone or onto the side chain of a selected residue. These compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibition of bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, and for their cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells and tobacco leaves. Their proteolytic susceptibility was also analyzed. The antibacterial activity and the hemolysis were influenced by the amino acid that was modified with the triazole as well as by the absence of presence of a substituent in this heterocyclic ring. We identified sequences active against the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (MIC of 1.6-12.5 ?M), and against the fungi Fusarium oxysporum (MIC<6.2-12.5 ?M) with low hemolytic activity (0-23% at 50 ?M), high stability to protease digestion and no phytotoxicity. These peptidotriazoles constitute good candidates to design new antimicrobial agents. PMID:22198367

  11. Oxidative degradation of non-phenolic lignin during lipid peroxidation by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Bao, W; Fukushima, Y; Jensen, K A; Moen, M A; Hammel, K E

    1994-11-14

    A non-phenolic lignin model dimer, 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenoxypropane-1,3-diol, was oxidized by a lipid peroxidation system that consisted of a fungal manganese peroxidase, Mn(II), and unsaturated fatty acid esters. The reaction products included 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-phenoxy-3-hydroxypropane and 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-3-hydroxypropane, indicating that substrate oxidation occurred via benzylic hydrogen abstraction. The peroxidation system depolymerized both exhaustively methylated (non-phenolic) and unmethylated (phenolic) synthetic lignins efficiently. It may therefore enable white-rot fungi to accomplish the initial delignification of wood. PMID:7957943

  12. Aryl-aldehyde formation in fungal polyketides: Discovery and characterization of a distinct biosynthetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Beissner, Mirko; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aryl-aldehydes are a common feature in fungal polyketides, which are considered to be exclusively generated by the R domain of non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs). However, by cloning and heterologous expression of two cryptic NR-PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS)-like genes from Aspergillus terreus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a distinct mechanism for aryl-aldehyde formation in which a NRPS-like protein activates and reduces an aryl-acid produced by the accompanying NR-PKS to an aryl-aldehyde. Bioinformatics study indicates such a mechanism may be widely used throughout the fungi kingdom. PMID:24412543

  13. Probing the role of N -linked glycans in the stability and activity of fungal cellobiohydrolases by mutational analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Adney; Tina Jeoh; Gregg T. Beckham; Yat-Chen Chou; John O. Baker; William Michener; Roman Brunecky; Michael E. Himmel

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei and Penicillium funiculosum produce highly effective enzyme mixtures that degrade the cellulose and hemicellulose components of plant cell walls. Many\\u000a fungal species produce a glycoside hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) cellobiohydrolase, a class of enzymes that catalytically process\\u000a from the reducing end of cellulose. A direct amino acid comparison of these two enzymes shows that they

  14. Cell suspension cultures of spruce (Picea abies): inactivation of extracellular enzymes by fungal elicitor-induced transient release of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative burst)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burkhard Messner; Meinrad Boll

    1994-01-01

    Elicitation of suspension culture cells of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] with a fungal cell wall preparation of the spruce pathogenic fungus Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii Bubak induced inactivation of extracellular enzymes. Extracellular peroxidase, ß-glucosidase and acid phosphatase, secreted by the cells during growth, and also a-amylase and pectinase from Aspergillus strains, added to an elicited cell culture, were inactivated. Inactivation is

  15. Contents of phenolic acids, alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols, and avenanthramides in commercial grain products.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hellström, Jarkko

