Science.gov

Sample records for furnace hearth drainage

  1. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  2. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  3. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  4. Method for controlling temperatures in the afterburner and combustion hearths of a multiple hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.

    1983-07-05

    The present invention relates to a method for efficiently incinerating waste material, particularly dewatered sludge, in a multiple hearth furnace by controlling the temperature of the individual hearths of the furnace within certain prescribed limits by modulating the amount of combustion air, and controlling the temperature of the afterburner or combustion hearths to within certain prescribed limits by splitting the feed sludge between the first two upper waste material handling hearths.

  5. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOEpatents

    Docherty, James P.; Johnson, Beverly E.; Beri, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  6. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, J.P.; Johnson, B.E.; Beri, J.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a rotary hearth furnace. It comprises a stationary furnace wall with connecting roof and floor defining a closed furnace chamber therein; a rotatable hearth within the furnace chamber having a gas perforate surface for supporting a charge material thereon and having an open center region; a vertical cylindrical conduit supporting the hearth and communicating with the open center region thereof, the vertical cylindrical conduit extending from the hearth downwardly through an opening formed in the furnace floor and the vertical cylindrical conduit supported for rotation on bearing means positioned beneath the furnace floor; sealing means associated with the vertical cylindrical conduit and the furnace floor to seal off the opening therebetween; drive means for rotating the vertical cylindrical conduit and the hearth, feed means extending into the furnace chamber for charging particulate material onto the hearth, means for supplying hot gases to the furnace chamber between the hearth and the floor; means for withdrawing spent gas from the furnace chamber above the hearth; rabble means for moving the charge material across the hearth for discharge into the open enter region and the vertical cylindrical conduit.

  7. Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxén, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

  8. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  9. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  10. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  11. Rational design of the car hearth of a tunnel furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Chernyi, V.I.; Dunaevskii, O.M.; Mokhort, V.N.; Sedoi, N.I.

    1985-09-01

    In tunnel furnaces the heat losses into the environment amount to 15-20% of the burnt-fuel heat. The heat is essentially lost through the car (carrier) hearth into the corridor of the furnace bottom. A light-weight car has been designed that is thermally insulated using a high-alumina kaolin fiber of the VGR-130 mark. The car-hearth weight was reduced by 1.5 times by using a light-weight fireclay and incorporating an air space within the hearth. Using the method of finite differences, the authors determined the dynamics of temperature field variation along the height of the car-hearth before and after its reconstruction as applied to the firing parameters of the products in the tunnel furnace. The results of the determinations are presented. An additional thermal insulation of the car hearth using a 15-20 mm thick high-alumina kaolin fiber also makes it possible to reduce the heat losses in the furnace-bottom corridor by 30-40%, and thereby, to decrease the maximum temperature in the corridor from 90 to 60 degrees C, which significantly improves energy efficiency.

  12. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  17. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  18. Determination of the state of the hearth of BHP Steel's blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, A.; Skimmings, T.; Jelenich, L. . Rod and Bar Products Division); Zulli, P. . Newcastle Laboratories); Plat, P.; Tanzil, W.F. . Slab and Plate Products Division)

    1993-01-01

    A computer model has been developed which calculates the internal profile of the hearth from thermocouples placed in the bottom and side walls. The model accounts for both erosion of the refractory material, and the formation of skull on the refractory surfaces. Analysis of the hearth on a regular basis, by visualizing the three-dimensional hearth profile and by calculating the effective hearth liquid volume, has proved to be an effective means of evaluating the influence of feedstock (e.g. coke mean size) and operating practices on the hearth performance, and hence impacts on the furnace life.

  19. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  20. Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

    2013-04-01

    The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

  1. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  2. Cost efficiency of flame-guniting the lining of open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, M.V.; Kozenko, N.I.; Moiseenko, V.D.; Bondarenko, A.G.

    1988-05-01

    The use of flame-guniting for lining repair to the open-hearth and electric steelmaking furnaces of a number of Soviet plants is reviewed. Equipment and technology for flame-guniting the lining of furnaces, which provide for both local and general repairs to the walls, roofs, and bottoms of furnaces, are discussed. Methods are given for calculating expenditures for repair work and determining the cost efficiency of flame guniting relative to the increased number of heats per lining life. Results are given from calculations of the projected cost-efficiency of using flame-guniting for furnace lining repair at the metallurgical plants of the Ukranian Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy.

  3. Improved CFD Model to Predict Flow and Temperature Distributions in a Blast Furnace Hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Keisuke M.; Guo, Bao-Yu; Zughbi, Habib; Zulli, Paul; Yu, Ai-Bing

    2014-10-01

    The campaign life of a blast furnace is limited by the erosion of hearth refractories. Flow and temperature distributions of the liquid iron have a significant influence on the erosion mechanism. In this work, an improved three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the hearth of BlueScope's Port Kembla No. 5 Blast Furnace. Model improvements feature more justified input parameters in turbulence modeling, buoyancy modeling, wall boundary conditions, material properties, and modeling of the solidification of iron. The model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with the thermocouple data available, where agreements are established within ±3 pct. The flow distribution in the hearth is discussed for intact and eroded hearth profiles, for sitting and floating coke bed states. It is shown that natural convection affects the flow in several ways: for example, the formation of (a) stagnant zones preventing hearth bottom from eroding or (b) the downward jetting of molten liquid promoting side wall erosion, or (c) at times, a vortex-like peripheral flow, promoting the "elephant foot" type erosion. A significant influence of coke bed permeability on the macroscopic flow pattern and the refractory temperature is observed.

  4. A Model to Simulate Titanium Behavior in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Yu; Zulli, Paul; Maldonado, Daniel; Yu, Ai-Bing

    2010-08-01

    The erosion of hearth refractory is a major limitation to the campaign life of a blast furnace. Titanium from titania addition in the burden or tuyere injection can react with carbon and nitrogen in molten pig iron to form titanium carbonitride, giving the so-called titanium-rich scaffold or buildup on the hearth surface, to protect the hearth from subsequent erosion. In the current article, a mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics is proposed to simulate the behavior of solid particles in the liquid iron. The model considers the fluid/solid particle flow through a packed bed, conjugated heat transfer, species transport, and thermodynamic of key chemical reactions. A region of high solid concentration is predicted at the hearth bottom surface. Regions of solid formation and dissolution can be identified, which depend on the local temperature and chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity to the key model parameters for the solid phase is analyzed. The model provides an insight into the fundamental mechanism of solid particle formation, and it may form a basic model for subsequent development to study the formation of titanium scaffold in the blast furnace hearth.

  5. Cleaning flue gases from an open-hearth furnace when the bath is blown with oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Yu.L.; Kanenko, G.M.; Chalyi, L.G.; Shulika, E.G.; Glazunov, V.N.; Kostyukov, A.K.; Pastushenko, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    To develop recommendations on the cleaning of process gases to satisfy health standards, the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine conducted studies of dust and gas emissions from two 400-ton open-hearth furnaces operated by the ore-and-scrap process with subsurface and combination blowing of the bath by oxygen. Oxygen was injected through the combination lateral burners into the flame during cold-charging and heating. Different variants of overhead and subsurface injection lances were evaluated. The results show that the traditional types of gas cleaning (high-pressure Venturi tubes, electrostatic precipitators) can be used with the introduction of the proposed methods of intensifying open-hearth steelmaking with oxygen.

  6. Blast furnace hearth life: Models for assessing the wear and understanding the transient thermal states

    SciTech Connect

    Leprince, G.; Steiler, J.M.; Sert, D. ); Libralesso, J.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, the hearth is the most critical part of the blast furnace when aiming at a long campaign life. Consequently, a better understanding of refractories wear as well as flow mechanisms has become primordial for determining and, if possible, preventing the erosion process. Efforts of measurements have therefore been made during the blast furnace repairs, with the implementation of numerous thermocouples in the carbon bricks. Hence, it becomes possible to monitor and model continuously the internal state of the hearth in accordance with the measured temperature field. Since 1990, different numerical models have been developed and used with two principal aims: - to assess regularly the internal erosion line of the blast furnace hearth all along the campaign life, and - to simulate and if possible, to explain the important transient thermal states observed on some large blast furnaces. This paper describes the content of the two models used nowadays on most of the French blast furnaces and presents the main results obtained in accordance with the industrial variations of temperatures.

  7. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  8. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Video imaging system and thermal mapping of the molten hearth in an electron beam melting furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Miszkiel, M.E.; Davis, R.A.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project was initiated to develop an enhanced video imaging system for the Liquid Metal Processing Laboratory Electron Beam Melting (EB) Furnace at Sandia and to use color video images to map the temperature distribution of the surface of the molten hearth. In a series of test melts, the color output of the video image was calibrated against temperatures measured by an optical pyrometer and CCD camera viewing port above the molten pool. To prevent potential metal vapor deposition onto line-of-sight optical surfaces above the pool, argon backfill was used along with a pinhole aperture to obtain the vide image. The geometry of the optical port to the hearth set the limits for the focus lens and CCD camera`s field of view. Initial melts were completed with the pyrometer and pinhole aperture port in a fixed position. Using commercially available vacuum components, a second flange assembly was constructed to provide flexibility in choosing pyrometer target sights on the hearth and to adjust the field of view for the focus lens/CCD combination. RGB video images processed from the melts verified that red wavelength light captured with the video camera could be calibrated with the optical pyrometer target temperatures and used to generate temperature maps of the hearth surface. Two color ratio thermal mapping using red and green video images, which has theoretical advantages, was less successful due to probable camera non-linearities in the red and green image intensities.

  10. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  11. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  12. Method and apparatus for efficiently controlling the incineration of combustible materials in a multiple hearth furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.

