Sample records for fungal ferulic acid

  1. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in alfalfa modifies cell wall digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in North America owing to its high biomass production, perennial nature and ability to fix nitrogen. Feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) hydrolyzes ester linkages in plant cell walls and has the potential to further improve alfalfa as biomass for biofuel production. Results In this study, faeB [GenBank:AJ309807] was synthesized at GenScript and sub-cloned into a novel pEACH vector containing different signaling peptides to target type B ferulic acid esterase (FAEB) proteins to the apoplast, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole. Four constructs harboring faeB were transiently expressed in Nicotiana leaves, with FAEB accumulating at high levels in all target sites, except chloroplast. Stable transformed lines of alfalfa were subsequently obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404). Out of 136 transgenic plants regenerated, 18 independent lines exhibited FAEB activity. Subsequent in vitro digestibility and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of FAEB-expressing lines showed that they possessed modified cell wall morphology and composition with a reduction in ester linkages and elevated lignin content. Consequently, they were more recalcitrant to digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Interestingly, delignification by alkaline peroxide treatment followed by exposure to a commercial cellulase mixture resulted in higher glucose release from transgenic lines as compared to the control line. Conclusion Modifying cell wall crosslinking has the potential to lower recalcitrance of holocellulose, but also exhibited unintended consequences on alfalfa cell wall digestibility due to elevated lignin content. The combination of efficient delignification treatment (alkaline peroxide) and transgenic esterase activity complement each other towards efficient and effective digestion of transgenic lines. PMID:24650274

  2. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ferulic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Taek Sohn; Jin Hee Oh

    2003-01-01

    Ferulic acid (3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid) is a flavoid component possessing antioxidant property. The compound is\\u000a currently under development as a new drug candidate for the treatment of the dementia. The objective of this preformulation\\u000a study was to determine the physicochemical properties of ferulic acid. Then-octanol to water partition coefficients of ferulic acid were 0.375 and 0.489 at the pHs

  3. Release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Faulds; G. Williamson

    1995-01-01

    Ferulic acid was efficiently released from a wheat bran preparation by a ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) when incubated together with a Trichoderma viride xylanase (a maximum of 95% total ferulic acid released after 5 h incubation). FAE-III by itself could release ferulic acid but at a level almost 24-fold lower than that obtained in the presence of

  4. Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...

  5. Phenyl propenoic side chain degradation of ferulic acid by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus - elucidation of metabolic pathways using [5-2H]-ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Krings, U; Pilawa, S; Theobald, C; Berger, R G

    2001-02-23

    The white-rot fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus (DMS-1184) was submerged cultured for 22 days under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. After 6, 9, and 15 days of culture the growth medium was supplemented with [5-2H]-labelled ferulic acid (I). The major phenolic compounds identified labelled were four lignans, the methyl esters of ferulic (I) and vanillic acid (VIII), (E)-coniferyl aldehyde (II), (E)-coniferyl alcohol (III), vanillic acid (VIII), vanillin (IX) and vanillyl alcohol (X). The detection of considerable amounts of labelled 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (VII) in the late growth phase suggested the increasing formation and decarboxylation of free 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoylacetic acid (VI) and, thus, a beta-oxidation-like degradation of ferulic acid (I) or its methyl ester to vanillic acid (VIII). 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoylacetic acid methyl ester (VI) and 3-hydroxy-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propanoic acid methyl ester (V) were synthesised and then identified as metabolites in the culture medium. The fungal degradation of the phenyl propenoic side chain of ferulic acid (I), a principal key step of lignin decomposition, appeared to proceed analogous to fatty acids. PMID:11173097

  6. Metabolism of Ferulic Acid by Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotia palmarum.

    PubMed

    Rahouti, M; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Eriksson, K E

    1989-09-01

    Ferulic acid metabolism was studied in cultures of two micromycetes producing different amounts of phenol oxidases. In cultures of the low phenol oxidase producer Paecilomyces variotii, ferulic acid was decarboxylated to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was converted to vanillin and then either oxidized to vanillic acid or reduced to vanillyl alcohol. Vanillic acid underwent simultaneously an oxidative decarboxylation to methoxyhydroquinone and a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. Methoxyhydroquinone and guaiacol were demethylated to yield hydroxyquinol and catechol, respectively. Catechol was hydroxylated to pyrogallol. Degradation of ferulic acid by Paecilomyces variotii proceeded mainly via methoxyhydroquinone. The high phenol oxidase producer Pestalotia palmarum catabolized ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, and methoxyhydroquinone. However, the main reactions observed with this fungus involved polymerization reactions. PMID:16348018

  7. Metabolism of Ferulic Acid by Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotia palmarum

    PubMed Central

    Rahouti, Mohammed; Seigle-Murandi, Françoise; Steiman, Régine; Eriksson, Karl-Erik

    1989-01-01

    Ferulic acid metabolism was studied in cultures of two micromycetes producing different amounts of phenol oxidases. In cultures of the low phenol oxidase producer Paecilomyces variotii, ferulic acid was decarboxylated to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was converted to vanillin and then either oxidized to vanillic acid or reduced to vanillyl alcohol. Vanillic acid underwent simultaneously an oxidative decarboxylation to methoxyhydroquinone and a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. Methoxyhydroquinone and guaiacol were demethylated to yield hydroxyquinol and catechol, respectively. Catechol was hydroxylated to pyrogallol. Degradation of ferulic acid by Paecilomyces variotii proceeded mainly via methoxyhydroquinone. The high phenol oxidase producer Pestalotia palmarum catabolized ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, and methoxyhydroquinone. However, the main reactions observed with this fungus involved polymerization reactions. Images PMID:16348018

  8. Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Sugiura, Kenji; Negishi, Yukiko

    2009-11-11

    (14)C-Labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. In mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)C-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into glucovanillin within 24 h. In the incorporation processes of methionine and phenylalanine into glucovanillin, some of the (14)C labels were also trapped by the unlabeled ferulic acid. However, (14)C-labeled 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were not converted to glucovanillin. On the other hand, in immature green vanilla pods radioactivities of the above six compounds were not incorporated into glucovanillin. Although 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were converted to the respective glucose esters or glucosides and vanillin was converted to glucovanillin, their conversions were believed to be from the detoxication of the aglycones. These results suggest that the biosynthetic pathway for vanillin is 4-coumaric acid --> --> ferulic acid --> --> vanillin --> glucovanillin in mature vanilla pods. PMID:19817415

  9. Ferulic acid is esterified to glucuronoarabinoxylans in pineapple cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwen G Smith; Philip J Harris

    2001-01-01

    The ester-linkage of ferulic acid (mainly E) to polysaccharides in primary cell walls of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) (Bromeliaceae) was investigated by treating a cell-wall preparation with ‘Driselase’ which contains a mixture of endo- and exo-glycanases, but no hydroxycinnamoyl esterase activity. The most abundant feruloyl oligosaccharide released was O-[5-O-(E-feruloyl)-?-l-arabinofuranosyl](1?3)-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-d-xylopyranose (FAXX). This indicated that the ferulic acid is ester-linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans

  10. Metabolism of ferulic and syringic acids by micromycetes.

    PubMed

    Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Rahouti, M; Benoit-Guyod, J L; Eriksson, K E

    1990-07-01

    The ability of 814 strains of Micromycetes to grow on ferulic and syringic acids was investigated. After cultivation on solid media, 106 and 108 strains were selected and cultivated in liquid synthetic medium. Chromatographic analysis allowed classification of fungi into different groups according to the consumption of phenolic compounds and the appearance of new metabolites. Finally, Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotia palmarum were chosen and cultivated in the presence of ferulic acid in two different culture media. These two Fungi Imperfecti were able to consume the phenolic compound rapidly and completely. PMID:2273981

  11. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

  12. Ferulic acid dehydrodimers as structural elements in cereal dietary fibre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Renger; H. Steinhart

    2000-01-01

    Investigations on insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) of wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize, rice and millet led to the identification\\u000a of several new dehydrodimers of ferulic acid (DFA). These compounds arise from 8–8?, 8–5?, 8–O–4? and 5–5? coupling. Esterified\\u000a phenolics were set free by mild alkali hydrolysis, total amounts of phenolics (ester- plus etherified) were determined by\\u000a alkali hydrolysis under pressure.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of the Ferulic Acid Catabolic Genes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Masai; Kyo Harada; Xue Peng; Hirotaka Kitayama; Yoshihiro Katayama; Masao Fukuda

    2002-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades ferulic acid to vanillin, and it is further metabolized through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. We obtained a Tn5 mutant of SYK-6, FA2, which was able to grow on vanillic acid but not on ferulic acid. A cosmid which complemented the growth deficiency of FA2 on ferulic acid was isolated. The 5.2-kb BamHI-EcoRI fragment in this cosmid

  14. A two-step bioconversion process for vanillin production from ferulic acid combining Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Lesage-Meessen; Michel Delattre; Mireille Haon; Jean-François Thibault; Benoit Colonna Ceccaldi; Pascal Brunerie; Marcel Asther

    1996-01-01

    A two-step bioconversion process of ferulic acid to vanillin was elaborated combining two filamentous fungi, Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. In the first step, A. niger transformed ferulic acid to vanillic acid and in the second step vanillic acid was reduced to vanillin by P. cinnabarinus. Ferulic acid metabolism by A. niger occurred essentially via the propenoic chain degradation to

  15. Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...

  16. Bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillic acid by Halomonas elongata isolated from table-olive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Sayadi, Sami; Ben Ali Gam, Zouhaier; Casalot, Laurence; Labat, Marc

    2006-09-01

    Halomonas elongata strain Mar (=CCUG 52759) isolated from table-olive fermentation is the first halophilic bacterium to be shown to transform ferulic acid to vanillic acid under hypersaline conditions. During growth on ferulic acid, this strain was capable of promoting the formation of a significant amount of vanillic acid and trace quantities of vanillin. The products were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Based on the different metabolites identified, an oxidative side chain degradation pathway of ferulic acid bioconversion to vanillic acid was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that this isolated strain Mar was identified as H. elongata. To increase the formation of vanillic acid, a resting cell method using H. elongata strain Mar was performed. The optimal yield of vanillic acid (86%) was obtained after a 6 h reaction using 5 mM of ferulic acid and 4 g of dry weight of cells L(-1) pregrown on ferulic acid and harvested at the end of the exponential phase. PMID:16907747

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus pumilus gene for ferulic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Zago, A; Degrassi, G; Bruschi, C V

    1995-01-01

    The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding a ferulic acid decarboxylase (fdc) was identified and isolated by its ability to promote ferulic acid decarboxylation in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The DNA sequence of the fdc gene was determined, and the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli was purified and characterized. PMID:8534115

  18. Phenyl propenoic side chain degradation of ferulic acid by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus — elucidation of metabolic pathways using [5- 2H]-ferulic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Krings; S. Pilawa; C. Theobald; R. G. Berger

    2001-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus (DMS-1184) was submerged cultured for 22 days under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. After 6, 9, and 15 days of culture the growth medium was supplemented with [5-2H]-labelled ferulic acid (I). The major phenolic compounds identified labelled were four lignans, the methyl esters of ferulic (I) and vanillic acid (VIII), (E)-coniferyl aldehyde (II), (E)-coniferyl alcohol

  19. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Hirohata, Mie [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Yamada, Masahito [Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan)]. E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  20. Ferulic acid attenuates the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin expression.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Gim, Sang-Ah; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2014-04-30

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical compound found in various plants, has a neuroprotective effect through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions. Peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin play a potent neuroprotective function against oxidative stress. We investigated whether ferulic acid regulates peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 210-230g) were treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100mg/kg) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. Decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels were elucidated in MCAO-operated animals using a proteomics approach. We found that ferulic acid treatment prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in the expression of peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels. Moreover, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the interaction between thioredoxin and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) decreased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in this interaction. Our findings suggest that ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role by attenuating injury-induced decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in neuronal cell injury. PMID:24582902

  1. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  2. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  3. Synergistic inhibitory effects of p -coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Rasmussen; Frank A. Einhellig

    1977-01-01

    The data support the hypothesis that there is a synergistic phytotoxic effect whenp-coumaric and ferulic acids are found together. Equimolar mixtures of both acids showed greater reduction in sorghum seed germination, shoot elongation, and total seedling growth than either phytotoxin caused when alone. Repeated experiments showed mixtures containing 5×10-3 Mp-coumaric and 5×10-3 M ferulic acids reduced germination to 34% of

  4. Potential of Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Plaggenborg; Jörg Overhage; Andrea Loos; John A. C. Archer; Philip Lessard; Anthony J. Sinskey; Alexander Steinbüchel; Horst Priefert

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol was investigated. Genome sequence data of Rhodococcus sp. I24 suggested a coenzyme A-dependent, non-?-oxidative pathway for ferulic acid bioconversion, which involves feruloyl–CoA synthetase (Fcs), enoyl–CoA hydratase\\/aldolase (Ech), and vanillin dehydrogenase (Vdh). This pathway was proven for Rhodococcus opacus PD630 by physiological characterization of knockout mutants.

  5. Preparation, characterization and antioxidant property of water-soluble ferulic acid grafted chitosan.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The objective of the present work was to improve the antioxidant activity and water solubility of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid through a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, (1)H NMR and ninhydrin assay confirmed the grafting of ferulic acid onto chitosan at the C-2 position. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan - prepared using a mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1, reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 3h - possessed the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. Although ferulic acid grafted chitosan showed reduced crystallinity (?10%) and decreased decomposition temperature (?55°C) as compared to chitosan, it exhibited greater radical scavenging activity (?55%) and was soluble in water (up to 1.3mg/mL). The improved antioxidant property and water solubility of this chitosan derivative could open a wide range of applications, particularly its use as an antioxidant in food, food packaging, biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:23768592

  6. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  7. [Determination of free ferulic acid and total ferulic acid in Chuanxiong by high-performance liquid chromatography for quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Lv, Guanghua; Cheng, Shiqiong; Chan, Kelvin; Leung, Kelvin Sy; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is one of the main bioactive compounds in Chuanxiong (CX), the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong, but its amount in this herb is difficult to determine accurately. An accurate quantificational method was developed to investigate on the available amount of FA (free FA and total FA). Herbal samples were extracted in methanol-formic acid (95:5) and methanol-0.24 mol x L(-1) sodium hydrogen carbonate in water (95:5), respectively and then quantitatively analyzed by HPLC method. Thirty three CX samples were quantified on free and total FA. Total FA was found more abundant than free FA with an average ratio of 2.38 (n = 32) in the range of 1.03- 4.98 in 32 CX herbs, and a highest ratio of 19.6 was estimated in a rhizome seedling. Results showed that total FA content would be a better marker for the quality assessment of CX herbs. Fifteen CX typical samples were collected from the trueborn cultivating areas in Sichuan province of China. The amount of total FA in these herbs was estimated to be 1.42 mg x g(-1) (n = 15). The proposed limit of total FA in CX samples should not less than 1.25 mg x g(-1) calculated on the dried basis. It was also found that the level of total FA was related to the quality, processing method and store duration of CX samples. PMID:20394293

  8. Ferulic acid prevents liver injury and increases the anti-tumor effect of diosbulbin B in vivo *

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ming; Sheng, Yu-chen; Ji, Li-li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2014-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the protection by ferulic acid against the hepatotoxicity induced by diosbulbin B and its possible mechanism, and further observe whether ferulic acid augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. The results show that ferulic acid decreases diosbulbin B-increased serum alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST) levels. Ferulic acid also decreases lipid peroxide (LPO) levels which are elevated in diosbulbin B-treated mice. Histological evaluation of the liver demonstrates hydropic degeneration in diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses this injury. Moreover, the activities of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) are decreased in the livers of diosbulbin B-treated mice, while ferulic acid reverses these decreases. Further results demonstrate that the mRNA expressions of CuZn-SOD and CAT in diosbulbin B-treated mouse liver are significantly decreased, while ferulic acid prevents this decrease. In addition, ferulic acid also augments diosbulbin B-induced tumor growth inhibition compared with diosbulbin B alone. Taken together, the present study shows that ferulic acid prevents diosbulbin B-induced liver injury via ameliorating diosbulbin B-induced liver oxidative stress injury and augments diosbulbin B-induced anti-tumor activity. PMID:24903991

  9. Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of Ferulic Acid Catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199

    PubMed Central

    Overhage, Jörg; Priefert, Horst; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The gene loci fcs, encoding feruloyl coenzyme A (feruloyl-CoA) synthetase, ech, encoding enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, and aat, encoding ?-ketothiolase, which are involved in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM7063), were localized on a DNA region covered by two EcoRI fragments (E230 and E94), which were recently cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The nucleotide sequences of parts of fragments E230 and E94 were determined, revealing the arrangement of the aforementioned genes. To confirm the function of the structural genes fcs and ech, they were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains harboring both genes were able to transform ferulic acid to vanillin. The feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase activities of the fcs and ech gene products, respectively, were confirmed by photometric assays and by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. To prove the essential involvement of the fcs, ech, and aat genes in the catabolism of ferulic acid and eugenol in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, these genes were inactivated separately by the insertion of omega elements. The corresponding mutants Pseudomonas sp. strain HRfcs?Gm and Pseudomonas sp. strain HRech?Km were not able to grow on ferulic acid or on eugenol, whereas the mutant Pseudomonas sp. strain HRaat?Km exhibited a ferulic acid- and eugenol-positive phenotype like the wild type. In conclusion, the degradation pathway of eugenol via ferulic acid and the necessity of the activation of ferulic acid to the corresponding CoA ester was confirmed. The aat gene product was shown not to be involved in this catabolism, thus excluding a ?-oxidation analogous degradation pathway for ferulic acid. Moreover, the function of the ech gene product as an enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase suggests that ferulic acid degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 proceeds via a similar pathway to that recently described for Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103. PMID:10543794

  10. Chemical and thermal stability of ferulic acid (feruloyl) esterases from Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Faulds; F. O. Aliwan; R. P. de Vries; R. W. Pickersgill; J. Visser; G. Williamson

    1998-01-01

    Ferulic acid (feruloyl) esterases are a novel subclass of the carboxylic acid esterases, and are able to hydrolyze esterified phenolic acids from plant cell walls. The active sites of feruloyl esterases show high homology with the serine active sites of lipases, and a model of a feruloyl esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger was derived based on the structure of four

  11. Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere. PMID:8395165

  12. Proposed Model for the Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid in the Presence of the Inhibitor Ferulic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Gelinas, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Linear increments in ferulic acid concentration produce logarithmic increases in the ferulic acid-induced lag periods prior to the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid in a system containing 2,4-dichlorophenol and MnCl2 in acetate buffer at pH 5.6. Maintaining the ratio of indole-3-acetic acid to ferulic acid constant at 100 while linearly raising the ferulic acid concentration results in linear increases in the lag period. Both indole-3-acetic acid and ferulic acid are substrates of horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2, and indole-3-acetic acid competitively inhibits the oxidation of ferulic acid. A model for the enzymatic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid catalyzed by peroxidase is proposed. PMID:16658447

  13. Ferulic acid in combination with PARP inhibitor sensitizes breast cancer cells as chemotherapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Eun; Park, Eunmi

    2015-03-13

    Homologous-recombination (HR)-dependent repair defective cells are hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Combinations of defective HR pathway and PARP inhibitors have been an effective chemotherapeutic modality. We previously showed that knockdown of the WD40-repeat containing protein, Uaf1, causes an HR repair defect in mouse embryo fibroblast cells and therefore, increases sensitivity to PARP inhibitor, ABT-888. Similarly, here, we show that ferulic acid reduces HR repair, inhibits RAD 51 foci formation, and accumulates ?-H2AX in breast cancer cells. Moreover, ferulic acid, when combined with ABT-888, renders breast cancer cells become hypersensitive to ABT-888. Our study indicates that ferulic acid in combination with ABT-888 treatment may serve as an effective combination chemotherapeutic agent as a natural bioactive compound. PMID:25677620

  14. Effect of mannan oligosaccharide elicitor and ferulic acid on enhancement of laccases production in liquid cultures of basidiomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Vanhulle; Romeo Radman; Roberto Parra; Tingting Cui; Christian-Marie Bols; Thierry Tron; Giovanni Sannia; Tajalli Keshavarz

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mannan oligosaccharides preparation (MO), as elicitor, and ferulic acid inducer for enhancement in laccases production in liquid cultures of three strains of basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Coriolopsis polyzona and Pleurotus ostreatus was studied using a full factorial 32 experimental design. MO, either individually or combined with ferulic acid, enhanced laccases levels in the three different strains of the

  15. A COMPLETE ENZYMATIC RECOVERY OF FERULIC ACID FROM CORN RESIDUES WITH EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES FROM NEOSARTORYA SPINOSA NRRL 185

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material...

  16. Guaiacol production from ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Witthuhn, R Corli; van der Merwe, Enette; Venter, Pierre; Cameron, Michelle

    2012-06-15

    Alicyclobacilli are thermophilic, acidophilic bacteria (TAB) that spoil fruit juice products by producing guaiacol. It is currently believed that guaiacol is formed by Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices as a product of ferulic acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify the precursors that can be metabolised by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris to produce guaiacol and to evaluate the pathway of guaiacol production. A. acidoterrestris FB2 was incubated at 45°C for 7days in Bacillus acidoterrestris (BAT) broth supplemented with ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid, respectively. The samples were analysed every day to determine the cell concentration, the supplement concentration using high performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and the guaiacol concentration, using both the peroxidase enzyme colourimetric assay (PECA) and HPLC-DAD. The cell concentration of A. acidoterrestris FB2 during the 7days in all samples were above the critical cell concentration of 10(5)cfu/mL reportedly required for guaiacol production. The guaiacol produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 increased with an increase in vanillin or vanillic acid concentration and a metabolic pathway of A. acidoterrestris FB2 directly from vanillin to guaiacol was established. The high concentration of vanillic acid (1000mg/L) resulted in an initial inhibitory effect on the cells, but the cell concentration increased after day 2. Guaiacol production did not occur in the absence of either a precursor or A. acidoterrestris FB2 and guaiacol was not produced by A. acidoterrestris FB2 in the samples supplemented with ferulic acid. The presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. that has the ability to produce guaiacol, as well as the substrates vanillin or vanillic acid is prerequisite for production of guaiacol. PMID:22613201

  17. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  18. Active food packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymers: study of the release kinetics of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Sendón, Raquel; Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Moreno-Bondi, M Cruz; Angulo, Immaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2014-11-19

    A novel active packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for the controlled release of ferulic acid. The release kinetics of ferulic acid from the active system to food simulants (10, 20, and 50% ethanol (v/v), 3% acetic acid (w/v), and vegetable oil), substitutes (95% ethanol (v/v) and isooctane), and real food samples at different temperatures were studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process were calculated by using a mathematical modeling based on Fick's second law. The ferulic acid release was affected by the temperature as well as the percentage of ethanol of the simulant. The fastest release occurred in 95% ethanol (v/v) at 20 °C. The diffusion coefficients (D) obtained ranged between 1.8 × 10(-11) and 4.2 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s. A very good correlation between experimental and estimated data was obtained, and consequently the model could be used to predict the release of ferulic acid into food simulants and real food samples. PMID:25369799

  19. Autotoxicity mechanism of Oryza sativa: transcriptome response in rice roots exposed to ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autotoxicity plays an important role in regulating crop yield and quality. To help characterize the autotoxicity mechanism of rice, we performed a large-scale, transcriptomic analysis of the rice root response to ferulic acid, an autotoxin from rice straw. Results Root growth rate was decreased and reactive oxygen species, calcium content and lipoxygenase activity were increased with increasing ferulic acid concentration in roots. Transcriptome analysis revealed more transcripts responsive to short ferulic-acid exposure (1- and 3-h treatments, 1,204 genes) than long exposure (24 h, 176 genes). Induced genes were involved in cell wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, and abiotic stress response. Genes associated with signaling and biosynthesis for ethylene and jasmonic acid were upregulated with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid upregulated ATP-binding cassette and amino acid/auxin permease transporters as well as genes encoding signaling components such as leucine-rich repeat VIII and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases VII protein kinases, APETALA2/ethylene response factor, WRKY, MYB and Zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem transcription factors. Conclusions The results of a transcriptome analysis suggest the molecular mechanisms of plants in response to FA, including toxicity, detoxicification and signaling machinery. FA may have a significant effect on inhibiting rice root elongation through modulating ET and JA hormone homeostasis. FA-induced gene expression of AAAP transporters may contribute to detoxicification of the autotoxin. Moreover, the WRKY and Myb TFs and LRR-VIII and SD-2b kinases might regulate downstream genes under FA stress but not general allelochemical stress. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of autotoxicity in plants. PMID:23705659

  20. Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Vuyani Mabinya; Tungamirai Mafunga; John Morgan Brand

    The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the obtained spots. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis of a number of related phenolics, some of which

  1. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  2. Synthesis and characteristics of (Hydrogenated) ferulic acid derivatives as potential antiviral agents with insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant viruses cause many serious plant diseases and are currently suppressed with the simultaneous use of virucides and insecticides. The use of such materials, however, increases the amounts of pollutants in the environment. To reduce environmental contaminants, virucides with insecticidal activity is an attractive option. Results A series of substituted ferulic acid amide derivatives 7 and the corresponding hydrogenated ferulic acid amide derivatives 13 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral and insecticidal activities. The majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited good levels of antiviral activity against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMW), with compounds 7a, 7b and 7d in particular providing higher levels of protective and curative activities against TMV at 500 ?g/mL than the control compound ribavirin. Furthermore, these compounds displayed good insecticidal activities against insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which can spread plant viruses between and within crops. Conclusions Two series of ferulic acid derivatives have been synthesized efficiently. The bioassay showed title compounds not only inhibit the plant viral infection, but also prevented the spread of plant virus by insect vectors. These findings therefore demonstrate that the ferulic acid amides represent a new template for future antiviral studies. PMID:23409923

  3. Potential of Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol.

    PubMed

    Plaggenborg, Rainer; Overhage, Jörg; Loos, Andrea; Archer, John A C; Lessard, Philip; Sinskey, Anthony J; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

    2006-10-01

    The potential of two Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol was investigated. Genome sequence data of Rhodococcus sp. I24 suggested a coenzyme A-dependent, non-beta-oxidative pathway for ferulic acid bioconversion, which involves feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Fcs), enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (Ech), and vanillin dehydrogenase (Vdh). This pathway was proven for Rhodococcus opacus PD630 by physiological characterization of knockout mutants. However, expression and functional characterization of corresponding structural genes from I24 suggested that degradation of ferulic acid in this strain proceeds via a beta-oxidative pathway. The vanillin precursor eugenol facilitated growth of I24 but not of PD630. Coniferyl aldehyde was an intermediate of eugenol degradation by I24. Since the genome sequence of I24 is devoid of eugenol hydroxylase homologous genes (ehyAB), eugenol bioconversion is most probably initiated by a new step in this bacterium. To establish eugenol bioconversion in PD630, the vanillyl alcohol oxidase gene (vaoA) from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90 was expressed in PD630 together with coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (calA) and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase (calB) genes from Pseudomonas sp. HR199. The recombinant strain converted eugenol to ferulic acid. The obtained data suggest that genetically engineered strains of I24 and PD630 are suitable candidates for vanillin production from eugenol. PMID:16421716

  4. STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF NEW FERULIC ACID-CONTAINING PHENOLIC DIMERS AND TRIMERS ISOLATED FROM MAIZE BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new phenolic dimers and trimers that contain ferulic acid moieties were isolated from the alkaline hydrolyzate of insoluble maize bran fiber and their structures were established by 1D/2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The biological role of one dimer remains unclear whereas the dimeric vanillin-fe...

  5. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  6. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  7. FT-RAMAN SPECTRA OF UNSOAKED AND NAOH-SOAKED WHEAT KERNELS, BRAN AND FERULIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) test for determining wheat color class depends on the observation that upon soaking in NaOH, red wheat turns a darker red and white wheat turns straw yellow. To understand the mechanism of this test, Raman spectra of wheat bran, wheat starch, ferulic acid, and whole kern...

  8. Development and in vitro evaluation of a transdermal hydrogel patch for ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue; Liu, Cong-min; Wu, Hui-chao; Wen, Ran; Du, Shou-ying

    2014-03-01

    Current work aimed to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of hydrogel patch for ferulic acid to treat skin damage induced by UV radiation. VISCOMATE(TM) NP700, dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate, glycerine, tartaric acid were used in combination in different ratios to design the hydrogel patch. In vitro release rate was selected as an index to optimize the formulation. The formulated hydrogel patch was evaluated by several parameters like tacking strength, cohesive strength, peeling strength, residuals after peeling and drug content determination. The in vitro penetration was determined by Franz diffusion technology with hairless mouse skin as permeability media. Different kinetics models were employed to simulate the release and penetrate patterns of ferulic acid from patches in order to investigate the drug transport mechanism. The residual drugs in the patch and skin were determined after the penetration experiment. The optimized preparation was dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate: NP700: glycerine: ferulic acid as a ratio of 0.02:0.4:1.5:1.25:0.25. The cumulative percentage of release was 60.4465±1.7679% for 24h, which results from a combination of diffusion effect and polymer erosion effect. For the barrier of stratum corneum, the cumulative penetrate rate was only 1.3156±0.3588% and the release mechanism turn out to be the effect of erosion of polymer surface. The residual drugs in the patch were 97.5949±1.4932%. The in vitro data revealed that it was easy for ferulic acid to release from the paste while difficult to permeate through the skin barrier, which resulted in most of drugs residued in the paste. Hence, further experiments will be necessary for finding the penetration enhancer in ferulic acid transdermal delivery. PMID:24577928

  9. Comparative studies of some phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, and ferulic acid) affecting hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Odbayar, Tseye-Oidov; Badamhand, Demberel; Kimura, Toshinori; Takashi, Yoko; Tsushida, Tojiro; Ide, Takashi

    2006-10-18

    The physiological activities of some phenolic compounds affecting hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice were compared. Male ICR mice were fed an experimental diet containing 1% quercetin dihydrate, rutin, or ferulic acid or a control diet free of phenolic compounds for 15 days. Quercetin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels in mice. Also, the serum triacylglycerol level was considerably lower in mice fed the quercetin-containing diet than in those fed a diet free of phenolic compounds, although the difference was not significant. Rutin and ferulic acid did not affect these parameters. Quercetin significantly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid synthesis. Rutin reduced a few of the parameters for lipogenesis, but ferulic acid did not affect any of the parameters. It was suggested that a reduction in hepatic lipogenesis is the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic effect of quercetin. PMID:17032037

  10. Simple and rapid determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.

    PubMed

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  11. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacilli Degrading Cinnamic, 4-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Peng; Norihiko Misawa; Shigeaki Harayama

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four thermophilic Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from decayed wood bark and a hot spring water sample based on their ability to degrade vanillic acid under thermophilic conditions. It was found that these bacteria were able to degrade a wide range of aromatic acids such as cinnamic, 4-coumaric, 3-phenylpropionic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, ferulic, benzoic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. The metabolic pathways for the

  13. Metabolism of trans -ferulic acid by the white-rot fungus sporotrichum pulverulentum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jugal K. Gupta; Sven G. Hamp; John A. Buswell; Karl-Erik Eriksson

    1981-01-01

    Ferulic acid metabolism was studied in wild-type Sporotrichum pulverulentum and its phenoloxidase-less mutant, Phe 3. High levels of reduced products which included coniferyl aldehyde, dihydroferulic acid and dihydroconiferyl alcohol were detected in culture filtrates. Small amounts of vanillic acid and methoxyhydroquinone were also found. In addition, products which possessed a methylated p-hydroxyl group were identified by mass spectrometry. The phenoloxidase-less

  14. Ferulic acid regulates the AKT/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Sang-A; Sung, Jin-Hee; Shah, Fawad-Ali; Kim, Myeong-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) regulates CRMP-2 function through phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK-3? is inactivated by phosphorylation by Akt. This study investigated whether ferulic acid modulates the expression of CRMP-2 and its upstream targets, Akt and GSK-3?, in focal cerebral ischemia. Male rats were treated immediately with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then cerebral cortices were collected 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO resulted in decreased levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK-3?, while ferulic acid treatment prevented the decrease in the levels of these proteins. Moreover, phospho-CRMP-2 and CRMP-2 levels increased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid attenuated these injury-induced increases. These results demonstrate that ferulic acid regulates the Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury, thereby protecting against brain injury. PMID:23825478

  15. Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on radicle growth of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Blum, U; Dalton, B R; Rawlings, J O

    1984-08-01

    An initial survey of the effects of aqueous solutions of ferulic acid and three of its microbial metabolic products at pH 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 was determined on radicle growth of 11 crop species in Petri dishes. These bioassays indicated that cucumber, ladino clover, lettuce, mung bean, and wheat were inhibited by ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, and/or vanillic acids and that the magnitude of inhibition varied with concentration (0-2 mM), phenolic acid, and pH of the initial solution. The pH values of the initial solutions changed considerably when added to the Petri dishes containing filter paper and seeds. The final pH values after 48 hr were 6.6, 6.8, and 7.1, respectively, for the initial 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 pH solutions. The amounts of the phenolic acids in the Petri dishes declined rapidly over the 48 hr of the bioassay, and the rate of phenolic acid decline was species specific. Cucumber was subsequently chosen as the bioassay species for further study. MES buffer was used to stabilize the pH of the phenolic acid solutions which ranged between 5.5 and 5.8 for all subsequent studies. Inhibition of radicle growth declined in a curvilinear manner over the 0-2 mM concentration range. At 0.125 and 0.25 mM concentrations of ferulic acid, radicle growth of cucumber was inhibited 7 and 14%, respectively. A variety of microbial metabolic products of ferulic acid was identified in the Petri dishes and tested for toxicity. Only vanillic acid was as inhibitory as ferulic acid. The remaining phenolic acids were less inhibitory to noninhibitory. When mixtures of phenolic acids were tested, individual components were antagonistic to each other in the inhibition of cucumber radicle growth. Depending on the initial total concentration of the mixture, effects ranged from 5 to 35% lower than the sum of the inhibition of each phenolic acid tested separately. Implications of these findings to germination bioassays are discussed. PMID:24318904

  16. Ferulic acid: a key component in grass lignocellulose recalcitrance to hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Matias de Oliveira, Dyoni; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Rodrigues Mota, Thatiane; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Moreira-Vilar, Flávia Carolina; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Craig Mitchell, Rowan Andrew; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo; Dantas Dos Santos, Wanderley

    2014-11-21

    In the near future, grasses must provide most of the biomass for the production of renewable fuels. However, grass cell walls are characterized by a large quantity of hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, which are thought to reduce the biomass saccharification. Ferulic acid (FA) binds to lignin, polysaccharides and structural proteins of grass cell walls cross-linking these components. A controlled reduction of FA level or of FA cross-linkages in plants of industrial interest can improve the production of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we review the biosynthesis and roles of FA in cell wall architecture and in grass biomass recalcitrance to enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:25417596

  17. Purification and characterization of ferulic acid esterase from malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15).