    2005-10-19

    The contents of free and total phenolic acids and alk(en)ylresorcinols were analyzed in commercial products of eight grains: oat (Avena sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), rye (Secale cerale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa), and corn (Zea mays). Avenanthramides were determined in three oat products. Free phenolic acids, alk(en)ylresorcinols, and avenanthramides were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, 100% methanol, and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified by HPLC. The contents of total phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The highest contents of total phenolic acids were in brans of wheat (4527 mg/kg) and rye (4190 mg/kg) and in whole-grain flours of these grains (1342 and 1366 mg/kg, respectively). In other products, the contents varied from 111 mg/kg (white wheat bread) to 765 mg/kg (whole-grain rye bread). Common phenolic acids found in the grain products were ferulic acid (most abundant), ferulic acid dehydrodimers, sinapic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The grain products were found to contain either none or only low amounts of free phenolic acids. The content of avenanthramides in oat flakes (26-27 mg/kg) was about double that found in oat bran (13 mg/kg). The highest contents of alk(en)ylresorcinols were observed in brans of rye (4108 mg/kg) and wheat (3225 mg/kg). In addition, whole-grain rye products (rye bread, rye flour, and whole-wheat flour) contained considerable levels of alk(en)ylresorcinols (524, 927, and 759 mg/kg, respectively). PMID:16218677

  16. Bacterial and fungal growth for monitoring the impact of wildfire combined or not with different soil stabilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Ana; Baath, Erland; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Soil stabilization techniques are rapidly gaining acceptance as efficient tool for reducing post-fire erosion. However, despite its interest, information concerning their impact on soil biota is scarce. We examined, under field conditions, the bacterial and fungal medium-term responses in a hillslope area located in Laza (NW Spain) affected by a high severity wildfire with the following treatments established by triplicate (4 x 20 m plots): unburnt control soil, burnt control soil, burnt soil with rye seeding and burnt soil with straw mulch. The bacterial and fungal growth, as well as respiration, were measured 4 years after fire and application of treatments using leucine incorporation for bacterial growth and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation for fungal growth. The results showed that soil respiration and fungal biomass were negatively affected by fire, in the top layer (0-5 cm), while bacterial and fungal growth was stimulated. These microbial changes induced by fire were associated with modifications in organic matter (50% reduction in C content) and soil pH (increase of 0.5-0.9 units). Thus, the results suggested that under acid environment (pH in water 3.5) post-fire conditions might have favoured both microbial groups, which is supported by the fact that estimated bacterial and fungal growth were positive and significant correlated with soil pH (range of 3.5-4.5). This contrast with the well-known reported investigations showing that bacteria rather than fungi proliferation occurred after prescribed fire or wildfire; it should be noticed, however, that soils with a higher pH than that in the present study were used. Our data also indicated that bacterial and fungal communities were not significantly affected by seeding and mulching treatments. The results highlighted the importance of pre-fire soil pH as key factor in determining the microbial response after fire. Acknowledgements. A. Barreiro is recipient of FPU grant from Spanish Ministry of Education. Keywords: wildfire, seeding, mulching, bacterial growth, fungal growth

  17. Fungal biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its breakdown products on the basis of fungal and bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, M; Torres, J L; Rodríguez-Pastrana, B R; Soriano-Santos, J; Díaz-Godínez, G; Díaz, R; Tlecuitl-Beristain, S; Sánchez, C

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid that give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride. Diverse studies have reported that these compounds might be carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic. Radial growth rate, biomass, hyphal thickness of Neurospora sitophyla, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger, grown in two different concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (500 and 1,000 mg/l) in agar and in submerged fermentation were studied. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the constant of biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate in Escherichia coli cultures were used to evaluate toxicity. The radial growth rate and thickness of the hypha were positively correlated with the concentration of phthalate. The pH of the cultures decreased as the fermentation proceeded. It is shown that these fungi are able to degrade DBP to non-toxic compounds and that these can be used as sole carbon and energy sources by this bacterium. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation of the DBP is directly correlated with the IC50. This is the first study that reports a method to determine the biodegradation of DBP on the basis of the IC50 and fungal growth, and the effect of this phthalate on the growth and thickness of hyphae of filamentous fungi in agar and in submerged fermentation. PMID:25063688

  18. Fungal stress biology: a preface to the Fungal Stress Responses special edition.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alder-Rangel, Alene; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Finlay, Roger D; Kupiec, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Braga, Gilberto U L; Corrochano, Luis M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-08-01