    1984-07-17

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for controlling the operation of a multiple hearth furnace system for efficiently incinerating combustible materials, such as sludge in which the air of combustion is essentially all introduced at the bottom of the furnace to incinerate solid materials. This control involves the following essential steps: scanning the temperature of two or more combustion hearths to determine which is the hottest hearth; controlling the temperature of the thus-determined hottest hearth at a predetermined temperature set point value; controlling the oxygen content of the system exhaust gas at least as high as the predetermined set point value; and maintaining the system exhaust temperature at least as high as the predetermined set point value.

  13. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  14. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  15. System for removing and cleaning flue gases from an open-hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Glazunov, V.N.; Sadykov, N.Kh.; Spiridonova, S.I.; Pastushenko, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    The institute VNIPIchermetenergoochistka collaborated with the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine to develop and introduce a gas-cleaning system with an ejector-type Venturi tube. The system transports and efficiently cleans flue gases by the kinetic energy of superheated steam. The low metal content of the system made it possible to make the gas-cleaning equipment and smokestack of stainless steels. The optimum hydraulic operating regime of the Venturi tube was determined for different cross-sectional areas of the de Laval nozzles and different steam consumptions at the nozzles. The low capital expenditures and low metal content make the system feasible for open-hearth furnaces under crowded conditions in existing shops.

  16. Risks involved in commercialization of multiple hearth furnaces for sludge disposal using refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the risks involved in attempts to implement a new application of the sludge disposal concept that uses multiple hearth furnaces and refuse-derived fuel as a primary fuel source. In order to perform this risk analysis a case study examination has been made of a codisposal and energy recovery project proposed by the City of Memphis. General problems which have been experienced in the past have been briefly described above and are presented in more detail in Appendix A. The framework for the analysis of risks associated with the Memphis project is presented in Chapter II. The risk analysis itself is presented in Chapter III. The effects of these risks are described in Chapter IV.

  17. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  18. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  19. Formation mechanism of the protective layer in a blast furnace hearth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xu, Meng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A variety of techniques, such as chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were applied to characterize the adhesion protective layer formed below the blast furnace taphole level when a certain amount of titanium- bearing burden was used. Samples of the protective layer were extracted to identify the chemical composition, phase assemblage, and distribution. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the protective layer was determined after clarifying the source of each component. Finally, a technical strategy was proposed for achieving a stable protective layer in the hearth. The results show that the protective layer mainly exists in a bilayer form in the sidewall, namely, a titanium-bearing layer and a graphite layer. Both the layers contain the slag phase whose major crystalline phase is magnesium melilite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and the main source of the slag phase is coke ash. It is clearly determined that solid particles such as graphite, Ti(C,N) and MgAl2O4 play an important role in the formation of the protective layer, and the key factor for promoting the formation of a stable protective layer is reasonable control of the evolution behavior of coke.

  20. Numerical simulation of the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace for zinc-containing metallurgical dust treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-liang; Jiang, Ze-yi; Zhang, Xin-xin; Wang, Peng; She, Xue-feng

    2013-07-01

    A mathematical model was established to describe the direct reduction of pellets in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF). In the model, heat transfer, mass transfer, and gas-solid chemical reactions were taken into account. The behaviors of iron metallization and dezincification were analyzed by the numerical method, which was validated by experimental data of the direct reduction of pellets in a Si-Mo furnace. The simulation results show that if the production targets of iron metallization and dezincification are up to 80% and 90%, respectively, the furnace temperature for high-temperature sections must be set higher than 1300°C. Moreover, an undersupply of secondary air by 20% will lead to a decline in iron metallization rate of discharged pellets by 10% and a decrease in dezincing rate by 13%. In addition, if the residence time of pellets in the furnace is over 20 min, its further extension will hardly lead to an obvious increase in production indexes under the same furnace temperature curve.

  1. Simulation of reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Sabuj

    The primary motivation of this work is to evaluate a new alternative ironmaking process which involves the combination of a Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF) with an iron bath smelter. This work is concerned primarily, with the productivity of the RHF. It is known that the reduction in the RHF is controlled by chemical kinetics of the carbon oxidation and wustite reduction reactions as well as by heat transfer to the pellet surface and within the pellet. It is heat transfer to the pellet which limits the number of layers of pellets in the pellet bed in the RHF and thus, the overall productivity. Different types of carbon like graphite, coal-char and wood charcoal were examined. Part of the research was to investigate the chemical kinetics by de-coupling it from the influence of heat and mass transfer. This was accomplished by carrying out reduction experiments using small iron-oxide-carbon powder composite mixtures. The reaction rate constants were determined by fitting the experimental mass loss with a mixed reaction model. This model accounts for the carbon oxidation by CO2 and wustite reduction by CO, which are the primary rate controlling surface-chemical reactions in the composite system. The reaction rate constants have been obtained using wustite-coal-char powder mixtures and wustite-wood-charcoal mixtures. The wustite for these mixtures was obtained from two iron-oxide sources: artificial porous analytical hematite (PAH) and hematite ore tailings. In the next phase of this study, larger scale experiments were conducted in a RHF simulator using spherical composite pellets. Measurement of the reaction rates was accomplished using off-gas analysis. Different combinations of raw materials for the pellets were investigated. These included artificial ferric oxide as well as naturally existing hematite and taconite ores. Graphite, coal-char and wood-charcoal were the reductants. Experiments were conducted using a single layer, a double layer and a triple layer of

  2. VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR AREA, NOTE FOUNDATIONS OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Detection and Quantification of the Dead Man Floating State in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brännbacka, Johnny; Saxén, Henrik; Pomeroy, Dave

    2007-06-01

    The lower part, the hearth, is a crucial region of the ironmaking blast furnace. The life length of it often determines the campaign length of the furnace and the thermal state and permeability of the hearth exert strong influence on liquids drainage and hot metal chemistry. In order to operate the furnace efficiently, the hearth state should be controlled, but the conditions in the hearth are extremely hostile with little possibility to carry out direct measurements. This article presents a set of methods and models through which the floating of the hearth coke bed, the dead man, can be assessed. Data from three industrial blast furnaces illustrate how a systematic analysis of available measurements, in combination with results of mathematical models of the phenomena in the hearth, can successfully detect and quantify the dead man floating state.

  4. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  5. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  6. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio <2.33) in the pellet, while bottom layer exceeded top layer reduction at higher carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio >2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  7. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio <2.33) in the pellet, while bottom layer exceeded top layer reduction at higher carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio >2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  8. Radiantly heated furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pargeter, J.K.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a travelling hearth furnace comprising at least one impermeable hearth member adapted to travel generally horizontally along a path from a first locus to a second locus, means to cause the hearth member to travel along the path. Means directs radiant hat toward the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the first locus positions a thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member. Means at the second locus removes objects from the hearth member. Means, positioned intermediate the first locus and the second locus, positions additional objects on the thin layer of objects on the upper surface of the hearth member.

  9. Intermediate hearth repair technique at Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Ruether, P.; Ballewski, T.

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays various techniques for the fastest possible intermediate repair and/or emplacement of refractory materials above the tuyere level allow a significant extension of furnace campaign life. The latter are hence now exclusively determined by the service life of the hearth. The improvement of hearth monitoring and the estimation of residual brick strength of the refractory lining on the basis of temperature measurements in the hearth enable the location of individual zones of premature wear. These measurement methods, which were developed by Thyssen Stahl AG, aid the decision to undertake selective repair of the hearth. Three areas of repair are differentiated: taphole zone; hearth wall, localized; and hearth wall, extensive. This hearth repair method is described in this report using the example of hearth refurbishing blast furnace 8, Hamborn.

  10. WHAT TO DO BEFORE YOU "NUKE" YOUR MULTIPLE HEARTH FURNACE - PRACTICAL TIPS AND TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING OPERATION, REDUCING EMISSIONS, AND MEETING REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper emphasizes several approaches for improving the operation of multiple hearth sludge incinerator. First of all, it is highly recommended that auxiliary fuel be added above the combustion hearth, to the maximum practical extent. Secondly, means should be provided to incr...

  11. What to do before you nuke your multiple hearth furnace: Practical tips and techniques for improving operation, reducing emissions and meeting the regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.; Lundberg, L.A.; Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; DeWees, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper emphasizes several approaches for improving the operation of multiple hearth sludge incinerators. First, it is highly recommended that auxiliary fuel be added above the combustion hearth, to the maximum practical extent. Secondly, means should be provided to increase gas-phase mixing and turbulence within each hearth, to minimize the formation of localized oxygen-starved regions (pyrolysis pathways) and reduce the kinetic limitations on the destruction of volatile organics and products of incomplete combustion. One should also consider means to improve wet scrubbing system performance, as it complements the combustion process in controlling a variety of related emissions.

  12. Reduction of Iron-Oxide-Carbon Composites: Part II. Rates of Reduction of Composite Pellets in a Rotary Hearth Furnace Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO2 generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O3-to-Fe3O4 transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O4. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  13. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  14. Pulsating incinerator hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Basic, J.N. Sr.

    1984-10-09

    A pulsating hearth for an incinerator wherein the hearth is suspended on a fixed frame for movement in a limited short arc to urge random size particles burning in a pile on the hearth in a predetermined path intermittently across the surface of the heart. Movement is imparted to the hearth in periodic pulses preferably by inflating sets of air bags mounted on the frame, which stroke the hearth to move it a short distance from an initial position and jar it against the frame, thus impelling the burning particles a short distance by inertia and concurrently stoking the burning pile upon each stroke, and then returning the hearth to its initial position. The hearth may also have a plurality of nozzles connected to a source of air for delivering gently flowing air to the burning pile on the hearth.

  15. Multi-zone furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeck, G.A.

    1986-05-06

    A multi-zone furnace is described which consists of: a furnace chamber having at least one heat zone and at least one zone adjacent to the heat zone and disposed along the length of the furnace chamber; the heat zone having a hearth at a level different from the hearth level of the adjacent zone; a walking beam conveyor disposed in the furnace chamber and operative in a short stroke mode to convey a product along the hearth of the heat zone, and in a long stroke mode to convey a product from the heat zone to the adjacent zone.