    PubMed

    Latha, G Madhavi; Srinivas, P; Muralikrishna, G

    2007-11-14

    Ferulic acid esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) cleaves the feruloyl groups substituted at the 5'-OH group of arabinosyl residues of arabinoxylans and is known to modulate their functional properties. In this study, ferulic acid esterase from 96 h finger millet malt was purified to apparent homogeneity by three-step purification with a recovery of 3% and a fold purification of 22. The substrate p-nitrophenylferulate (PNPF) was synthesized and used to assay this enzyme spectrophotometrically. The products liberated from ragi and wheat water-soluble polysaccharides by the action of purified ragi ferulic acid esterase were identified by ESI-MS. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were found to be 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The pH and temperature stabilities of the enzyme were found to be in the range of 5.5-9.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was found to be 4.08 kJ mol(-1). The apparent K m and V max of the purified ferulic acid esterase for PNPF were 0.053 microM and 0.085 unit mL(-1), respectively. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 16.5 kDa. Metal ions such as Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+) and oxalic and citric acids enhanced the enzyme activity. The enzyme was completely inhibited by Fe(3+). Group specific reagents such as p-chloromercuric benzoate and iodoacetamide inhibited the enzyme, indicating the possible presence of cysteine residues in the active site pocket. PMID:17944530

  18. Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of ferulic acid derivatives: effect of carbon side chain characteristic groups.

    PubMed

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2003-03-26

    Differences in the antioxidant activity of some biosynthetically related ferulic acid derivatives induced by the presence of characteristic groups (-COOH, -CHO, -CH(2)OH, -CH(3), and -COOC(2)H(5)) at the end of their carbon side chain were investigated using both experimental and computational methods. The relative order of the scavenging activity toward the DPPH radical derived from kinetic studies was isoeugenol approximately coniferyl alcohol > ferulic acid approximately coniferyl aldehyde approximately ethyl ferulate. In bulk oil autoxidation (45 degrees C) the same order of activity was obtained. In the o/w emulsion autoxidation, lipophilicity of the phenols was the determining factor because the least polar compounds bearing -CH(3) and -COOC(2)H(5) were the most effective ones. The order of activity based on the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) values, calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method, was in accordance with the experimental radical scavenging order and with the electron-donating/withdrawing properties of the characteristic groups. Other molecular descriptors could not complement the experimental findings. PMID:12643644

  19. Highly efficient biotransformation of eugenol to ferulic acid and further conversion to vanillin in recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Overhage, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

    2003-11-01

    The vaoA gene from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90, encoding vanillyl alcohol oxidase, which also catalyzes the conversion of eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, was expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue under the control of the lac promoter, together with the genes calA and calB, encoding coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, respectively. Resting cells of the corresponding recombinant strain E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) converted eugenol to ferulic acid with a molar yield of 91% within 15 h on a 50-ml scale, reaching a ferulic acid concentration of 8.6 g liter(-1). This biotransformation was scaled up to a 30-liter fermentation volume. The maximum production rate for ferulic acid at that scale was 14.4 mmol per h per liter of culture. The maximum concentration of ferulic acid obtained was 14.7 g liter(-1) after a total fermentation time of 30 h, which corresponded to a molar yield of 93.3% with respect to the added amount of eugenol. In a two-step biotransformation, E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKvaomPcalAmcalB) was used to produce ferulic acid from eugenol and, subsequently, E. coli(pSKechE/Hfcs) was used to convert ferulic acid to vanillin (J. Overhage, H. Priefert, and A. Steinbüchel, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:4837-4847, 1999). This process led to 0.3 g of vanillin liter(-1), besides 0.1 g of vanillyl alcohol and 4.6 g of ferulic acid liter(-1). The genes ehyAB, encoding eugenol hydroxylase of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, and azu, encoding the potential physiological electron acceptor of this enzyme, were shown to be unsuitable for establishing eugenol bioconversion in E. coli XL1-Blue. PMID:14602615

  20. Laccase-catalysed oxidation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in aqueous medium: a green procedure for the synthesis of new compounds.

    PubMed

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Paris, Cédric; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-02-15

    The enzymatic oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, as biocatalyst, was performed in aqueous medium using an eco-friendly procedure to synthesize new active molecules. First, the commercial laccase was ultrafiltrated allowing for the elimination of phenolic contaminants and increasing the specific activity by a factor of 2. Then, kinetic parameters of this laccase were determined for both substrates (FA, EF), indicating a higher substrate affinity for ethyl ferulate. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to the synthesis of a FA-major product, exhibiting a molecular mass of 386 g/mol and a EF-major product with a molecular mass of 442 g/mol. Structural analyses by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of dimeric derivatives. The optical properties of the oxidation products showed the increase of red and yellow colours, with FA-products compared to EF-products. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to a decrease of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to initial substrates. Consequently, this enzymatic procedure in aqueous medium could provide new compounds presenting optical, antioxidant and cytotoxic interest. PMID:24128582

  1. The Occurrence of p -coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Fossil Plant Materials and their Use as UV-proxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Blokker; Peter Boelen; Rob Broekman; Jelte Rozema

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid concentrations or ratios in (sub)fossil plant remnant as UV-B proxies relies on various aspects,\\u000a which are discussed in this paper and will be illustrated with some experimental data. A newly developed THM-micropyrolysis–gas\\u000a chromatography–mass spectrometry method was tested on various spores, pollen and other plant remains, which were analysed\\u000a for the presence of

  2. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  3. Comparative studies on the interaction of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Huang, Kelong; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Jun; Wang, Wei-zheng; Zhu, Ronghua

    2010-10-01

    The substitution of the hydrogen on aromatic and esterification of carboxyl group of the phenol compounds plays an important role in their bio-activities. In this paper, caffeic acid (CaA), chlorogenic acid (ChA) and ferulic acid (FA) were selected to investigate the binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the methoxyl group substituting for the 3-hydroxyl group of CaA decreased the affinity for BSA and the esterification of carboxyl group of CaA with quinic acid increased the affinities. The affinities of ChA and FA with BSA were more sensitive to the temperature than that of CaA with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that the Stern-Volmer plots largely deviated from linearity at high concentrations and were caused by complete quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of BSA.

  4. Biotransformation of eugenol to ferulic acid by a recombinant strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Overhage, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

    2002-09-01

    The gene loci ehyAB, calA, and calB, encoding eugenol hydroxylase, coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively, which are involved in the first steps of eugenol catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199, were amplified by PCR and combined to construct a catabolic gene cassette. This gene cassette was cloned in the newly designed broad-host-range vector pBBR1-JO2 (pBBR1-JO2ehyABcalAcalB) and transferred to Ralstonia eutropha H16. A recombinant strain of R. eutropha H16 harboring this plasmid expressed functionally active eugenol hydroxylase, coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase. Cells of R. eutropha H16(pBBR1-JO2ehyABcalAcalB) from the late-exponential growth phase were used as biocatalysts for the biotransformation of eugenol to ferulic acid. A maximum conversion rate of 2.9 mmol of eugenol per h per liter of culture was achieved with a yield of 93.8 mol% of ferulic acid from eugenol within 20 h, without further optimization. PMID:12200281

  5. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ?-hydroxy, and ?,?-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ?-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  6. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  7. Anticancer Activity of Ferulic Acid-Inorganic Nanohybrids Synthesized via Two Different Hybridization Routes, Reconstruction and Exfoliation-Reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ae-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared nanohybrids of biofunctional ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide nanomaterials through reconstruction and exfoliation-reassembly routes. From X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, both nanohybrids were determined to incorporate ferulic acid molecules in anionic form. Micrsocopic results showed that the nanohybrids had average particle size of 150?nm with plate-like morphology. As the two nanohybridization routes involved crystal disorder and random stacking of layers, the nanohybrids showed slight alteration in z-axis crystallinity and particle size. The zeta potential values of pristine and nanohybrids in deionized water were determined to be positive, while those in cell culture media shifted to negative values. According to the in vitro anticancer activity test on human cervical cancer HeLa cells, it was revealed that nanohybrids showed twice anticancer activity compared with ferulic acid itself. Therefore we could conclude that the nanohybrids of ferulic acid and layered double hydroxide had cellular delivery property of intercalated molecules on cancer cell lines. PMID:24453848

  8. Theoretical prediction of the relationship between phenol function and COX-2/AP-1 inhibition for ferulic acid-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yukio; Ito, Shigeru; Atsumi, Toshiko; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2005-01-01

    Ferulic acid-related compounds possess antioxidant activity. Dehydrodiisoeugenol and ferulic acid dimer (bis-FA), but not the parent monomers isoeugenol and ferulic acid, inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. To clarify the mechanism of their inhibitory effects on COX-2 expression, the phenolic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) of 8 ferulic acid-related compounds were calculated by both semi-empirical molecular orbital (AM1, PM3) and ab initio (3-21G* 6-31G*) and density function theory (DFT) (B3LYP) methods. COX-2 inhibition appeared in compounds with phenolic O-H BDE higher than 85.76 kcal/mol, as calculated by the density function theory (DFT) approach. The phenolic O-H BDEs of the most potent compounds, dehydrodiisoeugenol and bis-FA, were 85.99 and 85.76 kcal/mol, respectively. No causal relationship between COX-2 inhibition and IP was found. Neither dehydrodiisoeugenol nor bis-FA possessed significant scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The NSAID-like activity of dehydrodiisoeugenol and bis-FA appears to be related to their phenol function. Binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to the 12-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element (TRE) sequence in LPS-stimulated cells was inhibited by bis-FA at 1 microM and dehydrodiisoeugenol at 0.1 microM, but not by the parent monomers isoeugenol and ferulic acid. PMID:16277019

  9. Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

    2014-11-18

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid?ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25446858

  10. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ferulic acid in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Kshirsagar, Shashank B; Sahane, Rajkumari S

    2014-10-01

    In diabetic patients, there is impairment in angiogenesis, neovascularisation and failure in matrix metalloproteineases (MMPs), keratinocyte and fibroblast functions, which affects wound healing mechanism. Hence, diabetic patients are more prone to infections and ulcers, which finally result in gangrene. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, rice bran and sweet corn. In this study, wound healing activity of FA was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision wound model. FA-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster as compared with diabetic wound control group. The hydroxyproline and hexosamine content increased significantly when compared with diabetic wound control. FA effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation and elevated the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and nitric oxide levels along with the increase in the serum zinc and copper levels probably aiding the wound healing process. Hence, the results indicate that FA significantly promotes wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:23236955

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

    The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

  12. Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

  13. Cytotoxicity of Ferulic Acid on T24 Cell Line Differentiated by Different Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Wang, Hui-Er; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chou, Kuang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, 3.00 × 105?cells?mmol?1·h?1 and 2.63 × 106 cells?mmol?1·h?1, attaining a 8.77-fold. FA upregulated the activities at 72?h (2D vs. 3D in folds that of control): SOD, 1.73-folds (P < 0.05) versus 3.18 folds (P < 0.001); and catalase, 2.58 versus 1.33-folds. Comparing to the control (without FA), Bcl-2 was prominently downregulated while Bax, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were more upregulated in 3D-cultures (P < 0.05). Conclusively, different microenvironments could elicit different biological significance which in part can be ascribed to different mass transport rate. PMID:23738328

  14. A new ferulic acid ester, a new ellagic acid derivative, and other constituents from pachycentria formosana: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jui-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Sheng-Zehn; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Chou, Tsung-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2011-09-01

    A new ferulic acid ester derivative, tetracosane-1,24-diyl di[(Z)-ferulate] (1), and a new ellagic acid derivative, 3,4?:?3',4'-bis(O,O-methylene)ellagic acid (2), have been isolated from leaves and twigs of Pachycentria formosana, together with eight known compounds. Their structures were determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Among the isolated compounds, oleanolic acid (6), ursolic acid acetate (7), and 3-epibetulinic acid (9) exhibited potent inhibition (IC(50) values ? 21.8 ?M) of O?(-) generation by human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). In addition, oleanolic acid (6), 3-O-[(E)-feruloyl]ursolic acid (8), 3-epibetulinic acid (9), and lawsonic acid (10) also inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC(50) values ? 18.6 ?M. PMID:21922659

  15. A New Pro-Prodrug Aminoacid-Based for Trans-Ferulic Acid and Silybin Intestinal Release

    PubMed Central

    Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Cassano, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of a pro-prodrug able to simultaneously transport silybin, a drug possessing various pharmacological effects, and trans-ferulic acid, a known antioxidant. More specifically, l-phenylalanine-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) prop-2-en-O-(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-((2R,3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-benzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-yl)croman-4-one was synthesized by using the aminoacid l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) as carrier. Indeed, l-Phe is characterized by an intrinsic chemical reactivity due to the presence of an amino group, placed on the chiral center, and of a carboxylic group. The synthesis has been characterized first by adding silybin by means of carboxylic group and then, with the aim to confer antioxidant properties to this new carrier, by linking trans-ferulic acid to l-Phe via amino group. The so obtained derivative was then characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat liver microsomes, was evaluated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect, was also assessed. The release of silybin and trans-ferulic acid was determined in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the time. The results showed that the covalent bond between both (i) silybin; or (ii) trans-ferulic acid and the amino acid was degraded by enzymatic reactions. In addition, the pro-prodrug, showed strong antioxidant and scavenger activities. Due to these properties, this new pro-prodrug could be applied for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and it might improve the therapeutic potential of silybin which is strongly limited by its low solubility. PMID:25062426

  16. A new pro-prodrug aminoacid-based for trans-ferulic Acid and silybin intestinal release.

    PubMed

    Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Cassano, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of a pro-prodrug able to simultaneously transport silybin, a drug possessing various pharmacological effects, and trans-ferulic acid, a known antioxidant. More specifically, l-phenylalanine-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) prop-2-en-O-(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-((2R,3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-benzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-yl)croman-4-one was synthesized by using the aminoacid l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) as carrier. Indeed, l-Phe is characterized by an intrinsic chemical reactivity due to the presence of an amino group, placed on the chiral center, and of a carboxylic group. The synthesis has been characterized first by adding silybin by means of carboxylic group and then, with the aim to confer antioxidant properties to this new carrier, by linking trans-ferulic acid to l-Phe via amino group. The so obtained derivative was then characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat liver microsomes, was evaluated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect, was also assessed. The release of silybin and trans-ferulic acid was determined in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the time. The results showed that the covalent bond between both (i) silybin; or (ii) trans-ferulic acid and the amino acid was degraded by enzymatic reactions. In addition, the pro-prodrug, showed strong antioxidant and scavenger activities. Due to these properties, this new pro-prodrug could be applied for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and it might improve the therapeutic potential of silybin which is strongly limited by its low solubility. PMID:25062426

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Ferulic Acid and Phthalides of Angelica Sinensis Based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Long; Huang, Lin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The radix of Angelica sinensis (AS) is one of the most commonly used as a herbal medicine. To investigate the geoherbalism and quality evaluation of AS, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) method was established to analyze and identify ferulic acid and phthalides in AS. The results showed that among samples collected in four regions, the relative contents of ferulic acid and phthalides were highest in samples collected in Gansu, and the samples from the four different regions were apparently classified into four groups. Meanwhile, the relative content in non-fumigated root was higher than after sulfur-fumigation and the sulfur-fumigated and non-fumigated samples were obviously divided into two groups by PCA. The paper establishes a systematic and objective evaluation system to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the quality of AS. PMID:25781070

  18. Free radical mediated grafting of chitosan with caffeic and ferulic acids: structures and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two water soluble chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) onto chitosan via a free radical mediated method. The structural characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of chitosan derivatives were determined. Results showed that the UV-vis absorption peaks of chitosan derivatives shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited the typical phenolic characteristics within 1450-1600 cm(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed new peaks of phenyl protons at 6.2-7.6 ppm. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed additional peaks between 110 and 150 ppm assigned to the C=C of phenolic groups. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of CA and FA onto chitosan backbones. The chitosan derivatives had decreased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to chitosan. In vitro assays showed that the antioxidant activity decreased in the order of CA-g-chitosan>FA-g-chitosan>chitosan. Moreover, administration of the chitosan derivatives could significantly increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease malondialdehyde levels in both serums and livers of d-galactose induced aging mice. Our results indicated the potential of CA-g-chitosan and FA-g-chitosan in the development of novel antioxidant agents. PMID:24444883

  19. Ferulic acid-induced anti-depression and prokinetics similar to Chaihu–Shugan–San via polypharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-jin Zhang; Xi Huang; Yang Wang; Ying Xie; Xin-jiang Qiu; Ping Ren; Li-chen Gao; Hong-hao Zhou; Hui-yun Zhang; Ming-qi Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), one of popular antidepressants as “one-compound-one-target” paradigm, cannot but discontinue because of inhibiting gut movement. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Chaihu–Sugan–San (CSS) can simultaneously exert anti-depression and prokinetics. From this thread, we aimed to find a new antidepressant with polypharmacological mechanisms. In vivo antidepressive and prokinetic comparisons between CSS and its absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA)

  20. Protective effect of ferulic acid on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linsa Mary Alias; Shanmugam Manoharan; Lakshmanan Vellaichamy; Subramanian Balakrishnan; Cinnamanoor Rajamani Ramachandran

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate and compare the chemopreventive potential of topically applied and orally administered ferulic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin carcinogenesis. Estimating the status of phase I and phase II detoxication agents, lipid peroxidation byproducts and antioxidants during DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis assessed the mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive efficacy. Skin squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the shaved

  1. Neuroprotective Ferulic Acid (FA)-Glycol Chitosan (GC) Nanoparticles for Functional Restoration of Traumatically Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangbing; Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Park, Kinam; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-01-01

    An urgent unmet need exists for early-stage treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently methylprednisolone is the only therapeutic agent used in clinics, for which the efficacy is controversial and the side effect is well-known. We demonstrated functional restoration of injured spinal cord by self-assembled nanoparticles composed of ferulic acid modified glycol chitosan (FA-GC). Chitosan and ferulic acid are strong neuroprotective agents but their systemic delivery is difficult. Our data has shown a prolonged circulation time of the FA-GC nanoparticles allowing for effective delivery of both chitosan and ferulic acid to the injured site. Furthermore, the nanoparticles were found both in the gray matter and white matter. The in vitro tests demonstrated that nanoparticles protected primary neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Using a spinal cord contusion injury model, significant recovery in locomotor function was observed in rats that were intravenously administered nanoparticles at 2 h post injury, as compared to non-improvement by methylprednisolone administration. Histological analysis revealed that FA-GC treatment significantly preserved axons and myelin and also reduced cavity volume, astrogliosis, and inflammatory response at the lesion site. No obvious adverse effects of nanoparticles to other organs were found. The restorative effect of FA-GC presents a promising potential for treating human SCIs. PMID:24332460

  2. Neuroprotective ferulic acid (FA)-glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for functional restoration of traumatically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lee, Seung-Young; Wu, Xiangbing; Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Park, Kinam; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-02-01

    An urgent unmet need exists for early-stage treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently methylprednisolone is the only therapeutic agent used in clinics, for which the efficacy is controversial and the side effect is well-known. We demonstrated functional restoration of injured spinal cord by self-assembled nanoparticles composed of ferulic acid modified glycol chitosan (FA-GC). Chitosan and ferulic acid are strong neuroprotective agents but their systemic delivery is difficult. Our data has shown a prolonged circulation time of the FA-GC nanoparticles allowing for effective delivery of both chitosan and ferulic acid to the injured site. Furthermore, the nanoparticles were found both in the gray matter and white matter. The in vitro tests demonstrated that nanoparticles protected primary neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Using a spinal cord contusion injury model, significant recovery in locomotor function was observed in rats that were intravenously administered nanoparticles at 2 h post injury, as compared to non-improvement by methylprednisolone administration. Histological analysis revealed that FA-GC treatment significantly preserved axons and myelin and also reduced cavity volume, astrogliosis, and inflammatory response at the lesion site. No obvious adverse effects of nanoparticles to other organs were found. The restorative effect of FA-GC presents a promising potential for treating human SCIs. PMID:24332460

  3. Identification of Two Feruloyl Esterases in Dickeya dadantii 3937 and Induction of the Major Feruloyl Esterase and of Pectate Lyases by Ferulic Acid ?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Susan; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) produces a large array of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Using an in situ detection test, we showed that it produces two feruloyl esterases, FaeD and FaeT. These enzymes cleave the ester link between ferulate and the pectic or xylan chains. FaeD and FaeT belong to the carbohydrate esterase family CE10, and they are the first two feruloyl esterases to be identified in this family. Cleavage of synthetic substrates revealed strong activation of FaeD and FaeT by ferulic acid. The gene faeT appeared to be weakly expressed, and its product, FaeT, is a cytoplasmic protein. In contrast, the gene faeD is strongly induced in the presence of ferulic acid, and FaeD is an extracellular protein secreted by the Out system, responsible for pectinase secretion. The product of the adjacent gene faeR is involved in the positive control of faeD in response to ferulic acid. Moreover, ferulic acid acts in synergy with polygalacturonate to induce pectate lyases, the main virulence determinant of soft rot disease. Feruloyl esterases dissociate internal cross-links in the polysaccharide network of the plant cell wall, suppress the polysaccharide esterifications, and liberate ferulic acid, which contributes to the induction of pectate lyases. Together, these effects of feruloyl esterases could facilitate soft rot disease caused by pectinolytic bacteria. PMID:21169494

  4. Ferulic acid ameliorates nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEIMING; WANG, HONGSHENG; WANG, TIAN; JIANG, NA; YU, PENGFEI; CHONG, YATING; FU, FENGHUA

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on nerve injury induced by cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and reperfusion 90 min later in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily treatment of the rats with FA was initiated 30 min after the surgery, and was continued for 7 days. The efficacy of FA against nerve injury was assessed by neurological deficit scores as well as pathohistological observation. The expression levels in the brain and level in the peripheral blood of erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that FA attenuated nerve injury of the hippocampus, significantly ameliorated neurological deficits, and increased EPO but not G-CSF expression in the hippocampus and the peripheral blood of ischemic rats. The findings indicate that FA has certain protective effects on the nerve injury of cerebral ischemia, and suggest that promoting EPO in the brain and peripheral blood may be one of the neuroprotective mechanisms of FA. PMID:25667662

  5. Thermosensitive hydrogel made of ferulic acid-gelatin and chitosan glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Liu, Chia-Ching; Gefen, Amit; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2013-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress is involved in apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that can alter cellular phenotype and accelerate disc degeneration. Ferulic acid (FA) possesses an excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the study, we developed the thermosensitive FA-gelatin/chitosan/glycerol phosphate (FA-G/C/GP) hydrogel which was applied as a sustained release system of FA to treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress. The gelation temperature of the FA-G/C/GP hydrogel was 32.17 °C. NP cells submitted to oxidative stress promoted by H(2)O(2), and post-treated with FA-G/C/GP exhibited down-regulation of MMP-3 and up-regulation aggrecan and type II collagen in mRNA level. The sulfated-glycosaminoglycan production was increased and the apoptosis was inhibited in the post-treatment group. The results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-G/C/GP hydrogel can treat NP cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress and may apply in minimally invasive surgery for NP regeneration. PMID:23399183

  6. Role of Ferulic Acid in the Amelioration of Ionizing Radiation Induced Inflammation: A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co ?-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKK?/? and I?B? and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation. PMID:24854039

  7. Ferulic acid inhibits gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and enhances the survival of mice.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2013-02-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a monophenolic phenylpropanoid occurring in plant products such as rice bran, green tea, and coffee beans. It has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in many studies. In the present study, we show that intraperitoneal administration of FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight 1 hour prior to or immediately after whole-body ?-irradiation of mice with 4 Gy results in considerable reduction in the micronuclei formation in peripheral blood reticulocytes. Administration of the same amount of FA immediately after 4 Gy ?-irradiation showed significant decrease in the amount of DNA strand breaks in murine peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells as examined by comet assay. Further, immunostaining of mouse splenic lymphocytes for phspho-?H2AX was carried out, and it was observed that FA inhibits the ?H2AX foci formation. Finally, the survival of mice upon 6, 8, and 10 Gy ?-ray exposure was monitored. FA enhances the survival of mice by a factor of 2.5 at a dose of 6 Gy ?-radiation but not at higher doses. In conclusion, FA has protective potential in both pre- and postirradiation exposure scenarios and enhances the survival of mice possibly by decreasing DNA damage as examined by ?H2AX foci, micronuclei formation, and comet assay. PMID:23009583

  8. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10?8?M ~5.29 × 10?5?M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10?8?M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  9. Ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Ana Lúcia B; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias E; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Tasca, Carla I

    2012-03-15

    Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic compound present in several plants with claimed beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of disorders linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to verify the possible antidepressant-like effect of acute oral administration of ferulic acid in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like action and the effects of the association of ferulic acid with the antidepressants fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline in the TST were investigated. Ferulic acid produced an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST (0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o.), without accompanying changes in ambulation. The pretreatment of mice with WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist) was able to reverse the anti-immobility effect of ferulic acid (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. The combination of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), paroxetine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) or sertraline (1 mg/kg, p.o.) with a sub-effective dose of ferulic acid (0.001 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing hyperlocomotion in the open-field test. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST in mice through modulation of the serotonergic system. PMID:22266492

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. PMID:24507903

  11. Evaluation of thermo sensitivity of curcumin and quantification of ferulic acid and vanillin as degradation products by a validated HPTLC method.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charismatic therapeutic potential of curcumin in biological research have triggered an interest to explore the thermal degradation pattern of curcumin, formation of ferulic acid and vanillin as degraded metabolites at different temperatures in methanol and corn oil. The results revealed 47% w/w loss of curcumin along with formation of 17% w/w vanillin and 9% w/w ferulic acid at boiling temperature of methanol while oil samples show 38.9% w/w loss of curcumin but not confirming the formation of ferulic acid and vanillin. Findings of this study revealed that formation of vanillin in methanol starts around 50°C and its concentration goes on increasing up to 70°C and then further degraded at boiling temperature of methanol. Formation of ferulic acid begins around 60°C and initially increases with rise of temperature and then decreases approaching boiling point of methanol. Vanillin as well as ferulic acid was absent in corn oil samples though degradation of curcumin was observed by reduction in peak area of curcumin. The present study was done by applying a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The method involved glass-backed HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:1:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. PMID:25631508

  12. Coaxial electrospinning with acetic acid for preparing ferulic acid/zein composite fibers with improved drug release profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated drug/zein composite fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic acid as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic acid (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a composite with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance. PMID:23107952

  13. Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

    2014-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 %?v/v?L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation. PMID:25082768

  14. Isofunctional Enzymes PAD1 and UbiX Catalyze Formation of a Novel Cofactor Required by Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase and 4-Hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic Acid Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengming; Ferguson, Kyle L; Boyer, David R; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Marsh, E Neil G

    2015-04-17

    The decarboxylation of antimicrobial aromatic acids such as phenylacrylic acid (cinnamic acid) and ferulic acid by yeast requires two enzymes described as phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PAD1) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC). These enzymes are of interest for various biotechnological applications, such as the production of chemical feedstocks from lignin under mild conditions. However, the specific role of each protein in catalyzing the decarboxylation reaction remains unknown. To examine this, we have overexpressed and purified both PAD1 and FDC from E. coli. We demonstrate that PAD1 is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-containing protein. However, it does not function as a decarboxylase. Rather, PAD1 catalyzes the formation of a novel, diffusible cofactor required by FDC for decarboxylase activity. Coexpression of FDC and PAD1 results in the production of FDC with high levels cofactor bound. Holo-FDC catalyzes the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acid, coumaric acid and ferulic acid with apparent kcat ranging from 1.4-4.6 s(-1). The UV-visible and mass spectra of the cofactor indicate that it appears to be a novel, modified form of reduced FMN; however, its instability precluded determination of its structure. The E. coli enzymes UbiX and UbiD are related by sequence to PAD1 and FDC respectively and are involved in the decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in ubiquinone biosynthesis. We found that endogenous UbiX can also activate FDC. This implies that the same cofactor is required for decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic acid by UbiD and suggests a wider role for this cofactor in metabolism. PMID:25647642

  15. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Ferulates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAGDALENA KARAMA; RONALD B. PEGG; RYSZARD AMAROWICZ

    2005-01-01

    KARAMA? M., BUCI ?SKI A., PEGG R. B., AMAROWICZ R. (2005): Antioxidant and antiradical activity of ferulates. Czech J. Food Sci., 23: 64-68. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of ferulates (i.e., ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, coniferyl aldehyde, and methyl feru- late) were investigated using a ?-carotene-linoleate model system and a DPPH radical scavenging assay, respectively. Compounds so tested exhibited antioxidant and

  16. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ?-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ?-hydroxy, and ?,?-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ?-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  17. A comparison of skin delivery of ferulic acid and its derivatives: evaluation of their efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-10-31

    Ferulic acid (FA) can be used as an antioxidant to prevent damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin carcinogenesis. To this end, the feasibility of the skin absorption of FA and its derivatives was evaluated in the present study. The percutaneous absorption of five compounds into/across porcine skin was measured and compared using Franz diffusion cells. The skin delivery from pH 6 and 9.9 buffers was the highest for ferulic acid ethyl ether (FAEE), followed by coniferyl aldehyde (CD), coniferyl alcohol (CA), FA, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (HMA). The skin deposition and flux of FAEE with a pH 6 buffer were 136 nmol/g and 26 nmol/cm(2)/h, respectively. No significant difference in permeation profiles was observed between the two pH buffers. According to permeation via the skin with different treatments (delipidization, ethanol, and oleic acid treatments), it was determined that the lipid bilayers in the stratum corneum (SC) comprised the predominant barrier for FA permeation. On the other hand, FAEE could easily partition into and penetrate across the skin through intercellular pathways. Nude mouse was used as an in vivo animal model to examine the amount of permeants remaining in the skin. The in vivo skin deposition was generally correlated with the in vitro results. The in vivo skin deposition of FAEE (145 nmol/g) was comparable to that of CD (150 nmol/g). The safety study which examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and the skin pH value demonstrated that the topical application of FA and related compounds for up to 24h did not cause skin irritation. It can be concluded that topical delivery may serve as an efficient and safe route for FA and its derivatives against photodamage. PMID:20692328

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF A THIOACIDOLYSIS MARKER COMPOUND FOR FERULIC ACID INCORPORATION INTO ANGIOSPERM LIGNINS (AND AN INDICATOR FOR CINNAMOYL-CoA REDUCTASE DEFICIENCY)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco), has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-...

  19. Influence of ferulic acid on ?-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Srinivasan; A. Ram Sudheer; K. Raveendran Pillai; P. Raghu Kumar; P. R. Sudhakaran; V. P. Menon

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities ultimately resulting in cell death. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn, and ricebran. FA exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antiageing, anti-inflammatory, anticancer,

  20. Biodegradable ferulic acid-containing poly(anhydride-ester): degradation products with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-03-11

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to that of free FA, and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations. PMID:23327626

  1. Association of non-starch polysaccharides and ferulic acid in grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) dietary fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirko Bunzel; John Ralph; Hans Steinhart

    2005-01-01

    ), and non-starch polysaccharides was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble amaranth fiber released several feruloylated oligosaccharides that were separated using Sephadex LH-20-chromato- graphy and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Three compounds were unambiguously identified: O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1fi4)-D-galactopyra- nose, O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-a-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(1fi5)-L-arabinofuranose, and O-a-L-arabinofura- nosyl-(1fi3)-O-(2-O-trans-feruloyl-a-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(1fi5)-L-arabinofuranose. These feruloy- lated oligosaccharides show that ferulic acid is predominantly bound to pectic arabinans and galactans in amaranth insoluble

  2. Simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma by HPLC and their pharmacokinetic application in danxiongfang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Li; Xiaorong Li; Lijuan Wang; Yuhang Li; Yanxia Xu; Ming Xue

    2007-01-01

    A selective and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as internal standard. Liquid–liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on an Agilent HC-C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol–water (from

  3. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the ? position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF A THIOACIDOLYSIS MARKER COMPOUND FOR FERULIC ACID INCORPORATION INTO ANGIOSPERM LIGNINS AND A PSEUDO-MARKER COMPOUND FOR CINNAMOYL-COA REDUCTASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced during lignification when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaia...

  5. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. PMID:24167066

  6. On the Origin of the Methyl Radical Loss from Deprotonated Ferulic and Isoferulic Acids: Electronic Excitation of a Transient Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lv, Huiqing; Wu, Yanqing; Bian, Gaofeng; Jiang, Kezhi

    2013-06-01

    Formation of radical fragments from even-electron ions is an exception to the "even-electron rule". In this work, ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (IFA) were used as the model compounds to probe the fragmentation mechanisms and the isomeric effects on homolytic cleavage. Elimination of methyl radical and CO2 are the two competing reactions observed in the CID-MS of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-, of which losing methyl radical violates the "even-electron rule". The relative intensity of their product ions is significantly different, and thereby the two isomeric compounds can be differentiated by tandem MS. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the singlet-triplet gap and the excitation energy decrease in the transient structures, as the breaking C-O bond is lengthened. The methyl radical elimination has been rationalized as the intramolecular electronic excitation of a transient structure with an elongating C-O bond. The potential energy diagrams, completed by the addition of the energy barrier of the radical elimination, have provided a reasonable explanation of the different CID-MS behaviors of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-.