    There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, optimize bioremediation of polluted sites, and generate energy from sustainable sources such as biofuels. This review focuses on fungi that can help provide solutions to such problems. We discuss key aspects of fungal stress biology in the context of the papers published in this Special Issue of Current Genetics. This area of biology has relevance to pure and applied research on fungal (and indeed other) systems, including biological control of insect pests, roles of saprotrophic fungi in agriculture and forestry, mycotoxin contamination of the food-supply chain, optimization of microbial fermentations including those used for bioethanol production, plant pathology, the limits of life on Earth, and astrobiology. PMID:26116075

  19. Fungal symbioses in hornworts: a chequered history

    PubMed Central

    Desirò, Alessandro; Duckett, Jeffrey G.; Pressel, Silvia; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Bidartondo, Martin I.

    2013-01-01

    Hornworts are considered the sister group to vascular plants, but their fungal associations remain largely unexplored. The ancestral symbiotic condition for all plants is, nonetheless, widely assumed to be arbuscular mycorrhizal with Glomeromycota fungi. Owing to a recent report of other fungi in some non-vascular plants, here we investigate the fungi associated with diverse hornworts worldwide, using electron microscopy and molecular phylogenetics. We found that both Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina fungi can form symbioses with most hornworts, often simultaneously. This discovery indicates that ancient terrestrial plants relied on a wider and more versatile symbiotic repertoire than previously thought, and it highlights the so far unappreciated ecological and evolutionary role of Mucoromycotina fungi. PMID:23536598

  20. Molecular characterization of coprophilous fungal communities reveals sequences related to root-associated fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, José; Poudel, Ravin; Khidir, Hana H

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the use of molecular methods to characterize the coprophilous fungal communities (CFC) that inhabit the dung of four species of mammalian herbivores at two sites, Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in New Mexico and Wind Cave National Park (WCNP) in South Dakota. Results reveal that CFC from domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) at SNWR, and bison (Bison bison) and black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at WCNP were diverse but dominated primarily by members within eight taxonomic orders, including the rarely cultured and anaerobic order Neocallimastigales. In addition, 7.7% (138 of 1,788) of the sequences obtained from all dung samples were at least 97% similar to root-associated fungal (RAF) sequences previously described from blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), a common forage grass found throughout North America and growing at both study sites. In contrast, 95.8% (295 of 308) of the sequences and four of the total seven operational taxonomic units obtained from pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) dung belonged to the Pleosporalean order. We hypothesize that some herbivore vectors disperse non-systemic (non-clavicipitaceous) fungal endophytes. These dispersal events, it is argued, are most likely to occur via herbivores that occasionally forage and masticate root tissue, especially in arid regions where aboveground vegetation is sparse. The results of this study suggest that some (possibly many) members of the RAF community can expand their ecological role to include colonizing dung. PMID:20842497

  1. Einfluss von Lignin und Ferulasäure auf die Fermentation von Maiszellwänden (Influence of lignin and ferulic acid on the fermentation of maize cell walls)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ballaststoffe unterliegen im Dickdarm einer teilweisen oder vollständigen mikrobiellen Fermentation. Das Ausmaß der Fermentation beeinflusst eine Vielzahl physikochemischer und daraus resultierender physiologischer Eigenschaften der Ballaststoffe (z.B. Wasserbindungs- und Bulkvermögen, Transitzeit, ...

  2. Ferulic acid ethyl ester protects neurons against amyloid b- peptide(1-42)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: relationship to antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rukhsana Sultana; Agrippino Ravagna; Hafiz Mohmmad-Abdul; Vittorio Calabrese; D. Allan Butterfield

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by depositions of extracellular amyloid and intracellular neu- rofibrillary tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain. Amyloid b-peptide (Ab) is the major component of senile pla- ques and is considered to have a causal role in the develop- ment and progress of AD. Several lines of evidence suggest that enhanced oxidative stress

  3. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  4. Seasonality of root fungal colonization in low-alpine herbs.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, A L; Väre, H; Vestberg, M