  16. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  17. INTERIOR OF OPEN HEARTH BUILDING. VIEW FROM CHARGING PLATFORM ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF OPEN HEARTH BUILDING. VIEW FROM CHARGING PLATFORM ABOVE FORMER NO. 24 FURNACE, LOOKING WEST; RIGHT: WATER TREATMENT TANK, INSTALLED CA. 1979. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Stove-hearth combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Nesje, A.

    1980-08-26

    Stove-hearth combinations are described that are comprised of a combustion chamber having a pair of side walls supported on a base in opposing relation and joined by a rear wall. A cover or hood defines with the base and front edges of the side walls an opening to the chamber. Two doors are each hingedly associated with upper and lower pivot pins which when the door is in a closed position are disposed adjacent but outside a respective side wall front edge. Along upper and lower side edges of each side wall are formed parallel grooves adapted to be engaged slidably by the upper and lower pivot pins. As the door is opened from a stove to a hearth position the pivot pins are displaced along the grooves causing the door to be led gradually into a position along the outer side of its side wall.

  19. Sludge Incineration. Multiple Hearth. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson introduces the basics of sludge incineration and focuses on the multiple hearth furnace in accomplishing this task. Attention is given to component identification and function process control fundamentals, theory of incineration, safety, and other responsibilites of furnace operation. The material is rather technical and assumes an…

  20. Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

  1. IMPROVING DESIGN AND OPERATION OF MULTIPLE-HEARTH AND FLUID BED SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the investigation is to document improvements in design, operation, and maintenance of multiple-hearth and fluid bed furnace incineration for combustion of sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants. The information contained in the report is intended to suppl...

  2. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  3. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D.; May, James B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  4. Rotary turntable furnace for litharge production

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, B.F.

    1986-12-23

    A furnace for heating particulate material comprising: top and side refractory walls defining a furnace chamber, at least one of the refractory walls defining a feed inlet for feeding particulate matter into the chamber. A discharge outlet for discharging the particulate material is outside the chamber, and a burner inlet communicates inside the chamber: heating means associated with the burner inlet for heating the particulate matter within the chamber: a turntable hearth rotatably driving the heart: a distributing means, including at least one screw auger rotatably disposed above the turntable hearth. This means is for mixing and conveying the contents of the chamber in a radial direction relative to the first axis of rotation of the turntable hearth by screw movement simultaneously with the rotation of the particulate material on the turntable hearth about the first axis of rotation. The distributing means includes first and second screw augers angularly spaced apart relative to the first axis of rotation of the turntable hearth, the second screw auger having an opposite pitch from the first screw auger; a second drive means connected to the screw auger for rotatably driving the screw auger in the chamber; and a third drive means connected to the second screw auger for rotatably driving the second screw auger at a slower speed than the first screw auger. The first and second screw augers distribute the particulate material in opposite radial directions relative to the center of the turntable hearth.

  5. Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.H.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

  6. Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.A.; Swanson, D.E; Chango, R.F. . Burns Harbor Div.)

    1994-09-01

    Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%/year while fuel rate decreased 1%/year. This presentation summarizes the early repairs, relines and improvements that have sustained and enhanced the furnace's performance. The fourth reline of both furnaces will be discussed in detail. As part of the 1991 reline of D furnace its lines were improved and modern penstocks installed. The bosh, tuyere jacket, hearth jacket and both cast floors were replaced. The furnace now has a larger hearth making it easier to control and, liquid level is no longer a problem when pulling the wind to shut down. The new cast floor with its increased trough length has much improved separation of slag from iron and lowered refractory consumption. Since the cast floors on D furnace were changed, there has been a reduction in accidents and absenteeism. This may be related to the change in work practices on the new cast floors. The 1994 reline of C furnace incorporates those improvements made on D furnace in 1991. In addition, C furnace will have high-density cooling which is expected to double its campaign from 6 to 12 years, without interim repairs.

  7. Horizontal tapping furnace and method of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsche, E.R.

    1987-07-14

    A metallurgical furnace is described including: a furnace floor and a furnace wall means extending generally upwardly about the floor, the furnace having a vertical axis and a horizontal axis, means mounting the furnace for pivotal tilting movement about the horizontal axis between a non-tilted, normal upright position, and a tilted discharge position with the furnace tilted less than 15/sup 0/ to the vertical axis; a hearth zone defined between the floor and wall means adapted to house a bath of liquid metal of predetermined volume, the hearth zone having an upper end defining a predetermined upper level for the bath and for a layer of liquid slag floating on the upper level, when the furnace is in a non-tilted, normal upright position; the hearth zone having a lower end adjacent the floor, a tapping passage extending through the wall means from a liquid metal discharge outlet at an outer end into the lower end of the hearth zone, at an inner end, the discharge outlet being defined by an outwardly facing passage wall and the passage at the outer end; the tapping passage disposed generally parallel to the horizontal axis and vertically below the predetermined upper level, when the furnace is in the non-tilted, normal, upright position; a discharge outlet closure having a closure surface and pivotally mounted externally of the passage for pivotal to and for movement towards and away from the furnace wall means between a first position. The closure surface engages the passage wall at the outer end to fully close the discharge outlet, and a second position spaced apart from the passage wall.

  8. 15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor

    SciTech Connect

    Noska, T.G.L.

    1995-07-01

    Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

  9. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements.

  10. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  11. Service and repair of the rammed lining of a rotary furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, D.A.; Khamatova, V.G.; Murzin, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    The rotary furnace is designed for heating of carbon and alloy steel billets 100-150 mm in diameter and 1000-3800 mm long with a maximum weight of 350 kg to 1130-1260 degrees C. The furnace hearth lining is made in three layers. The top of the center layer is made of parts laid with gaps between them of 20-30 mm. The 80-90-mm-thick working layer is made of type MKhGP-35 rammed chromite-clay compound. To protect the top of the side parts of the hearth from impacts, they are covered with a 40-mm-thick layer of rammed MKhGP-35 compound. During operation of the furnace and heating of the billets, the rammed compound of the hearth is compacted and after 6-7 months of service waves up to 20-30 mm deep are formed on it from the action of the round billets. To avoid the condition in which the unloading machine is not able to take the heated billets from such a hearth, ramming compound is added to the depressions in the hearth through the charging door. The furnace temperature is brought up to the heating schedule and billets are charged. The rammed lining is completely replaced once every two or three years. The saving with such a method of repair of the worn rammed hearth during 2 years of operation of the rotary furnace is substantial.

  12. 5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 9. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD HIGH LEVEL BRIDGE. NO. 2 FORGE SHOP IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW INTO PART OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW INTO PART OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 WITH RAILROAD TRESTLE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached to the right. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 8. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD HIGH LEVEL BRIDGE. NO. 2 FORGE SHOP IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  18. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH & LAKE ERIE RAILROAD TRACKS CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN TRACKS WITH OPEN HEARTH ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN TRACKS WITH OPEN HEARTH ON THE RIGHT FOREGROUND AND BRICK POWER HOUSE TO LEFT, BLOOMING MILL IN BACKGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. Modernization of open-hearth steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Most of the steel that has been produced domestically has been made by the open-hearth method - an obsolete technology that is now being phased out. Open-hearth steelmaking is labor- and energy-intensive, consumes large quantities of raw materials, and adversely impacts the environment. Nearly all open-hearth (OH) shops and the equipment therein have been fully amortized, and practical experience and research both here and abroad have shown that further capital investment in these facilities would be inexpedient. The use of OH steelmaking has thus declined rapidly in recent years worldwide (especially in the developed nations), leading to its almost complete disappearance in some countries. The worldwide trend is toward electrical and converter steelmaking processes, and this has significantly reshaped the face of the industry as a whole.

  1. Improving design and operation of multiple-hearth and fluid bed sludge incinerators. Final report, June 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to document improvements in design, operation, and maintenance of multiple-hearth and fluid-bed furnace incineration for combustion of sludge in municipal wastewater-treatment plants. The information contained in the report is intended to supplement and qualify information available from incinerator manufacturers and published literature. The report addresses incinerator and support systems design deficiencies and solutions, operation and maintenance problems and solutions, fuel efficient operation, upgrading of existing incinerators, administration, and personnel training.

  2. Partial reline of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II; Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    The background for the decision to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace that would achieve the same results as a complete reline is discussed. This approach was designed to reduce actual downtime on the furnace at a critical production period. Areas of work included the hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Highlights of the project execution were: schedules; blowdown; salamander tap; quench; dig out/descale; scaffolding used; and brick installation. The furnace was blown-in 29 days after the blowdown and producing in excess of 9,000 tons/day after 12 days of operation. Inland has adopted a new definition for establishing campaign life based on refractory wear that includes a hearth monitoring system.

  3. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium 6% niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  4. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-22

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  5. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-15

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  6. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  7. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  8. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  9. Evaluation of air pollution abatement systems for multiple-hearth sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Annamraju, G.; Gerstle, R.W.; Shah, Y.M.; Arora, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for the application of six different air-pollution-control system options to municipal sewage-sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air-pollution equipment - wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators - applied to three different plant sizes (plants incinerating 36, 72, and 300 tons of dry sludge per day in one, two, and eight multiple-hearth furnaces, respectively). The six options were: (1) venturi/tray scrubber with a 40-inch pressure drop, (2) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with an upstream temperature control, (3) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with a heat exchanger and a scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, (4) electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with upstream limited temperature and humidity control, (5) same as Option 4 but with an additional downstream wet scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, and (6) ESP with upstream temperature control and an SO/sub 2/ scrubber. Technical feasibility studies indicated that all three types of controls could achieve a total particulate removal efficiency of 99 percent. The venturi/tray scrubber option entailed the lowest capital cost, but annual operating costs were highest because of the high pressure drops and increased energy use.