  7. Molecular structure, spectroscopic studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of ferulic acid by density functional study.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Sundaraganesan, N; Manoharan, S

    2009-10-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of ferulic acid (FA) (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP/BLYP) method with 6-31 G(d,p) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment (micro) and the first hyperpolarizability (beta) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the FA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of FA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for the title molecule have been constructed. PMID:19581124

  8. Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger: specificity for the phenolic moiety and binding to microcrystalline cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig B. Faulds; Gary Williamson

    1994-01-01

    An inducible ferulic acid esterase (FAE-Ill) has been isolated, purified and partially characterized from Aspergillus niger after growth on oat spelt xylan. The purification procedure utilized ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared almost pure by SDS-PAGE, with an apparent M, of 36000. A single band, corresponding to a pl of 3.3 was observed on

  9. In vitro antioxidant activities, free radical scavenging capacity, and tyrosinase inhibitory of flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chung Pin; Chang, Chia Hao; Liang, Chien Cheng; Hung, Kuei Yu; Hsieh, Chang Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g) and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g) content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis. PMID:24739930

  10. Nephroprotective effects of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide isolated from Angelica sinensis against cisplatin toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt), a chemotherapeutic drug applied against solid tumors, is highly detrimental to the kidney. The risk of acute kidney injury implies adequate patient hydration to ensure sufficient diuresis; this strategy, now implemented in clinical practice, remains however incompletely satisfactory. New pharmacological approaches relying on the discovery of bioactive compounds need to be developed. Based on previous studies reporting renoprotective activities for extracts of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels roots, three of its major active compounds, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide, were investigated for possible alleviation of CisPt-induced nephrotoxicity. Five phenomena involved in acute kidney injury and subsequent fibrosis were investigated: (i) modulation of cell survival via reduction of the apoptosis rate; (ii) reduction of oxidative stress; (iii) improvement of tubular regeneration capacities through proliferation and migration; (iv) limitation of extracellular matrix and collagen deposition; and (v) prevention of the dedifferentiation processes via the ?-catenin pathway. Ferulic acid emerged as the most potent compound for alleviating cell death and collagen deposition, and for enhancing cell regeneration capacities. It also partially inhibited the ?-catenin pathway, but was ineffective in lowering oxidative stress. Z- and E-ligustilides, however, were effective for limiting the oxidative stress, but only moderately affected other parameters. Ferulic acid appears to be a promising nephroprotective drug lead deserving further preclinical investigation. PMID:25561245

  11. Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Cong; Bao, Yong-rui; Meng, Xian-sheng; Diao, Yun-peng; Kang, Ting-guo

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud: To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation. Materials and Methods: Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential. Results: The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic). Conclusion: Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid. PMID:23930002

  12. Ferulic acid suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianjiao; Pan, Zhi; Dong, Miaoxian; Yu, Chunlei; Niu, Yingcai

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in hepatic fibrosis. Ferulic acid (FA) has antifibrotic potential in renal and cardiac disease. However, whether FA comprises inhibitive effects of HSCs activation remains to be clarified. This study aims at evaluating the hypothesis that FA inhibits extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression by the interruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or/and Smad signaling pathways in HSC-T6. Our results indicated that FA significantly inhibited both viability and activation of HSC-T6 cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that FA dramatically inhibited the expression of ?1(I) collagen (Col-I) and fibronectin at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, FA treatment inhibited Smad transcriptional activity, as evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing SMAD response element and the luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, FA inhibition of HSCs activation involved in both focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways with independent manner. Blocking transforming growth factor-? by a neutralizing antibody caused a marked reduction in both ERK1/2 and Smad signaling. These results support FA as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25449600

  13. 1,3-Diferuloyl-sn-glycerol from the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ethyl ferulate) and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Compton, David L; Laszlo, Joseph A

    2009-06-01

    1,3-Diferuloyl-sn-glycerol is found ubiquitously throughout the plant kingdom, possessing ultraviolet adsorbing and antioxidant properties. Diferuloyl glycerol was synthesized and isolated as a byproduct in up to 5% yield from a pilot plant scale packed-bed, biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil or mono- and diacylglycerols from soybean oil. The yield of the diferuloyl glycerol byproduct was directly proportional to the overall water concentration of the bioreactor. The isolated diferuloyl glycerol exhibited good ultraviolet adsorbing properties, 280-360 nm with a lambda(max) 322 nm, and compared well to the efficacy of commercial sunscreen active ingredients. The antioxidant capacity of diferuloyl glycerol (0.25-2.5 mM) was determined by its ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and was comparable to that of ferulic acid. At current pilot plant scale production capacity, 120 kg diferuloyl glycerol byproduct could be isolated per year. PMID:19238329

  14. In vivo pharmacokinetic comparisons of ferulic acid and puerarin after oral administration of monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and Nao-De-Sheng to rats

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Tang, Jianming; Pan, Lulin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nao-De-Sheng decoction (NDS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription containing Radix puerariae lobatae, Floscarthami, Radix et Rhizoma Notoginseng, Rhizoma chuanxiong and Fructus crataegi, is effective in the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis, ischemic cerebral stroke and apoplexy linger effect. Ferulic acid and puerarin are the main absorbed effective ingredients of NDS. Objective: To assess the affection of other components in medical material and compound recipe compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of ferulaic acid and puerarin, of ferulic acid from the monomer Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract and NDS were studied. And pharmacokinetics comparisons of puerarin from the monomer Radix puerariae extract and NDS decoction were investigated simultaneously. Materials and Methods: At respective different time points after oral administration of the monomer, medicinal substance aqueous extract and NDS at the same dose in rats, plasma concentrations of ferulic acid and puerarin in rats were determined by RP-HPLC, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with 3P97 software. Results: The plasma concentration-time curves of ferulaic acid and puerarin were both best fitted with a two-compartment model. AUC0?t, AUC0??, Tmax, and Cmax of ferulic acid in the monomer and NDS decoction were increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with that in Rhizoma chuanxiong aqueous extract. And statistically signi?cant increase (P < 0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin including AUC0?t, AUC0??, CL, Tmax and Cmax were obtained after oral administration of puerarin monomer compared with Radix puerariae extract. Although the changes of AUC0?t, AUC0?? and CL had no statistically significant, Cmax of puerarin in NDS was increased remarkably (P < 0.05) compared with that in single puerarin. Conclusions: Some ingredients of Rhizoma chuanxiong and Radix puerariae may be suggested to remarkably influence plasma concentrations of ferulaic acid and puerarin. Some ingredients in NDS may increase dissolution and absorption of ferulaic acid and puerarin, delay elimination, and subsequently enhance bioavailability of ferulaic acid and puerarin in rats after compatibility. PMID:24082627

  15. A ferulic acid ester of sucrose and other constituents of Bhesa paniculata.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J; Sia, G L; Sim, K Y; Tan, H T; Connolly, J D; Lavaud, C; Massiot, G

    1995-04-01

    A novel derivative of sucrose, beta-(3,6-di-O-feruloyl)-fructofuranosyl-alpha-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-ac etyl)- glucopyranoside, was isolated from the wood of Bhesa paniculata. Its structure was determined by a combination of 2D 1H-1H and 1H-13C correlation NMR spectroscopy. The known compounds, glycerol 1-9',12'-octadecadienoate, beta-sitosterol, (+/-)-pinoresinol, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, anofinic acid and 2-(1'-methylethenyl)-benzofuran-5-carboxylic acid were also isolated. PMID:7786481

  16. Scavenging mechanism of curcumin toward the hydroxyl radical: a theoretical study of reactions producing ferulic acid and vanillin.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Neha; Mishra, P C

    2011-12-15

    Curcumin is known to be an antioxidant, as it can scavenge free radicals from biological media. A sequence of H-abstraction and addition reactions involving up to eight OH radicals and curcumin or its degradation products leading to the formation of two other antioxidants, namely, ferulic acid and vanillin, was studied. Single electron transfer from curcumin to an OH radical was also studied. All relevant extrema on the potential energy surfaces were located by optimizing geometries of the reactant and product complexes, as well as those of the transition states, at the BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p) level of density functional theory in the gas phase. Single-point energy calculations were also performed in the gas phase at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. Solvent effects in aqueous media were treated by performing single-point energy calculations at all of the above-mentioned levels of theory employing the polarizable continuum model and the geometries optimized at the BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p) level in the gas phase. A few reaction steps were also studied by geometry optimization in aqueous media, and the thus-obtained Gibbs free energy barriers were similar to those obtained by corresponding single-point energy calculations. Our calculations show that the hydrogen atom of the OH group attached to the phenol moiety of curcumin would be most efficiently abstracted by an OH radical, in agreement with experimental observations. Further, our study shows that OH addition would be most favored at the C10 site of the heptadiene chain. It was found that curcumin can serve as an effective antioxidant. PMID:22035040

  17. Ferulic acid increases pain threshold and ameliorates depression-like behaviors in reserpine-treated mice: behavioral and neurobiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Shao, Tuo; Ruan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Zhu, Xinbo; O'Donnell, James M; Pan, Jianchun

    2013-12-01

    Depression-pain dyad involves a series of pathological changes including the dysfunction of neuroendocrine and immune networks. Depression and pain influence each other, but the mechanisms are still obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors in mice. The results showed that reserpine (1 mg/kg for 3 days, i.p.) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold in thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, as well as a significant increase in the immobility time in mouse models of despair test. The neurochemical assays suggested the decreased neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) along with the increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic parameters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the reserpinised mice. Treatment with FA (40 or 80 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the behavioral abnormalities and decreased norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex induced by reserpine. The higher dose of FA effectively antagonized the oxidative and nitrosative stress and inflammation as evidenced by down-regulated nitrite, LPO, IL-1?, TNF-?, and up-regulated GSH and SOD. Furthermore, FA produced a dose dependent decrease in substance P, NF-?? p65 and caspase-3 levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of reserpinised mice. The findings suggest that FA exerts the effects on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors through regulating monoaminergic system, oxidative/antioxidant defense, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. Understanding the mechanism by which FA ameliorates depression and pain as a multi-targeted compound could open new avenues for the development of innovative treatments for depression coupled with pain. PMID:23584961

  18. A comparative study of ferulic acid on different monosaccharide-mediated protein glycation and oxidative damage in bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Cheng, Henrique; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-01-01

    Three dietary monosaccharides, (glucose, fructose, and ribose), have different rates of protein glycation that accelerates the production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on the three monosaccharide-mediated protein glycations and oxidation of BSA. Comparing the percentage reduction, FA (1-5 mM) reduced the level of fluorescence AGEs (F-AGEs) and N(?)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (N(?)-CML) in glucose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 12.61%-36.49%; N(?)-CML = 33.61%-66.51%), fructose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 25.28%-56.42%; N(?)-CML = 40.21%-62.91%), and ribose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 25.63%-51.18%; N(?)-CML = 26.64%-64.08%). In addition, the percentages of FA reduction of fructosamine (Frc) and amyloid cross ?-structure (Amy) were Frc = 20.45%-43.81%; Amy = 17.84%-34.54% in glucose-glycated BSA, Frc = 25.17%-36.92%; Amy = 27.25%-39.51% in fructose-glycated BSA, and Frc = 17.34%-29.71%; Amy = 8.26%-59.92% in ribose-glycated BSA. FA also induced a reduction in protein carbonyl content (PC) and loss of protein thiol groups (TO) in glucose-glycated BSA (PC = 37.78%-56.03%; TO = 6.75%-13.41%), fructose-glycated BSA (PC = 36.72%-52.74%; TO = 6.18%-20.08%), and ribose-glycated BSA (PC = 25.58%-33.46%; TO = 20.50%-39.07%). Interestingly, the decrease in fluorescence AGEs by FA correlated with the level of N(?)-CML, fructosamine, amyloid cross ?-structure, and protein carbonyl content. Therefore, FA could potentially be used to inhibit protein glycation and oxidative damage caused by monosaccharides, suggesting that it might prevent AGEs-mediated pathologies during diabetic complications. PMID:24284487

  19. Application of Two Newly Identified and Characterized Feruloyl Esterases from Streptomyces sp. in the Enzymatic Production of Ferulic Acid from Agricultural Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Uraji, Misugi; Arima, Jiro; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Harazono, Koichi; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a component of hemicellulose in plant cell walls, is a phenolic acid with several potential applications based on its antioxidant properties. Recent studies have shown that feruloyl esterase (FAE) is a key bacterial enzyme involved in FA production from agricultural biomass. In this study, we screened a library of 43 esterases from Streptomyces species and identified two enzymes, R18 and R43, that have FAE activity toward ethyl ferulate. In addition, we characterized their enzyme properties in detail. R18 and R43 showed esterase activity toward other hydroxycinnamic acid esters as well, such as methyl p-coumarate, methyl caffeate, and methyl sinapinate. The amino acid sequences of R18 and R43 were neither similar to each other, nor to other FAEs. We found that R18 and R43 individually showed the ability to produce FA from corn bran; however, combination with other Streptomyces enzymes, namely xylanase and ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, increased FA production from biomass such as corn bran, defatted rice bran, and wheat bran. These results suggest that R18 and R43 are effective FAEs for the enzymatic production of FA from biomass. PMID:25093500

  20. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates. PMID:25344260

  1. Peroxidase activity against guaiacol, NADH, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and coniferyl alcohol in root tips of Lotus japonicus and L. corniculatus grown under low pH and aluminium stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Zelinová; Igor Mistrík; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Ladislav Tamás

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of low pH and Al stress on the apoplastic production of H2O2 and POD activity against guaiacol, ferulic acid, coniferyl alcohol, NADH and chlorogenic acid in the root tip (RT) of two\\u000a cultivars of Lotus corniculatus and the model Lotus japonicus Gifu, with the goal to determine the possible role

  2. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  3. A potent inhibition of oxidative stress induced gene expression in neural cells by sustained ferulic acid release from chitosan based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Chung; Kuan, Che-Yung; Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Zhao, Jiong-Yao; Sivasubramaniam, Savitha; Chang, Hwan-You; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely cataclysmic neurological disorder and the inhibition of oxidative stress following TBI could effectively protect the brain from further impairments. An injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/?-Glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel for the controlled release of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid (FA) to inhibit the neurological oxidative stress was demonstrated. The C/G/GP hydrogel ensures an excellent clinical expediency with a gelation temperature of 32.6°C and gelation time of 75.58s. In-vitro cytotoxicity assays of C/G/GP hydrogel and FA have revealed an excellent biocompatibility with the Neuro-2a cells. 500?M of FA was considered to be an effective concentration to reduce the oxidative stress in Neuro-2a cells. TUNEL staining images evidenced that the H2O2 induced DNA fragmentation was comprehensively controlled after FA treatment. The mRNA gene expression profiles markedly authenticate the neuroprotectivity of FA by down-regulating ROS, inflammatory and apoptosis related markers. The outcomes of this study suggest that, C/G/GP hydrogel carrying ferulic acid could effectively protect further secondary traumatic brain injury associated impairments. PMID:25686998

  4. Tacrine-6-Ferulic Acid, a Novel Multifunctional Dimer, Inhibits Amyloid-?-Mediated Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Rongbiao; Mao, Xuexuan; Chao, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Zhiyi; Liu, Mengfei; Duan, Xiaolu; Ye, Mingzhong; Chen, Xiaohong; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing; Li, Wenming; Han, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    We have previously synthesized a series of hybrid compounds by linking ferulic acid to tacrine as multifunctional agents based on the hypotheses that Alzheimer's disease (AD) generates cholinergic deficiency and oxidative stress. Interestingly, we found that they may have potential pharmacological activities for treating AD. Here we report for the first time that tacrine-6-ferulic acid (T6FA), one of these compounds, can prevent amyloid-? peptide (A?)-induced AD-associated pathological changes in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that T6FA significantly inhibited auto- and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-induced aggregation of A?1–40 in vitro and blocked the cell death induced by A?1–40 in PC12 cells. In an AD mouse model by the intracerebroventricular injection of A?1–40, T6FA significantly improved the cognitive ability along with increasing choline acetyltransferase and superoxide dismutase activity, decreasing AChE activity and malondialdehyde level. Based on our findings, we conclude that T6FA may be a promising multifunctional drug candidate for AD. PMID:22384101

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol on integument color and suppression of oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi; Tanimoto, Fumio; Sano, Mitsuhiko; Tsurukawa, Kanji; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsujiwaki, Satomi; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Takii, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The effects of ferulic acid (FA) and gamma-oryzanol (OZ) supplementation on cultured red sea bream were examined. Commercial brown fish meal diets supplemented with FA (0.01-0.5%) or OZ (0.05-0.5%) were given to zero-year, cultured red sea bream for 98 days. After the experiment, the brightness of the integument color ("L" value) of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was higher than that of control fish. Furthermore, 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver of FA- and OZ-administrated fish was lower than in control fish. These results indicate that FA and OZ suppressed not only dark-color pigmentation but also oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream. PMID:18198470

  6. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh B. Nair; Kristen L. Bastress; Max O. Ruegger; Jeff W. Denault; Clint Chapple

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF STERYL FERULATES WITH TOCOPHEROL AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (esters of phytosterols and ferulic acid) have long been studied for their health-promoting properties partially owing to their capacity to inhibit oxidation. The good heat stability of rice bran oil has been attributed to its high content of steryl ferulates and tocopherols. It has...

  8. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass. PMID:16208461

  9. Cloning, expression of a feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus usamii E001 and its applicability in generating ferulic acid from wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan-Yan; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Min; Wu, Min-Chen; Tang, Cun-Duo; Wang, Jun-Qing; Pang, Qing-Feng

    2013-12-01

    A cDNA gene (AufaeA), which encodes a mature polypeptide of the type-A feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus usamii E001 (abbreviated to AuFaeA), was cloned and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. One transformant, labeled as P. pastoris GSFaeA4-8, expressing the highest recombinant AuFaeA (reAuFaeA) activity of 10.76 U/ml was selected by the flask expression test. The expressed reAuFaeA was purified to homogeneity with an apparent molecular weight of 36.0 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis, and characterized using the model substrate of methyl ferulate (MFA). The purified reAuFaeA was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 45 °C, and highly stable at pH 4.0-6.5 and 45 °C or below. Its activity was not significantly affected by metal ions tested and EDTA. The K m and V max of reAuFaeA towards MFA were 4.64 mM and 115.5 U/mg, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that only 9.7 % of total alkali-extractable ferulic acid (FA) was released from destarched wheat bran by reAuFaeA alone. The released FA increased to 36.5 % when reAuFaeA was used together with a recombinant Aspergillus usamii GH family 11 xylanase A, indicating a synergistic interaction between them. PMID:24052228

  10. Influence of ferulic acid on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2006-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities ultimately resulting in cell death. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn, and ricebran. FA exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antiageing, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective. The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of FA, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, Vitamins A, E and C and uric acid. DNA damage was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with increasing dose (1, 2 and 4Gy) of gamma-radiation in cultured hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH, Vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with FA (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly decrease the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. In addition, pretreatment with FA significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, GSH, Vitamins A, E and C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin levels. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 10 microg/ml of FA pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with FA helps in protecting the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as a effective radioprotector during radiotherapy. PMID:17049709

  11. Fungal transformation and schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Thiago S; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; dos Santos, Raquel A; Furtado, Niege A J C; Arakawa, Nilton S; Said, Suraia; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R; Gregório, Luiz E; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Ambrósio, Sérgio R

    2012-08-01

    The schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid (PA) and two derivatives, obtained by fungal transformation in the presence of Aspergillus ochraceus, were investigated. PA was the only compound with antischistosomal activity among the three diterpenes studied, with the ability to significantly reduce the viability of the parasites at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 ?M. PA also promoted morphological alterations of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni, separated all the worm couples, and affected the production and development of eggs. Moreover, this compound was devoid of toxicity toward human fibroblasts. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, PA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly diminished the number of parasites in infected Balb/c mice. Taken together, these results show that PA may be potentially employed in the discovery of novel schistosomicidal agents, and that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis. PMID:22899607

  12. Preparative isolation and purification of senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid from Rhizoma Chuanxiong using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Hu, Jia; Li, Hao; Liu, Jiangang

    2011-12-01

    Three active compounds, senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid (FA), were successfully isolated and purified from the extracts of Rhizoma Chuanxiong by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Based on the principle of the partition coefficient values (k) for target compounds and the separation factor (?) between target compounds, the two-phase solvent system that contains n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 3:7:4:6 v/v was selected for the CCC separation, and the lower phase was employed as the mobile phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. In a single run, 400 mg of the crude extract yielded pure senkyunolide-I (6.4 mg), senkyunolide-H (1.7 mg) and FA (4.4 mg) with the purities of 98, 93 and 99%, respectively. The CCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the structures of the three active compounds were identified by MS and (1)H NMR. PMID:22052814

  13. Novel tacrine-grafted ugi adducts as multipotent anti-Alzheimer drugs: a synthetic renewal in tacrine-ferulic Acid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Bartolini, Manuela; Egea, Javier; Romero, Alejandro; Soriano, Elena; Pudlo, Marc; Luzet, Vincent; Andrisano, Vincenza; Jimeno, María-Luisa; López, Manuela G; Wehle, Sarah; Gharbi, Tijani; Refouvelet, Bernard; de Andrés, Lucía; Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Monti, Barbara; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Decker, Michael; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2015-03-01

    Herein we describe the design, multicomponent synthesis, and biological, molecular modeling and ADMET studies, as well as in vitro PAMPA-blood-brain barrier (BBB) analysis of new tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids (TFAHs). We identified (E)-3-(hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-{8[(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-yl)amino]octyl}-N-[2-(naphthalen-2-ylamino)2-oxoethyl]acrylamide (TFAH 10?n) as a particularly interesting multipotent compound that shows moderate and completely selective inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase (IC50 =68.2?nM), strong antioxidant activity (4.29?equiv trolox in an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay), and good ?-amyloid (A?) anti-aggregation properties (65.6?% at 1:1 ratio); moreover, it is able to permeate central nervous system (CNS) tissues, as determined by PAMPA-BBB assay. Notably, even when tested at very high concentrations, TFAH 10?n easily surpasses the other TFAHs in hepatotoxicity profiling (59.4?% cell viability at 1000??M), affording good neuroprotection against toxic insults such as A?1-40 , A?1-42 , H2 O2 , and oligomycin?A/rotenone on SH-SY5Y cells, at 1??M. The results reported herein support the development of new multipotent TFAH derivatives as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25537267

  14. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of ferulic acid in A. sinensis and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linjie; Gou, Yuqiang; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Wenxia; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Li, Yingdong

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as a new voltammetric sensor for the determination of ferulic acid (FA). The morphology and microstructure of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy analysis, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the modified electrodes were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. Sensing properties of the electrochemical sensor were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that ERGO was electrodeposited on the surface of GCE by using potentiostatic method. The proposed electrode exhibited electrocatalytic activity to the redox of FA because of excellent electrochemical properties of ERGO. The transfer electron number (n), electrode reaction rate constant (ks) and electron-transfer coefficient (?) were calculated as 1.12, 1.24s(-1), and 0.40, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration at 8.49 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) to 3.89 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) with detection limit of 2.06 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect FA in A. sinensis and biological samples with recovery values in the range of 99.91%-101.91%. PMID:25063114

  15. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  16. Effect of tocopherols on the anti-polymerization activity of oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (SF) are ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and/or triterpene alcohols which have potential as frying oil antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-polymerization and antioxidant activity at frying temperatures of corn steryl ferulates (CSF), rice steryl f...

  17. Comparison of the impact of y-oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates on the polymerization of soybean oil during frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn steryl ferulates (CSF), oryzanol, a combination of equal amounts of CSF and oryzanol, and ferulic acid were added to refined, bleached, deodorized, soybean oil at a concentration of 8.1-8.4 µmol/g oil, which corresponded to 0.5% (w/w) for the steryl ferulates. The rate of polymerized triacylgly...

  18. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ferulic Acid in Normal and Blood Deficiency Rats after Oral Administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Their Combination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC(0–t) and Cmax of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t1/2?, Vd, AUC(0–t) and AUC(0–?) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

  19. Pharmacokinetic comparison of ferulic acid in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and their combination.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC((0-) (t) ()) and C(max) of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t(1/2?), V(d), AUC((0-) (t) ()) and AUC((0-?)) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

  20. Conservation, fiber digestibility, and nutritive value of corn harvested at 2 cutting heights and ensiled with fibrolytic enzymes, either alone or with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; Baah, J; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the use of a fibrolytic enzyme product, applied at ensiling either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing bacterial additive, on the chemical composition, conservation characteristics, and in vitro degradability of corn silage harvested at either conventional or high cutting height. Triplicate samples of corn were harvested to leave stubble of either a conventional (15cm; NC) or high (45cm; HC) height above ground. Sub-samples of chopped herbage were ensiled untreated or with a fibrolytic enzyme product containing xylanases and cellulases applied either alone (ENZ) or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing silage inoculant (ENZ+FAEI). The fibrolytic enzyme treatment was applied at 2mL of enzyme product/kg of herbage dry matter (DM), and the inoculant was applied at 1.3×10(5) cfu/g of fresh herbage. Samples were packed into laboratory-scale silos, stored for 7, 28, or 70 d, and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, and samples ensiled for 70 d were also analyzed for DM losses, chemical composition, and in vitro ruminal degradability. After 70 d of ensiling, the fermentation characteristics of corn silages were generally unaffected by cutting height, whereas the neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and ash concentrations were lower and the starch concentration greater for silages made with crops harvested at HC compared with NC. After 70 d of ensiling, the acetic acid, ethanol concentrations, and the number of yeasts were greater, and the pH and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were lower, in silages produced using ENZ or ENZ+FAEI than the untreated silages, whereas ENZ+FAEI silages also incurred higher DM losses. No effect of additive treatment was observed on in vitro degradability indices after 48h ruminal incubation. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme product, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant, at ensiling did not improve corn silage fermentation or its nutritive value and resulted in some negative effects on these parameters. The effects of using a fibrolytic enzyme product at ensiling, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant, did not differ between corn harvested at either NC or HC. Silage made from HC had a greater starch content and lower fiber content than NC silage, whereas cutting height did not affect the in vitro digestibility indices. PMID:25483202

  1. CONSERVATION OF AN EIGHT-CYSTEINE MOTIF IN FUNGAL HISTIDINE ACID PHOSPHATASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of known amino acid sequence of a number of fungal histidine acid phosphatases (HAP) has revealed a conserved eight-cysteine motif (8CM). Typically, conserved amino acid sequences have been associated with catalytic or structurally essential components for the functionality of a protein. ...

  2. Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

    2014-07-01

    In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results. PMID:24907546

  3. Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC 3.1.3.8), could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10) provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...

  4. Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. BAgtth; B. Lundgren; B. Soederstroem

    1984-01-01

    The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha?1 each year for 6 years, yet no differences were

  5. FUNGAL ELICITOR-INDUCED FATTY ACID ACETYLENASES OCCUR WIDELY IN EVOLUTIONARILY-DISTANT PLANT FAMILIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal elicitor-induced ELI12 gene from parsley has been previously shown to encode a divergent form of the delta12-oleic acid desaturase [Kirsch et al. (1997) Plant Physiol. 115: 283-290]. In this report, we show that the ELI12 gene product is a fatty acid acetylenase or triple-bond-forming en...

  6. FUNGAL RESPONSIVE FATTY ACID ACETYLENASES OCCUR WIDELY IN EVOLUTIONARILY DISTANT PLANT FAMILIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal elicitor-induced ELI12 gene from parsley has been previously shown to encode a divergent form of the delta12-oleic acid desaturase. In this report, we show that the ELI12 gene product is a fatty acid acetylenase or triple bond-forming enzyme. Expression of this enzyme in transgenic soyb...

  7. 1,3-Diferuloyl- sn -glycerol from the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (ethyl ferulate) and soybean oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Compton; Joseph A. Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    1,3-Diferuloyl-sn-glycerol is found ubiquitously throughout the plant kingdom, possessing ultraviolet adsorbing and antioxidant properties.\\u000a Diferuloyl glycerol was synthesized and isolated as a byproduct in up to 5% yield from a pilot plant scale packed-bed, biocatalytic\\u000a transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil or mono- and diacylglycerols from soybean oil. The yield of the diferuloyl\\u000a glycerol byproduct was directly proportional to

  8. An automated dual-gradient liquid chromatography-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingfei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yifang; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Yan, Renjie

    2014-01-01

    An automated on-line SPE and innovative fast polarity switch bioanalysis method employing dual-gradient liquid chromatography (DGLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (DGLC-MS/MS) was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma after administration of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis extract or monomer. The proteins in plasma samples were precipitated using acetonitrile: methanol (1:1, v/v). Sulfamethoxazole was used as an internal standard. The DGLC system contains two high-pressure pumps. The first pump was used for on-line solid phase extraction with a Cyclone™ SPE column. Chromatographic separations were performed with the other pump on a Syncronis C18 rapid analytical column. The analytical column was eluted by a gradient program that featured an acetonitrile/methanol/water gradient (flow-rate, 0.4ml/min). DGLC afforded greater convenience for bioanalysis. All analytes were simultaneously monitored in positive- and negative-ion mode by SRM (selective reaction monitoring) using the fast polarity switch speed of TSQ Vantage™. Method validation of the assay was implemented. No significant matrix effect was observed. The LLOQ of all analytes were <1.0ng/ml. The precision, recovery and linearity of the analysis met the pre-established requirements. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in Rhizoma Chuanxiong or Angelica sinensis extracts or monomers. PMID:24140450

  9. Fungal populations in podzolic soil experimentally acidified to simulate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Baath, E.; Lundgren, B.; Soederstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of experimental acidification on the soil microfungal community was studied in the humus layer of a coniferous forest in northern Sweden. The study was made 4 years after the last application of sulfuric acid. Fungal species composition was altered by treatments of 100 and 150 kg sulfuric acid ha/sup -1/ each year for 6 years, yet no differences were found between the control treatment and an application of 50 kg ha/sup -1/. The abundance of Penicillium spinulosum and Oidiodendron cf. echinulatum II increased with increasing rates of acid application, whereas only small changes were found for other isolated fungal taxa. Soil respiration rate and fluorescein diacetate (FDA)-active fungal biomass were significantly different from the control treatment at all 3 levels of acidification. 15 references, 4 tables.

  10. Direct fungal fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass into itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mondala, Andro H

    2015-04-01

    Various economic and environmental sustainability concerns as well as consumer preference for bio-based products from natural sources have paved the way for the development and expansion of biorefining technologies. These involve the conversion of renewable biomass feedstock to fuels and chemicals using biological systems as alternatives to petroleum-based products. Filamentous fungi possess an expansive portfolio of products including the multifunctional organic acids itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids that have wide-ranging current applications and potentially addressable markets as platform chemicals. However, current bioprocessing technologies for the production of these compounds are mostly based on submerged fermentation, which necessitates physicochemical pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass to soluble fermentable sugars in liquid media. This review will focus on current research work on fungal production of itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids and perspectives on the potential application of solid-state fungal cultivation techniques for the consolidated hydrolysis and organic acid fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25557737

  11. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation. PMID:24211428

  12. Removal of thorium from simulated acid process streams by fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Gadd, G M; White, C

    1989-01-25

    Biomass from several fungal species removed thorium from solution in 1M HNO(3), pH 0-1. Thorium uptake was saturable with increasing thorium concentration, although the equilibria did not correspond to a simple ad sorption isotherm. Thorium uptake was altered by the biomass concentration, the uptake per unit biomass being reduced at high biomass concentrations. The presence of Al(3+) and Fe(3+) only slightly inhibited uptake of thorium while Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) had no effect. Thus fungal biomass appears capable of removing thorium from solution under chemical conditions existing in acid waste liquors. Thorium uptake was increased by pretreatment using detergent and also, in the case of filamentous fungi, varied with the culture conditions, which implies that the thorium uptake characteristics of fungal biomass are able to be manipulated by these or similar means for optimum performance. PMID:18587956

  13. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  14. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability

    PubMed Central

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Cegli?ska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Background The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410263

  15. CYTOTOXIC HYDROXYLATED TRITERPENE ALCOHOL FERULATES FROM RICE BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hydroxylated triterpene alcohol ferulates, (24S)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (1), (24R)-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (2), and cycloart-23Z-ene-3 beta,25-diol-3 beta-trans-ferulate (3), along with known compounds cycloartenol trans-ferulate (4) a...

  16. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. PMID:24230476

  17. Fungal hallucinogens psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol: analytical methods and biologic activities.

    PubMed

    Stebelska, Katarzyna

    2013-08-01

    Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients. Hallucinogens are thought to reduce cognitive functions. However, in case of indolealkylamines, such as psilocin, some recent findings suggest their ability to improve perception and mental skills, what would motivate the consumption of "magic mushrooms." The present article offers an opportunity to find out what are the main symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms containing psilocybin/psilocin, muscimol, and ibotenic acid. The progress in analytical methods for detection of them in fungal material, food, and body fluids is reviewed. Findings on the mechanisms of their biologic activity are summarized. Additionally, therapeutic potential of these fungal psychoactive compounds and health risk associated with their abuse are discussed. PMID:23851905

  18. Antioxidant properties and efficacies of synthesized alkyl caffeates, ferulates, and coumarates.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, Erwann; Laguerre, Mickaël; Bayrasy, Christelle; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-12-31

    Caffeic, ferulic, and coumaric acids were lipophilized with saturated fatty alcohols (C1-C20). The antioxidant properties of these hydroxycinnamic acids and their alkyl esters were evaluated in various assays. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficiency of the compounds was evaluated in a simple o/w microemulsion using the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay. All evaluated phenolipids had radical scavenging, reducing power, and metal chelating properties. Only caffeic acid and caffeates were able to form a complex with iron via their catechol group in the phenolic ring. In the o/w emulsion, the medium chain phenolipids of the three homologues series were most efficient. The antioxidant properties and efficacies were dependent upon functional groups substituted to the ring structure and were in the following order: caffeic acid and caffeates > ferulic acid and ferulates > coumaric acid and coumarates. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the test system has an impact on the antioxidative properties measured. PMID:25457614

  19. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  20. Characterization of the Complete Uric Acid Degradation Pathway in the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Yang, Liting; Sebetso, Gaseene; Allen, Rebecca; Doan, Thi H. N.; Blundell, Ross; Lui, Edmund Y. L.; Morrow, Carl A.; Fraser, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of purines to uric acid is generally conserved among organisms, however, the end product of uric acid degradation varies from species to species depending on the presence of active catabolic enzymes. In humans, most higher primates and birds, the urate oxidase gene is non-functional and hence uric acid is not further broken down. Uric acid in human blood plasma serves as an antioxidant and an immune enhancer; conversely, excessive amounts cause the common affliction gout. In contrast, uric acid is completely degraded to ammonia in most fungi. Currently, relatively little is known about uric acid catabolism in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans even though this yeast is commonly isolated from uric acid-rich pigeon guano. In addition, uric acid utilization enhances the production of the cryptococcal virulence factors capsule and urease, and may potentially modulate the host immune response during infection. Based on these important observations, we employed both Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis and bioinformatics to predict all the uric acid catabolic enzyme-encoding genes in the H99 genome. The candidate C. neoformans uric acid catabolic genes identified were named: URO1 (urate oxidase), URO2 (HIU hydrolase), URO3 (OHCU decarboxylase), DAL1 (allantoinase), DAL2,3,3 (allantoicase-ureidoglycolate hydrolase fusion protein), and URE1 (urease). All six ORFs were then deleted via homologous recombination; assaying of the deletion mutants' ability to assimilate uric acid and its pathway intermediates as the sole nitrogen source validated their enzymatic functions. While Uro1, Uro2, Uro3, Dal1 and Dal2,3,3 were demonstrated to be dispensable for virulence, the significance of using a modified animal model system of cryptococcosis for improved mimicking of human pathogenicity is discussed. PMID:23667704

  1. Distribution and stable isotopic composition of amino acids from fungal peptaibiotics: assessing the potential for meteoritic contamination.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Callahan, Michael P; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P; Brückner, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The presence of nonprotein ?-dialkyl-amino acids such as ?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of ?-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the ?-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four ?-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C(4) and C(5) amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids. PMID:21417942

  2. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  3. Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB).

    PubMed

    Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Isroi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%). PMID:24630370

  4. Synthesis and anti-fungal activity of seven oleanolic acid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hanqing; Zong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Daoquan; Liang, Xiaomei

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop potential anti-fungal agents, seven glycoconjugates composed of ?-L-rhamnose, 6-deoxy-?-L-talose, ?-D-galactose, ?-D-mannose, ?-D-xylose-(1?4)-6-deoxy-?-L-talose, ?-D-galactose-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnose, ?-D-galactose-(1?3)-?-D-xylose-(1?4)-6-deoxy-?-L-talose as the glycone and oleanolic acid as the aglycone were synthesized in an efficient and practical way using glycosyl trichloroacetimidates as donors. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR.Preliminary studies based on means of mycelium growth rate, indicated that all the compounds possess certain fungicidal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Phytophthora parasitica Dast. PMID:21270731

  5. Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Archer, Steven; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    A combined hydrolysis process, which first mixed dilute acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover at a 1:1 (w/w) ratio, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without pH adjustment, has been developed in this study in order to minimize the need of neutralization, detoxification, and washing during the process of lignocellulosic biofuel production. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the combined hydrolysate as well as a synthetic medium to compare fungal lipid accumulation and biodiesel production in both shake flask and 7.5L fermentor. Fungal cultivation on combined hydrolysate exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid yield with those from synthetic medium, indicating that the integration of combined hydrolysis with oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation has great potential to improve performance of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24768942

  6. Evolutionary origins of the multienzyme architecture of giant fungal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Habib S T; Jakob, Roman P; Maier, Timm

    2014-12-01

    Fungal fatty acid synthase (fFAS) is a key paradigm for the evolution of complex multienzymes. Its 48 functional domains are embedded in a matrix of scaffolding elements, which comprises almost 50% of the total sequence and determines the emergent multienzymes properties of fFAS. Catalytic domains of fFAS are derived from monofunctional bacterial enzymes, but the evolutionary origin of the scaffolding elements remains enigmatic. Here, we identify two bacterial protein families of noncanonical fatty acid biosynthesis starter enzymes and trans-acting polyketide enoyl reductases (ERs) as potential ancestors of scaffolding regions in fFAS. The architectures of both protein families are revealed by representative crystal structures of the starter enzyme FabY and DfnA-ER. In both families, a striking structural conservation of insertions to scaffolding elements in fFAS is observed, despite marginal sequence identity. The combined phylogenetic and structural data provide insights into the evolutionary origins of the complex multienzyme architecture of fFAS. PMID:25456814

  7. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary interaction with the SA signaling pathway. PMID:22856333

  8. Identification of target amino acids that aect interactions of fungal polygalacturonases and their plant inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J OHN G. B ISHOP; C ARL W. B ERGMANN; MARCUS K OCH

    2000-01-01

    Plant polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) bind fungal polygalacturonases (PGs), but inhibition specificities and kinetics vary within and among species. Purified bean PGIP inhibited all fungal PGs we tested, including Fusarium moniliforme PG. Pear PGIP, however, was only eective against Botrytis cinerea PG. Moreover, tomato PGIP inhibited B. cinerea PG more than Aspergillus niger PG. Models of codon evolution for 22

  9. Changes in lipid, fatty acids and protein composition of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) after solid-state fungal fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A Abu; O. O Tewe; D. M Losel; A. A Onifade

    2000-01-01

    Sweet potato-root meal was fermented with three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Pleurotus ostreatus using solid-state fermentation. The changes in total lipid, fatty acids and total protein composition were determined at specific intervals during the study. The total lipid of sweet potato fermented with A. niger and A. oryzae increased from 1.93% to 3.17% and 1.93% to 8.71%

  10. Simultaneous enrichment of cereals with polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments by fungal solid state fermentations.