    2002-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungal colonization of Alchemilla glomerulans, Carex vaginata, Ranunculus acris ssp. pumilus and Trollius europaeus growing in low-alpine meadows in the Finnish subarctic were studied at different times during the growing season. Fungal colonization was correlated to soil soluble phosphorus (P) concentration. The influence of flower bud removal on fungal colonization was investigated in A. glomerulans, C. vaginata and R. acris and the correlation between AM and DSE colonization was studied. The fungal colonization patterns were found to be species-specific. R. acris maintained a relatively high rate of fungal colonization throughout the summer, while the rates of colonization of T. europaeus were lower and decreased towards the end of the season. A. glomerulans had constant arbuscular and vesicular colonization throughout the summer, but hyphal and DSE colonization declined towards the end of the season. C. vaginata did not form arbuscular mycorrhiza, but was colonized by DSE fungi and hyaline septate hyphae throughout the season. The soil soluble P concentration showed some seasonal variation, but was also highly variable between the study sites. Bud removal decreased arbuscular colonization of R. acris, but no unique effects were seen in any other parameters or the other species studied. The root fungal parameters correlated with soil P in some species at some sites, but no consistent trend was found. DSE colonization was positively correlated with root vesicular and hyphal colonization in some cases. The differences in fungal colonization parameters may be related to species-specific phenologies. PMID:11968944

  5. Analysis of hydroxycinnamic acid degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum reveals a coenzyme A-dependent, beta-oxidative deacetylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionyl-CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionyl-CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)-CoA ?-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent ?-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials. PMID:24657856

  6. Analysis of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation in Agrobacterium fabrum Reveals a Coenzyme A-Dependent, Beta-Oxidative Deacetylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Campillo, Tony; Renoud, Sébastien; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Vial, Ludovic; Baude, Jessica; Gaillard, Vincent; Bellvert, Floriant; Chamignon, Cécile; Comte, Gilles; Lavire, Céline; Hommais, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The soil- and rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum (genomospecies G8 of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex) is known to have species-specific genes involved in ferulic acid degradation. Here, we characterized, by genetic and analytical means, intermediates of degradation as feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-hydroxypropionyl–CoA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionyl–CoA, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The genes atu1416, atu1417, and atu1420 have been experimentally shown to be necessary for the degradation of ferulic acid. Moreover, the genes atu1415 and atu1421 have been experimentally demonstrated to be essential for this degradation and are proposed to encode a phenylhydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-?-ketopropionic acid (HMPKP)–CoA ?-keto-thiolase, respectively. We thus demonstrated that the A. fabrum hydroxycinnamic degradation pathway is an original coenzyme A-dependent ?-oxidative deacetylation that could also transform p-coumaric and caffeic acids. Finally, we showed that this pathway enables the metabolism of toxic compounds from plants and their use for growth, likely providing the species an ecological advantage in hydroxycinnamic-rich environments, such as plant roots or decaying plant materials. PMID:24657856

  7. Aphyllin, the first isoferulic acid glycoside and other phenolics from Tamarix aphylla flowers.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, M A M; Hussein, S A M; Ayoub, N A; Hofmann, K; Linscheid, M; Harms, M; Wende, K; Lindequist, U

    2009-05-01

    The first glycosylated isoferulic acid, isoferulic acid 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, together with the new phenolics, tamarixetin 3,3'-di-sodium sulphate and dehydrodigallic acid dimetyl ester have been characterized from a flower extract of Tamarix aphylla. The structures were established on the basis of spectral data. The extract exhibited a distinct radical scavenging effect and to improve the viability of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Also, the known isoferulic acid and ferulic acid which have been determined to be the major components of the investigated extract by HPLC/ESI mass spectrometric screening have been separated, characterized and evaluated as active antioxidants and as cell activity stimulating agents as well. PMID:19530447