  10. 6. OPEN HEARTH NO. 4 TRESTLE. THE ARCH WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OPEN HEARTH NO. 4 TRESTLE. THE ARCH WITH THE GATE IS KNOWN AS THE HOLE IN THE WALL BY FORMER STEELWORKERS. FOR YEARS THE HOLE IN THE WALL PROVIDED ACCESS TO THE INTERIOR OF THE MILL AND TO THE PAYMASTER'S OFFICE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 2. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 FROM THE HOMESTEAD HIGH LEVEL BRIDGE. NO. 2 FORGE SHOP IS VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P.; Carney, K.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

  13. Laser hearth melt processing of ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard Weber, J. K.; Felten, J. J.; Nordine, Paul C.

    1996-02-01

    A new technique for synthesizing small batches of oxide-based ceramic and glass materials from high purity powders is described. The method uses continuous wave CO2 laser beam heating of material held on a water-cooled copper hearth. Contamination which would normally result during crucible melting is eliminated. Details of the technique are presented, and its operation and use are illustrated by results obtained in melting experiments with a-aluminum oxide, Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor material, and the mixtures, Al2O3-SiO2, Bi2O3-B2O3, Bi2O3-CuO. Specimen masses were 0.05-1.5 g.

  14. Combustion system having a movable hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, R.M.

    1993-08-17

    A hearth is described comprising: a body having a surface for the receipt of materials, said body comprising: a first flange extending upwardly above said surface on one side of said body; and a second flange extending upwardly above said surface on another side of said body opposite said first flange; and a third flange extending upwardly above said surface on an end of said body, said first, second and third flanges for containing said materials on said surface; a heat exchange fluid circulation means formed on an interior of said body, said circulation means for passing a fluid in heat exchange relationship with said surface; and oscillation means connected to said body for enabling said body to oscillate.

  15. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Meisingset, H.C.; Balchen, J.G.; Fernandez, R.

    1996-10-01

    Calcination of petroleum coke is a thermal process where green petroleum coke is heat-treated to a pre-determined temperature. During heat treatment the associated moisture is removed and the volatile combustible matter (VCM) is released. The VCM is burned in the gas phase giving the energy to sustain the process. In addition, structural changes take place. The combination of the final calcination temperature and the residence time determine the final real density of the calcined coke. Depending on its further use, different real density requirements may arise. It is important to control the dynamics of the calcination process so that the specified final quality is achieved. A dynamic mathematical model of a Rotary Hearth Calciner is presented. The model is based on physicochemical laws involving the most important phenomena taking place and the relevant calcination parameters. The temperature profile in the coke bed is predicted which in terms is related to the real density of the coke.

  16. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  17. 12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  18. 13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FRIST FLOOR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTHWEST WALL, HEARTH WITH KETTLES USED FOR RENDERING LARD (LEFT) AND MAKING APPLE BUTTER (RIGHT) WITH SCALE - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  19. 2. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (HEARTH TO LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (HEARTH TO LEFT AND SHAFT SEAT TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Brick Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. Reline and modernization of AHMSA No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.C.; Gamez, O.; Bean, R.M.

    1995-07-01

    No. 5 blast furnace (11.2 meter hearth dia and 2,210 cu meter working volume) was commissioned in 1976, relined in 1985 and then modernized with state of the art technology in 1994. The modernization project objective was for a campaign life of 10 years and 19 million tons of hot metal, and included: integrated furnace lining and intensified cooling design, including new bosh cooling tower system; complete shell replacement from the top of the hearth jacket up to mid-stack, including major furnace walkway replacement; replacement of internal ceramic stove burners, including a portion of checkers; gas cleaning system upgrade; and new process control and instrumentation systems--distributed control system (DCS), PLC-based stove changing system, level 2 (VAX) computer system and new field instrumentation. The paper will concentrate on the installation of the furnace lining and cooling system including shell replacement, internal ceramic burner rebuild combined with checker replacement, and the new furnace and stove control systems upgrade. Problems encountered during the design, manufacturing and installation stages, and subsequent solutions will be discussed. Operating data before and after the rebuild will be compared.

  1. Offgas emissions from the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.A.; Geimer, R.M.; Hassel, G.R.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently evaluating SAIC`s Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) for use as a new method of treating mixtures of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The PHP has been specifically designed for the treatment of both low-level and transuranic mixed waste. These mixed wastes range in composition from non-combustible inorganic sludge wastes to highly combustible plastic and organic sludge wastes. The unique aspect of the PHP technology is its ability to treat this wide range of materials even when combined as a poorly characterized heterogeneous mixture. The PHP uses a plasma-arc torch to volatilize the organic components of the waste and vitrify residual inert materials. Hazardous organic constituents are destroyed in a secondary combustion chamber. Offgas from the process is thoroughly cleaned by state-of-the-art air pollution control equipment. This paper describes the results of the {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} testing of this technology and focuses on the results of the analysis of the offgas emissions. The results demonstrate that the PHP completely destroys organic material; and that the vitrified residual`s leach characteristics are comparable to glass formulated for stabilization of high-level radioactive waste. 10 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.

  2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  3. Inland Steel's No. 7 blast furnace third reline

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II ); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. )

    1994-09-01

    The background information, investigation and benchmarking that led to a decision by Inland Steel to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace is covered. This approach reduced actual downtime on the furnace and extended the current campaign. This alternative allowed for the rebalancing of the physical plant of No. 7 blast furnace. Areas of scope covered are hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Included are highlights of the execution of the project including schedules, blowdown, salamander tap, quench, dig out/descale, scaffolding used and brick installation. A summary of the actual results of the work is presented along with information on production planned, blow-in and the first 20 days of production.

  4. Description of a high temperature quenching furnace for the study of the directional solidification of nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Kelley, J.B.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1994-06-01

    A high temperature resistance furnace has been modified for the study of directional solidification of nickel-base superalloys such as alloys 718 and 625. The furnace will be used to study segregation and solidification phenomena that occur in consumable-electrode melting processes such as vacuum arc remelting and electro-slag remelting. The system consists of a water cooled high temperature furnace (maximum temperature {approximately}2900 C), roughing vacuum,system, cooling system, cooled hearth, molten metal quenching bath, and a mechanism to lower the hearth from the furnace into the molten metal bath. The lowering mechanism is actuated by a digital stopping motor with a programmable controller. The specimen (1.9 cm dia {times} 14 cm long) is melted and contained within an alumina tube (2.54 cm dia {times} 15.24 cm long) which is seated on a copper hearth cooled with {approximately}13 C water. Directional solidification can then be accomplished by decreasing the furnace temperature while holding the specimen in position, maintaining the temperature gradient in the furnace and lowering the specimen at a controlled rate or a combination of both. At any point the specimen can be lowered rapidly into the 70 C molten metal bath to quench the specimen, preserve the solidification structure, and minimize solid state diffusion, enhancing the ability to study the localized solidification conditions.

  5. Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-06-10

    Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  6. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  7. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  8. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  9. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECONDSTORY JOISTS, SUBFLOORING, AND FIREPLACE HEARTH RELIEVING ARCH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND-STORY JOISTS, SUBFLOORING, AND FIREPLACE HEARTH RELIEVING ARCH. THESE FEATURES WERE MADE VISIBLE AFTER A 2002 FAILURE OF WHAT WAS LIKELY THE ORIGINAL EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CEILING PLASTER IN THE SOUTHWEST CABINET - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. BAGHOUSE EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about th...

  11. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  12. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  13. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A.

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  14. Gas hearth products market fact base. Topical report, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determine the influence of service providers, and; identify important trends that can affect the markets for gas hearth products. The market fact base is based on four studies: a market analysis synthesizing primary and secondary research reports; in-depth interviews with market influencers from across the country (architects, contractors, interior designers, fireplace retailers and installers) and industry experts from gas utilities and trade associations; focus group meetings with consumers who own or intend to buy fireplaces, gas fireplace industry professionals, and editors of fireplace-related trade magazines, and; quantitative interviews with consumers in six U.S. cities.

  15. Study of oil combustion in the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth burners

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, Yu.M.; Shtal'man, S.G.; Enyakin, Yu.P.; Abryutin, A.A.; Levin, M.M.; Taran, O.E.; Chuprov, V.V.; Antonov, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth configured burners included the gas mixture in the boiler, the degree of fuel combustion at various heights in the boiler, hydrogen sulfide content in the near-wall zones of the boiler, and temperature distribution fields. Experimental data showed that the hearth burners, in conjunction with steam-mechanical atomizing burners, operate with the least possible excess air over a wide range of load changes. The operation and performance of the hearth burners are discussed.

  16. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  17. Recent improvements in blast furnace operation within the AHMSA/GAN, Monclova Mexico works

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H.; Geerdes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in November 1991 four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection in the blast furnace, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace at AHMSA. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: production level increased to 2.4 ton/m[sup 3]/24 hrs; moreover, the annual production record of blast furnace 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 m, 37 ft) set in 1992, was 1.639 mln tonnes; coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; hot metal costs decreased with 10.6%; and the major reline of BF 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 year.

  18. Recent improvements in blast furnace operation at the Ahmsa Monclova Works

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Yanez, J.M.; Dominguez-Lara, H.; Geerdes, M. )

    1993-07-01

    Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in Nov. 1991, four areas were selected to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included: improvements of pellet quality; start of oil-gas coinjection; improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace; and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: (1) Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu meter/24 hr. Annual production record of blast furnace No. 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 meter), set in 1992, was 1,639 million tonnes. (2) Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil. (3) Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992. (4) Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%. (5) The major reline of blast furnace No. 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 years.