    PubMed

    ?ertík, Milan; Adamechová, Zuzana; Guothová, Lucia

    2013-10-20

    Four Mucor strains were tested for their ability to grow on four cereal substrates and enriched them with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and ?-carotene. M. circinelloides CCF-2617 as the best producer accumulated of both GLA and ?-carotene in high amounts during utilization of rye bran/spent malt grains (3:1). The first growth phase was characterized by rapid GLA biosynthesis, while distinct ?-carotene formation was found in the stationary fungal growth. Therefore various cultivation conditions were tested in order to optimize the yield of either GLA or ?-carotene. The fungus grown on cereal substrate supplemented with glucose produced maximal 8.5 mg ?-carotene and 12.1 g GLA in 1 kg fermented substrate, respectively. On the other hand, the highest amount of GLA in the fermented substrate (24.2 g/kg) was achieved when 30% of sunflower oil was employed to the substrate. Interestingly, ?-carotene biosynthesis was completely inhibited when either whey or linseed oil were added to the substrate. PMID:23583333

  11. Isolation of campesteryl ferulate and epi-campesteryl ferulate, two components of ?-oryzanol from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuhua; Yanase, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Campesteryl ferulate (3a, 24R/?) and epi-campesteryl ferulate (3b, 24S/?), components of rice bran ?-oryzanol, were isolated by the preparative recycle HPLC system using a combination of ODS silica and cholester packed columns at over 99% purity. Their purities and structures of 3a and 3b thus obtained were confirmed by HPLC analysis and physical data (1H- and 13C-NMR, MS spectra, and X-ray crystallography). PMID:23563552

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytosteryl ferulates in colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M S; Murata, T; Fujisawa, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Bari, A M; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have recently reported that phytosteryl ferulates isolated from rice bran inhibit nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ?-oryzanol (?-ORZ), a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates, cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of the components of ?-ORZ, and ferulic acid (FA), a possible metabolite of ?-ORZ in vivo, on a model of colitis in mice. Experimental approach: We induced colitis with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in mice and monitored disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mRNA expressions of cytokines and COX-2, colon length, antioxidant potency and NF-?B activity in colitis tissue. Key results: Both DAI and histopathology score revealed that DSS induced a severe mucosal colitis, with a marked increase in the thickness of the muscle layer, distortion and loss of crypts, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes. MPO activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 levels, NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation and inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-?B-? degradation levels were significantly increased in DSS-induced colitis tissues. ?-ORZ (50?mg?kg?1?day?1 p.o.) markedly inhibited these inflammatory reactions and CAF had a similar potency. In vitro assay demonstrated that ?-ORZ and CAF had strong antioxidant effects comparable to those of ?-tocopherol. Conclusions and implications: Phytosteryl ferulates could be new potential therapeutic and/or preventive agents for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. Their anti-inflammatory effect could be mediated by inhibition of NF-?B activity, which was at least partly due to the antioxidant effect of the FA moiety in the structure of phytosteryl ferulates. PMID:18536734

  13. Firing Range Soils Yield a Diverse Array of Fungal Isolates Capable of Organic Acid Production and Pb Mineral Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tarah S.; Gottel, Neil R.; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil?1. We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter?1 (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health. PMID:22729539

  14. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  15. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  16. Fungal degradation of the thermoplastic polymer poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under simulated deep sea pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Gonda; D. Jendrossek; H. P. Molitoris

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about marine filamentous fungi and yeasts, almost nothing about their life and metabolism under deep sea conditions. Data on growth and metabolic activity give insight into the role of organisms in the marine habitat. Degradation studies on pollutants, such as polymeric thermoplasts, provide information about the self-cleaning capacity of a habitat. Therefore, recently isolated fungal strains from

  17. SYNTHESIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNANTICIPATED FERULATE 8-8 COUPLING PRODUCT PRESENT IN CEREAL DIETARY FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulate dimers and trimers act as cross-links between polysaccharides and between polysaccha-rides and lignin in grasses. In addition to two already identified 8-8-diferulic acids we identified another product of 8-8-coupling by its mass spectral data. This compound, 2,5-di(4´-hydroxy-3-methoxyphen...

  18. Synthesis of Isopropyl Ferulate Using Silica-Immobilized Lipase in an Organic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of lipases has proved to be a useful technique for improving an enzyme's activity in organic solvents. In the present study, the performance of a silica-immobilized lipase was evaluated for the synthesis of isopropyl ferulate in DMSO. The biocatalyst was cross-linked onto the matrix with 1% glutaraldehyde. The effects of various parameters, molar ratio of ferulic acid to isopropyl alcohol (25?mM?:?100?mM), concentration of biocatalyst (2.5–20?mg/mL), molecular sieves (25–250?mg/mL), and various salt ions, were studied consecutively as a function of percent esterification. Immobilized lipase at 25?mg/mL showed maximum esterification (~84%) of ferulic acid and isopropanol at a molar ratio of 25?mM?:?100?mM, respectively, in DMSO at 45°C in 3?h under shaking (150?rpm). To overcome the inhibitory effect of water (a byproduct) if any, in the reaction mixture, molecular sieves (3?Å × 1.5?mm; 100?mg/mL) were added to the reaction mixture to promote the forward reaction. Salt ions like Ca2+, Cd2+, and Fe2+ enhanced the activity of immobilized biocatalyst while a few ions like Co2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Al3+, and Na+ had mild inhibitory effect. Approximately, one third of total decrease in the esterification efficacy was observed after the 5th repetitive cycle of esterification. PMID:21603272

  19. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  20. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  1. Acyl-carrier protein - Phosphopantetheinyltransferase partnerships in fungal fatty acid synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of fatty acids is an essential primary metabolic process for energy storage and cellular structural integrity. Assembly of saturated fatty acids is achieved by fatty acid synthases (FASs) that combine acetyl- and malonyl-CoAs by repetitive decarboxylative Claisen condensations with su...

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of a Phosphatidic Acid-Binding Antifungal Plant Defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR Motif Governing Fungal Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghu S.; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip M.

    2013-01-01

    MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, analysis of the structure of MtDef4 reveals the presence of a positively charged ?-core motif composed of ?2 and ?3 strands connected by a positively charged RGFRRR loop. Replacement of the RGFRRR sequence with AAAARR or RGFRAA abolishes the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells, suggesting that the RGFRRR loop is a translocation signal required for the internalization of the protein. MtDef4 binds to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Amino acid substitutions in the RGFRRR sequence which abolish the ability of MtDef4 to enter fungal cells also impair its ability to bind PA. These findings suggest that MtDef4 is a novel antifungal plant defensin capable of entering into fungal cells and affecting intracellular targets and that these processes are mediated by the highly conserved cationic RGFRRR loop via its interaction with PA. PMID:24324798

  3. The Natural Diyne-Furan Fatty Acid EV-086 Is an Inhibitor of Fungal Delta-9 Fatty Acid Desaturation with Efficacy in a Model of Skin Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B. V.; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A.; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids—but not saturated fatty acids—antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086–phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

  4. The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses. PMID:24189258

  5. Comparison of Lactic Acid Isomers Produced by Fungal and Bacterial Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Mirdamadi; Hajar Sadeghi; Nora Sharafi; Masoud Fallahpour; Farzaneh Aziz Mohseni; Mohammad Reza Bakhtiari

    Many organisms produce lactic acid by fermentation, but most industrially important strains are from the genus Lactobacillus and Rhizopus oryzae. L(+)-Lactic acid is the only optical isomer for use in pharmaceutical and food industries because human body is only adapted to assimilate this form. In this research, six strains of Lactobacillus and four strains of R. oryzae (known as high

  6. Degradation of humic acid of a forest soil by some fungal isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mishra; L. L. Srivastava

    1986-01-01

    Summary  In a laboratory incubation study the humic acid isolated from a forest soil of Palamau (Bihar) was subjected to biodegradation\\u000a for a period of six weeks by using nine cultures of fungi. These fungi were tested earlier for their cellulose decomposing\\u000a ability. The humic acid was used as sole source of carbon, nitrogen and carbon plus nitrogen in Czapek-Dox broth.

  7. Use of ? -aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline as marker amino acids for the detection of fungal polypeptide antibiotics. Screening of Hypocrea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Briickner; J. Maisch; C. Reinecke; A. Kimonyo

    1991-01-01

    Filamentous fungi of the genusHypocrea were grown on malt extract\\/peptone agar, the mycelia were extracted with dichloromethane\\/methanol, and the extracts were totally hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl (110°C, 24 h). The amino acids (AA) released from peptides were converted into theirN(O)-pen-tafluoropropionyl 1-propyl esters and investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry for the presence of the nonprotein AAa-aminoisobutyric acid

  8. Fungal metabolism of fermentation inhibitors present in corn stover dilute acid hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy N. Nichols; Lekh N. Sharma; Richard A. Mowery; C. Kevin Chambliss; G. Peter van Walsum; Bruce S. Dien; Loren B. Iten

    2008-01-01

    Use of agricultural residues for ethanol production requires pretreatment of the material to facilitate release of sugars. Physical–chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass can, however, give rise to side-products that may be toxic to fermenting microorganisms and hinder utilization of sugars obtained from biomass. Potentially problematic compounds include furan aldehydes formed by degradation of sugars, organic acids released from hemicellulose side-groups,

  9. In Vitro hydrolysis of fungal oils: Distribution of arachidonic acid-containing triacylglycerol molecular species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim-Wen Liu; Emil G. Bobik; Yung-Sheng Huang

    1998-01-01

    Four commercially prepared arachidonic acidrich oils from the fungus Mortierella alpina were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The levels of arachidonic acid and the distribution\\u000a of triacylglycerol (TG) molecular species varied significantly among these oils. The major arachidonate-containing TG species\\u000a were AAA, LAA, DAA, OAA, PAA, SAA, OLA, PGA, PLA, POA, and SOA where the abbreviations A,

  10. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its ?-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the ?-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  11. Fungal Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Kauffman

    Older adults are at increased risk of developing opportunistic fungal infections because organ transplantation, intensive\\u000a cancer chemotherapy regimens, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents are now used more commonly, and because admission to an\\u000a intensive care unit, which carries many risk factors for fungal infection, has become commonplace in this group.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal

  12. Spectroscopic studies on the in vitro antioxidant capacity of isopentyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; de Sousa, Élida B V; Costa, Iwyson Henrique F; Machado, Katia C; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils have played a prominent role in research on natural products, due to the high level of bioactive constituents, which include those derived from phenylpropanoids or terpenoids. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of isopentyl ferulate (IF) employing in vitro experimental models for elimination of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+), hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as its capacity to electron transfer by reducing potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) method. In all in vitro antioxidants protocols, isopentyl ferulate showed to be potent in a concentration of 54.4 nM, presenting a percentage inhibition of 91.29±0.57, 92.63±0.28, 83.62±0.18, 77.07±0.72 and 79.51±0.32% for DPPH, ABTS+, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and TBARS level, respectively. The increase of absorbance at 700 nm in the concentrations of 3.4, 6.8, 13.6, 27.2 and 54.4 nM shows the reducing potential of IF. Similar results were obtained with Trolox (559 nM), a hydrophilic synthetic analogue of ?-tocopherol, which is widely used as a standard antioxidant. The present study demonstrated that isopentyl ferulate has an antioxidant activity in vitro experimental models, suggesting that this compound could enhance the development of a new product with antioxidant properties. However, further in vivo studies are needed to assign possible implications in the treatment of diseases related with free radicals. PMID:25446849

  13. Attenuation of age-related changes in FOXO3a activity and the PI3K\\/Akt pathway by short-term feeding of ferulate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeon Ja Choi; Dae Hyun Kim; Eun Kyeong Lee; Ji Min Kim; Young Mi Ha; Nam Deuk Kim; Jee H. Jung; Jae Sue Choi; Byung Pal Yu; Hae Young Chung

    Ferulate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic compound that scavenges free radicals and exerts anti-inflammatory\\u000a effects. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor that plays important roles in aging processes, decreases with age\\u000a and is negatively regulated through phosphorylation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt signaling. The present study\\u000a investigated the efficacy of short-term ferulate feeding on age-related changes in PI3K\\/Akt\\/FOXO3a and

  14. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots

    PubMed Central

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+-dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response. PMID:24047645

  15. SYNTHESIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF 2,5-BIS-(4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYPHENYL)-TETRAHYDROFURAN-3,4-DICARBOXYLIC ACID, AN UNANTICIPATED FERULATE 8-8-COUPLING PRODUCT ACYLATING CEREAL PLANT CELL WALLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new product implicated in cereal grain polysaccharide cross-linking has been authenticated by independent synthesis. Saponification of cereal grain fiber releases the RRRS/SSSR-isomer of 2,5-di-(4´-hydroxy-3´-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-dicarboxylic acid. The parent ester logically ...

  16. FUNGAL PRODUCTS AS FOOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Moore; Siu Wai Chiu

    2001-01-01

    10.1 Summary Fungi are ideal food because they have a fairly high content of protein (typically 20-30% dry matter as crude protein) which contains all of the essential amino acids. Fungal biomass is also a source of dietary fibre, and is virtually free of cholesterol. Mushrooms are cultivated around the world, global annual production being in the region of 8

  17. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  18. Antioxidant activities of major components of ?-oryzanol from rice bran using a linoleic acid model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhimin Xu; J. Samuel Godber

    2001-01-01

    The change in hydroperoxides of linoleic acid incubated with constant micro air flow at 37°C was used to evaluate the antioxidant\\u000a activities of three major components of ?-oryzanol from rice bran (cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate,\\u000a and campesteryl ferulate) compared with ?-tocopherol and ferulic acid. The four hydroperoxide isomers of linoleic acid, 9-hydroperoxy-10-trans, 12-cis-octadecadienoic acid [9HPODE(t,c)], 9-hydroperoxy-10-trans, 12-trans-octadecadienoic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9-cis,

  19. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  20. Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANITA SARAF; LENNART LARSSON; HARRIET BURGE; DONALD MILTON

    Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers

  1. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350??M acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. ?-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-?(1), and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  2. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of dairy cows in response to ingestion of lauric or myristic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment, part of a larger study, was to investigate changes in rumen bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity in cows with normal and reduced protozoal populations. In the main study, 6 lactating dairy cows were dosed intraruminally with 240 g/cow per day of stearic (contr...

  3. Fungal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Alspaugh, J Andrew; Liu, Haoping; Harris, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Morphogenesis in fungi is often induced by extracellular factors and executed by fungal genetic factors. Cell surface changes and alterations of the microenvironment often accompany morphogenetic changes in fungi. In this review, we will first discuss the general traits of yeast and hyphal morphotypes and how morphogenesis affects development and adaptation by fungi to their native niches, including host niches. Then we will focus on the molecular machinery responsible for the two most fundamental growth forms, yeast and hyphae. Last, we will describe how fungi incorporate exogenous environmental and host signals together with genetic factors to determine their morphotype and how morphogenesis, in turn, shapes the fungal microenvironment. PMID:25367976

  4. Wound-induced expression of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene in Camptotheca acuminata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Gwan; Lee, Sun Hi; Lee, Incheol

    2006-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway plays important roles in plants following exposure to environmental stresses, such as wounding and pathogen attack, which lead to the production of a variety of compounds, including lignin, flavonoids and phytoalexins. Ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of ferulic acid, coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol, leading to sinapic acid and syringyl lignin biosynthesis. We isolated F5H cDNA and genomic DNA from Camptotheca acuminata and investigated the expression pattern of the C. acuminata F5H (CaF5H1) gene in response to wounding. A search against the BLOCKS database of conserved protein motifs indicated that CaF5H1 retains features in common with F5Hs reported from other plants. 5'-flanking region analysis using the PLACE database showed that putative regulatory elements related to various abiotic and biotic stresses, such as drought, wounding, low temperature and pathogens, exist in the 5'-flanking region of CaF5H1. Based upon these analysis results, we investigated the expression pattern of CaF5H1 gene in response to wounding and stress-related molecules. Here, we show that CaF5H1 transcripts accumulated in the leaves in response to mechanical wounding or the application of molecules involved in the stress response, such as ethylene, ABA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The application of salicylic acid and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) inhibited the wound-induced expression of CaF5H1. Taken together, we suggest that wound-induced expression of CaF5H1 may be mediated by MJ and H2O2 and enhanced phenylpropanoid contents via CaF5H1 maybe function in response to various stresses, including wounding, in plants. PMID:16332414

  5. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  6. Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections ?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Park, Steven; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Veyret, Raphaël; Laayoun, Ali; Troesch, Alain; Perlin, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient outcomes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-MB) detection system in multiplex format was developed to rapidly detect medically important BSI organisms. Probes and primers representing pan-gram-negative, pan-gram-positive, pan-fungal, pan-Candida, and pan-Aspergillus organisms were established utilizing 16S and 28S rRNA targets for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Two multiplex panels were developed to rapidly discriminate bacterial or fungal infections at the subkingdom/genus level with a sensitivity of 1 to 50 genomes. A clinical study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this platform by evaluating 570 clinical samples from a tertiary-care hospital group using blood bottle samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index values for pan-gram-positive detection and pan-gram-negative detection were 99.7%, 100%, 0.997 and 98.6%, 95.9%, 0.945, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV) and the negative predictive values (NPV) for these two probes were 100, 90.7, and 99.4, 99.4, respectively. Pan-fungal and pan-Candida probes showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV, and the pan-Aspergillus probe showed 100% NPV. Robust signals were observed for all probes in the multiplex panels, with signal detection in <15 min. The multiplex real-time NASBA-MB assay provides a valuable platform for the rapid and specific diagnosis of bloodstream pathogens, and reliable pathogen identification and characterization can be obtained in under 3 h. PMID:19403758

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy as tools for identification of steryl ferulates.

    PubMed

    Mandak, Eszter; Zhu, Dan; Godany, Tamas A; Nyström, Laura

    2013-03-13

    Steryl ferulates are a mixture of minor bioactive compounds, possessing well-established health benefits. However, individual steryl ferulate species show structural differences, which seem to substantially influence their health-promoting potential. In this study, we tested Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, as potential tools in the identification of steryl ferulates. On the basis of our spectral data obtained from various individual steryl ferulates and steryl ferulate mixtures extracted from rice (?-oryzanol), corn bran, and wheat bran, we provide comprehensive peak assignment tables for both FTIR and Raman. With the help of FTIR spectroscopy, structural differences between individual steryl ferulates were possible to identify, such as the presence of the cyclopropane ring and additional differences in the side chain of the sterane skeleton. Data obtained with Raman spectroscopy provided us with a control for FTIR peak assignment and also with some additional information on the samples. However, detecting structural differences between steryl ferulates was not possible with this method. We consider that FTIR spectroscopy alone or combined with Raman provides detailed data on the structures of steryl ferulates. Moreover, thorough peak assignment tables presented in this study could prove to be helpful tools when identifying steryl ferulates, especially as a group, in future studies. PMID:23414293

  8. Fungal lectins: a growing family.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that include yeasts and molds, as well as the most familiar member, mushrooms. Fungal lectins with unique specificity and structures have been discovered. In general, fungal lectins are classified into specific families based on their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the approximately 80 types of mushroom and fungal lectins that have been isolated and studied to date. In particular, we have focused on ten fungal lectins (Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe cylindracea, Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Clitocybe nebularis, Marasmius oreades, Psathyrella velutina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Pholiota squarrosa, Polyporus squamosus), many of which are commercially available and their properties, sugar-binding specificities, structural grouping into families, and applications for biological research being described. The sialic acid-specific lectins (Agrocybe cylindracea and Polyporus squamosus) and fucose-specific lectins (Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Pholiota squarrosa) each showed potential for use in identifying sialic acid glycoconjugates and fucose glycoconjugates. Although not much is currently known about fungal lectins compared to animal and plant lectins, the knowledge accumulated thus far shows great promise for several applications in the fields of taxonomy, biomedicine, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:25117221

  9. Ionic interaction of positive amino acid residues of fungal hydrophobin RolA with acidic amino acid residues of cutinase CutL1.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Tanaka, Takumi; Tsushima, Yusei; Muragaki, Kimihide; Uehara, Kenji; Takeuchi, Shunsuke; Maeda, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Youhei; Nakayama, Mayumi; Yoshimi, Akira; Abe, Keietsu

    2015-04-01

    Hydrophobins are amphipathic proteins secreted by filamentous fungi. When the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae is grown in a liquid medium containing the polyester polybutylene succinate co-adipate (PBSA), it produces RolA, a hydrophobin, and CutL1, a PBSA-degrading cutinase. Secreted RolA attaches to the surface of the PBSA particles and recruits CutL1, which then condenses on the particles and stimulates the hydrolysis of PBSA. Here, we identified amino acid residues that are required for the RolA-CutL1 interaction by using site-directed mutagenesis. We quantitatively analyzed kinetic profiles of the interactions between RolA variants and CutL1 variants by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The QCM analyses revealed that Asp142, Asp171 and Glu31, located on the hydrophilic molecular surface of CutL1, and His32 and Lys34, located in the N-terminus of RolA, play crucial roles in the RolA-CutL1 interaction via ionic interactions. RolA immobilized on a QCM electrode strongly interacted with CutL1 (KD ?=?6.5?nM); however, RolA with CutL1 variants, or RolA variants with CutL1, showed markedly larger KD values, particularly in the interaction between the double variant RolA-H32S/K34S and the triple variant CutL1-E31S/D142S/D171S (KD ?=?78.0?nM). We discuss a molecular prototype model of hydrophobin-based enzyme recruitment at the solid-water interface. PMID:25588312

  10. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  11. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  12. Cycloartenyl trans-ferulate, a component of the bran byproduct of sake-brewing rice, inhibits mammalian DNA polymerase and suppresses inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yamazaki, Asahi; Akashi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2013-11-15

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors, we isolated cycloartenyl trans-ferulate (CAF), which is a major component of ?-oryzanol, which is a byproduct formed during the production of Japanese rice wine "sake". CAF selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian A, B, and X pol families, but Y family pols were not affected. CAF did not influence the activities of plant or prokaryotic pols, nor the activity of other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Individual chemical components of CAF, including cycloartenol (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), did not inhibit pol enzyme activities. CAF suppressed TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in the mouse ear, but CA and FA did not. The ability to inhibit mammalian pol enzymes in vitro was positively correlated with their propensity to suppress inflammation in vivo. These results suggest that this byproduct formed during the sake-brewing process is useful as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:23790879

  13. Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h). PMID:24204204

  14. Pentadecyl ferulate, a potent antioxidant and antiproliferative agent from the halophyte Salicornia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianxing; Xin, Zhihong

    2013-12-01

    An investigation of the chemical constituents of Salicornia herbacea has led to the isolation of one new natural product, pentadecyl ferulate (6), together with 11 known compounds, including phytol (1), stearolic acid (2), ?-linolenic acid (3), (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (4), linoleic acid (5), stigmasterol (7), ergosterol (8), dioctyl phthalate (9), dibutyl phthalate (10), vanillic aldehyde (11), and scopoletin (12). The chemical structures of these materials were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. This work represents the first recorded example of the isolation of compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, and 11 from S. herbacea. The antioxidant experiments revealed that compound 6 possessed strong hydroxy radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities and was the principle antioxidant ingredient in the ethyl acetate extract. The antiproliferative results exhibited that compound 1 selectively inhibited HepG2 cells, whereas compounds 3 and 6 showed potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 and A549 cells. PMID:23870929

  15. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host plant growth and alleviate adverse effects of salt stress. Such fungal strain could be used for further field trials to improve agricultural productivity under saline conditions. PMID:22235902

  16. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1). PMID:24772371

  17. Quantification of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with fungal culture and determination of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, A; Larsson, L; Burge, H; Milton, D

    1997-01-01

    Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with results from fungal culture and Limulus assay. Analyses of replicate house dust samples resulted in correlations of 0.91 (ergosterol in six replicates; P < 0.01) and 0.94 (3-hydroxy fatty acids in nine replicates; P < 0.001). The amounts of ergosterol (range, 2 to 16.5 ng/mg of dust) correlated with those of total culturable fungi (range, 6 to 1,400 CFU/mg of dust) in 17 samples, (r = 0.65; P < 0.005). The amounts of endotoxin (range, 11 to 243 endotoxin units/mg of dust) measured with a modified chromogenic Limulus assay correlated with those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determined from 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis of 15 samples. The correlation coefficient depended on the chain lengths of 3-hydroxy acids used to compute the LPS content. The correlation was high (r = 0.88 +/- 0.01; P < 0.001) when fatty acid chains of 10 to 14 carbon atoms were included; the correlation was much lower when hydroxy acids of 16- or 18-carbon chains were included. In conclusion, the results of the described extraction and analysis procedure for ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids are reproducible, and the results can be correlated with fungal culture and endotoxin activity of organic dust samples. PMID:9212406

  18. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional ethanol pathway, at neutral and low pH, generated a comprehensive picture of lactic acid production in this yeast. The findings are applicable in generation other lactic acid producing yeast, thus providing a significant contribution to the field of biotechnical production of lactic acid. PMID:23706009

  19. The promoter of the plant defensin gene PDF1.2 from Arabidopsis is systemically activated by fungal pathogens and responds to methyl jasmonate but not to salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Manners; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Katrien Vermaere; Kemal Kazan; Rebecca L. Brown; Andrew Morgan; Donald J. Maclean; Mark D. Curtis; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Willem F. Broekaert

    1998-01-01

    The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. To further investigate the signalling and transcriptional processes underlying plant defensin induction, a DNA fragment containing 1184 bp and 1232 bp upstream of the transcriptional and translational start sites, respectively, was cloned by inverse PCR. To test

  20. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

  1. Production of hydroxy-fatty acid derivatives from waste oil by Escherichia coli cells producing fungal cytochrome P450foxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Kitazume; Yuya Yamazaki; Shigeru Matsuyama; Hirofumi Shoun; Naoki Takaya

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450foxy (P450foxy) is a fatty acid (FA) monooxygenase that is characterized by self-sufficient catalysis and high\\u000a turnover numbers due to the fused structure of cytochrome P450 and its reductase. Here we found that resting recombinant Escherichia coli cells producing P450foxy converted saturated FA with a chain length of 7–16 carbon atoms to their ? ? 1 to ? ?

  2. Rapid analysis of phenolic acids in beverages by UPLC–MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Gruz; Ond?ej Novák; Miroslav Strnad

    2008-01-01

    A rapid method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 17 phenolic acids (gallic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, 3-coumaric acid, 2-coumaric acid, salicylic acid and trans-cinnamic acid) in different beverages was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with

  3. Fermentative and oxidative transformation of ferulate by a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Grbi?-Gali?, D

    1985-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non-sporeforming, motile rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from methanogenic consortia degrading 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamate (ferulate). Consortia were originally enriched from a laboratory anaerobic digester fed sewage sludge. In the absence of exogenous electron acceptors and with the addition of 0.1% yeast extract, the isolated bacterium transformed ferulate under strictly anaerobic conditions (N2-CO2 gas phase). Ferulate (1.55 mM) was demethoxylated and dehydroxylated with subsequent reduction of the side chain, resulting in production of phenylpropinate and phenylacetate. Under aerobic conditions, the substrate was completely degraded, with transient appearance of caffeate as the first aromatic intermediate and beta-ketoadipate as an aliphatic intermediate. The pure culture has been tentatively assigned to the genus Enterobacter with the type strain DG-6 (ATCC 35929). Tentative pathways for both fermentative and oxidative degradation of ferulate are now proposed. Images PMID:4083873

  4. Comparative Genomics Suggests that the Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Is an Obligate Parasite Scavenging Amino Acids from Its Host's Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Philippe M.; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Cissé, Ousmane H.; Keller, Laurent; Taffé, Patrick; Sanglard, Dominique; Pagni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immuno-compromised patients. Progress in understanding its pathogenicity and epidemiology has been hampered by the lack of a long-term in vitro culture method. Obligate parasitism of this pathogen has been suggested on the basis of various features but remains controversial. We analysed the 7.0 Mb draft genome sequence of the closely related species Pneumocystis carinii infecting rats, which is a well established experimental model of the disease. We predicted 8’085 (redundant) peptides and 14.9% of them were mapped onto the KEGG biochemical pathways. The proteome of the closely related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was used as a control for the annotation procedure (4’974 genes, 14.1% mapped). About two thirds of the mapped peptides of each organism (65.7% and 73.2%, respectively) corresponded to crucial enzymes for the basal metabolism and standard cellular processes. However, the proportion of P. carinii genes relative to those of S. pombe was significantly smaller for the “amino acid metabolism” category of pathways than for all other categories taken together (40 versus 114 against 278 versus 427, P<0.002). Importantly, we identified in P. carinii only 2 enzymes specifically dedicated to the synthesis of the 20 standard amino acids. By contrast all the 54 enzymes dedicated to this synthesis reported in the KEGG atlas for S. pombe were detected upon reannotation of S. pombe proteome (2 versus 54 against 278 versus 427, P<0.0001). This finding strongly suggests that species of the genus Pneumocystis are scavenging amino acids from their host's lung environment. Consequently, they would have no form able to live independently from another organism, and these parasites would be obligate in addition to being opportunistic. These findings have implications for the management of patients susceptible to P. jirovecii infection given that the only source of infection would be other humans. PMID:21188143

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Reiko [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Shafiqul, Islam Md. [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ozaki, Hiroshi [Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ushio, Hideki [Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 5-7 Konan 4, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan)]. E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. Changes in phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in Thai rice husk at five growth stages during grain development.

    PubMed

    Butsat, Sunan; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2009-06-10

    Soluble and bound phenolic acids were isolated from Thai rice husk samples at five growth stages during grain development, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. The results showed that ferulic acid was the major soluble phenolic acid in husk at all stages, and its concentration decreased steadily during grain development. The ratio of ferulic to p-coumaric acid was approximately 2:1 at all stages. The most abundant bound phenolic acid in all extracts was p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic acid along with traces of syringic, vanilic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. Most of the antioxidant activities of soluble and bound phenolic acids in husk extracts were found at flowering stage, and there were high correlations of antioxidant activity to levels of soluble ferulic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids. PMID:19432451

  7. Modified lignin in tobacco and poplar plants over-expressing the Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Franke, R; McMichael, C M; Meyer, K; Shirley, A M; Cusumano, J C; Chapple, C

    2000-05-01

    Ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of ferulic acid, coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol in the pathways leading to sinapic acid and syringyl lignin biosynthesis. Earlier studies in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that F5H over-expression increases lignin syringyl monomer content and abolishes the tissue-specificity of its deposition. To determine whether this enzyme has a similar regulatory role in plants that undergo secondary growth, we over-expressed the F5H gene in tobacco and poplar. In tobacco, over-expression of F5H under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter increased lignin syringyl monomer content in petioles, but had no detectable effect on lignification in stems. By contrast, when the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter was used to drive F5H expression, there was a significant increase in stem lignin syringyl monomer content. Yields of thioglycolic acid and Klason lignin in C4H-F5H lines were lower than in the wild-type, suggesting that F5H over-expression leads to a reduced deposition or an altered extractability of lignin in the transgenic plants. Histochemical analysis suggested that the novel lignin in C4H-F5H transgenic lines was altered in its content of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Transgenic poplar trees carrying the C4H-F5H transgene also displayed enhanced lignin syringyl monomer content. Taken together, these data show that hydroxylation of guaiacyl-substituted lignin precursors controls lignin monomer composition in woody plants, and that F5H over-expression is a viable metabolic engineering strategy for modifying lignin biosynthesis in forest species. PMID:10849340

  8. Secretome analysis identifies potential virulence factors of Diplodia corticola, a fungal pathogen involved in cork oak (Quercus suber) decline.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Isabel; Alves, Artur; Correia, António; Devreese, Bart; Esteves, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The characterisation of the secretome of phytopathogenic fungi may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. This is particularly relevant for Diplodia corticola, a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, whose genome remains unsequenced. This phytopathogenic fungus is recognised as one of the most important pathogens of cork oak, being related to the decline of cork oak forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately, secretome analysis of filamentous fungi is limited by the low protein concentration and by the presence of many interfering substances, such as polysaccharides, which affect the separation and analysis by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. We compared six protein extraction protocols concerning their suitability for further application with proteomic workflows. The protocols involving protein precipitation were the most efficient, with emphasis on TCA-acetone protocol, allowing us to identify the most abundant proteins on the secretome of this plant pathogen. Approximately 60% of the spots detected were identified, all corresponding to extracellular proteins. Most proteins identified were carbohydrate degrading enzymes and proteases that may be related to D. corticola pathogenicity. Although the secretome was assessed in a noninfection environment, potential virulence factors such as the putative glucan-?-glucosidase, neuraminidase, and the putative ferulic acid esterase were identified. The data obtained forms a useful basis for a deeper understanding of the pathogenicity and infection biology of D. corticola. Moreover, it will contribute to the development of proteomics studies on other members of the Botryosphaeriaceae. PMID:24863480

  9. [Fungal allergy - fungal ecology in dwelling environments].