  8. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed. PMID:18501985

  9. Effects of leaching on fungal growth and decay of western redcedar.

    PubMed

    Chedgy, Russell J; Lim, Young Woon; Breuil, Colette

    2009-05-01

    We tested the effect of leaching on the concentration of western red cedar (WRC; Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don) heartwood extractives that are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity and correlated this with fungal growth and decay. We assessed the extractive tolerance of the following fungal species: Acanthophysium lividocaeruleum, Coniophora puteana, Heterobasidion annosum, Pachnocybe ferruginea, Phellinus sulphurascens, and Phellinus weirii by measuring their growth rate (mm/day) on media with or without WRC leachate. These data were correlated with the ability of the fungal species to grow on and decay leached versus nonleached WRC. We used an ergosterol assay to estimate growth and a standard soil-block test to assess decay. We estimated that leaching reduced the concentration of 5 major extractives: (-)-plicatic acid, beta-thujaplicin, gamma-thujaplicin, beta-thujaplicinol, and thujic acid by approximately 80%. Phellinus sulphurascens exhibited the lowest extractive-tolerance in vitro, grew poorly on and caused minimal decay in nonleached WRC, but it grew well on and decayed pine and leached WRC. Coniophora puteana, H. annosum, and P. weirii displayed moderate to high tolerance to leachate, grew on and caused decay in nonleached as well as leached WRC, but their growth and decay were always greatest on leached WRC and pine, suggesting that leaching enhances decay by these fungi. Acanthophysium lividocaeruleum and Pachnocybe ferruginea exhibited high extractive-tolerance. Whereas A. lividocaeruleum clearly caused decay on all types of wood, no decay was observed with Pachnocybe ferruginea, which grew very slowly in the different wood species, and it may or may not be able to decay wood. PMID:19483786

  10. In Silico Studies on Fungal Metabolite against Skin Cancer Protein (4,5-Diarylisoxazole HSP90 Chaperone)

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Saravanakumar; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2012-01-01

    This work was to find out the dominant secondary metabolites derived from the fungus Trichoderma and to test them against skin cancer protein. The metabolites were extracted in 80% methanol from the fungal biomass of Trichoderma isolated from mangrove sediment. The crude methanol extract was purified and analysed for the secondary metabolites by GC-MS. Three predominant compounds (heptadecanoic acid, 16 methyl-, methyl ester; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid; cis-9-octadecenoic acid) identified in the extracts were screened against the skin cancer protein (Hsp90) by in-silico docking method. Of the compounds, heptadecanoic acid, 16 methyl, methyl ester was the most potent having the docking score of ?11.4592?Kcal/mol. This value was better than the standard drug “dyclonine”. This work recommends the heptadecanoic acid, 16 methyl, methyl ester for further in vitro and in vivo studies towards its development as anticancer drug. PMID:22991673

  11. Fungal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, J R; Gabal, M A; Betts, D M

    1992-05-01

    Swab specimens for fungal isolation were collected from the healthy conjunctival sacs of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, L guanicoe, L pacos) and llama-guanaco hybrids. Fungi were collected from over half the animals in winter (53%) and summer (56%). Fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. In both seasons, Aspergillus was the most commonly isolated genus; at least 9 species of Aspergillus were found. The fungal organisms isolated were similar to those found in healthy eyes of other domestic animals and may represent a random seeding from the environment where they are ubiquitous. PMID:1524286

  12. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  13. Positive identification of a lambda gt11 clone containing a region of fungal phytase gene by immunoprobe and sequence verification.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, E J; Gibson, D M; Ullah, A H

    1991-08-01

    As the initial step in a project to provide a more cost-effective source of the phytase enzyme, this paper reports on the use of a polyclonal antibody raised to phytase purified from an isolate of Aspergillus niger (A. ficuum) to screen an A. niger lambda gt11 expression library and the use of amino acid sequencing to identify a clone containing part of the fungal phytase gene. The described use of amino acid sequence fragments to verify the cloning of a gene has potential applications in other cloning projects. PMID:1369340

  14. Molecular Structure of DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    DL-3-amino-n-butanoic acid is a non-protein amino acid, also known as ?-aminobutyric acid or BABA, which posses an antifungal activity. This amino acid can induce local and systemic resistance against downy mildew in grape leaves. BABA is believed to alter cell wall structure or metabolism in tomato plants and thus makes the tissues more resistant to fungal enzyme attacks.