  19. Furnace afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.F. II

    1987-01-13

    An afterburner is described for the exhaust effluvia of a furnace, which exhaust contains combustible material, the afterburner comprising: a. an elongated, generally cylindrical combustion chamber having an inlet for the exhaust at or adjacent one end thereof, and an outlet at or adjacent its other end, b. means operable to induce a draft through the combustion chamber from its inlet to its outlet, c. a series of air nozzles disposed to direct jets of air into the interior of the combustion chamber. Certain nozzles are arranged to direct air jets into the combustion chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a clockwise direction, and the remainder of the nozzles and arranged to direct air jets into the chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a counter-clockwise direction, whereby to induce turbulence within the chamber to intermix the air and the exhaust thoroughly, and d. means operable to deliver air to the air nozzles.

  20. Simulation of slag control for the Plasma Hearth Project

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters. G.G.

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the Plasma Hearth Project is to stabilize alpha-emitting radionuclides in a vitreous slag and to reduce the effective storage volume of actinide-containing waste for long-term burial. The actinides have been shown to partition into the vitreous slag phase of the melt. The slag composition may be changed by adding glass-former elements to ensure that this removable slag has the most desired physical and chemical properties for long-term burial. A data acquisition and control system has been designed to regulate the composition of five elements in the slag.

  1. Modified Claus furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.

    1986-03-11

    A Claus thermal conversion furnace is described comprising a primary furnace chamber, a burner in the primary furnace chamber, an oxidant containing gas supply inlet connected to the burner, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the burner, an outlet extending from the furnace, a secondary reaction chamber in heat but not gas exchange relationship with the primary furnace chamber, the secondary reaction chamber extending through the length of the primary furnace chamber to a point in the outlet extending from the furnace, a hydrogen sulfide decomposing catalyst in the secondary reaction chamber, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the secondary reaction chamber.

  2. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  3. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  4. Combustion furnace and burner

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J. G.

    1985-12-03

    The combustion system includes a hearth lined with refractory, a combustion chamber formed in the refractory, an air manifold mounted on the hearth, a plurality of gas manifold extending through the air manifold and into the combustion chamber, and a diffuser mounted on the manifolds to cause turbulence in the air/gas mixture. The gas manifolds include aspirating means for combining the air and gas. The combustion chamber is elongated and has an elongated neck with a flue gas exit slot over which the work piece passes. The flue gas from the combustion of the air/gas mixture in the combustion chamber increases in velocity as the flue gas passes through the elongated neck and exits the flue gas exit slot. The slot has a length sufficient to permit the work piece to rotate 360/sup 0/ as the work piece rotates and travels through the hearth. This causes the work piece to be uniformly heated over every square inch of its surface.

  5. Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

  6. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface.

  7. A case study of corrosion control in a Herreshoff multiple-hearth calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, M.; Mureinik, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The calcination of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide is performed in a multi-hearth Herreshoff kiln, which consists of a cylindrical shell enclosing refractory hearths. After several years of operation, corrosion on the shell was studied by mapping the residual shell thickness and temperature. Corrosion products were samples and analyzed, and a mechanism proposed to explain the extent and distribution of the corrosion intensity.

  8. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  9. Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

  10. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.; Dwight, C.; McClellan, G.

    1994-07-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years.

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Method and apparatus for processing oil shale in a rotary hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S.

    1982-07-27

    Hydrocarbon containing oil shale is processed on the surface of a rabbled rotary hearth by mixing it with a heat exchange medium consisting of heated spent oil shale. Mixing is obtained by feeding the raw shale and the heated spent shale separately, but in proximity to one another, onto the surface of a hearth, and then subjecting both materials to rabbling action. This mixing causes heat from the heated spent shale heat exchange medium to be transferred to the fresh raw shale, which results in the removal of hydrocarbons from the raw shale. In one preferred embodiment, heated spent shale is obtained by removing spent shale from the hearth after processing, mixing it, preferably while it is still hot, with compatible combustible solids, and then introducing oxidizing gases into the mixture. This results in the burning of the combustible solids and any combustible materials remaining in the shale and the heating of the spent shale.

  13. Assessment of research needs for gas-fired vent-free hearth products. Topical report, February-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerth, D.W.; Roncace, E.A.

    1996-03-01

    The vent-free area is the fastest growing market within the hearth products segment of the gas industry. According to combined statistics of the GAMA and the HPA, almost 4,000,000 unvented gas heaters have been sold in the U.S. since 1980. In 1994 about 270,000 of the 1.2 million hearth products sold were vent-free. Gas-fired hearth product sales have been growing at an annual rate of about 30 percent. This translates into 1995 sales of vent-free hearth products of about 350,000 units. The purpose of the report is to present an integrated plan of research to support the vent-free hearth products and help overcome the potential short term and long term questions.

  14. Chemical profiling of ancient hearths reveals recurrent salmon use in Ice Age Beringia.

    PubMed

    Choy, Kyungcheol; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Reuther, Joshua D; Wang, Shiway W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-30

    Current approaches to reconstruct subsistence and dietary trends in ancient hunter-gatherer societies include stable isotope analyses, but these have focused on human remains, cooking pottery, and food residues, which are relatively rare in the archaeological record. In contrast, short-term hearths are more ubiquitous worldwide, and these features can provide valuable evidence for ancient subsistence practices, particularly when faunal remains are not preserved. To test the suitability of hearths for this purpose, we conducted multiple chemical analyses: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of total organic matter (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses of individual fatty acids (δ(13)C16:0 and δ(13)C18:0) from 17 well-preserved hearths present in three occupations dating between ∼13,200-11,500 calibrated years B.P. at the Upward Sun River (USR) site in central Alaska. We combined δ(15)N and δ(13)CFA data in a Bayesian mixing model (stable isotope analysis in R) with concentration dependency to each hearth. Our model values were tested against faunal indices, indicating a strong positive relationship between marine proportional contributions to each hearth and salmon abundance. Results of the models show substantial anadromous salmon use in multiple USR components, indicating recurrent use of the site for salmon processing during the terminal Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that salmonid and freshwater resources were more important for late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers than previously thought and highlight the potential of chemical profiling of hearth organic residues for providing greater geographic and temporal insights into resource use by prepottery societies. PMID:27573838

  15. Development of a dynamic thermal system model for a low inertia reheating furnace: Comparison of test data with predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, H.; Viskanta, R.

    1999-07-01

    The batch, indirectly-fired furnace, called low inertia furnace (LIF), is simulated using a dynamic thermal model. The load consisting of a basket filled with small parts is placed on the hearth (bottom) of the furnace, and the LIF is heated by flat radiant heaters (FRH) which are installed on the sidewalls, the ends and the roof of the furnace. Transient heat transfer in the load, walls, roof and gas are modeled. Natural gas is burned in the heaters, but the combustion and heat transfer processes in the FRHs are not treated. Instead, measured heater surface temperature vs. time is used to drive the dynamic thermal system model. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates the models for heat transfer within the enclosure and walls with the porous medium load model. Radiation heat exchange between the load, the radiant heaters and the furnace walls are analyzed using the radiosity method. Heat transfer in the porous medium is by conduction, radiation and convection between the solid and gas phases. Radiation within the load is considered to be a diffusion process. Two different porous medium models for the load are developed, and the model predictions are compared with test data obtained by the Institute of Gas Technology on a low inertia indirectly-fired furnace. Parametric calculations are performed to identify the important model parameters and validate the models.

  16. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. Extending the life of water-cooled copper cooling fingers for furnace refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia, Gabriel; Utigard, Torstein A.; Plascencia, Gabriel; Jaramillo, David

    2005-10-01

    To extend the service life of refractory linings in high-temperature furnaces, it is becoming common to embed copper cooling devices in the lining. These devices extract enough heat from the hearth of the furnace to freeze a protective thin layer of slag onto the surface of the lining. However, the cooling devices may lose their efficiency over time. It is believed that high-temperature oxidation of copper is responsible for the loss in heat-extraction capacity. To test coolers under severe conditions, immersion tests were carried out in molten matte and slag of laboratory-scale cooling elements protected by various means. A composite cooler was developed that consists of a copper core shielded by a Cu-4 wt.% Al alloy sheet. Although the rate of heat extraction is not as high as that of the un-alloyed copper, this cooler still extracts heat at a very high rate.

  19. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M.; Zuo, G.

    1995-12-01

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  20. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  1. Space Station Furnace Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S.D.; Lehoczky, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} g) environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks (IRs). The Core System provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate Experiment Modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first Instrument Rack include a High Temperature Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ), and a Low Temperature Gradient Furnace (LGF). A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  2. Space station furnace facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

  3. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  4. Programmable Multizone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Edmund Y.; Larson, David J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Moving thermal gradients created without mechanical motion. Furnace having multiple, individually programmable heating zones developed for use in experiments on directional solidification. Holds rod specimen and generates thermal gradients moving along specimen. Elimination of translation mechanism makes furnace more compact and reduces vibrations, which disturb experiment. Availability of different temperature profiles through programming makes it versatile tool for research at low thermal gradients traveling at moderate speeds.

  5. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part III. The simulation of volatile reduction in a multi-layer rotary hearth furnace process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    For reduction of iron oxides by volatiles from coal, the major reductant was found to be H2, and it can affect the overall reduction of iron oxides. In this study, the reduction by actual volatiles of composite pellets at 1000 °C was studied. The volatile reduction of the hand-packed Fe2O3/coal composite pellet as it is devolatilizing out of the pellet was found to be negligible. However, the reduction of iron oxide pellets at the top layer by volatiles from the bottom layers of a three-layer pellet geometry was observed to be about 15 pct. From the morphological observations of partially reduced pellets and the computed rates of bulk mass transfer, volatile reduction appears to be controlled by a mixed-controlled mechanism of bulk gas mass transfer and the limited-mixed control reduction kinetics. Using the reduction rate obtained from the single pellet experiments with pure hydrogen and extrapolating this rate to an H2 partial pressure corresponding to the H2 from the volatiles, an empirical relationship was obtained to approximately predict the amount of volatile reduction up to 20 pct.