    PubMed

    Takatori, K

    2001-01-01

    Fungi related to allergies are commonly found in dwelling environments. The predominant fungi Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Wallemia and Rhodotorula live mainly in indoor air, house dust (HD), futons, clothes and contaminated building materials. Fungi in HD are especially important allergens. The fungal CFU and predominant fungi in HD are 10(4) - 10(6)/g and are composed of xerophilic or osmophilic species Aspergillus restrictus, Wallemia and Eurotium but not many yeasts and actinomycetes. Fungal contamination of materials is a serious human health problem because the fungal cells scatter from the materials in the air or HD. The biological activities by fungi also have health implications from the viewpoint of fungal allergens. In this paper, fungal germination, enzyme activities, contaminating cell form and viable or nonviable cells are also discussed. PMID:11479530

  10. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Posada; M. Catherine Aime; Monica Pava-Ripoll; Francisco Infante; Stephen A. Rehner

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens.Our research program is aimed at using fungal endophytes-mediated plant defense as a novel biological control mechanism against the coffee berry borer, the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. A survey of fungal endophytes in

  11. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  12. Oxygenation by COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) of 3-HETE (3-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), a fungal mimetic of arachidonic acid, produces a cascade of novel bioactive 3-hydroxyeicosanoids

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Cyclo-oxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) catalyse the oxygenation of AA (arachidonic acid) and related polyunsaturated fatty acids to endoperoxide precursors of prostanoids. COX-1 is referred to as a constitutive enzyme involved in haemostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The fungus Dipodascopsis uninucleata has been shown by us to convert exogenous AA into 3(R)-HETE [3(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid]. 3R-HETE is stereochemically identical with AA, except that a hydroxy group is attached at its C-3 position. Molecular modelling studies with 3-HETE and COX-1/2 revealed a similar enzyme–substrate structure as reported for AA and COX-1/2. Here, we report that 3-HETE is an appropriate substrate for COX-1 and -2, albeit with a lower activity of oxygenation than AA. Oxygenation of 3-HETE by COX-2 produced a novel cascade of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids, as identified with EI (electron impact)–GC–MS, LC–MS–ES (electrospray) and LC–MS–API (atmospheric pressure ionization) methods. Evidence for in vitro production of 3-hydroxy-PGE2 (3-hydroxy-prostaglandin E2) was obtained upon infection of HeLa cells with Candida albicans at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 100. Analogous to interaction of AA and aspirin-treated COX-2, 3-HETE was transformed by acetylated COX-2 to 3,15-di-HETE (3,15-dihydroxy-HETE), whereby C-15 showed the (R)-stereochemistry. 3-Hydroxy-PGs are potent biologically active compounds. Thus 3-hydroxy-PGE2 induced interleukin-6 gene expression via the EP3 receptor (PGE2 receptor 3) in A549 cells, and raised cAMP levels via the EP4 receptor in Jurkat cells. Moreover, 3R,15S-di-HETE triggered the opening of the K+ channel in HTM (human trabecular meshwork) cells, as measured by the patch–clamp technique. Since many fatty acid disorders are associated with an ‘escape’ of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from the ?-oxidation cycle, the production of 3-hydroxyeicosanoids may be critical in modulation of effects of endogenously produced eicosanoids. PMID:15869467

  13. PHENOLIC ACIDS PROFILES OF BEANS COMMONLY CONSUMED IN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids were saponified, extracted and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography procedure with diode array detection (DAD). Three phenolic acids namely, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were detected and quantified in all dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly con...

  14. The sfe Maize Mutant: Reduced Ferulate Cross Linking Improves Rumen Cell Wall Degradability and Milk Production by Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A putative mutant has been identified in maize that reduces ferulate cross linking of lignin to arabinoxylan in mature stover, increases in vitro rumen cell wall degradability, and increases milk production by cows. The seedling ferulate ester (sfe) mutant was discovered in a Mu transposon-mutated p...

  15. Differential Effects of Methoxylated p-Coumaric Acids on Melanoma in B16/F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hoon Seok; Lee, Nam-Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Shin, Dong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    As an approach to search for chemopreventive agents, we tested p-coumaric acid, 3-methoxy-p-coumaric acid (ferulic acid), and 3,5-dimethoxy-p-coumaric acid (sinapic acid) in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Intracellular melanin contents were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and cytotoxicity of the compounds were examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. p-Coumaric acid showed inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but ferulic acid increased melanin content, and sinapic acid had almost no effect on melanogenesis. Treatment with ferulic acid resulted in a 2 to 3 fold elevation in the production of melanin. Correlatively, cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner when treated with ferulic acid. However, ferulic acid did not affect the LDH release from the cells. Treatment with sinapic acid resulted in a 50~60% elevation in the release of LDH when treated with a 200 ?g/mL concentration and showed neither cytostasis nor increase of melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, p-coumaric acid inhibits melanogenesis, ferulic acid induces melanogenesis, and sinapic acid exerts cytotoxic effects in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. The results indicate that the addition of methoxy groups to p-coumaric acid shows the melanogenic or cytotoxic effects in melanoma cells compared to the original compound. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility that methoxylated p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid can be used as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:25866753

  16. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important. PMID:9016374

  17. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections Even though you’re staying ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in hospitalized patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  18. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections As a cancer patient, you ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  19. Improved solid phase extraction of ferulate phytosterol esters from corn distiller's dried grain extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently reported on the retention of valuable phytochemicals such as ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols (T), and tocotrienols (T3) in solvent and CO2 extracts of distillers dried grains (DDG). However, the extraction and purification of these phytochemicals, especially FPE, from the...

  20. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

  1. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know where or how you got a fungal nail infection. A warm, wet place is a good place for a fungus to grow. If you often wear heavy work ... in locker rooms, you can pick up a fungus from the warm, wet floors. ... fungal infections in their nails at the same time. This can happen because ...

  2. Fungal and Bacterial Diseases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial diseases are important constraints to production. Recognition of diseases and information on their biology is important in disease management. This chapter is aimed at providing diagnostic information on fungal and bacterial diseases of sugar beet and their biology, epidemiolo...

  3. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by caffeic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirella Nardini; Massimo D'Aquino; Gianni Tomassi; Vincenzo Gentili; Maurizio Di Felice; Cristina Scaccini

    1995-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the major phenols derived from hydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids) on in vitro LDL oxidation was screened, using Cu2+ as catalyst. The presence of the second phenolic hydroxy group enhanced the inhibitory effect of these compounds. In fact, at 5 ?M concentration, only caffeic acid completely protected LDL from modification as measured as conjugated

  4. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  5. Sorption–desorption of phenolic acids as affected by soil properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Cecchi; William C. Koskinen; H. H. Cheng; Konrad Haider

    2004-01-01

    Phenolic acids have been implicated in the process of allelopathy and are, therefore, of interest in plant management as a basis for new herbicide structures. The potential bioavailability of phenolic acids is controlled by sorption–desorption processes in soil. Sorption–desorption of p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), ferulic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid), veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid), vanillic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hydroxybenzoic

  6. Stability of lipid encapsulated phenolic acid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric acids are potential bioactive additives for use in animal feeds to replace current antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. These compounds are ubiquitous in plants and may be obtained from commodity grain crops and waste biomass. Encapsulation...

  7. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  8. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

  9. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  10. Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorders. In the most common form of fungal nail infections, fungus grows under the growing portion of the nail ... doctor may perform testing, such as scraping a nail to examine for fungi or clipping a nail to look for bacterial ...

  11. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Ringworm Beard Ringworm Dermatophytid Reaction Tinea Versicolor Intertrigo Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Fungal Skin Infections 4 ...

  12. Fungal Biofilm Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Gordon; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Williams, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Fungal biofilm infections have become increasingly recognised as a significant clinical problem. One of the major reasons behind this is the impact that these have upon treatment, as antifungal therapy often fails and surgical intervention is required. This places a large financial burden on health care providers. This paper aims to illustrate the importance of fungal biofilms, particularly Candida albicans, and discusses some of the key fungal biofilm resistance mechanisms that include, extracellular matrix (ECM), efflux pump activity, persisters, cell density, overexpression of drug targets, stress responses, and the general physiology of the cell. The paper demonstrates the multifaceted nature of fungal biofilm resistance, which encompasses some of the newest data and ideas in the field. PMID:22518145

  13. Fungal Diagnostics in Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Erika D.; Alexander, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. While standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstay of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serologic and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This chapter will review the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  14. Biosynthesis of Fungal Polyketides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Schuemann; Christian Hertweck

    \\u000a Fungal polyketides comprise a diverse group of secondary metabolites that play an important role for drug discovery, as pigments,\\u000a and as mycotoxins. Their biosynthesis is governed by multidomain enzymes, so-called fungal type I polyketide synthases (PKS).\\u000a Investigating the molecular basis of polyketide biosynthesis in fungi is of great importance for ecological and pharmacological\\u000a reasons. Cloning, functional analysis and expression of

  15. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters represent hotspots for the generation of fungal metabolic diversity. PMID:25474404

  16. Correlation of phenolic acid content of maize to resistance to Sitophilus zeamais , the maize weevil, in CIMMYT'S collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Classen; J. T. Arnason; J. A. Serratos; J. D. H. Lambert; C. Nozzolillo; B. J. R. Philogéne

    1990-01-01

    The (E)-ferulic acid content of the grain of nine populations of land races of maize derived from CIMMYT's collections was found to be negatively correlated to susceptibility characteristics towards the maize weevilSitophilus zeamais. Correlation coefficients for six susceptibility parameters and (E)-ferulic acid content were significant and ranged from -0.58 to -0.79. A multiple regression analysis by the SAS forward procedure

  17. Initial reactions in the fungal degradation of guaiacylglycerol-?-coniferyl ether, a lignin substructure model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Katayama; Fumiaki Nakatsubo; Takayoshi Higuchi

    1980-01-01

    Fusarium solani M-13-1 was shake-cultured in a medium containing guaiacylglycerol-ß-coniferyl ether (I), a model compound representing the arylglycerol-ß-aryl ether linkage in lignin, as sole carbon source. From the culture filtrate guaiacylglycerol-ß-coniferyl aldehyde ether (II) and guaiacylglycerol-ß-ferulic acid ether (III) were isolated as metabolic products. Incubation with (III) resulted in formation of guaiacylglycerol-ß-vanillin ether (IV), which was further metabolized to guaiacyglycerol-ß-vanillic

  18. Monolignol ferulate transferase introduces chemically labile linkages into the lignin backbone.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, C G; Mansfield, S D; Lu, F; Withers, S; Park, J-Y; Karlen, S D; Gonzales-Vigil, E; Padmakshan, D; Unda, F; Rencoret, J; Ralph, J

    2014-04-01

    Redesigning lignin, the aromatic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, to be more amenable to chemical depolymerization can lower the energy required for industrial processing. We have engineered poplar trees to introduce ester linkages into the lignin polymer backbone by augmenting the monomer pool with monolignol ferulate conjugates. Herein, we describe the isolation of a transferase gene capable of forming these conjugates and its xylem-specific introduction into poplar. Enzyme kinetics, in planta expression, lignin structural analysis, and improved cell wall digestibility after mild alkaline pretreatment demonstrate that these trees produce the monolignol ferulate conjugates, export them to the wall, and use them during lignification. Tailoring plants to use such conjugates during cell wall biosynthesis is a promising way to produce plants that are designed for deconstruction. PMID:24700858

  19. Engineering of a 3'-sulpho-Gal?1-4GlcNAc-specific probe by a single amino acid substitution of a fungal galectin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Hang; Tateno, Hiroaki; Nakakita, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Takashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yao, Xinsheng; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Among sulphated glycans, little is known about 3'-sulphation because of the lack of useful probes. In the course of molecular engineering of a fungal galectin from Agrocybe cylindracea, we found that a single substitution of Glu86 with alanine resulted in acquisition of specific binding for the 3'-sulpho-Gal?1-4GlcNAc structure. Extensive glyco-technological analysis revealed that this property was obtained in a 'loss-of-function' manner. Though this mutant (E86A) had low total affinity, it showed substantial binding to a naturally occurring N-glycan, of which the terminal galactose is 3-sulphated. Moreover, E86A specifically bound to HeLa cells, in which galactose-3-O-sulfotransferases (Gal3ST2 or Gal3ST3) were over-expressed. PMID:25762728

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of steryl ferulate on experimental rats with non-bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinzhou; Xiong, Lina; Huang, Weisu; Cai, Huafang; Luo, Yanxi; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Baiyi

    2014-06-01

    Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways. PMID:24686498

  1. Effects of phenolic acids on seed germination and seedling growth in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Krogmeier; J. M. Bremner

    1989-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the adverse effect of plant residues on crop yields is largely or partly due to phytotoxic compounds leached from these residues or produced by their decomposition. There has been substantial support for the hypothesis that the phytotoxic compounds responsible for reduced crop yields are phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid.

  2. Subcutaneous (deep) fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Elgart, George W

    2014-09-01

    Fungal infection is a common clinical problem in dermatology. While most cases in practice are superficial infections, invasive subcutaneous mycoses are important to recognize and treat, as these conditions often have significant morbidity and mortality. Deep fungi demonstrate species-specific syndromes and may be identified by clinical and histological features in addition to serological evaluation and culture. Identification of the common innoculation subcutaneous mycoses, as well as those associated with pulmonary primary infection and dissemination to the skin is important, as treatments vary by organism and clinical setting. This overview will help to identify the key dermatological presentations of subcutaneous fungal infection, and the clues they give to cause. PMID:25577856

  3. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  4. FUNGAL PHYTOTOXINS: PERSPECTIVES AND PROMISES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal phytotoxins have facilitated advances in our understanding of numerous phenomena in plant and fungal physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. During the past few decades, phytotoxins have been employed as tools contributing to fundamental discoveries in plant pathogenesis, h...

  5. Eurocin, a New Fungal Defensin

    PubMed Central

    Oeemig, Jesper S.; Lynggaard, Carina; Knudsen, Daniel H.; Hansen, Frederik T.; Nørgaard, Kent D.; Schneider, Tanja; Vad, Brian S.; Sandvang, Dorthe H.; Nielsen, Line A.; Neve, Søren; Kristensen, Hans-Henrik; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Otzen, Daniel E.; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a new class of antibiotics that are promising for pharmaceutical applications because they have retained efficacy throughout evolution. One class of antimicrobial peptides are the defensins, which have been found in different species. Here we describe a new fungal defensin, eurocin. Eurocin acts against a range of Gram-positive human pathogens but not against Gram-negative bacteria. Eurocin consists of 42 amino acids, forming a cysteine-stabilized ?/?-fold. The thermal denaturation data point shows the disulfide bridges being responsible for the stability of the fold. Eurocin does not form pores in cell membranes at physiologically relevant concentrations; it does, however, lead to limited leakage of a fluorophore from small unilamellar vesicles. Eurocin interacts with detergent micelles, and it inhibits the synthesis of cell walls by binding equimolarly to the cell wall precursor lipid II. PMID:23093408

  6. Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rishi Gupta; Girija Mehta; Yogender Pal Khasa; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

    2011-01-01

    The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated\\u000a for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the\\u000a P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%,

  7. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

  8. Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. PMID:18849463

  9. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections. PMID:25141493

  10. Systemic fungal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S Harrison; Annemarie E Brouwer

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of systemic fungal infections has increased over the last two decades. Two new antifungal agents have been recently licensed. Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole available in intravenous and oral preparations. In treatment of invasive aspergillosis, it was associated with higher survival at 12 weeks, and fewer drug-related adverse events compared with starting therapy with amphotericin B deoxycholate. Caspofungin

  11. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  12. Immunobiology of Fungal Allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viswanath P. Kurup; Horng-Der Shen; Hari Vijay

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid in obtaining purified relevant allergens from fungi associated with allergy. Using molecular biology techniques, a number of mold allergens have been obtained by cloning the genes encoding the allergens. Currently, about 70 fungal allergens have been approved by the International Allergen Nomenclature Committee. In this review, we have presented major allergens from

  13. Rapid Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification-Molecular Beacon Platform To Detect Fungal and Bacterial Bloodstream Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanan Zhao; Steven Park; Barry N. Kreiswirth; Christine C. Ginocchio; Raphael Veyret; Ali Laayoun; Alain Troesch; David S. Perlin

    2009-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful patient out- comes are diminished by a failure to rapidly diagnose these infections and initiate appropriate therapy. A rapid and reliable diagnostic platform of high sensitivity is needed for the management of patients with BSIs. The combination of an RNA-dependent nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and molecular beacon (NASBA-

  14. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  15. Unusual fungal niches.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments. PMID:21700639

  16. Fungal Biosorption and Biosorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiruvenkatachari Viraraghavan; Asha Srinivasan

    \\u000a The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters\\u000a such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pretreatment of biomass, presence of various ligands\\u000a in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. The cell-wall fraction of biomass plays an important role in the sorption\\u000a of heavy metals. The

  17. Artificial biosynthesis of phenylpropanoic acids in a tyrosine overproducing Escherichia coli strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The phenylpropanoid metabolites are an extremely diverse group of natural products biosynthesized by plants, fungi, and bacteria. Although these compounds are widely used in human health care and nutrition services, their availability is limited by regional variations, and isolation of single compounds from plants is often difficult. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled artificial production of plant secondary metabolites in microorganisms. Results We develop an Escherichia coli system containing an artificial biosynthetic pathway that yields phenylpropanoic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, from simple carbon sources. These artificial biosynthetic pathways contained a codon-optimized tal gene that improved the productivity of 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, but not caffeic acid in a minimal salt medium. These heterologous pathways extended in E. coli that had biosynthesis machinery overproducing tyrosine. Finally, the titers of 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid reached 974 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 196 mg/L, respectively, in shake flasks after 36-hour cultivation. Conclusions We achieved one gram per liter scale production of 4-coumaric acid. In addition, maximum titers of 150 mg/L of caffeic acid and 196 mg/L of ferulic acid were achieved. Phenylpropanoic acids, such as 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, have a great potential for pharmaceutical applications and food ingredients. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production and opens the possibility of microbial synthesis of more complex plant secondary metabolites derived from phenylpropanoic acids. PMID:23206756

  18. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  19. Fungal diseases of fish.

    PubMed

    Yanong, Roy P E

    2003-05-01

    Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed. PMID:12836630

  20. Small intestinal fungal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C

    2015-04-01

    Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is characterized by the presence of excessive number of fungal organisms in the small intestine associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Candidiasis is known to cause GI symptoms particularly in immunocompromised patients or those receiving steroids or antibiotics. However, only recently, there is emerging literature that an overgrowth of fungus in the small intestine of non-immunocompromised subjects may cause unexplained GI symptoms. Two recent studies showed that 26 % (24/94) and 25.3 % (38/150) of a series of patients with unexplained GI symptoms had SIFO. The most common symptoms observed in these patients were belching, bloating, indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, and gas. The underlying mechanism(s) that predisposes to SIFO is unclear but small intestinal dysmotility and use of proton pump inhibitors has been implicated. However, further studies are needed; both to confirm these observations and to examine the clinical relevance of fungal overgrowth, both in healthy subjects and in patients with otherwise unexplained GI symptoms. Importantly, whether eradication or its treatment leads to resolution of symptoms remains unclear; at present, a 2-3-week course of antifungal therapy is recommended and may be effective in improving symptoms, but evidence for eradication is lacking. PMID:25786900

  1. Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishi; Mehta, Girija; Khasa, Yogender Pal; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2011-07-01

    The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%, and enriched their holocellulose content by 3.32 and 4.87%, respectively, after 15 days. The fungal delignification when scaled up from 10.0 g to 75.0, 200.0 and 500.0 g substrate level, the fungus degraded about 7.69-10.08% lignin in P. juliflora and 6.89-7.31% in L. camara, and eventually enhanced the holocellulose content by 2.90-3.97 and 4.25-4.61%, respectively. Furthermore, when the fungal fermented L. camara and P. juliflora was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid, the sugar release was increased by 21.4-42.4% and the phenolics content in hydrolysate was decreased by 18.46 and 19.88%, as compared to the unfermented substrate acid hydrolysis, respectively. The reduction of phenolics in acid hydrolysates of fungal treated substrates decreased the amount of detoxifying material (activated charcoal) by 25.0-33.0% as compared to the amount required to reduce almost the same level of phenolics from unfermented substrate hydrolysates. Moreover, an increment of 21.1-25.1% sugar release was obtained when fungal treated substrates were enzymatically hydrolysed as compared to the hydrolysis of unfermented substrates. This study clearly shows that fungal delignification holds potential in utilizing plant residues for the production of sugars and biofuels. PMID:20711746

  2. Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...

  3. Secreted Fungal Effector Lipase Releases Free Fatty Acids to Inhibit Innate Immunity-Related Callose Formation during Wheat Head Infection[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blümke, Antje; Falter, Christian; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Sode, Björn; Bode, Rainer; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Feussner, Ivo; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The deposition of the (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose at sites of attempted penetration is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant’s innate immunity. Infection of the Fusarium graminearum disruption mutant ?fgl1, which lacks the effector lipase FGL1, is restricted to inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikelets, whereas the wild-type strain colonized the whole wheat spike. Our studies here were aimed at analyzing the role of FGL1 in establishing full F. graminearum virulence. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy revealed that the ?fgl1 mutant strongly induced the deposition of spot-like callose patches in vascular bundles of directly inoculated spikelets, while these callose deposits were not observed in infections by the wild type. Elevated concentrations of the polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and ?-linolenic acid, which we detected in F. graminearum wild type-infected wheat spike tissue compared with ?fgl1-infected tissue, provided clear evidence for a suggested function of FGL1 in suppressing callose biosynthesis. These FFAs not only inhibited plant callose biosynthesis in vitro and in planta but also partially restored virulence to the ?fgl1 mutant when applied during infection of wheat spikelets. Additional FFA analysis confirmed that the purified effector lipase FGL1 was sufficient to release linoleic and ?-linolenic acids from wheat spike tissue. We concluded that these two FFAs have a major function in the suppression of the innate immunity-related callose biosynthesis and, hence, the progress of F. graminearum wheat infection. PMID:24686113

  4. Fungal Community Ecology: A Hybrid Beast with a Molecular Master

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kabir G. Peay (University of California at Berkeley; )

    2008-10-01

    Fungi play a major role in the function and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, directly influencing the structure of plant, animal, and bacterial communities through interactions that span the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Only with the advent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based molecular techniques, however, have researchers been able to look closely at the ecological forces that structure fungal communities. The recent explosion of molecular studies has greatly advanced our understanding of fungal diversity, niche partitioning, competition, spatial variability, and functional traits. Because of fungi's unique biology, fungal ecology is a hybrid beast that straddles the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. While the dual nature of this field presents many challenges, it also makes fungi excellent organisms for testing extant ecological theories, and it provides opportunities for new and unanticipated research. Many questions remain unanswered, but continuing advances in molecular techniques and field and lab experimentation indicate that fungal ecology has a bright future.

  5. Isolation of pyrrolocins A-C: cis- and trans-decalin tetramic acid antibiotics from an endophytic fungal-derived pathway.

    PubMed

    Jadulco, Raquel C; Koch, Michael; Kakule, Thomas B; Schmidt, Eric W; Orendt, Anita; He, Haiyin; Janso, Jeffrey E; Carter, Guy T; Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R

    2014-11-26

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1-3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1-3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135. PMID:25351193

  6. Biotransformation of Eugenol to Ferulic Acid by a Recombinant Strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorg Overhage; Alexander Steinbuchel; Horst Priefert

    2002-01-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is the charac- teristic aroma component of the vanilla pod and is used in a broad range of flavors for foods, confectionery, and beverages; as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes and cosmetics; and for pharmaceuticals. The main production of vanillin is done via chemical synthesis from guaiacol and lignin (9). The increasing customer-led demand for natural flavors has

  7. Cell wall fermentation kinetics are impacted more by lignin content and ferulate cross-linking than by lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We used a biomimetic model system to ascertain how reductions in ferulate-lignin cross-linking and shifts in lignin composition influence ruminal cell wall fermentation. Primary walls from maize cell suspensions with normal or reduced feruloylation were artificially lignified with variou...

  8. Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

    2006-10-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

  9. Conversion of isoeugenol into vanillic acid by Pseudomonas putida I58 cells exhibiting high isoeugenol-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hirotaka; Morita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Nagasawa, Toru

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida I58 was isolated from soil by a conventional enrichment culture method using isoeugenol as a sole carbon source. The strain utilized isoeugenol, vanillin and vanillic acid as carbon sources. On the other hand, the intermediates of the eugenol-degrading pathway, such as eugenol, coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, were not utilized by this strain, indicating that isoeugenol is directly degraded to vanillin without the formation of ferulic acid. The resting cells of P. putida I58 rapidly converted isoeugenol into vanillic acid via vanillin with a conversion yield of 98% by 40-min incubation. PMID:16233545

  10. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections As an organ transplant patient, ... of Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  11. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections As a stem cell transplant ... Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  12. Induction of apoptosis by fungal culture materials containing cyclopiazonic acid and T-2 toxin in primary lymphoid organs of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, P Kamala; Vairamuthu, S; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Raj, G Dhinakar

    2005-04-01

    Thirty-six, twenty-eight-day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into three groups of 12 birds each. Two groups were fed diets containing 10 ppm cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 1ppm T-2 toxin, respectively, to determine the mechanism of cell death in spleen and thymus at 6, 12, 24, and 36 h of post-treatment. The other group served as control. T-2 toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in thymus with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment where as, no significant differences were observed between the control and CPA groups. The CPA toxin treated group showed significant (P < 0.01) induction of apoptosis in spleen with peak induction at 24 h post-treatment. No significant differences were observed between the control and T-2 toxin group even though the latter showed a slight increase in the quantity of apoptotic cells at 36 h post-treatment in spleen. The semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue from the spleen of CPA treated group exhibited crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope and shrinkage of lymphoid cells without any surrounding inflammation, the characteristics of apoptosis. The apoptotic thymocytes from T-2 fed birds appeared shrunken with condensed nucleus and showed crescent margination of chromatin against the nuclear envelope without any surrounding inflammation when compared with well-defined nuclei with dispersed chromatin in normal thymocytes. Ultrastructurally, splenocytes of the CPA treated group and thymocytes of the T-2 toxin treated birds showed apoptotic bodies characterized by crescent margination of the chromatin against the nuclear envelope. The study indicates that one route of the CPA and T-2 toxin induced cell death in lymphoid organs of broiler chicken is by apoptosis. PMID:15883725

  13. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups from water molds to basidiomycetes, yet there are a number of fungal groups with no entomopathogenic representative. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi including two of the most widely studied, ...

  14. Fungal fimbriae are composed of collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Celerin, M; Ray, J M; Schisler, N J; Day, A W; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Laudenbach, D E

    1996-01-01

    Fungal fimbriae are surface appendages that were first described on the haploid cells of the smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum. They are long (1-20 microm), narrow (7 nm) flexuous structures that have been implicated in cellular functions such as mating and pathogenesis. Since the initial description, numerous fungi from all five phyla have been shown to produce fimbriae on their extracellular surfaces. The present study analyses the protein component of M.violaceum fimbriae. The N-terminus and three internal amino acid sequences were determined. All four show a strong similarity to sequences which are characteristic of the collagen gene family. Enzymatic digests and immunochemical analyses support this finding. Based on these results, it is suggested that the proteinaceous subunits of fimbriae should be termed fungal collagens. Previously, collagen has been found only among members of the kingdom Animalia where it is the principal component of the animal extracellular matrix and is the most abundant animal protein. The unexpected finding of collagen in the members of the Mycota suggests that it may have evolved from a common ancestor that existed before the divergence of fungi and animals. Further, native fungal fimbriae can function as a mammalian extracellular matrix component. They can act as a substratum which permits animal cells to adhere, spread, and proliferate in a manner similar to animal collagens. The implications of this finding to both phylogeny and pathology are discussed. Images PMID:8887535

  15. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    White, C; Gadd, G M

    1990-01-01

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. Static-bed or stirred-bed bioreactors did not give satisfactory thorium removal probably because of poor mixing. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents with loading capacities of 0.5 and 0.6 mmol g-1 respectively (116 and 138 mg g-1) at an inflow thorium concentration of 3 mmol dm-3. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution (1 mol dm-3 HNO3) over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations (0.1-3 mmol dm-3). The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. PMID:1366965

  16. Phenolic acids of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose ( Oenothera biennis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zadernowski; M. Naczk; H. Nowak-Polakowska

    2002-01-01

    The composition of phenolic acids, both free and liberated from esters and glycosides, was determined in evening primrose\\u000a and borage seeds by GC and MS. The free phenolic acid fraction was predominant in these seeds. Protocatechuic acid was the\\u000a principal phenolic acid of the free and esterified phenolic acids in evening primrose seeds. Ferulic acid represented a high\\u000a proportion of

  17. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2014-10-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of ?-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, ?-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

  18. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002?mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  19. FungalRV: adhesin prediction and immunoinformatics portal for human fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The availability of sequence data of human pathogenic fungi generates opportunities to develop Bioinformatics tools and resources for vaccine development towards benefitting at-risk patients. Description We have developed a fungal adhesin predictor and an immunoinformatics database with predicted adhesins. Based on literature search and domain analysis, we prepared a positive dataset comprising adhesin protein sequences from human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The negative dataset consisted of proteins with high probability to function intracellularly. We have used 3945 compositional properties including frequencies of mono, doublet, triplet, and multiplets of amino acids and hydrophobic properties as input features of protein sequences to Support Vector Machine. Best classifiers were identified through an exhaustive search of 588 parameters and meeting the criteria of best Mathews Correlation Coefficient and lowest coefficient of variation among the 3 fold cross validation datasets. The "FungalRV adhesin predictor" was built on three models whose average Mathews Correlation Coefficient was in the range 0.89-0.90 and its coefficient of variation across three fold cross validation datasets in the range 1.2% - 2.74% at threshold score of 0. We obtained an overall MCC value of 0.8702 considering all 8 pathogens, namely, C. albicans, C. glabrata, A. fumigatus, B. dermatitidis, C. immitis, C. posadasii, H. capsulatum and P. brasiliensis thus showing high sensitivity and specificity at a threshold of 0.511. In case of P. brasiliensis the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 66.67%. A total of 307 fungal adhesins and adhesin like proteins were predicted from the entire proteomes of eight human pathogenic fungal species. The immunoinformatics analysis data on these proteins were organized for easy user interface analysis. A Web interface was developed for analysis by users. The predicted adhesin sequences were processed through 18 immunoinformatics algorithms and these data have been organized into MySQL backend. A user friendly interface has been developed for experimental researchers for retrieving information from the database. Conclusion FungalRV webserver facilitating the discovery process for novel human pathogenic fungal adhesin vaccine has been developed. PMID:21496229

  20. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  1. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy of atmospherically relevant bacterial and fungal spores and potential interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, S. E.; Putkiranta, M. J.; Keskinen, J.

    2013-06-01

    Single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study fluorescence properties of fungal spores and bacteria, selected for their possible atmospheric relevance. In addition, aromatic organic acid aerosols, potentially interfering with laser induced fluorescence measurement, were studied. The results indicate that fungal spores and bacteria have dissimilar fluorescence spectra. The tested aromatic organic acids had fluorescence properties rather similar to common biological molecules. It may be possible to classify atmospheric bacterial and fungal spores through the dissimilar fluorescence properties, but the influence of the potential interferences must be taken into account.

  3. Manufacturing and standardizing fungal allergen products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E Esch

    2004-01-01

    The importance of fungal allergen products in the practice of clinical allergy is frequently underestimated. A wide variety of fungal species have been demonstrated to elicit allergic symptoms and to sensitize patients. The quality of fungal allergen preparations might have a significant effect on the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Varying degrees of cross-reactivity have been shown among fungal

  4. Can fungal biopesticides control malaria? 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Matt B; Read, Andrew F

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has raised the prospect of using insect fungal pathogens for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In the past, microbial control of insect pests in both medical and agricultural sectors has generally had limited...

  5. Fungal Allergies: A Yet Unsolved Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Crameri; M. Weichel; A. Glaser; C. Rhyner

    2006-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores have been implicated as causative factors in respiratory allergy, particularly asthma. However, the prevalence of fungal sensitization is not known mainly due to the lack of standardized fungal extracts and to the overwhelming number of fungal species able to elicit IgE-mediated reactions. Recent work based on high-throughput cloning of fungal allergens revealed that fungi are able to

  6. Fungal dermatitis in captive pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Pollock, C G; Rohrbach, B; Ramsay, E C

    2000-09-01

    Fungal dermatitis was diagnosed in two captive gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) and four harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) between 1992 and 1994. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia spp., and Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica were isolated. Erythematous, thickened, alopecic skin lesions were present on the face and on the flippers, particularly around the nail bed. The two most important environmental factors associated with development of fungal dermatitis appeared to be excessive chlorination of pool water and warm water temperature. PMID:11237146

  7. Structural features of fungal genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phatthanaphong Wanchanthuek; Peter F. Hallin; Rodrigo Gouveia-Oliveira; David Ussery

    Eighteen fungal genomes have been sequenced to date from a variety of taxonomic groups, with fifteen Ascomycota, two Basidomycota and one Microsporidia species represented. The genomes vary in size more than tenfold, from approximately 2.5 Mbp to 38.8 Mbp. We have performed\\u000a a computational analysis of DNA structural features of all 18 fungal genomes. The sequenced genomes can be visualised

  8. Anthranilate-Activating Modules from Fungal Nonribosomal Peptide Assembly Lines†

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted ?-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. PMID:20225828

  9. Airborne fungal fragments and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett J; Tovey, Euan R; Sercombe, Jason K; Blachere, Francoise M; Beezhold, Donald H; Schmechel, Detlef

    2006-09-01

    Exposure to fungi, particularly in water damaged indoor environments, has been thought to exacerbate a number of adverse health effects, ranging from subjective symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive difficulties or memory loss to more definable diseases such as allergy, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Understanding the role of fungal exposure in these environments has been limited by methodological difficulties in enumerating and identifying various fungal components in environmental samples. Consequently, data on personal exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens are mainly based on the assessment of a few select and easily identifiable species. The contribution of other airborne spores, hyphae and fungal fragments to exposure and allergic sensitization are poorly characterized. There is increased interest in the role of aerosolized fungal fragments following reports that the combination of hyphal fragments and spore counts improved the association with asthma severity. These fragments are particles derived from any intracellular or extracellular fungal structure and are categorized as either submicron particles or larger fungal fragments. In vitro studies have shown that submicron particles of several fungal species are aerosolized in much higher concentrations (300-500 times) than spores, and that respiratory deposition models suggest that such fragments of Stachybotrys chartarum may be deposited in 230-250 fold higher numbers than spores. The practical implications of these models are yet to be clarified for human exposure assessments and clinical disease. We have developed innovative immunodetection techniques to determine the extent to which larger fungal fragments, including hyphae and fractured conidia, function as aeroallergen sources. These techniques were based on the Halogen Immunoassay (HIA), an immunostaining technique that detects antigens associated with individual airborne particles >1 microm, with human serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Our studies demonstrated that the numbers of total airborne hyphae were often significantly higher in concentration than conidia of individual allergenic genera. Approximately 25% of all hyphal fragments expressed detectable allergen and the resultant localization of IgE immunostaining was heterogeneous among the hyphae. Furthermore, conidia of ten genera that were previously uncharacterized could be identified as sources of allergens. These findings highlight the contribution of larger fungal fragments as aeroallergen sources and present a new paradigm of fungal exposure. Direct evidence of the associations between fungal fragments and building-related disease is lacking and in order to gain a better understanding, it will be necessary to develop diagnostic reagents and detection methods, particularly for submicron particles. Assays using monoclonal antibodies enable the measurement of individual antigens but interpretation can be confounded by cross-reactivity between fungal species. The recent development of species-specific monoclonal antibodies, used in combination with a fluorescent-confocal HIA technique should, for the first time, enable the speciation of morphologically indiscernible fungal fragments. The application of this novel method will help to characterize the contribution of fungal fragments to adverse health effects due to fungi and provide patient-specific exposure and sensitization profiles. PMID:17050446

  10. Fungal degradation of coal as a pretreatment for methane production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Akhtar, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    Coal conversion technologies can help in taking advantage of huge low rank coal reserves by converting those into alternative fuels like methane. In this regard, fungal degradation of coal can serve as a pretreatment step in order to make coal a suitable substrate for biological beneficiation. A fungal isolate MW1, identified as Penicillium chrysogenum on the basis of fungal ITS sequences, was isolated from a core sample of coal, taken from a well drilled by the US. Geological Survey in Montana, USA. The low rank coal samples, from major coal fields of Pakistan, were treated with MW1 for 7 days in the presence of 0.1% ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 0.1% glucose as a supplemental carbon source. Liquid extracts were analyzed through Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) to obtain qualitative estimates of solubilized coal; these analyses indicated the release of complex organic functionalities. In addition, GC–MS analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of single ring aromatics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic nitrogen compounds and aliphatics. Subsequently, the released organics were subjected to a bioassay for the generation of methane which conferred the potential application of fungal degradation as pretreatment. Additionally, fungal-mediated degradation was also prospected for extracting some other chemical entities like humic acids from brown coals with high huminite content especially from Thar, the largest lignite reserve of Pakistan.