  15. Biotechnological production of lactic acid integrated with fishmeal wastewater treatment by Rhizopus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ping Huang; Tao Dong; Jing Wen Chen; Ning Li

    2007-01-01

    Fishmeal wastewater, a seafood processing waste, was utilized for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus oryzae AS 3.254 with the addition of sugars. The 30 g\\/l exogenous glucose in fishmeal wastewater was superior to starch in view\\u000a of productivities of lactic acid and fungal biomass, and COD reduction. Fishmeal wastewater can be a replacement for peptone\\u000a which was

  16. Evaluation of Health Aspects of Kojic Acid in Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Burdock; Madhusudan G. Soni; Ioana G. Carabin

    2001-01-01

    Kojic acid is a fungal metabolite commonly produced by many species of Aspergillus, Acetobacter, and Penicillium. The Aspergillus flavus group has tradiationally been used in the production of a number of foods, including miso (soybean paste), shoyu (soy sauce), and sake. Kojic acid is widely used as a food additive for preventing enzymatic browning, and in cosmetic preparations as a

  17. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  18. Genetic engineering of crop plants for fungal resistance: role of antifungal genes.

    PubMed

    Ceasar, S Antony; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-06-01

    Fungal diseases damage crop plants and affect agricultural production. Transgenic plants have been produced by inserting antifungal genes to confer resistance against fungal pathogens. Genes of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes, such as chitinase and glucanase, are frequently used to produce fungal-resistant transgenic crop plants. In this review, we summarize the details of various transformation studies to develop fungal resistance in crop plants. PMID:22350290

  19. Probing bacterial-fungal interactions at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Stöckli, Martina; van Swaay, Dirk; Saboti?, Jerica; Kallio, Pauli T; Künzler, Markus; deMello, Andrew J; Aebi, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Interactions between fungi and prokaryotes are abundant in many ecological systems. A wide variety of biomolecules regulate such interactions and many of them have found medicinal or biotechnological applications. However, studying a fungal-bacterial system at a cellular level is technically challenging. New microfluidic devices provided a platform for microscopic studies and for long-term, time-lapse experiments. Application of these novel tools revealed insights into the dynamic interactions between the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Direct contact was mediated by polar attachment of bacteria to only a subset of fungal hyphae suggesting a differential competence of fungal hyphae and thus differentiation of hyphae within a mycelium. The fungicidal activity of B. subtilis was monitored at a cellular level and showed a novel mode of action on fungal hyphae. PMID:25144657

  20. Role and Relevance of Mast Cells in Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, R.; Metz, M.; Maurer, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their detrimental role in allergic diseases, mast cells (MCs) are well known to be important cells of the innate immune system. In the last decade, they have been shown to contribute significantly to optimal host defense against numerous pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. The contribution of MCs to the immune responses in fungal infections, however, is largely unknown. In this review, we first discuss key features of mast cell responses to pathogens in general and then summarize the current knowledge on the function of MCs in the defense against fungal pathogens. We especially focus on the potential and proven mechanisms by which MCs can detect fungal infections and on possible MC effector mechanisms in protecting from fungal infections. PMID:22707950

  1. FUNGAL ECOLOGY Testate Amoebae (Arcellinida and Euglyphida) vs. Ericoid

    E-print Network

    Janouskova, Martina

    FUNGAL ECOLOGY Testate Amoebae (Arcellinida and Euglyphida) vs. Ericoid Mycorrhizal and DSE Fungi) in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal plants indicates existence of yet undocumented ecological interactions, involving three distinct groups of organisms: soil protists, mycorrhizal fungi, and their host plants

  2. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Examinations in the Administration...preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence of fungal...