  6. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part III. The simulation of volatile reduction in a multi-layer rotary hearth furnace process

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2006-04-15

    For reduction of iron oxides by volatiles from coal, the major reductant was found to be H{sub 2, and it can affect the overall reduction of iron oxides. In this study, the reduction by actual volatiles of composite pellets at 1000{sup o}C was studied. The volatile reduction of the hand-packed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Coal composite pellet as it is devolatilizing out of the pellet was found to be negligible. However, the reduction of iron oxide pellets at the top layer by volatiles from the bottom layers of a three-layer pellet geometry was observed to be about 15 pct. From the morphological observations of partially reduced pellets and the computed rates of bulk mass transfer, volatile reduction appears to be controlled by a mixed-controlled mechanism of bulk gas mass transfer and the limited-mixed control reduction kinetics. Using the reduction rate obtained from the single pellet experiments with pure hydrogen and extrapolating this rate to an H{sub 2 partial pressure corresponding to the H{sub 2 from the volatiles, an empirical relationship was obtained to approximately predict the amount of volatile reduction up to 20 pct.

  7. Impact of Waxy, Partial Waxy, and Wildtype Wheat Starch Fraction Properties on Hearth Bread Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars were selected to represent GBSS mutations: three each of wildtype, axnull, and bxnull, and two each of 2xnull and waxy. Starch and A- and B-granules were purified from wheat flour. Hearth bread loaves were produced from the flours using a smal...

  8. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR EFFICIENCY ON A MULTIPLE HEARTH INCINERATOR BURNING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated for its removal performance of 23 metals and for sulfur containing particles when fitted to a multiple hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small scale ESP was installed to take a slipstream of about 3% of the ...

  9. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... energy conservation standards for vented gas hearth products. 75 FR 20112. Following DOE's adoption of... rule and an amendment to that rule published on November 18, 2011 (76 FR 71836) as those rules... at: http://www.regulations.gov/#%21docketDetail...

  10. The development, verification, and application of a steady-state thermal model for the pusher-type reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, P.V.

    1995-08-01

    This article outlines the development of a steady-state thermal model for the pusher-type steel reheating furnace. Problems commonly encountered with this furnace type are skidmark generation, scale formation, and high energy consumption. The objective of the work is to provide a means by which furnace users might assess the effectiveness of changes to current operating practices, proposed furnace modifications, or new furnace designs in controlling these difficulties. The operation of the model, which develops the thermal history of an individual slab or billet as it passes through the furnace, is presented, and each of the three modules that comprise the model is described. Initial verification of the model has been carried out using data obtained in a separate campaign of plant trials on several 32-m furnace reheating slabs, and model predictions for steel temperatures at six locations within the steel are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The model is used to examine the influence of two skid designs and several placement strategies on skidmark severity and energy losses to the skid system. Although skidmark severity at the intermediate stages of heating is shown to be dependent on both the skid type and the location of any offsets, it is demonstrated that the skidmark present in the discharged steel is determined primarily by the skid type employed over the final section of the furnace. The results suggest that, in the absence of a hearth section, the use of a well-insulated, cold-rider skid system over the majority of the furnace length, followed by a single offset of all skids occurring at the transition to a short section of hot-rider skids near the furnace discharge, is sufficient to suppress the final skidmark to a level very close to the minimum achievable with that particular skid design.

  11. Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

    2014-01-01

    Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 μm, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 μm. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

  12. Electron-beam furnace with magnetic stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, H.R.; Knecht, J.A. II

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes an electron-beam comprising: a. An evacuable chamber having a port for coupling the chamber to vacuum pump means; b. a trough-shaped hearth within the chamber for holding material to be melted, the hearth having a spout for issuing a flow of molten material therefrom; c. a crucible positioned within the chamber for receiving molten material flowing from the hearth; d. one or more electron guns each for producing an energetic beam of electrons, each electron gun being positioned a relatively large distance away from the hearth and the crucible; e. magnetic beam deflection means forming an integral part of each electron gun for scanning and shaping the beam produced thereby across the hearth or the crucible; and f. magnetic means adjacent to the hearth and the crucible for producing a relatively weak magnetic field in the vicinity of the hearth and the crucible for preventing erratic deflections of the scanning electron beams without significantly altering the trajectories of such beams.

  13. High gradient directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

  14. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  15. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  16. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  17. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. Optimal beam pattern to maximize inclusion residence time in an electron beam melting hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, A.; Pal, U.; Avyle, J. van den

    1997-02-01

    Approximate probabilities of inclusion survival through an electron beam melting hearth are computed from nitride dissolution rates, flotation velocities, and residence times. Dissolution rates were determined by measuring shrinkage rates of pure TiN and nitrided sponge in small pools of molten titanium in an electron beam melting hearth. Flotation velocities were calculated using correlations for fluid flow around spheres, and show that particles sink or float unless their densities are extremely close to that of molten titanium. Flow field characteristics which lead to effective inclusion removal are discussed in terms of heat flux pattern required to produce them, based on the electron beam`s unique ability to impart a nearly arbitrary heat flux pattern to the melt surface.

  19. Characterization of U-6Nb ingots produced via the electron beam cold hearth refining process

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-11-14

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6% niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting, hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt/VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium and trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. This material was also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  20. Development of an advanced gas-fired furnace for high-temperature heating of continuously cast thin-section steel products. Final report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The project involved the development of preliminary design parameters for two different types of gas-fired furnaces capable of reheating thin sections (i.e., 1-inch thick) of continuously cast steel. These reheated thin steel sections are sent directly into with Hot Strip Mill finishing stands without further reductions. For the Hot Strip Mill configurations where a thin section continuous caster may be close coupled in-line with the finishing stands, a roller hearth furnace was developed. This furnace was designed to reheat the as-cast thin section in flat form at a production rate of 250 tons/hour. For the Hot Strip Mill configuration where a thin section caster may have to be located remote from the finishing stands, a car bottom furnace was developed. This furnace was designed to reheat the thin section in coiled form at a production rate of 125 tons/hour. Either of these thin section reheat furnaces will require only 32% of the fuel requirement of existing reheat furnace operations that process continuously cast steel slabs.

  1. New possibilities of Consteel furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

    2012-06-01

    The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

  2. [Design of gas and electric rotary furnaces for the glass industry]. Quarterly progress report, September 20--December 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have continually stressed that the two most critical material parameters for the success of the rotary furnace are the hearth plate and the molding release powder. Both of these issues have been solidly addressed in this quarter. They have tested the three best candidates for hearth plate material this quarter. Although they had to use the in-house gas furnaces for the testing, one of the materials combines the best heating efficiency with the least sticking tendency. This material will be used for the electric prototype. The molding release powder is mainly used for preventing the glass from adhering to the hearth plate while the glass is softening for pressing. They recently visited several companies in Japan who also repress glass. The release agent that they use is Boron Nitride. They have identified a supplier within New York state, but their concern is the very high price of this material. They are bringing in samples of different grades for experimentation, but the focus continues to be to eliminate the need for any powder. An additional area for material testing was addressed during this quarter. Once the glass is in the tool (mold) for pressing, the glass has the potential to adhere to the metal that the tool and die are made from (usually steel). Both the powder and a spraying of a carbon product are currently used to reduce this problem. Alternate materials for the tooling and/or surface coatings of the steel need to be identified and tested. During this quarter, they conducted some off-site test runs on two candidate coating materials: platinum and titanium.

  3. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  4. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  5. High Efficiency Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

    1985-08-27

    Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

  6. High efficiency furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

    1985-12-31

    Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

  7. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  8. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  9. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  10. [Energy efficient electric rotary furnace for class molding (repressing) precision optional blanks]. Quarterly progress report, 20 December 1997--20 August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, D.

    1998-09-01

    The project objectives were: elimination/reduction of the use of mold release powder; improvement of temperature control and data acquisition; improve operator working conditions; and maximize energy efficiency. Electric rotary furnace prototype has been built and will be on-site by the end of September. Additional space has been leased to insure a clean environment for testing. Preliminary data for candidate hearth plate material supports the hypothesis that wetting of the glass may be controlled by temperature and surface chemistry. This report describes materials testing, prototype development, testing protocols and methods, and technical milestones.

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  12. Combinatorial synthesis of phosphors using arc-imaging furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Tadashi; Toda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Uematsu, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Mineo

    2011-10-01

    We have applied a novel 'melt synthesis technique' rather than a conventional solid-state reaction to rapidly synthesize phosphor materials. During a synthesis, the mixture of oxides or their precursors is melted by light pulses (10-60 s) in an arc-imaging furnace on a water-cooled copper hearth to form a globule of 1-5 mm diameter, which is then rapidly cooled by turning off the light. Using this method, we synthesized several phosphor compounds including Y3Al5O12:Ce(YAG) and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy. Complex phosphor oxides are difficult to produce by conventional solid-state reaction techniques because of the slow reaction rates among solid oxides; as a result, the oxides form homogeneous compounds or solid solutions. On the other hand, melt reactions are very fast (10-60 s) and result in homogeneous compounds owing to rapid diffusion and mixing in the liquid phase. Therefore, melt synthesis techniques are suitable for preparing multi component homogeneous compounds and solid solutions.