  11. Sodium ferulate protects against daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Juan; Yu, Jing; Fang, Qiu-Juan; Lian, Jia-Bian; Wang, Rui-Xing; He, Rui-Lan; Lin, Mo-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Daunorubicin (DNR) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical use is limited because of its cardiotoxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), an effective component from traditional Chinese herbs, against DNR-induced cardiotoxicity in juvenile rats. DNR was administered intraperitoneally to rats at the dosage of 2.5 mg·kg(-1)·wk(-1) for 5 consecutive weeks (cumulative dose of 12.5 mg/kg) or in combination with intraperitoneal injection of SF at 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) over a period of 30 days. The animals were killed 6 days after the last injection of DNR. SF significantly ameliorated the DNR-induced cardiac dysfunction, structural damage of the myocardium, and release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Treatment with SF also reversed DNR-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde levels with a concomitant increase in myocardical superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, SF afforded significant cardioprotection against DNR-induced apoptosis in vivo and effectively suppressed the complex mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling triggered by DNR. This study indicates that SF may improve cardiac function by inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis, thus providing a beneficial effect on the prevention of DNR-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24336018

  12. Conversion of isoeugenol into vanillic acid by Pseudomonas putida I58 cells exhibiting high isoeugenol-degrading activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotaka Furukawa; Hiroshi Morita; Toyokazu Yoshida; Toru Nagasawa

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida I58 was isolated from soil by a conventional enrichment culture method using isoeugenol as a sole carbon source. The strain utilized isoeugenol, vanillin and vanillic acid as carbon sources. On the other hand, the intermediates of the eugenol-degrading pathway, such as eugenol, coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, were not utilized by this strain, indicating that isoeugenol

  13. Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari H Häkkinen; A. Riitta Törrönen

    2000-01-01

    The amounts of flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol) and phenolic acids (ellagic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids) were analysed in six strawberry cultivars and in the berries of genus Vaccinium (four blueberry cultivars, wild bilberry, wild bog whortleberry). Differences between strawberries from organic vs. conventional cultivation were investigated and the influence of geographical origin on phenolic compounds of strawberries and

  14. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 ?g/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene. PMID:24994472

  15. Fungal Secretome Database: Integrated platform for annotation of fungal secretomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fungi secrete various proteins that have diverse functions. Prediction of secretory proteins using only one program is unsatisfactory. To enhance prediction accuracy, we constructed Fungal Secretome Database (FSD). Description A three-layer hierarchical identification rule based on nine prediction programs was used to identify putative secretory proteins in 158 fungal/oomycete genomes (208,883 proteins, 15.21% of the total proteome). The presence of putative effectors containing known host targeting signals such as RXLX [EDQ] and RXLR was investigated, presenting the degree of bias along with the species. The FSD's user-friendly interface provides summaries of prediction results and diverse web-based analysis functions through Favorite, a personalized repository. Conclusions The FSD can serve as an integrated platform supporting researches on secretory proteins in the fungal kingdom. All data and functions described in this study can be accessed on the FSD web site at http://fsd.snu.ac.kr/. PMID:20146824

  16. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Mat?awska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method. PMID:20085226

  17. FSRD: fungal stress response database

    PubMed Central

    Karányi, Zsolt; Holb, Imre; Hornok, László; Pócsi, István; Miskei, Márton

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to different types of environmental stress is a common part of life for today’s fungi. A deeper understanding of the organization, regulation and evolution of fungal stress response systems may lead to the development of novel antifungal drugs and technologies or the engineering of industrial strains with elevated stress tolerance. Here we present the Fungal Stress Response Database (http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd) aimed to stimulate further research on stress biology of fungi. The database incorporates 1985 fungal stress response proteins with verified physiological function(s) and their orthologs identified and annotated in 28 species including human and plant pathogens, as well as important industrial fungi. The database will be extended continuously to cover other fully sequenced fungal species. Our database, as a starting point for future stress research, facilitates the analysis of literature data on stress and the identification of ortholog groups of stress response proteins in newly sequenced fungal genomes. Database URL: http://internal.med.unideb.hu/fsrd PMID:23757396

  18. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  19. Fungal type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Nonaka, Takamasa; Fujii, Isao

    2014-10-01

    This article covers the literature on fungal type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) published from 2005 to 2014. Since the first discovery of fungal type III PKS genes in Aspergillus oryzae, reported in 2005, putative genes for type III PKSs have been discovered in fungal genomes. Compared with type I PKSs, type III PKSs are much less abundant in fungi. However, type III PKSs could have some critical roles in fungi. This article summarizes the studies on fungal type III PKS functional analysis, including Neurospora crassa ORAS, Aspergillus niger AnPKS, Botrytis cinerea BPKS and Aspergillus oryzae CsyA and CsyB. It is mostly in vitro analysis using their recombinant enzymes that has revealed their starter and product specificities. Of these, CsyB was found to be a new kind of type III PKS that catalyses the coupling of two ?-keto fatty acyl CoAs. Homology modelling reported in this article supports the importance of the capacity of the acyl binding tunnel and active site cavity in fungal type III PKSs. PMID:25182423

  20. Chemotaxis and nod Gene Activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Response to Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Isoflavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Kape, Rüdiger; Parniske, Martin; Werner, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    For Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the chemotactic and the nod gene-inducing effects of hydroxycinnamic acids and two of their derivatives were compared with those of isoflavonoids. Only the hydroxycinnamic acids were strong chemoattractants, while the other substances tested were chemotactically inactive. Besides the known nod gene induction by isoflavonoids, a weak nod gene induction by coniferyl alcohol, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid was found. Images PMID:16348401

  1. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    PubMed Central

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution. PMID:21966249

  2. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Castón-Osorio, J J; Rivero, A; Torre-Cisneros, J

    2008-11-01

    Invasive fungal infection is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Furthermore, the use of azole prophylaxis against Candida species has coincided with an increase in the incidence of invasive aspergillosis and infections by other filamentous fungi such as Mucorales. New risk factors and different timescales for onset have been identified. Knowledge of changes in the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, invasive fungal infection is particularly important when developing therapeutic strategies and effective prophylaxis to improve the prognosis of immunosuppressed patients. PMID:19013332

  3. Fungal biotransformation of furanocoumarins by Aspergillus niger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a number of detoxification processes. Prevalent fungal detoxification pathways for aromatic compounds include the formation of sulfate and glycosidated conjugates. Such fungal metabolism has been extensively studied as models of mammalian metabo...

  4. Manufacturing and standardizing fungal allergen products.

    PubMed

    Esch, Robert E

    2004-02-01

    The importance of fungal allergen products in the practice of clinical allergy is frequently underestimated. A wide variety of fungal species have been demonstrated to elicit allergic symptoms and to sensitize patients. The quality of fungal allergen preparations might have a significant effect on the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Varying degrees of cross-reactivity have been shown among fungal genera, and the clinical relevance of this cross-reactivity has been neither fully appreciated nor applied to clinical practice. In addition, an increasing number of potentially new fungal allergen sources for which commercial extracts are not available are being identified. Manufacturers of allergen products have the formidable task of providing quality fungal allergen extracts that are routinely used for specific allergy diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Currently there are no standardized fungal allergen products available in the United States because of inherent difficulties with manufacturing and standardizing fungal extracts. Without intervention, progress will not be forthcoming. PMID:14767431

  5. Fungal cell wall vaccines: an update

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This discussion is intended to be an overview of current advances in the development of fungal cell wall vaccines with an emphasis on Candida; it is not a comprehensive historical review of all fungal cell wall vaccines. Selected, more recent, innovative strategies for developing fungal vaccines will be highlighted. Both scientific and logistical obstacles related to the development of, and clinical use of, fungal vaccines will be discussed. PMID:22267544

  6. The Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate and Oxymatrine Combination on Paraquat-induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Pei, Xiaokun; Xu, Mengxin; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Chunlei; Mu, Keying; Liu, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggested that sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) combination had synergistic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that SF and OMT combination treatment might have protective effects on paraquat-induced acute lung injury. In our study, the Swiss mice were randomly divided into seven groups, including control, paraquat (PQ), SF (6.2 mg/Kg/day); OMT (13.8 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (3.1 + 6.9; 6.2 + 13.8 and 12.3 + 27.7 mg/Kg/day). The mortality and death time were monitored. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups including control, PQ, SF (3.1 mg/Kg/day); OMT (6.9 mg/Kg/day) and three SF+OMT groups (1.6 + 3.4; 3.1 + 6.9 and 6.2 + 13.8 mg/Kg/day). The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, lung histopathologic changes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were analysed. Compared with PQ group, the mortality significantly decreased and the death time prolonged in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of mice. Also in SF and OMT combination treatment groups of rats, the increased lung W/D ratio and histopathological score induced by PQ injection were significantly decreased; the levels of CRP, IL-6, NF-?B and MDA in serum and lung homogenate were significantly decreased; the SOD activities in serum and lung homogenate were improved. These results suggested that SF and OMT combination had an obvious protective effect on PQ-induced lung injury. The anti-in?ammatory and antioxidant effect might be involved in the mechanism.

  7. A nonpermissive entomophthoralean fungal infection increases activation of insect prophenoloxidase

    PubMed

    Bidochka; Hajek

    1998-11-01

    Entomophaga maimaiga and Entomophaga aulicae are entomopathogenic fungi that show species-specific infection in Lepidoptera. These fungi grow as protoplasts in the hemolymph of permissive insect hosts. E. maimaiga infects gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar, and E. aulicae infects hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria. Cross-infections do not occur and are referred to as a nonpermissive response. We circumvented cuticular barriers and injected E. aulicae protoplasts into L. dispar and investigated factors which could potentially curtail entomophthoralean fungal infection in a nonpermissive host insect. There was no evidence of (i) restricted fungal growth in cell-free hemolymph of the nonpermissive host, (ii) fungal toxins specific to host insect, (iii) hemocyte encapsulation of fungal protoplasts in a nonpermissive or permissive infection, or (iv) fungal-specific induction of plasma proteins in L. dispar. However, higher levels of phenoloxidase activity for up to 96 h postchallenge, as well as a prophenoloxidase-activating trypsin activity, were observed for L. dispar challenged with E. aulicae when compared to an E. maimaiga challenge. Three isoforms of phenoloxidase (pI 5.0-5.5) and at least six isoforms of trypsin activity (four basic trypsins pI 8-10 and two acidic trypsins pI 4-6) with preferences for small amino acid residues were activated in L. dispar after challenge. In vitro prophenoloxidase activation experiments showed that treatment of L. dispar hemolymph with E. aulicae protoplast plasma membranes consistently resulted in higher prophenoloxidase activation than E. maimaiga. We suggest that differences in protoplastic components of Entomophaga species, such as the surface glycoproteins, are implicated in activation of zymogenic trypsins in the insect which in turn activate the prophenoloxidase cascade as a nonpermissive response. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9784345

  8. Gene targets for fungal and mycotoxin control.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Campbell, B C; Molyneux, R; Mahoney, N; Chan, K L; Yu, J; Wilkinson, J; Cary, J; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E

    2006-03-01

    It was initially shown that gallic acid, from hydrolysable tannins in the pelliele of walnut kernels, dramatically inhibits biosynthesis of aflatoxin byAspergillus flavus. The mechanism of this inhibition was found to take place upstream from the gene cluster, including the regulatory gene,aflR, involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Additional research using other antioxidant phenolics showed similar antiaflatoxigenic activity to gallic acid. Treatment ofA. flavus withtert-butyl hydroperoxide resulted in an almost doubling of aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to untreated samples. Thus, antioxidative response systems are potentially useful molecular targets for control ofA. flavus. A high throughput screening system was developed using yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model fungus. This screening provided an avenue to quickly identify fungal genes that were vulnerable to treatment by phenolic compounds. The assay also provided a means to quickly assess effects of combinations of phenolics and certain fungicides affecting mitochondrial respiration. For example, theS. cerevisiae sod2† mutant was highly sensitive to treatment by certain phenolics and strobilurins/antimycin A, fungicides which inhibit complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Verification of stress to this system in the target fungus,A. flavus, was shown through complementation analysis, wherein the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene (sodA) ofA. flavus in the ortholog mutant,sod2†, ofS. cerevisiae, relieved phenolic-induced stress. Mitochondrial antioxidative stress systems play an important role in fungal response to antifungals. Combined treatment of fungi with phenolics and inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration can effectively suppress growth ofA. flavus in a synergistic fashion. PMID:23605494

  9. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  11. The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Ursula Denk; Verena Pöll; Raphaela Rid; Michael Breitenbach

    2008-01-01

    Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and\\/or mycelial cells may

  12. Biomineralization and formulation of endosulfan degrading bacterial and fungal consortiums.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam

    2014-11-01

    Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants and in this study, a microbial consortium consisting of bacterial strains and fungal strains were originally obtained from endosulfan contaminated agricultural soils. Identification of the bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA sequences revealed the isolates to be Halophilic bacterium JAS4, Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5, and Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, whereas the fungal isolates were identified by 18S rRNA sequences and the isolates were Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6, Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 and Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12. The biodegradation of endosulfan was monitored by using HPLC and FTIR analysis. The bacterial and fungal consortium could degrade 1000?mg l(-1) of endosulfan efficiently in aqueous medium and in soil. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded samples in the aqueous medium by bacterial and fungal consortium showed bands at 1400 and 950?cm(-1) which are the characteristics of COOH group and acid dimer band respectively. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used for the formulation of microbial consortium and to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains. PMID:25454517

  13. Fungal allergies: a yet unsolved problem.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto; Weichel, Michael; Flückiger, Sabine; Glaser, Andreas G; Rhyner, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores have been implicated as causative factors in respiratory allergy, particularly asthma. However, the prevalence of fungal sensitization is not known mainly due to the lack of standardized fungal extracts and to the overwhelming number of fungal species able to elicit IgE-mediated reactions. Recent work based on high-throughput cloning of fungal allergens revealed that fungi are able to produce extremely complex repertoires of species-specific and cross-reactive allergens. There is evidence that fungal sensitization also contributes to auto-reactivity against self-antigens due to shared epitopes with homologous fungal allergens. Detailed studies at structural and immunological level indicate molecular mimicry as a basic mechanism involved in perpetuation of severe chronic allergic diseases. The real challenge at present is not related to cloning or production of a large number of different fungal allergens but rather to the assessment of the clinical relevance of each single structure. To date, substitution of complex extracts presently used in the diagnosis of fungal allergy by single, perfectly standardized components seems feasible in contrast to specific immunotherapy which is still not developed. Recombinant fungal allergens might create new perspectives in diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:16354954

  14. [Fungal keratitis: review of diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Mellado, Felipe; Rojas, Tomás; Cumsille, Cristián

    2013-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is a characteristic infection upon tropical zones, associated with vegetal trauma. Doubt exists about the best diagnostic test and the effectiveness of available treatment. Which is the best diagnostic method for fungal keratitis? And, which is the best management? Fungal culture remains as diagnostic gold standard of fungal elements. As of treatment, natamycin and amphotericin B are the most popular drugs for fungal keratitis and they have not shown effectiveness in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. Voriconazole showed effectiveness and security in multiple fungal infections. It may be the drug of choice in optimal conditions, because of its better ocular penetration and wider coverage. However, its high price difficult general application. This review establishes management recommendations and the need to perform studies that address cost-effectiveness analysis of voriconazole for fungal keratitis. PMID:23812531

  15. Factors affecting phenolic acid liberation from rice grains in the sake brewing process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Nakayama, Airi; Ito, Masaya; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic acid (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) liberation from rice grains was examined using rice samples containing phenolic acid at different levels, using two sake mash simulated digestion tests to elucidate influencing factors. Phenolic acid levels in a digest made from steamed rice using dialyzed rice koji enzymes were smaller than levels in a rice koji self-digest. Differences in phenolic acid levels among rice samples in the rice koji self-digest were larger than levels in a digest of steamed rice. In the rice koji self-digest, phenolic acid levels in the ingredient rice grains or in the formed digest related to feruloylesterase (FE) activity in the rice koji. Addition of exogenous FE to rice koji self-digestion increased phenolic acid levels, while addition of xylanase (Xyl) showed weak effects. A concerted effect of FE and Xyl was not clearly observed. Addition of ferulic acid to koji made from ?-rice grains raised FE activity, but it did not increase the activity of other enzymes. A similar phenomenon was observed in an agar plate culture of koji mold. These results indicated that ferulic acid levels in ingredient rice grains correlate with FE activities of koji, as a resulut, they affect the phenolic acid levels in sake mash. PMID:24962084

  16. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  17. Physical properties of fungal chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Ping Wang; Yu-Min Du; Xiao-Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are promising alternative sources of chitosan. This study evaluated the physical properties of fungal chitosan from\\u000a Absidia coerulea (AF 93105), Mucor rouxii (Ag 92033), and Rhizopus oryzae (Ag 92033). FT-IR and X-ray diffraction of the extracted products showed typical chitosan peak distributions which confirmed\\u000a the extracted products to be chitosan. All of their glucosamine contents and degrees of deacetylation

  18. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  19. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  20. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmächer, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy. PMID:22485108

  1. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  2. Succinic acid production from wheat using a biorefining strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenyu Du; Sze Ki Carol Lin; Apostolis Koutinas; Ruohang Wang; Colin Webb

    2007-01-01

    The biosynthesis of succinic acid from wheat flour was investigated in a two-stage bio-process. In the first stage, wheat\\u000a flour was converted into a generic microbial feedstock either by fungal fermentation alone or by combining fungal fermentation\\u000a for enzyme and fungal bio-mass production with subsequent flour hydrolysis and fungal autolysis. In the second stage, the\\u000a generic feedstock was converted into

  3. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-?-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-?-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  4. Dietary effects of arachidonate-rich fungal oil and fish oil on murine hepatic and hippocampal gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin Berger; David M Mutch; J Bruce German; Matthew A Roberts

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The functions, actions, and regulation of tissue metabolism affected by the consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil and other sources remain poorly understood; particularly how LC-PUFAs affect transcription of genes involved in regulating metabolism. In the present work, mice were fed diets containing fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, fungal oil

  5. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

  6. Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs. PMID:23469260

  7. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter; Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

  8. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  9. QUANTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INFECTION OF SOYBEAN SEED USING ERGOSTEROL AS AN INDICATOR OF FUNGAL BIOMASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between ergosterol content and biomass of two fungal pathogens, Diaporthe paseolorum (DPM) and Cercospora Kikuchii (CKNC) was estimated. Biomass was manipulated by varying incubation period. Ergosterol was quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fungal dry mass ...

  10. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  11. Potential of Evening Primrose, Borage, Black Currant, and Fungal Oils in Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Edward Barre

    2001-01-01

    Evening primrose (EPO), borage (BO), black currant (BCO), and fungal (FUO) oils are receiving increasing attention for their potential in human medicine. In part, this interest arises from the conversion of ?-linolenic acid [GLA, 18:3 (n–6)], contained in the oils (table 1), to dihomo-?-linolenic acid [DGLA, 20:3 (n–6)] and in the case of BCO and sometimes FUO, ?-linolenic acid [ALA

  12. Invasive Fungal Sinusitis of the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Park, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to present the clinical outcome of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus and to analyze clinical factors influencing patient survival. Methods A retrospective review of 12 cases of invasive fungal sphenoiditis was conducted. Results Cases were divided into acute fulminant invasive fungal spheonoidits (n=4) and chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis (n=8). The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (n=9). The most common presenting symptoms and signs included visual disturbance (100%). Intracranial extension was observed in 8 patients. Endoscopic debridement and intravenous antifungals were given to all patients. Fatal aneurysmal rupture of the internal carotid artery occurred suddenly in two patients. The mortality rate was 100% for patients with acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis and 25% for patients with chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis. In survival analysis, intracranial extension was evaluated as a statistically significant factor (P=0.027). Conclusion The survival rate of chronic invasive fungal sphenoiditis was 75%. However, the prognosis of acute fulminant invasive fungal sphenoiditis was extremely poor despite the application of aggressive treatment, thus, a high index of suspicion should be required and new diagnostic markers need to be developed for early diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:25177433

  13. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne S Nielsen; Jens C Frisvad; Per V Nielsen

    1998-01-01

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus

  14. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products—A gamma radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2010-12-01

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Superficial fungal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

    2014-04-01

    Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

  16. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  17. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. PMID:23684655

  18. Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine ( Pinus maritima) bark extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Virgili; George Pagana; Louise Bourne; Gerald Rimbach; Fausta Natella; Catherine Rice-Evans; Lester Packer

    2000-01-01

    French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract (PBE) is a polyphenol-rich food supplement patented under the name of Pycnogenol and known to have strong antioxidant activity and different beneficial effects on human health. Although its biological properties have begun to be extensively studied both in vitro, in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, little is known about its bioavailability.

  19. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  20. Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an intensive research on fungal decolorization of dye wastewater. It is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes. This paper examines various fungi, living or dead cells, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanisms involved; reports some elution and regeneration methods for fungal biomass; summarizes the present

  1. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  2. Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities

    E-print Network

    Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities Diversity and Species Interactions During, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities ­ Diversity and Species Interactions

  3. Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk #12;Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk....................................................................................................5 About Chaga

  4. Effects of dietary phenolic compounds on tocopherol, cholesterol, and fatty acids in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afaf Kamal-Eldin; Jan Frank; Alexander Razdan; Siv Tengblad; Samar Basu; Bengt Vessby

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the phenolic compounds butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), sesamin (S), curcumin (CU), and ferulic acid (FA) on\\u000a plasma, liver, and lung concentrations of ?- and ?-tocopherols (T), on plasma and liver cholesterol, and on the fatty acid\\u000a composition of liver lipids were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Test compounds were given to rats ad libitum for 4 wk at

  5. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  6. Elucidating drug resistance in human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinglin Lucy; Polvi, Elizabeth J; Shekhar-Guturja, Tanvi; Cowen, Leah E

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogens cause life-threatening infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Millions of people die each year due to fungal infections, comparable to the mortality attributable to tuberculosis or malaria. The three most prevalent fungal pathogens are Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, making it challenging to identify fungal-specific therapeutics. There is a limited repertoire of antifungals in clinical use, and drug resistance and host toxicity compromise the clinical utility. The three classes of antifungals for treatment of invasive infections are the polyenes, azoles and echinocandins. Understanding mechanisms of resistance to these antifungals has been accelerated by global and targeted approaches, which have revealed that antifungal drug resistance is a complex phenomenon involving multiple mechanisms. Development of novel strategies to block the emergence of drug resistance and render resistant pathogens responsive to antifungals will be critical to treating life-threatening fungal infections. PMID:24810351

  7. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Perlroth, Joshua; Choi, Bryan; Spellberg, Brad

    2007-06-01

    Invasive fungal infections are increasingly common in the nosocomial setting. Furthermore, because risk factors for these infections continue to increase in frequency, it is likely that nosocomial fungal infections will continue to increase in frequency in the coming decades. The predominant nosocomial fungal pathogens include Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and other molds, including Scedosporium spp. These infections are difficult to diagnose and cause high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. Early initiation of effective antifungal therapy and reversal of underlying host defects remain the cornerstones of treatment for nosocomial fungal infections. In recent years, new antifungal agents have become available, resulting in a change in standard of care for many of these infections. Nevertheless, the mortality of nosocomial fungal infections remains high, and new therapeutic and preventative strategies are needed. PMID:17510856

  8. Fungal community composition in neotropical rain forests: the influence of tree diversity and precipitation.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Fierer, Noah; Bateman, Carling; Treseder, Kathleen K; Turner, Benjamin L

    2012-05-01

    Plant diversity is considered one factor structuring soil fungal communities because the diversity of compounds in leaf litter might determine the extent of resource heterogeneity for decomposer communities. Lowland tropical rain forests have the highest plant diversity per area of any biome. Since fungi are responsible for much of the decomposition occurring in forest soils, understanding the factors that structure fungi in tropical forests may provide valuable insight for predicting changes in global carbon and nitrogen fluxes. To test the role of plant diversity in shaping fungal community structure and function, soil (0-20 cm) and leaf litter (O horizons) were collected from six established 1-ha forest census plots across a natural plant diversity gradient on the Isthmus of Panama. We used 454 pyrosequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to evaluate correlations between microbial community composition, precipitation, soil nutrients, and plant richness. In soil, the number of fungal taxa increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation, but not with plant richness. There were no correlations between fungal communities in leaf litter and plant diversity or precipitation, and fungal communities were found to be compositionally distinct between soil and leaf litter. To directly test for effects of plant species richness on fungal diversity and function, we experimentally re-created litter diversity gradients in litter bags with 1, 25, and 50 species of litter. After 6 months, we found a significant effect of litter diversity on decomposition rate between one and 25 species of leaf litter. However, fungal richness did not track plant species richness. Although studies in a broader range of sites is required, these results suggest that precipitation may be a more important factor than plant diversity or soil nutrient status in structuring tropical forest soil fungal communities. PMID:22080256

  9. Using lipid analysis and hyphal length to quantify AM and saprotrophic fungal abundance along a soil chronosequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Balser; K. K. Treseder; M. Ekenler

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the use of signature fatty acids and direct hyphal counts as tools to detect and quantify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprotrophic fungal (SF) biomass in three Hawaiian soils along a natural soil fertility gradient. Phospholipids16:1?5c and 18:2?6,9c were used as an index of AM and saprotrophic fungal biomass, respectively. Both phospholipid analysis and hyphal length indicated that the

  10. Plant Chitinases and Their Roles in Resistance to Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Punja, Zamir K.; Zhang, Ye-Yan

    1993-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze the N-acetylglucosamine polymer chitin, and they occur in diverse plant tissues over a broad range of crop and noncrop species. The enzymes may be expressed constitutively at low levels but are dramatically enhanced by numerous abiotic agents (ethylene, salicylic acid, salt solutions, ozone, UV light) and by biotic factors (fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, fungal cell wall components, and oligosaccharides). Different classes of plant chitinases are distinguishable by molecular, biochemical, and physicochemical criteria. Thus, plant chitinases may differ in substrate-binding characteristics, localization within the cell, and specific activities. Because chitin is a structural component of the cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi, extensive research has been conducted to determine whether plant chitinases have a role in defense against fungal diseases. Plant chitinases have different degrees of antifungal activity to several fungi in vitro. In vivo, although rapid accumulation and high levels of chitinases (together with numerous other pathogenesis-related proteins) occur in resistant tissues expressing a hypersensitive reaction, high levels also can occur in susceptible tissues. Expression of cloned chitinase genes in transgenic plants has provided further evidence for their role in plant defense. The level of protection observed in these plants is variable and may be influenced by the specific activity of the enzyme, its localization and concentration within the cell, the characteristics of the fungal pathogen, and the nature of the host-pathogen interaction. The expression of chitinase in combination with one or several different antifungal proteins should have a greater effect on reducing disease development, given the complexities of fungal-plant cell interactions and resistance responses in plants. The effects of plant chitinases on nematode development in vitro and in vivo are worthy of investigation. PMID:19279806

  11. New insights into the echinocandins and other fungal non-ribosomal peptides and peptaibiotics.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald; Li, Yan; Chen, Li; Yue, Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; An, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are a primary modality for fungal peptidic natural product assembly and are responsible for some of the best known, most useful, and most destructive fungal metabolites. Through genome sequencing and computer-assisted recognition of modular motifs of catalytic domains, one can now confidently identify most NRPS biosynthetic genes of a fungal strain. The biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for two of the most important classes of NRP fungal derived drugs, cyclosporine and the echinocandins, have been recently characterized by genomic sequencing and annotation. Complete biosynthetic gene clusters for the pneumocandins and echinocandins have been mapped at the genetic level and functionally characterized to some extent. Genomic sequencing of representative strains of most of the variants in the echinocandin family, including the wild-type of the three fungal strains employed for industrial-scale production of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulofungin, has enabled characterization of the basic architecture of the echinocandin NRPS pathways. A comparative analysis of how pathway genes cause variations in lipoinitiation, biosynthesis of the non-proteinogenic amino acids, amino acid substitutions, and hydroxylations and sulfonations of the core peptide and contribute to the molecular diversity of the family is presented. We also review new information on the natural functions of NRPs, the differences between fungal and bacterial NRPSs, and functional characterization of selected NRPS gene clusters. Continuing discovery of the new fungal nonribosomal peptides has contributed new structural diversity and potential insights into their biological functions among other natural peptides and peptaibiotics. We therefore provide an update on new peptides, depsipeptides and peptaibols discovered in the Fungi since 2009. PMID:25156669

  12. Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning

    PubMed Central

    Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes. PMID:19898490

  13. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes. PMID:25384766

  14. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    PubMed

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change. PMID:23250115

  15. Down-regulation of four putative arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes from family PF02458 reduces ester-linked ferulate content in rice cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Piston; Cristobal Uauy; Lianhai Fu; James Langston; John Labavitch; Jorge Dubcovsky

    2010-01-01

    Industrial processes to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic materials are available, but improved efficiency is necessary\\u000a to make them economically viable. One of the limitations for lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol is the inaccessibility\\u000a of the cellulose and hemicelluloses within the tight cell wall matrix. Ferulates (FA) can cross-link different arabinoxylan\\u000a molecules in the cell wall of grasses via diferulate and oligoferulate

  16. Morphological findings of deep cutaneous fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Arenas-Guzman, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections used to be rare in most developed countries. However, they have become more common due to immunosuppression and globalization. In this report, we summarize the histopathologic findings of the main cutaneous fungal infections that are commonly seen in daily practice, including eumycetoma, sporotrichosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, aspergillosis, zygomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, alternariosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, and chromoblastomycosis. We also include protothecosis (despite the fact that the infectious agent of this disease is algal and not fungal) and rhinosporidiosis (despite being caused by mesomycetozoea, which are not fungi). PMID:24950417

  17. Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

  18. Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen. PMID:21528015

  19. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides such as ?- and ?-glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors. PMID:25353009

  20. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  1. Fungal communities associated with phytoedaphic communities in the semiarid southwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Fresquez; Richard E. Francis; G. L. Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Soil fungal populations, diversity, and the community composition of fungal groups were determined among soils from 11 plant communities occurring in the semiarid Southwest. In general, soils associated with treeland plant communities had significantly higher fungal populations than the soils associated with shrub or grassland plant communities. In contrast, the diversity and evenness of fungal groups were higher in soils

  2. Gravimetric screening method for fungal decay of paper: inoculation with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Råberg, Ulrika; Hafrén, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    The European standard test EN 113 for fungal degradation of solid wood has been adapted for degradation of paper by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). Fungal degradation of paper sheets may potentially be used for screening different wood preservatives on paper instead of solid wood. The paper samples showed higher relative mass losses compared to wood, and samples pretreated with boric acid, copper sulfate and polymerized linseed oil were successfully tested for biodegradation using the paper sheet method. The results on paper degradation were compared with wood, both as wood blocks (according to standard test) and wood cut in sections forming layered structures mimicking paper layers. PMID:19495565

  3. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.

    PubMed

    Braun, Karen; Romero, Jennifer; Liddell, Craig; Creamer, Rebecca

    2003-08-01

    Consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western USA, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. To explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in New Mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. Endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea. Fungal cultures grew very slowly and sporadically produced subcylindrical conidia with very dark transverse septa. All cultured endophytes produced the alkaloid swainsonine, which causes locoism. Endophyte-infected locoweed populations produced swainsonine, and the swainsonine level of endophyte strains in vitro was highly correlated with the swainsonine level of their host plant populations. The rDNA ITS from mycelia from four endophyte isolates and beta-tubulin encoding regions from mycelia of 18 fungal endophyte isolates were amplified using PCR and the nucleic acid sequences were analyzed. The nucleic acid sequences of the beta-tubulin encoding regions were essentially identical among all the endophytes regardless of plant genus and locations. Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia. However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. PMID:14531620

  4. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  5. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we describe the disease symptoms and protocols commonly used in research of honey bee fungal diseases chalkbrood and stonebrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis and Aspergillus spp. respectively....

  6. Serpentine soils promote ectomycorrhizal fungal SARA BRANCO*

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Serpentine soils promote ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity SARA BRANCO*­ *Committee on Evolutionary Abstract Serpentine soils impose physiological stresses that limit plant establishment and diversity. The degree to which serpentine soils entail constraints on other organisms is, however, poorly understood

  7. The structure and function of fungal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

  8. Watershed-scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

  9. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago] [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee] [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL] [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  10. Interactions among fungal endophytes, grasses and herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Clay

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between two species often depends on the presence or absence of a third species. One widespread three-species\\u000a interaction involves fungal endophytes infecting grasses and the herbivores that feed upon them. The endophytes are allied\\u000a with the fungal family Clavicipitaceae and grow systemically in intercellular spaces in above-ground plant tissues including\\u000a seeds. Like relatedClaviceps species, the endophytes produce a

  11. Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Karina; Kalkum, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The human immune system is capable of recognizing and degrading chitin, an important cell wall component of pathogenic fungi. In the context of host-immune responses to fungal infections, herein we review the particular contributions and interplay of fungus and chitin recognition, and chitin-degrading enzymes, known as chitinases. The mechanisms of host chitinase responses may have implications for diagnostic assays as well as novel therapeutic approaches for patients that are at risk of contracting fatal fungal infections. PMID:22187561

  12. Burden of serious fungal infections in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Gago, S; Cuenca-Estrella, M; León, C; Miro, J M; Nuñez Boluda, A; Ruiz Camps, I; Sole, A; Denning, D W

    2015-02-01

    Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections, based on epidemiological data, are essential in order to inform public health priorities given the lack of resources dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of these serious fungal diseases. However, epidemiology of these infections is largely unknown, except for candidaemia and cryptococcosis. The aim of this work is to calculate the burden of serious fungal infections in Spain. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Spain were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. Around 8.1 million people suffer a fungal infection every year. Most of them are skin or mucosal infections causing no deaths. Candidaemia is more common than in other European countries and has risen by 1.88-fold in frequency in the last decade (8.1 cases × 100 000). Good estimates of invasive aspergillosis (2.75 cases × 100 000) and mucormycosis (0.04 × 100 000) are available. Fungal infections with a high mortality such as invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and mucormycosis are not numerous in Spain, but they affect those with severe underlying diseases and are therefore linked to poor outcomes. Additional studies are required, especially for high burden diseases such as recurrent thrush in women (?9000 cases × 100 000 women), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (126 cases × 100 000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (198 cases × 100 000). PMID:25658565

  13. Comparison and Validation of Some ITS Primer Pairs Useful for Fungal Metabarcoding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Declerck, Stéphan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2014-01-01

    Current metabarcoding studies aiming to characterize microbial communities generally rely on the amplification and sequencing of relatively short DNA regions. For fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operon has been accepted as the formal fungal barcode. Despite an increasing number of fungal metabarcoding studies, the amplification efficiency of primers is generally not tested prior to their application in metabarcoding studies. Some of the challenges that metabarcoding primers should overcome efficiently are the amplification of target DNA strands in samples rich in non-target DNA and environmental pollutants, such as humic acids, that may have been co-extracted with DNA. In the current study, three selected primer pairs were tested for their suitability as fungal metabarcoding primers. The selected primer pairs include two primer pairs that have been frequently used in fungal metabarcoding studies (ITS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4) and a primer pair (ITS86F/ITS4) that has been shown to efficiently amplify the ITS2 region of a broad range of fungal taxa in environmental soil samples. The selected primer pairs were evaluated in a 454 amplicon pyrosequencing experiment, real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments and in silico analyses. Results indicate that experimental evaluation of primers provides valuable information that could aid in the selection of suitable primers for fungal metabarcoding studies. Furthermore, we show that the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair outperforms other primer pairs tested in terms of in silico primer efficiency, PCR efficiency, coverage, number of reads and number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained. These traits push the ITS86F/ITS4 primer pair forward as highly suitable for studying fungal diversity and community structures using DNA metabarcoding. PMID:24933453

  14. Diagnostic pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of subcutaneous fungal infection in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sushila; Vij, Mukul; Prasad, Narayan; Kaul, Anupama; Marak, Rungmei S K; Pandey, Rakesh

    2012-03-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at increased risk of the development of a variety of skin infections that can result from graft-preserving immuno-suppressive therapy. In this study, we aimed to determine cytomorphological findings of fungal subcutaneous swelling in seven RTRs and to analyze diagnostic pitfalls in fungal cytology. A retrospective review of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears of subcutaneous swelling with positive fungal elements in RTRs from 2008 to 2010 was performed. We had seven cases (all males; age range, 34-58 years, mean, 46.3 years). The time interval between the renal transplantation and appearance of swelling ranged from 8 to 19 months (mean, 13.4 months). The swelling was located on lower limb (six cases) and arm (one case). The lesion was solitary (six cases) and multiple (one case). The cytology of aspirated material showed branched septate fungal hyphae in six cases. These were well delineated on Periodic acid schiffs (PAS) and chromic silver methenamine (CSM) stains. One case showed presence of faint, thin walled, broad ribbon like hyphae. Culture of aspirated material was performed in four cases which grew phaeohyphomycosis in all. Histology of excised tissue showed numerous septate, branched, pigmented fungal elements suggestive of pheohyphomycosis in four cases and broad ribbon hyphae suggestive of zygomycosis in one case. All of our cases responded well with anti-fungal treatment. Fungal infection can manifest as subcutaneous swelling in RTRs. It is often severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to diagnose. FNAC is an important diagnostic tool which is simple, cost effective and rapid method. PMID:21381226

  15. Preconditioning with glycyrrhizic, ferulic, paeoniflorin, cinnamic prevents rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury via endothelial nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guo-Qiang; Ding, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaozhao; Yin, Xiaofeng; Gao, Yuqin; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NO) pathway is involved or not in the protective effects of glycyrrhizic, ferulic, paeoniflorin, cinnamic (GFPC) in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model was made by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery for 30 min and releasing for 120 min, then the left ventricular apical was fixed and sliced, morphological changes of myocardial microvascular endothelial cell (MMVEC) was observed by electron microscopy, apoptosis index of MMVEC was observed by means of TUNEL, serum NO was tested by methods of nitrate reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was detected by automatic biochemical analyzer; Phosphorylated eNOS (PeNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein were measured by means of western blot. Results: In positive product control group, the serum levels of NO, LDH, CK-MB significantly increased (P < 0.05); MMVEC apoptosis was significantly decreased (P < 0.05); incidence of area at risk decreased significantly (P < 0.05); PeNOS protein increased (P < 0.05); iNOS protein decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning of GFPC from GFPC plays a protective role in I/R heart through regulating the eNOS/NO signal pathway by increasing the PeNOS protein expression and decreasing the expression of iNOS protein.