  3. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Jim E.; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the elucidation of the mechanisms of protective immunity against fungal diseases, have renewed interest in the development of vaccines against the mycoses. Most research has used murine models of human disease and, as we review in this article, the knowledge gained from these studies has advanced to the point where the development of vaccines targeting human fungal pathogens is now a realistic and achievable goal. PMID:17160002

  4. Invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Shmuel; Marr, Kieren A

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Overall, the most common fungal infection in SOT is candidiasis, followed by aspergillosis and cryptococcosis, except in lung transplant recipients, where aspergillosis is most common. Development of invasive disease hinges on the interplay between host factors (e.g., integrity of anatomical barriers, innate and acquired immunity) and fungal factors (e.g., exposure, virulence and resistance to prophylaxis). In this article, we describe the epidemiology and clinical features of the most common fungal infections in organ transplantation. Within this context, we review recent advances in diagnostic modalities and antifungal chemotherapy, and their impact on evolving prophylaxis and treatment paradigms. PMID:22568718

  5. Fungal model systems and the elucidation of pathogenicity determinants

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Almeida Nogueira, Maria Filomena; Baldin, Clara; Castanheira, Sónia; El Ghalid, Mennat; Grund, Elisabeth; Lengeler, Klaus; Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Mehrotra, Pankaj Vinod; Moretti, Marino; Naik, Vikram; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Oskarsson, Therese; Schäfer, Katja; Wasserstrom, Lisa; Brakhage, Axel A.; Gow, Neil A.R.; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Perez-Martin, José; Di Pietro, Antonio; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Toquin, Valerie; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Fungi have the capacity to cause devastating diseases of both plants and animals, causing significant harvest losses that threaten food security and human mycoses with high mortality rates. As a consequence, there is a critical need to promote development of new antifungal drugs, which requires a comprehensive molecular knowledge of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge of seven fungal organisms used as major research models for fungal pathogenesis. These include pathogens of both animals and plants; Ashbya gossypii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Ustilago maydis and Zymoseptoria tritici. We present key insights into the virulence mechanisms deployed by each species and a comparative overview of key insights obtained from genomic analysis. We then consider current trends and future challenges associated with the study of fungal pathogenicity. PMID:25011008

  6. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Number of reported cases Number of US valley fever cases, 1995-2011 An estimated 150,000 more ... Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia ...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in fungal infections of the brain.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Enrique; Rojas, Rafael; Rodulfa, Jason; González-Toledo, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    An invasive fungal infection is a rare disease that can occur in otherwise healthy individuals. Fungi themselves are universal, and they are overall harmless organisms that cause at most a self-limiting disease in the general population. Immunocompromised individuals, whether iatrogenically, genetically, or acquired, present a group who are especially susceptible to a life-threatening disease from a normally innocuous pathogen. Fungi are normally inhaled and are cleared by pulmonary defense mechanisms in immunocompetent hosts. Invasion begins when these mechanisms fail in depressed immunity. Through bypassing of the pulmonary immune system, fungi can spread hematogenously. Fungal infections of the central nervous system are the most common extrapulmonary manifestation after fungal inhalation. Other risk factors of fungemia include prolonged indwelling catheters, maxillofacial infections, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, systemic antibiotics, implanted neurosurgical devices, and intravenous drug abuse. Thus, other than direct inoculation via surgical complications or open trauma, central nervous system fungal infections are almost never primary. PMID:24887690

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis

    E-print Network

    Holder, Jason W.

    Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, ...

  9. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

  10. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of fungal biomass in soil.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, M L; Cabello, M N; Pollero, R; Aon, M A

    2001-05-01

    The fatty acid methyl esters of lipids extracted from an agricultural soil in the preharvest period of soybean or middle growth cycle from wheat were characterized and quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. The fatty acids 18:2omega6 and 16:1omega5 were used as markers of saprotrophic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In parallel, biomass estimation through plate counts in selective media for cellulolytic and saprotrophic fungi was also performed all throughout a soybean crop or middle growth cycle of wheat. As an enzymatic method, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity of the samples was determined. Owing to the high relationship exhibited by FDA hydrolysis with organic carbon and total nitrogen content of soil, the enzymatic activity was correlated with the microbial biomass estimated through marker lipids or plate counts. The results obtained point out that FDA hydrolysis may be used as a rapid, cheap, and reliable estimator of fungal biomass. PMID:11400054