  13. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

    2015-02-01

    An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

  14. Effectiveness of the reconstruction of a 3000-m/sup 3/ blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Vasyura, G.G.; Anishchenko, Yu.V.; Polevoi, V.I.; Uzhva, G.G.; Globa, N.I.; Ivanchenko, V.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors discuss the effectiveness of an overhaul done on a 3000-m/sup 3/ blast furnace with previous design deficiencies. During the overhaul, the diameter of the reinforcement of the bottom was enlarged from 14,330 to 15,130 mm. Other changes included replacing the lining in the region of the joint between the hearth and bottom by a single block, lengthening and widening the main troughs, and increasing the thickness of the shell of the bustle pipe. During the overhaul the bustle pipe was lined with refractories ShLB-1.0 and KL-1.3 and two courses of MKV-72. The reconstruction made it possible to alter the operating parameters of the furnace. The authors aimed to minimize heat loss with the coolant water from the stack and top and to maximize the gas permeability of the stock. Productivity of the furnace in the post-overhaul period increased 5432 tons/day at a coke consumption of 483 kg/ton pig.

  15. Implement proper furnace safety interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.D.; Schoenmaker, G.J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur during the initial light-off process for the furnace. The deficiencies that cause these events can be grouped into three broad categories: (1) human error; (2) incorrect or incomplete safety controls and equipment arrangement; and (3) equipment malfunction. This article presents a safety system that helps address all three of these categories for light-off events. No system is totally foolproof, but the use of a safety system, along with strict operating discipline, will reduce the number of furnace events encountered over the lifetime of the equipment. (Note that the controls typically referred to as ``combustion control,`` which include process temperature control, fuel-gas control, oxygen trim/draft control, and the like, are not part of the control described here.) Note also that although this system was developed for cracking furnaces in ethylene plants, it is equally applicable to other types of radiant-wall multiple-burner furnaces. It can be used for both new installations and retrofit situations. This safety system is not applicable to boilers or other devices with only one or two burners.

  16. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  17. Exothermic furnace module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of exothermic material stacked one upon another to produce a desired temperature profile when ignited. The exothermic material segments are constructed in the form of an annular element having a recess opening which defines an open central core throughout the vertical axis of the stacked exothermic material. The sample container is arranged within the core of the stacked exothermic heating material.

  18. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  19. Blow-down and blow-in of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, J.; Quisenberry, P.; Carter, W.

    1995-12-01

    After extensive and detailed planning, a mini-reline of the 13.7 meter No. 7 Blast Furnace was executed in November 1993. The furnace lining had 18 million metric tons of production and the bosh, belly and lower stack lining were being maintained through a scheduled grouting practice. The mini-reline was planned for 33 days and the reline work included (a) replacing the bosh, belly and lower stack alumina lining with graphite brick, (b) gunning the middle and upper stack, (c) rebuilding the furnace top, stove burners and tapholes and (d) minor repairs to other auxiliary equipment. During this 33 day reline period the two 8 meter furnaces could only produce 40% of the normal production requirement, therefore the blow-down, quench, salamander tap and blow-in activities were critical to meeting the planned schedule. The planning of these activities was started in the spring of 1993 and included review of Inland`s past blow-down and blow-in performance as well as bench marking the performance of other large blast furnaces in North America, Japan and Europe. The development of the 1993 procedures focused on opportunities to accelerate the blow-down, quench, salamander tap and blow-in as well as having a clean hearth and stack which could also save time during the demolition phase of the reline. Any time that could be saved in these activities directly translated to an early start-up and more plantwide production. This paper will cover the successful planning and implementation of these activities which resulted in a 2 day reduction in the reline schedule, an accelerated production curve and an earlier than planned use of PCI during blow-in.

  20. Use in open-hearth roofs of periclase-chromite parts made from electrofused periclase-chromite

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, K.V.; Bocharov, L.D.; Kapichev, A.G.; Kukushkin, A.P.; Solyanikov, B.G.; Tyvlebaev, V.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigate the influence of the quality of periclasechromite parts on their wear rate and the life of open hearth roofs. The experimental parts met the property requirements of TU 14-8368-81 for dense PKhPPP, packed PKhPU, and medium density PKhPS; the experimental parts are characterized by a coarse-grained structure and high properties. The low silica and silicate content in the parts is responsible for their high temperature of deformation under load, and the heat resistance of the refractories is good. It was shown that the main improvement in the quality of the refractories is a signifigant reserve for increasing the life of open hearth roofs. The use in open hearth roofs of parts of electrofused periclase-chromite makes it possible to decrease the refractory consumption by 3.36 kg per ton of steel and to reduce the cost of a ton of steel.

  1. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  2. Fuel stoker and furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, T.L.; Schafer, G.L.; Swett, H.D.

    1984-02-14

    A furnace having a primary heat exchange unit also providing a combustion chamber, a secondary heat exchange unit connected by an upper crossover conduit to the primary heat exchange unit, and a tertiary heat exchange unit connected by a lower V-shaped crossover conduit to the secondary heat exchange unit. A third crossover conduit connects the V-shaped crossover conduit with the primary heat exchange unit. Vibrating means are provided between the secondary and tertiary heat exchange units to vibrate the walls thereof and dislodge clinging fly ash so that it falls into the V-shaped crossover conduit for removal by the screw conveyor. A burner assembly of a furnace includes a combustion air housing carrying a circular, stationary grate with an annular valley for carrying fuel during combustion. A central opening is connected to a fuel conveyor for introduction of fuel to the grate through the lower portion of the housing. Combustion air introduction conduits on the housing are remote from the fuel introduction passages and introduce air under pressure at the lower portion of the grate. An agitator and discharge ring is provided on the grate and is rotated on the grate by a suitable drive sprocket mechanism to agitate the fuel for more complete burning thereof and to remove burned ash. A horizontal burner plate is supported by a plurality of legs connected to the agitator and discharge ring over the grate to promote more complete combustion of the fuel.

  3. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  4. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  5. Modelling of furnaces and combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Kahil, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents an account of the art of modelling for heat transfer and fluid flows in furnaces and combustors. After describing the different types of furnace flows, the author deals with the conservation equations. The different turbulence modelling assumptions, the more complicated problem of turbulent combustion modelling, and various types of turbulent flames are also described and reviewed, with appropriate models being assigned.

  6. Preoperative biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Payal; Kumbhari, Vivek; Zein, Mohamad E L; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    The role of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with distal or proximal biliary obstruction secondary to resectable tumors has been a matter for debate. A review of the literature using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was undertaken for studies evaluating routes of drainage (endoscopic or percutaneous) and stent types (plastic or metal) in patients with resectable disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is indicated for relief of symptomatic jaundice, cholangitis, patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy or those patients where surgery may be delayed. Endoscopic methods are preferred over percutaneous methods because of lower complication rates. In patients with proximal biliary obstruction, PBD should be guided by imaging studies to aid in selective biliary cannulation for unilateral drainage in order to reduce the risk of cholangitis in undrained liver segments. PMID:25293587

  7. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  8. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  9. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  10. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  11. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  12. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  14. Ti Foyer (Hearth) community-based nutrition activities informed by the positive deviance approach in Leogane, Haiti: a programmatic description.

    PubMed

    Bolles, Kathryn; Speraw, Catherine; Berggren, Gretchen; Lafontant, Jack Guy

    2002-12-01

    This paper details the steps to design and implement a positive deviance-informed, "Hearth" approach for the nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished children in the district of Leogane, Haiti. Groups of four to five children met daily for two weeks at the home of a local volunteer mother for nutritional and health messages and a well-balanced meal. Health messages and meal components were determined using information gathered from interviews with the mothers of positive deviant children in the community who are well nourished despite their family's limited economic resources. Hearth participants were then followed for six months in their own home by the program "monitrices," women hired from each village and intensively trained to supervise the Hearth program, periodically weigh the children to evaluate their progress, and liaise between the hospital and the community. Monitoring from the first cycle indicated that 100% of children in eight villages and 66% of children in the remaining five villages continued to gain weight as fast or faster than the international standard median six months after participating in a Hearth program. At the conclusion of this cycle, programmers interviewed participant and non-participant families and made six modifications to the model, including the addition of a microcredit option for participating mothers. PMID:12503227

  15. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  16. Use of industrial byproducts to filter PO43- and pesticides in golf green drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golf courses are vulnerable to phosphate (PO43-) and pesticide loss by infiltration because of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and presence of subsurface tile drainage. In this study, a blend of industrial byproducts, including granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), cement kiln dust (CKD),...

  17. Glass Furnace Model Version 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-06

    GFM2.0 is a derivative of the GFM code with substantially altered and enhanced capabilities. Like its predecessor, it is a fully three-dimensional, furnace simulation model that provides a more accurate representation of the entire furnace, and specifically, the glass melting process, by coupling the combustion space directly to the glass batch and glass melt via rigorous radiation heat transport models for both the combustion space and the glass melt. No assumptions are made with regardmore » to interfacial parameters of heat, flux, temperature distribution, and batch coverage as must be done using other applicable codes available. These critical parameters are calculated. GFM2.0 contains a processor structured to facilitate use of the code, including the entry of teh furnace geometry and operating conditions, the execution of the program, and display of the computational results. Furnace simulations can therefore be created in a straightforward manner.« less

  18. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  19. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  1. Drainage networks after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Predicting runoff and erosion from watersheds burned by wildfires requires an understanding of the three-dimensional structure of both hillslope and channel drainage networks. We investigate the small-and large-scale structures of drainage networks using field studies and computer analysis of 30-m digital elevation model. Topologic variables were derived from a composite 30-m DEM, which included 14 order 6 watersheds within the Pikes Peak batholith. Both topologic and hydraulic variables were measured in the field in two smaller burned watersheds (3.7 and 7.0 hectares) located within one of the order 6 watersheds burned by the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire in Central Colorado. Horton ratios of topologic variables (stream number, drainage area, stream length, and stream slope) for small-scale and large-scale watersheds are shown to scale geometrically with stream order (i.e., to be scale invariant). However, the ratios derived for the large-scale drainage networks could not be used to predict the rill and gully drainage network structure. Hydraulic variables (width, depth, cross-sectional area, and bed roughness) for small-scale drainage networks were found to be scale invariant across 3 to 4 stream orders. The relation between hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area is similar for rills and gullies, suggesting that their geometry can be treated similarly in hydraulic modeling. Additionally, the rills and gullies have relatively small width-to-depth ratios, implying sidewall friction may be important to the erosion and evolutionary process relative to main stem channels.