  16. University of Montreal: Fungal Mitochondrial Genome Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Supported by the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Fungal Mitochondrial Genome Project (FMGP) is a project of B. Franz Lang and his research group at the University of Montreal. Three "goals of FMGP are to (i) sequence complete mitochondrial genomes from all major fungal lineages, (ii) infer a robust fungal phylogeny, (iii) define the origin of fungi, their protistan ancestors, and their specific phylogenetic link to the animals..." The FMGP website contains information pages for Allomyces macrogynus, Phytophthora infestans, Aspergillus nidulans, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe--to name a few. Site visitors can also link to brief information sections about Global Fungal Phylogeny; tRNA editing in lower fungal mtDNAs; DNA Purification and Cell Cultures; and a collection of mitochondrial protein sequences. From Dr. Lang's homepage, visitors can view a list of numerous publications (some with hyperlinked abstracts). In addition, the FMGP site links to related research projects at the University of Montreal as well as to online fungal resources at Cornell University and the University of Georgia.

  17. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli?O157 on fungal colonies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. PMID:23919289

  18. Calystegines in Calystegia sepium do not inhibit fungal growth and invertase activity but interact with plant invertase.

    PubMed

    Höke, D; Dräger, B

    2004-01-01

    Calystegines are alkaloidal glycosidase inhibitors. They accumulate predominantly in young and meristemic parts of Calystegia sepium (Convolvulaceae). C. sepium, bindweed, infests meadows and cereal fields and is difficult to control chemically. Fungal pathogens against C. sepium are established as mycoherbicides. Stagonospora convolvuli LA39 attacks C. sepium and does not affect crop plants, but young plants of C. sepium are less susceptible to the fungus. The interaction of Stagonospora convolvuli with calystegines was investigated. Further, endophytic fungi of several classes were isolated from wild-grown Calystegia sepium leaves, and selected strains were tested for interaction with calystegines. Fungal growth on agar containing calystegines was not affected considerably. Plants in climate chambers were infected with an endophyte, Phomopsis, and with the fungal pathogen, Stagonospora convolvuli. Calystegine levels were measured in infected and non-infected plant tissues. Accumulation depended on developmental stage of the plant tissue and was not influenced by infection. Acid invertase was measured from fungal mycelia and from infected and non-infected plant tissues. Fungal acid invertase activity was not inhibited by 10 mM calystegine B (2), while invertase from C. sepium leaves was inhibited. It is concluded that calystegines do not inhibit fungal development and sucrose consumption under the conditions of the present investigation, but may act by redirection of plant carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:15045673

  19. The amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L; Crous, Pedro W; Redhead, Scott A; Reynolds, Don R; Samson, Robert A; Seifert, Keith A; Taylor, John W; Wingfield, Michael J; Abaci, Ozlem; Aime, Catherine; Asan, Ahmet; Bai, Feng-Yan; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Begerow, Dominik; Berikten, Derya; Boekhout, Teun; Buchanan, Peter K; Burgess, Treena; Buzina, Walter; Cai, Lei; Cannon, Paul F; Crane, J Leland; Damm, Ulrike; Daniel, Heide-Marie; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Druzhinina, Irina; Dyer, Paul S; Eberhardt, Ursula; Fell, Jack W; Frisvad, Jens C; Geiser, David M; Geml, József; Glienke, Chirlei; Gräfenhan, Tom; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; de Gruyter, Johannes; Guého-Kellermann, Eveline; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hibbett, David S; Hong, Seung-Beom; de Hoog, G Sybren; Houbraken, Jos; Huhndorf, Sabine M; Hyde, Kevin D; Ismail, Ahmed; Johnston, Peter R; Kadaifciler, Duygu G; Kirk, Paul M; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lagneau, Paul-Emile; Lévesque, C André; Liu, Xingzhong; Lombard, Lorenzo; Meyer, Wieland; Miller, Andrew; Minter, David W; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Norvell, Lorelei; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M; Oziç, Rasime; Pennycook, Shaun R; Peterson, Stephen W; Pettersson, Olga V; Quaedvlieg, William; Robert, Vincent A; Ruibal, Constantino; Schnürer, Johan; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Shivas, Roger; Slippers, Bernard; Spierenburg, Henk; Takashima, Masako; Ta?k?n, Evrim; Thines, Marco; Thrane, Ulf; Uztan, Alev Haliki; van Raak, Marcel; Varga, János; Vasco, Aida; Verkley, Gerard; Videira, Sandra I R; de Vries, Ronald P; Weir, Bevan S; Yilmaz, Neriman; Yurkov, Andrey; Zhang, Ning

    2011-06-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented. PMID:22679594

  20. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  1. Atopic cough and fungal allergy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of "idiopathic cough" in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as "a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT)," which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  2. Phenolic acids in neem (Azadirachta indica): a major pre-existing secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Singh, U P; Maurya, S; Singh, D P

    2005-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of various parts (fresh and dry bark of stem, mature and tender leaves, flower and different parts of fruit, i.e., raw and ripe fruit epicarp, mesocarp and seed) of neem (Azadirachta indica), which occupies an important place in socio-cultural-religious life in Indian communities, indicate that neem is rich in pre-existing secondary metabolites (phenolic acids). Dry bark showed only tannic acid but in fresh bark three phenolic acids were observed, i.e., gallic, tannic, and ferulic acids. In tender leaves only gallic and ferulic acids were detected, but the levels of these phenolic acids in mature leaves were about three times and fifty times greater, respectively. Flowers had only two phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum followed by chlorogenic acid. The level of phenolic acid was maximum in seeds followed by epicarp and pulp. In raw and ripe fruit seeds four phenolic acids were detected. Raw fruit seeds were rich in phenolic acids than ripe fruit seeds. Fruit epicarp was relatively richer than seed, seed pulp and flowers of the plants. Neem flowers were also rich in gallic and chlorogenic acids. PMID:16093234

  3. Dendritic Cells in Anti-Fungal Immunity and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    Life-threatening fungal infections have increased in recent years while treatment options remain limited. The development of vaccines against fungal pathogens represents a key advance sorely needed to combat the increasing fungal disease threat. Dendritic cells (DC) are uniquely able to shape anti-fungal immunity by initiating and modulating naive T cell responses. Targeting DC may allow for the generation of potent vaccines against fungal pathogens. In the context of anti-fungal vaccine design, we describe the characteristics of the varied DC subsets, how DC recognize fungi, their function in immunity against fungal pathogens, and how DC can be targeted in order to create new anti-fungal vaccines. Ongoing studies continue to highlight the critical role of DC in anti-fungal immunity and will help guide DC-based vaccine strategies. PMID:22607797

  4. Pathogenic Roles for Fungal Melanins

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Eric S.

    2000-01-01

    Melanins represent virulence factors for several pathogenic fungi; the number of examples is growing. Thus, albino mutants of several genera (in one case, mutated precisely in the melanizing enzyme) exhibit decreased virulence in mice. We consider the phenomenon in relation to known chemical properties of melanin, beginning with biosynthesis from ortho-hydroquinone precursors which, when oxidized enzymatically to quinones, polymerize spontaneously to melanin. It follows that melanizing intermediates are cross-linking reagents; melanization stabilizes the external cell wall against hydrolysis and is thought to determine semipermeability in the osmotic ram (the appressorium) of certain plant pathogens. Polymeric melanins undergo reversible oxidation-reduction reactions between cell wall-penetrating quinone and hydroquinone oxidation states and thus represent polymeric redox buffers; using strong oxidants, it is possible to titrate the melanin on living cells and thereby demonstrate protection conferred by melanin in several species. The amount of buffering per cell approximately neutralizes the amount of oxidant generated by a single macrophage. Moreover, the intermediate oxidation state, the semiquinone, is a very stable free radical and is thought to trap unpaired electrons. We have suggested that the oxidation state of external melanin may be regulated by external Fe(II). An independent hypothesis holds that in Cryptococcus neoformans, an important function of the melanizing enzyme (apart from melanization) is the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), thereby forestalling generation of the harmful hydroxyl radical from H2O2. Thus, problems in fungal pathogenesis have led to evolving hypotheses regarding melanin functioning. PMID:11023965

  5. Association of fungal secondary metabolism and sclerotial biology

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana M.; Cary, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolism and morphological development have been shown to be intimately associated at the genetic level. Much of the literature has focused on the co-regulation of secondary metabolite production (e.g., sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively) with conidiation or formation of sexual fruiting bodies. However, many of these genetic links also control sclerotial production. Sclerotia are resistant structures produced by a number of fungal genera. They also represent the principal source of primary inoculum for some phytopathogenic fungi. In nature, higher plants often concentrate secondary metabolites in reproductive structures as a means of defense against herbivores and insects. By analogy, fungi also sequester a number of secondary metabolites in sclerotia that act as a chemical defense system against fungivorous predators. These include antiinsectant compounds such as tetramic acids, indole diterpenoids, pyridones, and diketopiperazines. This chapter will focus on the molecular mechanisms governing production of secondary metabolites and the role they play in sclerotial development and fungal ecology, with particular emphasis on Aspergillus species. The global regulatory proteins VeA and LaeA, components of the velvet nuclear protein complex, serve as virulence factors and control both development and secondary metabolite production in many Aspergillus species. We will discuss a number of VeA- and LaeA-regulated secondary metabolic gene clusters in A. flavus that are postulated to be involved in sclerotial morphogenesis and chemical defense. The presence of multiple regulatory factors that control secondary metabolism and sclerotial formation suggests that fungi have evolved these complex regulatory mechanisms as a means to rapidly adapt chemical responses to protect sclerotia from predators, competitors and other environmental stressors.

  6. Combinatorialization of fungal polyketide synthase-peptide synthetase hybrid proteins.

    PubMed

    Kakule, Thomas B; Lin, Zhenjian; Schmidt, Eric W

    2014-12-24

    The programming of the fungal polyketide synthase (PKS) is quite complex, with a simple domain architecture leading to elaborate products. An additional level of complexity has been found within PKS-based pathways where the PKS is fused to a single module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) to synthesize polyketides conjugated to amino acids. Here, we sought to understand the communication between these modules that enable correct formation of polyketide-peptide hybrid products. To do so, we fused together the genes that are responsible for forming five highly chemically diverse fungal natural products in a total of 57 different combinations, comprising 34 distinct module swaps. Gene fusions were formed with the idea of testing the connection and compatibility of the PKS and NRPS modules mediated by the acyl carrier protein (ACP), condensation (C) and ketoreductase (KR) domains. The resulting recombinant gene fusions were analyzed in a high-yielding expression platform to avail six new compounds, including the first successful fusion between a PKS and NRPS that make highly divergent products, and four previously reported molecules. Our results show that C domains are highly selective for a subset of substrates. We discovered that within the highly reducing (hr) PKS class, noncognate ACPs of closely related members complement PKS function. We intercepted a pre-Diels-Alder intermediate in lovastatin synthesis for the first time, shedding light on this canonical fungal biochemical reaction. The results of these experiments provide a set of ground rules for the successful engineering of hr-PKS and PKS-NRPS products in fungi. PMID:25436464

  7. The Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Seasonal Change in Arctic Tundra Bacterial and Fungal Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niraj; Palmer, Gerald R.; Shah, Vishal; Walker, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on bacterial and fungal assemblages was studied in soils collected from a low arctic site. Two different concentrations (0.066% and 6.6%) of Ag NPs and Ag MPs were tested in microcosms that were exposed to temperatures mimicking a winter to summer transition. Toxicity was monitored by differential respiration, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Notwithstanding the effect of Ag MPs, nanosilver had an obvious, additional impact on the microbial community, underscoring the importance of particle size in toxicity. This impact was evidenced by levels of differential respiration in 0.066% Ag NP-treated soil that were only half that of control soils, a decrease in signature bacterial fatty acids, and changes in both richness and evenness in bacterial and fungal DNA sequence assemblages. Prominent after Ag NP-treatment were Hypocreales fungi, which increased to 70%, from only 1% of fungal sequences under control conditions. Genera within this Order known for their antioxidant properties (Cordyceps/Isaria) dominated the fungal assemblage after NP addition. In contrast, sequences attributed to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales bacteria appeared vulnerable to Ag NP-mediated toxicity. This combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular studies clearly demonstrate that Ag NPs can severely disrupt the natural seasonal progression of tundra assemblages. PMID:24926877

  8. Quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin in perennial forage and energy grasses by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gordon G; Thain, Simon C; Morris, Phillip; Morris, Catherine; Hawkins, Sarah; Hauck, Barbara; Barraclough, Tim; Yates, Nicola; Shield, Ian; Bridgwater, Anthony V; Donnison, Iain S

    2009-02-01

    Levels of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acid wall components in three genera of forage grasses (Lolium,Festuca and Dactylis) have been accurately predicted by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using partial least squares models correlated to analytical measurements. Different models were derived that predicted the concentrations of acid detergent lignin, total hydroxycinnamic acids, total ferulate monomers plus dimers, p-coumarate and ferulate dimers in independent spectral test data from methanol extracted samples of perennial forage grass with accuracies of 92.8%, 86.5%, 86.1%, 59.7% and 84.7% respectively, and analysis of model projection scores showed that the models relied generally on spectral features that are known absorptions of these compounds. Acid detergent lignin was predicted in samples of two species of energy grass, (Phalaris arundinacea and Pancium virgatum) with an accuracy of 84.5%. PMID:18796351

  9. Phenolic Acids in Wheat Coleoptile Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    The phenolic constituent of nonvascular cell walls of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles, which yields vanillin upon nitrobenzene oxidation, is not lignin as I previously claimed. It seems to be mainly ferulic acid bonded to carbohydrate, probably by an ester linkage. The acid is associated with a fraction of the wall rich in arabinose and xylose, although it is not known whether it is esterified directly with these pentose residues. The phenolic-carbohydrate complex is released by cellulase, but not by pronase or a mixture of hemicellulases. PMID:16658778

  10. Protective effects of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice

    PubMed Central

    XU, MENGXIN; WANG, WEI; PEI, XIAOKUN; SUN, SONGMEI; XU, MINGBO; LIU, ZHIFENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) on mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Swiss male mice were randomly divided into a control group, CLP group, three SF + OMT groups (3.1+6.9; 6.2+13.8 and 12.3+27.7 mg/kg), SF (6.2 mg/kg) group and OMT (13.8 mg/kg) group. Eight hours after the administration of the drugs, the survival rates and survival times of the animals were monitored. In addition, the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the serum; the C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in the serum and lung and liver homogenates; and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) levels in the lung and liver homogenates were measured. The bacterial load in the serum was also studied. Following treatment with the combination of SF and OMT, the survival rate increased and the survival time was prolonged; CLP-induced increases in the lung W/D ratio and the levels of ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6, IFN-? and MDA were significantly reduced; and the SOD activity levels were increased, compared with those of the untreated animals with CLP-induced sepsis. These results indicated that the combination of SF and OMT induced protective effects against CLP-induced lethal sepsis of mice. The possible mechanism of these effects may be associated with the alleviation of systemic inflammation and diminishment of oxidative injury. PMID:24940428

  11. Protective effects of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine on cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengxin; Wang, Wei; Pei, Xiaokun; Sun, Songmei; Xu, Mingbo; Liu, Zhifeng

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of sodium ferulate (SF) and oxymatrine (OMT) on mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Swiss male mice were randomly divided into a control group, CLP group, three SF + OMT groups (3.1+6.9; 6.2+13.8 and 12.3+27.7 mg/kg), SF (6.2 mg/kg) group and OMT (13.8 mg/kg) group. Eight hours after the administration of the drugs, the survival rates and survival times of the animals were monitored. In addition, the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the serum; the C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-? (IFN-?) levels in the serum and lung and liver homogenates; and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) levels in the lung and liver homogenates were measured. The bacterial load in the serum was also studied. Following treatment with the combination of SF and OMT, the survival rate increased and the survival time was prolonged; CLP-induced increases in the lung W/D ratio and the levels of ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6, IFN-? and MDA were significantly reduced; and the SOD activity levels were increased, compared with those of the untreated animals with CLP-induced sepsis. These results indicated that the combination of SF and OMT induced protective effects against CLP-induced lethal sepsis of mice. The possible mechanism of these effects may be associated with the alleviation of systemic inflammation and diminishment of oxidative injury. PMID:24940428

  12. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Struck, M.F.; Gille, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  13. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Deepe, G S

    1997-01-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require recognition and aggressive management. The escalation in the incidence and prevalence of infection has prompted a renewed interest in vaccine development. Herein, I discuss the most recent developments in the search for vaccines to combat fungal infections. Investigators have discovered several inert substances from various fungi that can mediate protection in animal models. The next challenge will be to find the suitable mode of delivery for these immunogens. PMID:9336663

  14. Unusual Fungal Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Eswarappa, Mahesh; Varma, P. Vijay; Madhyastha, Rakesh; Reddy, Sujeeth; Gireesh, M. S.; Gurudev, K. C.; Mysorekar, Vijaya V.; Hemanth, Beena

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The causative agent and the risk factors differ depending on the period after the kidney transplant. Also the incidence varies according to the geographical area. We are reporting three cases of fungal infections in renal transplant recipients. Two of them have etiological agents which are common among immunosuppressed patients, but with an atypical clinical presentation, while one of them is a subcutaneous infection caused by a less frequent dematiaceous fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. These cases highlight how a high index of clinical suspicion and prompt diagnosis is very much essential for better outcome. The emerging fungal infections and paucity of data regarding their management pose a challenge to the transplant physicians.

  15. Invasion of the Central Nervous System by Cryptococcus neoformans Requires a Secreted Fungal Metalloprotease

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Kiem; Tham, Rick; Uhrig, John P.; Thompson, George R.; Na Pombejra, Sarisa; Jamklang, Mantana; Bautos, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus spp. cause life-threatening fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in patients with a compromised immune system. Why Cryptococcus neoformans has this remarkable tropism for the CNS is not clear. Recent research on cerebral pathogenesis of C. neoformans revealed a predominantly transcellular migration of cryptococci across the brain endothelium; however, the identities of key fungal virulence factors that function specifically to invade the CNS remain unresolved. Here we found that a novel, secreted metalloprotease (Mpr1) that we identified in the extracellular proteome of C. neoformans (CnMpr1) is required for establishing fungal disease in the CNS. Mpr1 belongs to a poorly characterized M36 class of fungalysins that are expressed in only some fungal species. A strain of C. neoformans lacking the gene encoding Mpr1 (mpr1?) failed to breach the endothelium in an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). A mammalian host infected with the mpr1? null strain demonstrated significant improvement in survival due to a reduced brain fungal burden and lacked the brain pathology commonly associated with cryptococcal disease. The in vivo studies further indicate that Mpr1 is not required for fungal dissemination and Mpr1 likely targets the brain endothelium specifically. Remarkably, the sole expression of CnMPR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a robust migration of yeast cells across the brain endothelium, demonstrating Mpr1’s specific activity in breaching the BBB and suggesting that Mpr1 may function independently of the hyaluronic acid-CD44 pathway. This distinct role for Mpr1 may develop into innovative treatment options and facilitate a brain-specific drug delivery platform. PMID:24895304

  16. Re-Defining the Subsurface Biosphere: Characterization of Fungal Populations from Energy Limited Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, B. K.; Ariza, M.; St. Peter, C.; Hoffman, C.; Edwards, K. J.; Mills, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The detection and characterization of metabolically active fungal populations within the deep marine subsurface will alter current ecosystem models that are limited to bacterial and archaeal populations. Although marine fungi have been studied for over fifty years, a detailed description of fungal populations within the deep subsurface is lacking. Fungi possess metabolic pathways capable of utilizing previously considered non-bioavailable energy reserves. Therefore, metabolically active fungi would occupy a unique niche within subsurface ecosystems, with the potential to provide an organic carbon source for heterotrophic prokaryotic populations not currently being considered in subsurface energy budgets. Sediments from the South Pacific Gyre subsurface, one of the most energy-limited environments on Earth, were collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Anaerobic and aerobic sediment slurry cultures using fresh sediment began directly following the completion of the Expedition (December 2010). From these cultures, multiple fungal lineages have been isolated on several media types that vary in carbon concentrations. Physical growth parameters of these subsurface fungal isolates were determined and compared to previously characterized lineages. Additionally, the overall diversity of metabolically active and dormant fungal populations was determined using high throughput sequencing of nucleic acids extracted from in situ cryopreserved South Pacific Gyre sediments. This project provides a robust step in determining the importance and impact of fungal populations within the marine subsurface biosphere.

  17. Calnexin Induces Expansion of Antigen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells that Confer Immunity to Fungal Ascomycetes via Conserved Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  18. Fatal fungal infection: the living dead

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan ML, Sankar; Narayanan, C. D.; Kindo, Anupma J.; Arora, Apurva; Haridas, Priya A.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon infection mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which is also known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is often caused by bacteria, but can also be caused and complicated by fungus. We report a case of bacterial necrotizing fasciitis that was complicated by a fatal fungal infection, a rare clinical presentation affecting the upper limbs, head and neck, in a young diabetic female patient. It was an unsuspected case of fungal infection with mucormycosis, which proved to be fatal due to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25352577

  19. Fatal fungal infection: the living dead.

    PubMed

    Narayanan Ml, Sankar; Narayanan, C D; Kindo, Anupma J; Arora, Apurva; Haridas, Priya A

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon infection mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which is also known as flesh-eating bacteria. It is often caused by bacteria, but can also be caused and complicated by fungus. We report a case of bacterial necrotizing fasciitis that was complicated by a fatal fungal infection, a rare clinical presentation affecting the upper limbs, head and neck, in a young diabetic female patient. It was an unsuspected case of fungal infection with mucormycosis, which proved to be fatal due to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25352577

  20. The emerging world of the fungal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Huffnagle, Gary B.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the fungal microbiota (‘mycobiome’) is a new and rapidly emerging field that lags behind our understanding of the bacterial microbiome. Every human has fungi as part of their microbiota, but the total number of fungal cells is orders of magnitude smaller than that of the bacterial microbiota. However, the impact of the mycobiome on human health is significant, especially as a reservoir for blooms of pathogenic microbes when the host is compromised and as a potential cofactor in inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. PMID:23685069

  1. The emerging world of the fungal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Huffnagle, Gary B; Noverr, Mairi C

    2013-07-01

    The study of the fungal microbiota ('mycobiome') is a new and rapidly emerging field that lags behind our understanding of the bacterial microbiome. Every human has fungi as part of their microbiota, but the total number of fungal cells is orders of magnitude smaller than that of the bacterial microbiota. However, the impact of the mycobiome on human health is significant, especially as a reservoir for blooms of pathogenic microbes when the host is compromised and as a potential cofactor in inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. PMID:23685069

  2. Fungal Pathogens: Survival and Replication within Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Andrew S; Wheeler, Robert T; May, Robin C

    2014-11-10

    The innate immune system is a critical line of defense against pathogenic fungi. Macrophages act at an early stage of infection, detecting and phagocytizing infectious propagules. To avoid killing at this stage, fungal pathogens use diverse strategies ranging from evasion of uptake to intracellular parasitism. This article will discuss five of the most important human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidiodes immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum) and consider the strategies and virulence factors adopted by each to survive and replicate within macrophages. PMID:25384769

  3. Superficial cutaneous fungal infections in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Charles, Alix J

    2009-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections represent an important cause of morbidity for people worldwide, particularly in the tropics. Fungal infections affect the skin, hair, or the nails, and tend to thrive in the heat and humidity of tropical countries. Because of environmental and cultural factors unique to the tropics, the causative organisms and presentation of these infections may differ from those in industrialized countries. Treatment options include topical and systemic therapy. However, social and socioeconomic factors in developing tropical countries may necessitate different treatment approaches to achieve success. PMID:19889138

  4. Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Williamson, Peter; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fungi use vesicular transport to deliver substances across their cell walls. Fungal vesicles are similar to mammalian exosomes and could originate from cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies. Vesicular transport enables the export of large molecules across the cell wall, and vesicles contain lipids, proteins and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Concentration of fungal products in vesicles could increase their efficiency in food acquisition and/or delivering potentially noxious substances to other cells, such as amoebae or phagocytes. The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis. PMID:19299133

  5. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES

    E-print Network

    ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

  6. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  7. Chemosensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using phenolic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the theory behind use of chemosensitization to control fungal pathogens. Oxidative stress response systems of fungal pathogens play important roles in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during host defense or environmental factors. Therefore, oxidati...

  8. Removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated ground water by a fungal adsorption process. Final Technical report, 15 September 1986-14 September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.; Morehart, A.L.; Huang, C.J.; Westman, D.C.; Quirk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The metal adsorption behavior of 12 species of fungi was investigated using batch reactors. Specific surface area and surface characteristics of the fungal biomass were determined. Two typical fungal species, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were chosen for further investigation. Factors such as growth conditions, pretreatment of biomass and pH of the metal solution were thoroughly studied. The results indicate that the optimum growth condition for metal take-up by A. oryzae biomass was at the C/N ratio of 10 - 15. The amounts of Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) removal increased with pH. The removal of Pb(II) by fungal biomass is pH-independent. Metal-laden fungal biomass can be regenerated by acid-washing. Moreover, the acid-washing is the most effective pretreatment of biomass for heavy metal removal.

  9. Expansion of the aspartate [beta]-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family: the first structure of a fungal ortholog

    SciTech Connect

    Arachea, B.T.; Liu, X.; Pavlovsky, A.G.; Viola, R.E. (Toledo)

    2010-08-13

    The enzyme aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes a critical transformation that produces the first branch-point intermediate in an essential microbial amino-acid biosynthetic pathway. The first structure of an ASADH isolated from a fungal species (Candida albicans) has been determined as a complex with its pyridine nucleotide cofactor. This enzyme is a functional dimer, with a similar overall fold and domain organization to the structurally characterized bacterial ASADHs. However, there are differences in the secondary-structural elements and in cofactor binding that are likely to cause the lower catalytic efficiency of this fungal enzyme. Alterations in the dimer interface, through deletion of a helical subdomain and replacement of amino acids that participate in a hydrogen-bonding network, interrupt the intersubunit-communication channels required to support an alternating-site catalytic mechanism. The detailed functional information derived from this new structure will allow an assessment of ASADH as a possible target for antifungal drug development.

  10. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. PMID:24269825

  11. Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John I. Gallin; David W. Alling; Harry L. Malech; Robert Wesley; Deloris Koziol; Beatriz Marciano; Eli M. Eisenstein; Maria L. Turner; Ellen S. DeCarlo; Judith M. Starling; Steven M. Holland

    2003-01-01

    background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare disorder in which the phagocytes fail to pro- duce hydrogen peroxide. The patients are predisposed to bacterial and fungal infec- tions. Prophylactic antibiotics and interferon gamma have reduced bacterial infec- tions, but there is also the danger of life-threatening fungal infections. We assessed the efficacy of itraconazole as prophylaxis against serious fungal infections

  12. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    LETTER Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient Mark P concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates

  13. Current perspectives Manufacturing and standardizing fungal allergen products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Esch

    The importance of fungal allergen products in the practice of clinical allergy is frequently underestimated. A wide variety of fungal species have been demonstrated to elicit allergic symp- toms and to sensitize patients. The quality of fungal allergen preparations might have a significant effect on the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Varying degrees of cross- reactivity have been shown

  14. Suppression of Botrytis bunch rot in Chardonnay grapevines by induction of host resistance and fungal antagonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Reglinski; P. A. G. Elmer; J. T. Taylor; F. J. Parry; R. Marsden; P. N. Wood

    2005-01-01

    A chemical elicitor, 5-chlorosalicylic acid (5C SA), and a fungal antagonist Ulocladium oudemansii, were evaluated for their ability to suppress Botrytis cinerea in Chardonnay grapes. Potted plants developed resistance to B. cinerea infection after treatment with 1 mM 5CSA. Resistance, as expressed by a reduction in lesion diameter, was greatest in plants\\u000a that were treated with 5CSA 7 days before

  15. Engineered production of fungal anticancer cyclooligomer depsipeptides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dayu; Xu, Fuchao; Zi, Jiachen; Wang, Siyuan; Gage, David; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

    2013-07-01

    Two fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptide synthetases(CODSs), BbBEAS (352 kDa) and BbBSLS (348 kDa) from Beauveria bassiana ATCC7159, were reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA, leading to the production of the corresponding anticancer natural products, beauvericins and bassianolide, respectively. The titers of beauvericins (33.8 ± 1.4 mg/l) and bassianolide (21.7± 0.1 mg/l) in the engineered S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA strains were comparable to those in the native producer B. bassiana. Feeding D-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hiv) and the corresponding L-amino acid precursors improved the production of beauvericins and bassianolide. However, the high price of D-Hiv limits its application in large-scale production of these cyclooligomer depsipeptides. Alternatively, we engineered another enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR) from B. bassiana, into S. cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA for enhanced in situ synthesis of this expensive substrate. Co-expression of BbBEAS and KIVR in the yeast led to significant improvement of the production of beauvericins.The total titer of beauvericin and its congeners (beauvericins A-C) was increased to 61.7 ± 3.0 mg/l and reached 2.6-fold of that in the native producer B. bassiana ATCC7159. Supplement of L-Val at 10 mM improved the supply of ketoisovalerate, the substrate of KIVR, which consequently further increased the total titer of beauvericins to 105.8 ± 2.1 mg/l. Using this yeast system,we functionally characterized an unknown CODS from Fusarium venenatum NRRL 26139 as a beauvericin synthetase, which was named as FvBEAS. Our work thus provides a useful approach for functional reconstitution and engineering of fungal CODSs for efficient production of this family of anticancer molecules. PMID:23608474

  16. Comparison of the Yeast Proteome to Other Fungal Genomes to Find Core Fungal Genes

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    ), plants (Ara- bidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa), and bacteria (Agro- bacterium tumefaciens, Xylella fastidiosa), a list of common fungal genes with homologs in these plants, animals, and bacteria was produced

  17. [Molecular cloning of fungal allergens and clinical applications of recombinant allergens in fungal allergy].

    PubMed

    Yasueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    A large number of fungi are associated with allergic disorders. There are many problems in using non-standardized fungal extracts for diagnosis of fungal allergy. These problems can be solved by using genetically engineered recombinant allergens. At present, more than 70 fungal allergens have been cloned and sequenced, and the recombinant forms of several of these are commercially available. Measurement of IgE antibodies to these commercially available recombinant allergens could provide the tools useful for characterizing the differential sensitization pattern in relation to a particular disease and the allergenic cross-reactivity among fungi. Only a limited number of recombinant allergens are available at present, thus further studies on the molecular biology of fungal allergens are needed so that more recombinant allergens can be used in the clinical field. PMID:15118662

  18. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of ?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of ?-helix and an increase in the amounts of ?-sheet and turn structures.

  19. Five Serbian reservoirs contain different fungal propagules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branislav Rankovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mycologi- cal survey conducted in five large reservoirs in Serbia (Sjenica, Barje, Garasi, Me uvrsje and Ovcar-Kablar) - d that have different hydrobiological and production characteristics. The sampling was conducted in March, June, August and October 2002. Quantitative analysis of fungal communities showed that the av- erage number of colony-forming units in these res-

  20. Fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Cabral; Virginia E Fernández Pinto

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of filamentous fungi together with bacteriological parameters was assessed in 126 samples of still bottled mineral water of eight different commercial brands in Argentina. In spoiled samples with visible mycelium growth, the most frequently isolated fungal species were Penicillium citrinum, P. glabrum, other Penicillium species, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata. In unspoiled samples, the genera found were Penicillium,

  1. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. tha...

  2. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is ?-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with ?-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  3. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

  4. Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vijaya R.; Viola, George M.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is among the leading causes for morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia. In the past few decades, the incidence of IFI has increased dramatically. The certainty of diagnosis of IFI is based on host factors, clinical evidence, and microbiological examination. Advancement in molecular diagnostic modalities (e.g. non-culture-based serum biomarkers such as ?-glucan or galactomannan assays) and high-resolution radiological imaging has improved our diagnostic approach. The early use of these diagnostic tests assists in the early initiation of preemptive therapy. Nonetheless, the complexity of IFI in patients with leukemia and the limitations of these diagnostic tools still mandate astute clinical acumen. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. zygomycosis) and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal pathogens. In addition, even though the antifungal armamentarium has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, the associated mortality remains high. The decision to initiate antifungal treatment and the choice of anti-fungal therapy requires careful consideration of several factors (e.g. risk stratification, local fungal epidemiologic patterns, concomitant comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, prior history of antifungal use, overall cost, and the pharmacologic profile of the antifungal agents). In order to optimize our diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFI in patients with acute leukemia, further basic research and clinical trials are desperately needed. PMID:23556092

  5. Fungal association with sessile marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yarden, Oded

    2014-01-01

    The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture – as well as metagenomic – and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include “core” residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal–fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals. PMID:24860565

  6. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and ?-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  7. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA. Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  8. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  9. Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One important mechanism for insect pest control is the use of fungal entomopathogens. Even though these organisms have been studied for more than 100 years, their effective use in the field remains elusive. Recently, however, it has been discovered that many of these entomopathogenic fungi play addi...

  10. Alternaria alternata mannitol dehydrogenase, a fungal allergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Schneider; U. Denk; C. Ebner; M. Breitenbach; B. Simon-Nobbe

    2004-01-01

    RationaleMannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) has previously been shown to be the major allergen of Cladosporium herbarum. Since cross-reactivity has been demonstrated for several fungal allergens we have cloned the homolog protein of Alternaria alternata and tested it in respect to its IgE-reactivity.

  11. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  12. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  13. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and garlic mustard introductions on native AM fungal diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander M. KochPedro; Pedro M. Antunes; E. Kathryn Barto; Don Cipollini; Daniel L. Mummey; John N. Klironomos

    2011-01-01

    Introduced, non-native organisms are of global concern, because biological invasions can negatively affect local communities.\\u000a Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities have not been well studied in this context. AM fungi are abundant in most soils,\\u000a forming symbiotic root-associations with many plant species. Commercial AM fungal inocula are increasingly spread worldwide,\\u000a because of potentially beneficial effects on plant growth. In contrast,

  14. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p < 0.01) in the fragmentation percentage between different air velocities for the three generation methods, namely the direct, the fan and the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST) methods. The percentage of fragmentation also proved to be dependent on fungal species. The study found that there was no fragmentation for any of the fungal species at an air velocity ?0.4 m s -1 for any method of generation. Fluorescent signals, as well as mathematical determination also showed that the fungal fragments were derived from spores. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments measured by the UVAPS under controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  15. Discovering functions of unannotated genes from a transcriptome survey of wild fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher E; Kowbel, David; Glass, N Louise; Taylor, John W; Brem, Rachel B

    2014-01-01

    Most fungal genomes are poorly annotated, and many fungal traits of industrial and biomedical relevance are not well suited to classical genetic screens. Assigning genes to phenotypes on a genomic scale thus remains an urgent need in the field. We developed an approach to infer gene function from expression profiles of wild fungal isolates, and we applied our strategy to the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Using transcriptome measurements in 70 strains from two well-defined clades of this microbe, we first identified 2,247 cases in which the expression of an unannotated gene rose and fell across N. crassa strains in parallel with the expression of well-characterized genes. We then used image analysis of hyphal morphologies, quantitative growth assays, and expression profiling to test the functions of four genes predicted from our population analyses. The results revealed two factors that influenced regulation of metabolism of nonpreferred carbon and nitrogen sources, a gene that governed hyphal architecture, and a gene that mediated amino acid starvation resistance. These findings validate the power of our population-transcriptomic approach for inference of novel gene function, and we suggest that this strategy will be of broad utility for genome-scale annotation in many fungal systems. IMPORTANCE Some fungal species cause deadly infections in humans or crop plants, and other fungi are workhorses of industrial chemistry, including the production of biofuels. Advances in medical and industrial mycology require an understanding of the genes that control fungal traits. We developed a method to infer functions of uncharacterized genes by observing correlated expression of their mRNAs with those of known genes across wild fungal isolates. We applied this strategy to a filamentous fungus and predicted functions for thousands of unknown genes. In four cases, we experimentally validated the predictions from our method, discovering novel genes involved in the metabolism of nutrient sources relevant for biofuel production, as well as colony morphology and starvation resistance. Our strategy is straightforward, inexpensive, and applicable for predicting gene function in many fungal species. PMID:24692637

  16. Identification of the primary mechanism for fungal lignin degradation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Many lignin-degrading fungi appear to lack lignin peroxidase (LiP), an enzyme generally thought important for fungal ligninolysis. The authors are working with one of these fungi, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, an aggressive white-rotter that selectively removes lignin from wood. During this project period, they have obtained the following principal results: new polymeric lignin model compounds were developed to assist in the elucidation of fungal ligninolytic mechanisms; experiments with one of the polymeric lignin models showed that C. subvermispora cultures which express no detectable LiP activity are nevertheless able to degrade nonphenolic lignin structures, this result is significant because LiPs were previously considered essential for fungal attack on these recalcitrant structures, which constitute about 90% of lignin; manganese peroxidases (MnPs), which C. subvermispora does produce, catalyze the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids to give fatty acid hydroperoxides, fatty acid hydroperoxides are also used by MnP as oxidants (in place of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) that support the MnP catalytic cycle, these results indicate that MnP turnover in the presence of unsaturated lipids generates reactive lipid oxyradicals that could act as oxidant of other molecules; MnP-mediated lipid peroxidation results in the co-oxidative cleavage of nonphenolic lignin structures, the MnP/lipid peroxidation system may therefore provide C. subvermispora and other LiP-negative fungi with a mechanism to degrade the principal structures of lignin.

  17. Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

    2004-08-01

    Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

  18. Fungal Infections in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation has always been considered to be the standard therapeutic interventions in patients with end-stage organ failure. In 2008, more than 29,000 organ transplants were performed in US. Survival rates among transplant recipients have greatly improved due to better understanding of transplant biology and more effective immunosuppressive agents. After transplant, the extent of the immune response is influenced by the amount of interleukin 2 (IL-2) being produced by the T-helper cells. Transplant immunosuppressive therapy primarily targets T cell-mediated graft rejection. Calcineurin inhibitor, which includes cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, impairs calcineurin-induced up-regulation of IL-2 expression, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive fungal diseases. This immunosuppressive state allows infectious complication, leading to a high mortality rate. Currently, overall mortality due to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant recipients ranges between 25% and 80%. The risk of IFI following renal transplant is associated with the dosage of immunosuppressive agents given, environmental factors and post-transplant duration. Most fungal infections occur in the first 6 months after transplant because of the use of numerous immunosuppressors. Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. are the yeasts most frequently isolated, while most frequent filamentous fungi (molds) isolated are Aspergillus spp. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are non-specific and early detection of fungal infections and proper therapy are important in improving survival and reducing mortality. This article will provide an insight on the risk factors and clinical presentation, compare variation in treatment of IFIs in renal transplant patients, and evaluate the role of prophylactic therapy in this group of patients. We also report the course and management of two renal transplant recipients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital, both of whom developed pulmonary complications secondary to Aspergillus infection.

  19. Fungal infections in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Organ transplantation has always been considered to be the standard therapeutic interventions in patients with end-stage organ failure. In 2008, more than 29,000 organ transplants were performed in US. Survival rates among transplant recipients have greatly improved due to better understanding of transplant biology and more effective immunosuppressive agents. After transplant, the extent of the immune response is influenced by the amount of interleukin 2 (IL-2) being produced by the T-helper cells. Transplant immunosuppressive therapy primarily targets T cell-mediated graft rejection. Calcineurin inhibitor, which includes cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, impairs calcineurin-induced up-regulation of IL-2 expression, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive fungal diseases. This immunosuppressive state allows infectious complication, leading to a high mortality rate. Currently, overall mortality due to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant recipients ranges between 25% and 80%. The risk of IFI following renal transplant is associated with the dosage of immunosuppressive agents given, environmental factors and post-transplant duration. Most fungal infections occur in the first 6 months after transplant because of the use of numerous immunosuppressors. Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. are the yeasts most frequently isolated, while most frequent filamentous fungi (molds) isolated are Aspergillus spp. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are non-specific and early detection of fungal infections and proper therapy are important in improving survival and reducing mortality. This article will provide an insight on the risk factors and clinical presentation, compare variation in treatment of IFIs in renal transplant patients, and evaluate the role of prophylactic therapy in this group of patients. We also report the course and management of two renal transplant recipients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital, both of whom developed pulmonary complications secondary to Aspergillus infection. PMID:25883698

  20. The Use of Fluorogenic Substrates To Measure Fungal Presence and Activity in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Morten; Palojärvi, Ansa; Rangger, Andrea; Reeslev, Morten; Kjøller, Annelise

    1998-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled enzyme substrates could be used to detect and quantify specific components of chitinase and cellulase activities as specific indicators of the presence and activity of fungal biomass. The fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide and MUF ?-d-lactoside were used for the detection and quantification of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAGase) and endo 1,4-?-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4)/cellobiohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.91) (CELase), respectively. Culture screenings on solid media showed a widespread ability to produce NAGase among a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi on media with and without added chitin. NAGase activity was expressed only in a limited number of bacteria and on media supplemented with chitin. The CELase activity was observed only in a limited number of fungi and bacteria. Bacterial CELase activity was expressed on agar media containing a cellulose-derived substrate. In soil samples, NAGase activity was significantly correlated with estimates of fungal biomass, based on the content of two fungus-specific indicator molecules, 18:2?6 phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and ergosterol. CELase activity was significantly correlated with the PLFA-based estimate of fungal biomass in the soil, but no correlation was found with ergosterol-based estimates of fungal biomass. PMID:9464399

  1. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw?

    PubMed Central

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B.; Du, Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  2. Fungal and bacterial community succession differs for three wood types during decay in a forest soil.

    PubMed

    Prewitt, Lynn; Kang, Youngmin; Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Williams, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Wood decomposition by soil microorganisms is vital to carbon and nutrient cycles of forested ecosystems. Different wood types decompose at different rates; however, it is not known if there are differences in microbial community succession associated with the decay of different wood types. In this study, the microbial community associated with the decay of pine (decay-susceptible wood), western red cedar (decay resistant) and ACQ-treated pine (Ammoniacal Copper Quaternary, preservative-treated pine for decay resistance) in forest soil was characterized using DNA sequencing, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and microbial activity over a 26-month period. Bray-Curtis ordination using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and PLFA data indicated that fungal communities changed during succession and that wood type altered the pattern of succession. Nondecay fungi decreased over the 26 months of succession; however, by 18 months of decay, there was a major shift in the fungal communities. By this time, Trametes elegans dominated cedar and Phlebia radiata dominated pine and ACQ-treated pine. The description of PLFA associated with ACQ-treated pine resembled cedar more than pine; however, both PLFA and ITS descriptions indicated that fungal communities associated with ACQ-treated pine were less dynamic, perhaps a result of the inhibition by the ACQ preservative, compared with pine and cedar. Overall, fungal community composition and succession were associated with wood type. Further research into the differences in community composition will help to discern their functional importance to wood decay. PMID:24623527

  3. A solid state fungal fermentation-based strategy for the hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Pensupa, Nattha; Jin, Meng; Kokolski, Matt; Archer, David B; Du, Chenyu

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports a solid-state fungal fermentation-based pre-treatment strategy to convert wheat straw into a fermentable hydrolysate. Aspergillus niger was firstly cultured on wheat straw for production of cellulolytic enzymes and then the wheat straw was hydrolyzed by the enzyme solution into a fermentable hydrolysate. The optimum moisture content and three wheat straw modification methods were explored to improve cellulase production. At a moisture content of 89.5%, 10.2 ± 0.13 U/g cellulase activity was obtained using dilute acid modified wheat straw. The addition of yeast extract (0.5% w/v) and minerals significantly improved the cellulase production, to 24.0 ± 1.76 U/g. The hydrolysis of the fermented wheat straw using the fungal culture filtrate or commercial cellulase Ctec2 was performed, resulting in 4.34 and 3.13 g/L glucose respectively. It indicated that the fungal filtrate harvested from the fungal fermentation of wheat straw contained a more suitable enzyme mixture than the commercial cellulase. PMID:24121367

  4. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  5. Effect of chemicals on fungal alpha-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, F S; Abdel-Moneim, A A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 8 growth regulators at concentrations of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm on the activity of fungal (Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris) alpha-amylase was studied. Indol acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 2% and 7% at 1,000 ppm. The other 6 growth regulators, indol butyric acid (IBA), gibberellic acid, cumarin, cycocel (CCC), atonik-G and kylar, did not inhibit but stimulated alpha-amylase activity (0 to 9%) at 1,000 ppm. All growth regulators studied inhibited alpha-amylase activity at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm concentration except kylar. The effect of organic acids and formaldehyde at 0.01, 0.005, and 0.001 M was studied. Acetic acid stimulated alpha-amylase at all concentrations, but formic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid and citric acid inhibited alpha-amylase activity by 91, 100, 100 and 79%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.01 M, while by 31, 100, 15 and 20%, respectively, at 0.005 M. Formaldehyde induced 7, 3 and 2% inhibition at 0.01, 0.005 and 0.001 M, respectively. At 0.01 M either sorbitol or fructose inhibited alpha-amylase by 8%, Maltose 7%, sucrose 6%, phenol, glucose and galactose each by 5%, ethanol, glycerol, arabinose and sodium benzoate each by 4%, isopropanol and mannitol 1%, but methanol and ammonium citrate dibasic did not inhibit alpha-amylase. The results indicate that CuCl2, SnCl2, AgNO3 and Fe2(SO4)3 were the strongest inhibitors, followed by Cd(C2H3O2), HgCl2, Na2-EDTA, Na2HPO4, and CaCl2 in decreasing order. NaCl, NaBr and Mn SO4 did not inhibit alpha-amylase at concentrations from 10 mM to 0.01 mM. PMID:2515680

  6. In vitro anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal effects of new SbIII carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ring opening of phthalic anhydride has been carried out in acetic acid with glycine, ?-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield, respectively, 2-{[(carboxymethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (I), 2-{[(2-carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (II), 2-{[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (III), and 2-[(4-carboxyanilino)carbonyl]benzoic acid (IV). Compounds I-IV have been employed as ligands for Sb(III) center (complexes V-VIII) in aqueous medium. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra proved the deprotonation of carboxylic protons and coordination of imine group and thereby tridentate behaviour of the ligands as chelates. Elemental, MS, and TGA analytic data confirmed the structural hypothesis based on spectroscopic results. All the compounds have been assayed in vitro for anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities against five leishmanial strains L. major (JISH118), L. major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO), L. tropica (K27), L. infantum (LEM3437), L. mex mex (LV4), and L. donovani (H43); and Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Fumigants, Aspergillus Niger, and Fusarium Solani. Compound VII exhibited good anti-leishmanial as well as anti-fungal impacts comparable to reference drugs.

  7. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of free and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15).

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, M V S S T; Muralikrishna, G

    2002-02-13

    Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15), and their antioxidant properties were evaluated. Protocatechuic, gallic, and caffeic acids were found to be the major free phenolic acids. A 3-fold decrease was observed in protocatechuic acid content, whereas the decrease was marginal in the case of caffeic acid upon 96 h of malting. However, the contents of other free phenolic acids such as gallic, vanillic, coumaric, and ferulic acids increased. Ferulic, caffeic, and coumaric acids were found to be the major bound phenolic acids, and a 2-fold decrease was observed in their contents upon 96 h of malting. The antioxidant activity of a free phenolic acid mixture was found to be higher compared to that of a bound phenolic acid mixture. An increase in antioxidant activity coefficient was observed in the case of free phenolic acids from 770.0 +/- 7.8 to 1686.0 +/- 16.0, whereas the same was decreased from 570.0 +/- 6.0 to 448.0 +/- 4.5 in bound phenolic acids upon 96 h of malting. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids changes during the malting of ragi. PMID:11829663

  8. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    PubMed

    Miltko, Renata; Be??ecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Micha?owski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. PMID:24012688

  9. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph. PMID:10905611

  10. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  11. Impact of fungal load on diagnosis and outcome of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Ahmed; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Salem, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Fungal load colonization may modify the classic eosinophilic inflammation in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). We aimed to evaluate the impact of fungal load on diagnosis and outcome of AFRS. In the present cohort study fungal load differences were determined prospectively according to Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) fungal stained (histopathological and cytological examination) with the tenacious mucus, cheesy clay-like materials and sinus mucosa/polyps in 12 AFRS patients. Two groups with different fungal loads, AFRS with (six patients) and without (six patients) high fungal loads (HFL) were evaluated for nasal endoscopic score, paranasal sinuses CT score, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. Endoscopic outcome scoring differences were evaluated for 1 year after endoscopic sinus surgery and 1 month oral corticosteroids treatment. No differences were observed between both groups (AFRS with/without HFL) concerning the total CT score and opacification features (P > 0.05). Eosinophils and CD3 + CD8 + T cell were dominant in both groups. More edema and less fibrosis were observed in HFL group. Gliotoxin producers Aspergilli were present in all HFL in comparison to 5/6 (83.3%) in cases without HFL. Fewer patients 1/6 (16.6%) and less number of recurrences/year 0.1 ± 0.4 occurred in the AFRS with HFL compared to the AFRS without HFL [5/6 (83.3%) and 1.16 ± 0.7) (P = 0.021 and 0.023, respectively]. In addition to mucus and mucosal tissues, cheesy clay-like materials must be assessed in AFRS cases. Although patients of AFRS with HFL had negligible clinical differences from ordinary AFRS without HFL, they had better outcome after treatment. PMID:23568040

  12. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  13. The Contribution of DNA Metabarcoding to Fungal Conservation: Diversity Assessment, Habitat Partitioning and Mapping Red-Listed Fungi in Protected Coastal Salix repens Communities in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A.; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  14. Overexpression of OgPAE1 from wild rice confers fungal resistance against Botrytis cinerea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Hee Jeon; Eun Sook Chung; Jung Hun Pak; Jae Sung Nam; Sung Ki Cho; Sang Hyun Shin; Doh Hoon Kim; Gyung Tae Kim; Jai Heon Lee; Kyung Ho Kang; Young Soo Chung

    2008-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of the OgPAE1 gene encoding the ?5 subunit of the 20S proteasome was isolated from wild rice (Oryza grandiglumis) treated by wounding or with a fungal elicitor. The deduced amino acid sequence of OgPAE1 comprises 237 amino acids (25.99 kDa), and shows 94.5% homology with Arabidopsis thaliana\\u000a AtPAE1. Expression of OgPAE1 is regulated by defense-related signaling chemicals such

  15. AM symbiosis alters phenolic acid content in tomato roots

    PubMed Central

    Flors, Victor; García, Juan M; Pozo, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize the roots of most plants to establish a mutualistic symbiosis leading to important benefits for plant health. We have recently shown that AM symbiosis alters both transcriptional and hormonal profiles in tomato roots, many of these changes related to plant defense. Here, we analytically demonstrate that the levels of other important defense-related compounds as phenolic acids are also altered in the symbiosis. Both caffeic and chlorogenic acid levels significantly decreased in tomato roots upon mycorrhization, while ferulic acid increased. Moreover, in the case of caffeic acid a differential reduction was observed depending on the colonizing AM fungus. The results confirm that AM associations imply the regulation of plant defense responses, and that the host changes may vary depending on the AM fungus involved. The potential implications of altered phenolic acid levels on plant control over mycorrhizal colonization and in the plant resistance to pathogens is discussed. PMID:21490421

  16. AM symbiosis alters phenolic acid content in tomato roots.

    PubMed

    López-Ráez, Juan A; Flors, Victor; García, Juan M; Pozo, Maria J

    2010-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize the roots of most plants to establish a mutualistic symbiosis leading to important benefits for plant health. We have recently shown that AM symbiosis alters both transcriptional and hormonal profiles in tomato roots, many of these changes related to plant defence. Here, we analytically demonstrate that the levels of other important defence-related compounds as phenolic acids are also altered in the symbiosis. Both caffeic and chlorogenic acid levels significantly decreased in tomato roots upon mycorrhization, while ferulic acid increased. Moreover, in the case of caffeic acid a differential reduction was observed depending on the colonizing AM fungus. The results confirm that AM associations imply the regulation of plant defence responses, and that the host changes may vary depending on the AM fungus involved. The potential implications of altered phenolic acid levels on plant control over mycorrhizal colonization and in the plant resistance to pathogens is discussed. PMID:21490421

  17. Presence of caffeic acid in flaxseed lignan macromolecule.

    PubMed

    Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Penkacik, Kamila; Wiczkowski, Wies?aw; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from defatted flaxseeds using ethanol-dioxane (1:1, v/v). The crude extract obtained was purified using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography with water and methanol as mobile phases. RP-HPLC and SE-HPLC showed a lignan macromolecule (LM) as a dominant phenolic compound in the purified extract. After the alkaline hydrolysis of LM caffeic acid glucoside (CaAG) was isolated using a semi-preparative HPLC and its structure was confirmed by LC-ESI-MS. In LM of the investigated flaxseed, one molecule of caffeic acid corresponded with five molecules of p-coumaric acid and two molecules of ferulic acid. The presence of caffeic acid in the lignan molecule might be very beneficial due to its high antioxidant activity. PMID:21766213

  18. Striking a balance: fungal commensalism versus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Iliyan D; Underhill, David M

    2013-06-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal infections are common only when this balance is disrupted through, for example, profound immunosuppression or genetic mutation. Recent studies have begun to shed light on how this balance is established and maintained, and suggest future studies on the role of fungi in homeostatic conditions. PMID:23756050

  19. Striking a Balance: Fungal Commensalism versus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Underhill, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal infections are common only when this balance is disrupted through, for example, profound immunosuppression or genetic mutation. Recent studies have begun to shed light on how this balance is established and maintained, and suggest future studies on the role of fungi in homeostatic conditions. PMID:23756050

  20. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  1. Rodentborne fungal pathogens in wetland agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Manuel; Abraham Samuel, K.; Kurian, Punnen

    2012-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too. PMID:24031825

  2. ?-Linolenic acid concentrates from borage and evening primrose oil fatty acids via lipase-catalyzed esterification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. K. Syed Rahmatullah; V. K. S. Shukla; K. D. Mukherjee

    1994-01-01

    ?-Linolenic acid (GLA, all-cis 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid) has been enriched from fatty acids of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil to 93% from the initial concentration of 20% by lipase-catalyzed selective esterification of the fatty acids\\u000a withn-butanol in the presence ofn-hexane as solvent. The immobilized fungal lipase preparation, Lipozyme, used as biocatalyst, preferentially esterified palmitic,\\u000a stearic, oleic and linoleic acids and

  3. Polyphosphorylated fungal cell wall glycopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bonetti, S.J.; Black, B.; Gander, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    Penicillium charlesii secretes a 65 kDa peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGM) containing 10 phosphodiester residues and 10 galactofuranosyl-containing galactin chains attached to a linear mannan; the polysaccharides is attached to a 3 kDa seryl- and threonyl-rich peptide. The authors have now isolated and partially characterized a form of pPGM released from mycelia of P. charlesii treated at 50/sup 0/C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Two- to 3-fold more pPGM was released by heat treatment than is secreted. Crude pPGM, released by heat, was fractionated on DE-52 and was fractionated into two major fractions on the basis of its difference in negative charge. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of these two fractions provided spectra very similar to that of secreted pPGM previously reported from this laboratory. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 31/P NMR showed major signals at 1.47, and 0.22 ppm and minor signals at 1.32, 1.15, 1.00, 0.91 and 0.76 ppm. These signals are upfield from phosphomonoesters and are in the region observed for (6-O-phosphorylcholine)- and (6-O-phosphorylethanolamine)-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues which are 0.22 and 0.90 ppm, respectively. These polymers contain 30 phosphodiester residues per molecule of 70 kDa mass compared with 10 phosphodiesters in secreted pPGM. Acid phosphatase and alkaline protease were the only lytic enzymes released by heat treatment. The evidence suggests that much of the pPGM is derived from cell walls; and that the polysaccharide is highly phosphorylated.

  4. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

  5. Molecular biology and immunology of fungal allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viswanath P. Kurup; Banani Banerjee; Kevin J. Kelly; Jordan N. Fink

    2000-01-01

    Fungi are non-chlorophyllus microorganisms, which constitutes the main source of outdoor and indoor allergens. The antigens\\u000a present in the spores and fragments of hyphae induce allergic responses in sensitized patients. The frequently recognized\\u000a fungi associated with asthma include Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. With the advent of molecular\\u000a biology techniques a number of fungal genes encoding relevant allergens have been

  6. Fungal entomopathogens in a tritrophic context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny S. CoryJerry; Jerry D. Ericsson

    2010-01-01

    Variation in plant quality has an important impact on insect growth and development and there is considerable evidence that\\u000a plants can also influence an insect’s natural enemies. Here we discuss the potential for plant-mediated effects on fungal\\u000a entomopathogens. Fungi differ from other insect pathogens in that they infect an insect directly through its cuticle. This\\u000a means that they are particularly

  7. Fungal entomopathogens in a tritrophic context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny S. CoryJerry; Jerry D. Ericsson

    \\u000a Variation in plant quality has an important impact on insect growth and development and there is considerable evidence that\\u000a plants can also influence an insect’s natural enemies. Here we discuss the potential for plant-mediated effects on fungal\\u000a entomopathogens. Fungi differ from other insect pathogens in that they infect an insect directly through its cuticle. This\\u000a means that they are particularly

  8. New bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ching T

    2008-01-01

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

  9. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Human Fungal Pathogens Causing Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Christopher A.; Champion, Mia D.; Holder, Jason W.; Muszewska, Anna; Goldberg, Jonathan; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo; Ferreira, Márcia Eliana da Silva; Garcia, Ana Maria; Grynberg, Marcin; Gujja, Sharvari; Heiman, David I.; Henn, Matthew R.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; León-Narváez, Henry; Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ma, Li-Jun; Malavazi, Iran; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Morais, Flavia V.; Pereira, Maristela; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Sykes, Sean M.; Teixeira, Marcus Melo; Vallejo, Milene C.; Walter, Maria Emília Machado Telles; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zucker, Jeremy; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Haas, Brian J.; McEwen, Juan G.; Nino-Vega, Gustavo; Puccia, Rosana; San-Blas, Gioconda; Soares, Celia Maria de Almeida; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts. PMID:22046142

  10. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  11. The Filamentous Fungal Gene Expression Database (FFGED)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous fungal gene expression assays provide essential information for understanding systemic cellular regulation. To aid research on fungal gene expression, we constructed a novel, comprehensive, free database, the Filamentous Fungal Gene Expression Database (FFGED), available at http://bioinfo.townsend.yale.edu. FFGED features user-friendly management of gene expression data, which are assorted into experimental metadata, experimental design, raw data, normalized details, and analysis results. Data may be submitted in the process of an experiment, and any user can submit multiple experiments, thus classifying the FFGED as an “active experiment” database. Most importantly, FFGED functions as a collective and collaborative platform, by connecting each experiment with similar related experiments made public by other users, maximizing data sharing among different users, and correlating diverse gene expression levels under multiple experimental designs within different experiments. A clear and efficient web interface is provided with enhancement by AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and through a collection of tools to effectively facilitate data submission, sharing, retrieval and visualization. PMID:20025988

  12. Production of curcuminoids from tyrosine by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli using caffeic acid as an intermediate.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana L; Araújo, Rafael G; Prather, Kristala L J; Kluskens, Leon D; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2015-04-01

    Curcuminoids are phenylpropanoids with high pharmaceutical potential. Herein, we report an engineered artificial pathway in Escherichia coli to produce natural curcuminoids through caffeic acid. Arabidopsis thaliana 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase and Curcuma longa diketide-CoA synthase (DCS) and curcumin synthase (CURS1) were used to produce curcuminoids and 70 mg/L of curcumin was obtained from ferulic acid. Bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin were also produced, but in lower concentrations, by feeding p-coumaric acid or a mixture of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, respectively. Additionally, curcuminoids were produced from tyrosine through the caffeic acid pathway. To produce caffeic acid, tyrosine ammonia lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis and 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase from Saccharothrix espanaensis were used. Caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase from Medicago sativa was used to convert caffeoyl-CoA to feruloyl-CoA. Using caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid or tyrosine as a substrate, 3.9, 0.3, and 0.2 mg/L of curcumin were produced, respectively. This is the first time DCS and CURS1 were used in vivo to produce curcuminoids and that curcumin was produced by feeding tyrosine. We have shown that curcumin can be produced using a pathway involvoing caffeic acid. This alternative pathway represents a step forward in the heterologous production of curcumin using E. coli. PMID:25641677

  13. Effects of stream acidification on fungal biomass in decaying beech leaves and leaf palatability.

    PubMed

    Dangles, O; Chauvet, E

    2003-02-01

    We examined the effect of surface water acidification on rates of decomposition, ergosterol concentrations (as a measure of fungal biomass), and palatability to shredders of common beech leaves (Fagus sylvatica L.) in five mountain streams (pH 4.7-7.1). Leaf decomposition was significantly faster in the circumneutral streams (pH 6.4-7.1; k > or = 0.00175 d(-1)), when compared to acidic streams (pH 4.7-4.9; k < or = 0.00100 d(-1)). Fungal biomass showed no particular trend along the acidification gradient except that it peaked earlier in the stream closest to neutrality. Leaf palatability, measured as the feeding activity of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum Koch, varied with the exposure time in the streams. Except for the higher palatability of leaves exposed during 6 weeks at the highest pH, patterns among streams were mostly similar. These results suggest that reduced processing rates in the most acidic streams were not related to differences in fungal biomass associated with decomposing leaves and that microbial conditioning was only slightly delayed by acidification. Possible effects of low pH and related variables (Ca, Al) on microbial decomposition and detritivorous macroinvertebrates are discussed to clarify the inhibition of beech leaf decomposition in the studied systems. PMID:12688687

  14. Evaluation of ozone for preventing fungal influenced corrosion of reinforced concrete bridges over the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Geweely, Neveen S I

    2011-04-01

    Fungal influenced corrosion (FIC) of some corroded sites in three selected bridges [Embaba bridge (E-bridge), Kasr al-Nile-bridge (K-bridge) and University bridge (U-bridge)] located over the River Nile in Egypt were investigated. Six fungal species, belong to 12 fungal genera, were isolated from the corroded reinforced concrete of the three tested bridges. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was screened for the most dominant fungal species (Fusarium oxysporium) which showed in all tested bridges that indicated the presence of amine group accompanied with polysaccharides contents. FIC of the most deteriorated bridge (K-bridge) was documented with FTIR. The association of fungal spores with corrosion products was recorded with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Evaluation of ozone for preventing FIC of the K-bridge was carried out by recording the corrosion rate and the corresponding inhibition efficiency (IE%). No mycelial growth with 100% IE was observed at 3 ppm ozone concentration after 120 min exposure time. With longer duration of ozone exposure, the membrane permeability of F. oxysporium was compromised as indicated by protein and nucleic acid leakages accompanied with lipid and tryptophan oxidation. The total intracellular and extracellular proteins of F. oxysporium were run on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated the increasing of the supernatant protein on the expense of the cellular protein bands with extending ozone exposure time (0-80 min). PMID:20820884

  15. Fungal chitin from asthma-associated home environments induces eosinophilic lung infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyken, Steven J.; Garcia, Daniel; Porter, Paul; Huang, Xiaozhu; Quinlan, Patricia J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Corry, David B.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Development of asthma and allergic inflammation involves innate immunity but the environmental contributions remain incompletely defined. Analysis of dust collected from the homes of asthmatic individuals revealed that the polysaccharide chitin is environmentally widespread, and associated with ?-glucans, possibly from ubiquitous fungi. Cell wall preparations of Aspergillus isolated from house dust induced robust recruitment of eosinophils into mouse lung, an effect that was attenuated by enzymatic degradation of cell wall chitinand ?-glucans. Mice expressing constitutively active acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) in the lungs demonstrated a significant reduction in eosinophil infiltration after fungal challenge. Conversely, chitinase inhibition prolonged the duration of tissue eosinophilia. Thus, fungal chitin derived from home environments associated with asthma induces eosinophilic allergic inflammation in the lung, and mammalian chitinases, including AMCase, limit this process. PMID:21824866

  16. Accumulation of cadmium, lead, and nickel by fungal and wood biosorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Native fungal biomass of fungi Absidia orchids, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus nugricans, and modified spruce sawdust (Picea engelmanii) sequestered metals in the following decreasing preference: Pb>Cd>Ni. The highest metal uptake was q{sub max}=351 mg Pb/g for A. orchidis biomass. P. chrysogenum biomass could accumulate cadmium best at 56 mg Cd/G. The sorption of nickel was the weakest always at >5 mg Ni/g. The spruce sawdust was modified by crosslinking, oxidation to acidic oxoforms, and by substitution. The highest metal uptake was observed in phosorylated sawdust reaching q{sub max}=224 mg Pb/g, 56 mg Cd/g, and 26 mg Ni/g. The latter value is comparable to the value of nickel sorption by wet commercial resin Duolite GT-73. Some improvement in metal uptake was also observed after reinforcement of fungal biomass. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Partial Amino Acid Sequence of a Cellulase-Like Component with IgE-Binding Properties from Stachybotrys chartarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja Kärkkäinen; Päivi Raunio; Jaakko Rautiainen; Seppo Auriola; Kaj Hinke; Anna-Liisa Pasanen

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the amino acid sequence of a selected Stachybotrys chartarum component and to investigate human IgE reactivity against components of S. chartarum and nine other fungal species. Methods: Human IgE reactivity against S. chartarum and nine other fungal extracts was investigated by the immunoblotting method. For automated amino acid sequencing analyses, the

  18. Fungal Periprosthetic Joint Infection of the Hip: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schoof, Benjamin; Jakobs, Oliver; Schmidl, Stefan; Klatte, Till Orla; Frommelt, Lars; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25874063

  19. Cross-reactivity among fungal allergens: a clinically relevant phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto; Zeller, Sabine; Glaser, Andreas G; Vilhelmsson, Monica; Rhyner, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    Atopic patients suffering from allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic eczema often have detectable levels of serum IgE antibodies to fungi. Although the association between fungal sensitisation and different forms of allergic diseases, including allergic asthma and life-threatening allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, is well established, the clinical relevance of cross-reactivity among different fungal species remains largely unknown. Recent progress in molecular cloning of fungal allergens and the availability of more than 40 completely sequenced fungal genomes facilitates characterisation, cloning, and production of highly pure recombinant allergens, identification of homologous and orthologous allergens widespread among the fungal kingdom, in silico prediction, and experimental in vitro and in vivo verification of cross-reactivity between homologous pan-allergens. These studies indicate that cross-reactivity is an important component of fungal sensitisation. PMID:18983424

  20. A resource for the in silico identification of fungal polyketide synthases from predicted fungal proteomes.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Javier A; Al-Azzam, Omar; Denton, Anne M; Markell, Samuel G; Goswami, Rubella S

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a tool specifically designed to identify iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs) from predicted fungal proteomes. A fungi-based PKS prediction model, specifically for fungal iPKSs, was developed using profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) based on two essential iPKS domains, the ?-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain and acyltransferase (AT) domain, derived from fungal iPKSs. This fungi-based PKS prediction model was initially tested on the well-annotated proteome of Fusarium graminearum, identifying 15 iPKSs that matched previous predictions and gene disruption studies. These fungi-based pHMMs were subsequently applied to the predicted fungal proteomes of Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. The iPKSs predicted were compared against those predicted by the currently available mixed-kingdom PKS models that include both bacterial and fungal sequences. These mixed-kingdom models have been proven previously by others to be better in predicting true iPKSs from non-iPKSs compared with other available models (e.g. Pfam and TIGRFAM). The fungi-based model was found to perform significantly better on fungal proteomes than the mixed-kingdom PKS model in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. In addition, the model was capable of predicting the reducing nature of fungal iPKSs by comparison of the bit scores obtained from two separate reducing and nonreducing pHMMs for each domain, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the KS domain. Biological confirmation of the predictions was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the KS and AT domains of predicted iPKSs from V. dahliae using domain-specific primers and genomic DNA, followed by sequencing of the PCR products. It is expected that the fungi-based PKS model will prove to be a useful tool for the identification and annotation of fungal PKSs from predicted proteomes. PMID:22112245