  11. Cytotoxic activity of fungal strains isolated from the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Tasso G C; Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Jimenez, Paula C; Angelim, Alysson L; Melo, Vânia M M; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2012-10-01

    The cytotoxic activity at 50 ?g/ml of extracts obtained from eleven fungal strains associated to Eudistoma vannamei, an endemic ascidian from Northeast Brazil, against two cell lines, i.e., the HCT-8 (colon cancer) and the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) cell lines, was investigated. The most promising extract (EV10) was obtained from a fungus identified as Aspergillus sp. by molecular analysis and was selected for bioassay-guided isolation of its active principals. Large-scale fermentation of EV10 in potato-dextrose broth followed by chromatographic purification of the active extract from the liquid medium allowed the isolation of the isocoumarins mellein, cis-4-hydroxymellein, and trans-4-hydroxymellein, besides penicillic acid. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines MDA-MB-435 and HCT-8 and revealed penicillic acid as the only cytotoxic compound (cell growth inhibitions >95%). PMID:23081920

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Cullings, K; Makhija, S

    2001-12-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil. PMID:11722904

  14. Fungal Orbital Infection Mimicking Malignancy in a Girl.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Sharahjin, Naser Sefidrokh; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infection of the orbit is rare especially among immunocompetent patients. We present a 9-year-old girl with peri-orbital, eyelid and internal canthus swelling of the left eye. Clinical impression was suggestive of malignant tumor such as rhabdomyosarcoma or lymphoma. Histopathological examination of biopsied tissue revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation confirmed as fungal infection. Complete response to antifungal therapy was noted after four months. PMID:26064804

  15. Untangling the fungal niche: the trait-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Thomas W.; Maynard, Daniel S.; Crowther, Terence R.; Peccia, Jordan; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy toward functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology. PMID:25400630

  16. A U.S. epidemiologic survey of superficial fungal diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggi E Kemna; Boni E Elewski

    1996-01-01

    Background: Large-scale studies performed outside the United States have demonstrated that most cases of onychomycosis and tinea pedis are caused by dermatophytes, primarily Trichophyton rubrum. However, other studies have suggested that yeasts and nondermatophytic molds may play a role, particularly in onychomycosis.Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology of superficial fungal infections in a U.S. population.Methods: Fungal cultures

  17. Fungal Orbital Infection Mimicking Malignancy in a Girl

    PubMed Central

    Sharahjin, Naser Sefidrokh; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infection of the orbit is rare especially among immunocompetent patients. We present a 9-year–old girl with peri-orbital, eyelid and internal canthus swelling of the left eye. Clinical impression was suggestive of malignant tumor such as rhabdomyosarcoma or lymphoma. Histopathological examination of biopsied tissue revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation confirmed as fungal infection. Complete response to antifungal therapy was noted after four months.

  18. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Quilliam; David L. Jones

    2010-01-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations\\u000a are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound\\u000a impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the

  19. Determinination of soil fungal biomass from soil ergosterol analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J Montgomery; C. M Monreal; J. C Young; K. A Seifert

    2000-01-01

    Determination of fungal biomass (FB) and FB-carbon (FB-C) from soil ergosterol concentration is difficult because of unknown ergosterol-to-fungal biomass (E-to-FB) conversion factors and inefficient ergosterol extraction methods. We applied a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure to measure ergosterol in soil samples. The E-to-FB conversion factors were determined in six species of fungi grown in vitro.

  20. Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Richard J. Jurevic; Pranab K. Mukherjee; Fan Cui; Masoumeh Sikaroodi; Ammar Naqvi; Patrick M. Gillevet

    2010-01-01

    The oral microbiome–organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome–are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. Our