  2. Plasma hearth process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE`s mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added.

  3. Moessbauer analysis of Lewisville, Texas, archaeological site lignite and hearth samples. Environmental geology notes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiley, R.H.; Hughes, R.E.; Cahill, R.A.; Konopka, K.L.; Hinckley, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Lewisville site, located in Denton County on the Trinity River north of Dallas, Texas, was thought to provide evidence of the earliest human activity in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates of 37,000 to 38,000 B.P. determined for the site in the late 1950s conflicted with the presence of a Clovis point, which would fix the age of the site between 11,000 and 11,500 B.P. It was hypothesized (Johnson, 1982) that Clovis people were burning lignite from nearby outcrops: lignite in hearth residues would give older than actual ages by radiocarbon dating. X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron-activation analysis proved inconclusive; however, Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that hematite, a pyrite combustion product, was present in the ash. From this evidence the authors conclude that there is some support for the hypothesis.

  4. Drainage Water Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  5. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  6. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  8. Floor furnace burns to children.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S

    1983-01-01

    Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984

  9. Spatial and chronological patterns of the lithics of hearth 1 at the Gravettian site Krems-Wachtberg

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roswitha; Ziehaus, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    A spatial and micro-stratigraphic interpretation of the Gravettian open-air site Krems-Wachtberg in Lower Austria uses analysis of the lithic artefacts of an area of the excavations. The results are based on conclusive aspects of the artefact morphology and raw material attribution. Investigations focus on the acquisition of the spatial structure of living floor AH (archaeological horizon) 4.4 with a well-preserved hearth. Different utilization phases of hearth 1 with their relationships to the surrounding areas are discussed and a comparison of the in situ AH 4.4 and the post-occupational deposition of AH 4.11 presented. The examination of the artefact typology supports an attribution to the Early Gravettian of Central Europe (Pavlovian, 30–24 ka BP). PMID:25642117

  10. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  11. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  12. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  13. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  14. Crystal growth and furnace analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakhoul, Youssef M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

  15. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  16. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  17. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  18. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  19. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  20. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  1. Preliminary criticality study supporting transuranic waste acceptance into the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, L.J.; Santee, G.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This study documents preliminary scoping calculations to address criticality issues associated with the processing of transuranic (TRU) waste and TRU mixed waste in the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Test Project. To assess the criticality potential associated with processing TRU waste, the process flow in the PHP is evaluated to identify the stages where criticality could occur. A criticality analysis methodology is then formulated to analyze the criticality potential. Based on these analyses, TRU acceptance criteria can be defined for the PHP. For the current level of analysis, the methodology only assesses the physical system as designed and does not address issues associated with the criticality double contingency principle. The analyses suggest that criticality within the PHP system and within the planned treatment residue (stag) containers does not pose a criticality hazard even when processing waste feed drums containing a quantity of TRU greater than would be reasonably expected. The analyses also indicate that the quantity of TRU that can be processed during each batch is controlled by moving and storage conditions for the resulting slag collection drums.

  2. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE`s mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration.

  3. Vitrification of low-level waste using the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. Plasma arc technology is an innovative technology that has exhibited commercial success, primarily in its use for production of high purity alloys and other specialty metals. The residual from the PHP provides a very stable vitrified final product of high integrity for most wastes without the need for glass formers. The final waste form will be volume-reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. The PHP technology is chiefly applicable to solid (DAW) or wet solid (sludge) wastes where volume reduction and a stabilized byproduct is desired for disposal. The technology is ideally suited for heterogeneous wastes of nearly any category that are difficult to treat by conventional thermal technologies. The application for which it is currently being developed is Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes, both low level and transuranic. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is conducting a development and demonstration project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

  4. Baghouse efficiency on a multiple-hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Keller, L.E.; Robb, E.V.; Vancil, M.C.; Farrell, J.B.

    1989-04-01

    A pilot-scale fabric filter (baghouse) was evaluated for its removal performance for 23 metals and for sulfur as well as for total particles when fitted to a multiple-hearth incinerator burning sewage sludge. The small-scale baghouse was installed to take a slipstream of about 3% of the total incinerator emissions. Particle size fractions were collected from the gas streams entering and leaving the baghouse. Each particle-size fraction was analyzed for the 24 elemental species and baghouse performance was evaluated for overall removal efficiency, size-fraction removal efficiency, and for selective removal of specific metals. Total concentrations of each element in the controlled emission stream was determined as well as the proportionate concentrations of species in the solid and volatile states. Concentrations of each metal in the emission stream was compared with the concentration in a sludge residue. To obtain comparisons of baghouse performance with a more typical emission control device, the performance of the incinerator's full-scale wet scrubber was also evaluated.

  5. Insulated waterproof drainage material

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, P.L.

    1988-03-15

    An insulative waterproof drainage material is described comprising: a sheet of rigid material having hills and valleys therein to define a core having opposed surfaces; permeable fabric material attached to one of the opposed surfaces; and a layer of thermally insulative material on the other of the opposed surfaces. The insulative material has first surface covering the hills and valleys and a second surface oppositely disposed from the first surface defining an outer surface. The outer surface is spaced a preselected distance D from the hills of the core. The pre-selected distance D define an insulative material thickness corresponding to a pre-selected thermal value.

  6. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.; Arvidson, A.N.

    1994-05-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

  7. Pipe downchute stormwater drainage system

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    SCS Engineers (SCS) was provided with the challenge of developing a completely enclosed pipe downchute system for stormwater drainage at the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the largest landfill in the world. With a total landfill drainage subshed totaling over 1000 acres, and an average yearly precipitation at the site of approximately 4.2 feet, the final constructed stormwater drainage system would capture and convey over 591 million gallons of stormwater runoff per year, and discharge it into 17 stormwater basins.This paper describes the drainage system.

  8. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part I. The role and kinetics of volatile reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2005-10-06

    With iron ore reduction processes using coal-ore pellets or mixtures, it is possible that volatiles can contribute to reduction. By simulating the constituents of the individual reducing species in the volatiles, the rates for H{sub 2} and CO were investigated in the temperature and reduction range of interest; hydrogen is the major reductant and was studied in detail. The kinetics of the reduction by H{sub 2} has been found to be a complex mechanism with, initially, nucleation and growth controlling the rate. There is a catalytic effect by the existing iron nuclei, followed by a mixed control of chemical kinetics and pore diffusion. This results in a topochemical reduction of these iron oxide particles. Up to 1173 K, reduction by H{sub 2} is considerably faster than by carbon in the pellet/mixture or by CO. It was also found that H{sub 2}S, which is involved with the volatiles, does not affect the rate at the reduction range of interest.

  9. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2006-04-15

    The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 degrees C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H{sub 2O generated from the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by H-2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50% reduction of the iron oxide.

  10. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H2O generated from the reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pct reduction of the iron oxide.

  11. Integrated on-farm drainage management for drainage water disposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Providing environmentally safe methods for drainage water disposal is a significant challenge for irrigated agriculture. Subsurface drainage water contains salt and nutrients that may have significant deleterious effects on surface water quality. A system was developed for the reuse of saline drai...

  12. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  13. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  14. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form.

  15. [Thoracic drainage technique for emergencies].

    PubMed

    Orsini, B; Bonnet, P M; Avaro, J P

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple, reproducible technique for pleural drainage. This technique that requires scant resources should be used only in life-threatening situations calling for pleural drainage. It is not intended to replace conventional techniques. PMID:20337108

  16. DRAINAGE MATERIALS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An historical account of the development and innovation of drainage materials in the World is given. For more than 100 years prior to 1970, clay and concrete tile were the most common for agricultural drainage. Smooth-wall plastic pipe was used to a limited extent in the late 1950's for subdrain con...

  17. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  18. Automatic furnace downloading to SUPREM format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Martin; Findlater, Keith; McGinty, Jim; Rankin, N.; Yarr, A.

    1999-04-01

    Technology CAD (TCAD) is a commonly used tool in process development and analysis. The task of creating the process in the required format for the TCAD deck is non-trivial and often prone to error due to the detailed nature of the furnace processing. Ensuring that the simulation deck is matched to the actual furnace process is also a key area. There is a difference between what is programmed into the furnace and what the wafers actually see. This work presents a method of automatic download of the actual furnace parameters to a format directly readable by the process simulator SUPREM, and examines the consequences of the furnace variability inherent in batch processing. The three furnace zones can be seen to interact and product best-worst case simulations to aid in the prediction of manufacturability.

  19. Energy aspects of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Janice E.; Dugdale, Peter J.; Landry, Christian J. F.; R. Morris, David; Steward, Frank R.; Wilson, Timothy C. W.

    1980-06-01

    The energy effects accompanying the processing of the feed material to a lead blast furnace are considered in terms of a reversible model. Relative to this model the efficiencies of operating furnaces are found to be in the range 18 to 35 pct. The effects of the effluent gas CO2/CO ratio and temperature and oxygen enrichment of the blast air in the thermodynamic efficiency are quantified. Improvements in efficiency achieved in industrial furnaces as a result of oxygen enrichment of the blast air are substantially greater than those predicted. Mass and enthalpy balances on an industrial lead blast furnace are presented from which it is estimated that approximately 9 pct of the carbon charged to the furnace is lost due to the solution loss reaction in the upper regions of the furnace.

  20. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  1. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  2. Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.

    1994-11-01

    for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

  3. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  4. VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

    1958-03-11

    This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

  5. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  6. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  7. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA