Science.gov

Sample records for furnace waste gas

  1. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    PubMed

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  2. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  3. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  4. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

  5. Tubular furnace for performance of gas reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, H.

    1984-04-03

    There is described a furnace for the performance of gas reactions in a ceramic assembly of tubes in which the heating chambers, the recuperators and the flue gas-branch channel are arranged in a compact, energy saving type of construction. The furnace is especially suited for the production of hydrocyanic acid according to the BMA process (hydrocyanic acid-methane-ammonia process).

  6. Emissions characterization and off-gas system development for processing simulated mixed waste in a plasma centrifugal furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Filius, K.D.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    Plasma arc technology is a high temperature process that completely oxidizes organic waste fractions: inorganic hazardous and radionuclide waste fractions are oxidized and encapsulated in a highly durable slag. The robust nature of the technology lends itself to application of diverse mixed and hazardous wastestreams. Over 500 hours of testing have been completed at the Department of Energy`s Western Environmental Technology Office with a pilot-scale system. This testing was designed to demonstrate operability over a wide range of wastes and provide the data required to evaluate potential applications of the technology on both a technical and economic basis. In addition to characterization of the off gas for typical combustion products, the fate of radionuclide surrogates and hazardous elements within the Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) system has been investigated extensively. Test results to date demonstrate that cerium, a plutonium surrogate, remains almost exclusively in the slag matrix. Hazardous elements such as chromium and lead volatilize to a greater extent and are captured by the off-gas system. Preliminary design work is underway to develop a minimum emissions off-gas system for demonstration on a engineering-scale plasma unit. The proposed system will filter particulate matter from the hot gas stream and treat them in an electric ceramic oxidizer, which replaces the conventional afterburner, prior to quenching and acid gas removal. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  8. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  9. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

  10. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  11. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  12. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  13. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  14. Furnace for burning particulate wood waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Kolze, B.A.; Kolze, M.W.

    1983-03-22

    A furnace for burning dry or wet wood waste products such as hogged bark and the like is provided with a grating therein comprised of aligned rows of bricks resting on supporting cross beams, with at least some of the rows of bricks maintained a uniform distance from other rows of bricks by spacers disposed between such spaced-apart rows of bricks. The furnace is charged by turbulent air entering both above and below the grating, with a select portion of such air being pre-heated. A temperature gradient is established between an area immediately beneath the grating and the area above the grating in the range of 2200/sup 0/ F and can be controlled by selected initial placement of the bricks and spacers to achieve an optimum cross sectional area for flow of heated, turbulent air through the grating to produce a temperature for efficient heating, drying and burning of wood waste products in an essentially pollution-free manner.

  15. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

  16. Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

  17. Waste Heat Recovery from Blast Furnace Slag by Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuelin; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang; Qiu, Guibao; Chen, Pan

    2012-08-01

    Blast furnace (BF) slag, which is the main byproduct in the ironmaking process, contains large amounts of sensible heat. To recover the heat, a new waste heat-recovery system—granulating molten BF slag by rotary multinozzles cup atomizer and pyrolyzing printed circuited board with obtained hot BF slag particle—was proposed in this study. The feasibility of the waste heat-recovery system was verified by dry granulation and pyrolyzation experiments. The energy of hot BF slag could be converted to chemical energy through the pyrolysis reaction, and a large amount of combustible gas like CO, H2, C m H n , and CH4 can be generated during the process.

  18. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in plasma shaft electric furnace at utilization of anthropogenic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliferov, A. I.; Anshakov, A. S.; Sinitsyn, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer between the counter flows of gas and porous batch of anthropogenic wastes in the working area of a shaft furnace is presented. This model considers chemical transformations in separate batch components and radiation heat transfer between the gas and solid phases. Results of calculations are presented.

  19. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  20. Allowable gas temperature at outlet from furnace subject to slagging

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Alekhnovich; N.V. Artem'eva; V.V. Bogomolov

    2007-03-15

    The paper is devoted to substantiation and prediction of the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging. The non-optimality of values recommended by effective methodical instructions regarding the design of furnace devices is demonstrated. Utilizing knowledge gained from temperature measurements in boilers, and the situation regarding the slagging of heating surfaces located at the outlet from the furnace, new, frequently higher values are proposed. A method for evaluating the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging is suggested on the basis of data regarding the chemical composition of the mineral portion of coals.

  1. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs.

  2. Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  3. When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out

    MedlinePlus

    WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

  4. Dual Torch Plasma Arc Furnace for Medical Waste Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kikuchi, M.; Li, Heping; Iwao, T.; Inaba, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of a dual torch plasma arc used for hazardous waste treatment and operated at atmospheric pressure are studied, and also compared with those of the multi-torch plasma arc and the single torch plasma arc. The dual torch plasma arc is generated between the cathode and anode with argon as the working gas. The temperature distributions of the plasma arc are measured using a spectroscope and line pair method with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the DC arc current I = 100 A and argon flow rate Q = 15 slpm. The measurements show that the temperatures of the dual torch arc plasma in the regions near the cathode, the anode and the center point are 10,000 K, 11,000 K and 9,000 K, respectively. And the high temperature region of the multi torch plasma arc is of double or much wider size than that of a conventional dual torch plasma arc and single plasma torch. Based on the preceding studies, a dual torch plasma arc furnace is developed in this study. The measured gas temperature at the center region of the argon arc is about 11,000 K for the case of I = 200 A and Q = 30 slpm operated in atmosphere.

  5. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  6. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI)c) for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants.

  7. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  8. Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A.; Bourgeois, T.

    1998-12-01

    The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

  9. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  10. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  11. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  12. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G1 to Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Gas Furnaces Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional...

  13. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-05-26

    This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current

  14. Used oil analysis and waste oil furnace emissions study

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlo, S.

    1996-04-01

    This technical report characterizes waste oil and air emissions from waste oil furnaces in the State of Vermont. This Report replaces and corrects errors in EPA-456/R-95-001 (PB95-240412). The report is divided into two parts. Part One was prepared by the State of Vermont and includes information on used oil sample collection and analysis, summary of stack emission testing results, and a comparison of the test results to regulatory levels in Vermont. Part Two summarizes the stack testing program funded by EPA. Part Two includes descriptions of facility and sampling location, test results, information on sampling and analytical procedures, and the quality assurance/quality control report.

  15. Used oil analysis and waste oil furnace emissions study

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlo, S.

    1995-08-01

    In response to regulatory changes in 1993 and at the direction of the Vermont General Assembly, the Agency of Natural Resources Department of Environmental Conservation proposed to conduct a study to characterize the constituents and properties of used oils generated in the state and the resultant emissions and ambient impacts associated with the combustion of these used oils in small waste oil furnaces. The study results were intended to determine whether the combustion of used oil in air atomizing space heaters compiled with existing Air Pollution Control and Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Based on the results of the study, the Agency was to make recommendations for any necessary changes in the laws and regulations.

  16. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

  17. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  18. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case

    SciTech Connect

    Vandecasteele, C. Wauters, G.; Arickx, S.; Jaspers, M.; Van Gerven, T.

    2007-07-01

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

  19. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: the Indaver case.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, C; Wauters, G; Arickx, S; Jaspers, M; Van Gerven, T

    2007-01-01

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation. PMID:17049223

  20. 16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mobile Home Furnaces-Gas G4 Appendix G4 to... LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G4 to Part 305—Mobile Home Furnaces—Gas Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Mobile Home Gas Furnaces Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE...

  1. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 124.10(c)(1)(ix) and to the appropriate units of State and local government as set forth in 40 CFR... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of..., Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits for existing sources....

  4. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of... Fuel Boilers, Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits...

  5. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  6. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  7. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  8. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way {open_quotes}National Laboratory-University-Industry{close_quotes} partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions.

  9. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  10. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  11. Combustion and inorganic bromine emission of waste printed circuit boards in a high temperature furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Mingjiang; Xiao Hanxi; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons; Jin Yuqi; Lu Shengyong

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combustion efficiency of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) depends on temperature, excess air factor, and high temperature zone residence time. Temperature has the most significant impact. Under the proposed condition, combustion of waste PCBs alone is quite complete within the furnace. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperature prompts a more complete bromine release and conversion. When temperature is high enough, 99.9% organobrominated compounds, the potential precursors for brominated dixoins formation, are destroyed efficiently and convert to inorganic bromine in flue gas, as HBr and Br{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature has crucial influence over the inhibition of HBr conversion to Br{sub 2}, while the oxygen partial pressure plays a reverse role in the conversion to a very small extent. Increasing temperature will decrease the volume percentage ratio of Br{sub 2}/HBr in flue gas greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic equilibrium approach of bromine conversion was investigated. The two forms of inorganic bromine in flue gas substantially reach thermodynamic equilibrium within 0.25 s. Under the proposed operating condition, the reaction of Br transfer and conversion finish. - Abstract: High temperature combustion experiments of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were conducted using a lab-scale system featuring a continuously-fed drop tube furnace. Combustion efficiency and the occurrence of inorganic bromine (HBr and Br{sub 2}) were systematically studied by monitoring the main combustion products continuously. The influence of furnace temperature (T) was studied from 800 to 1400 Degree-Sign C, the excess air factor (EAF) was varied from 1.2 to 1.9 and the residence time in the high temperature zone (RT{sub HT}) was set at 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 s. Combustion efficiency depends on temperature, EAF and RT{sub HT}; temperature has the most significant effect. Conversion of organic

  12. Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J. C.

    1985-04-30

    Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

  13. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard. PMID:21746756

  14. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Bloomer, P.E.; Chantaraprachoom, N.; Gong, M.; Lamar, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated {sup 238}Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  16. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  17. Preliminary Results from Electric Arc Furnace Off-Gas Enthalpy Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Keiser, James R; Storey, John Morse

    2015-01-01

    This article describes electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas enthalpy models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate overall heat availability (sensible and chemical enthalpy) and recoverable heat values (steam or power generation potential) for existing EAF operations and to test ORNL s new EAF waste heat recovery (WHR) concepts. ORNL s new EAF WHR concepts are: Regenerative Drop-out Box System and Fluidized Bed System. The two EAF off-gas enthalpy models described in this paper are: 1.Overall Waste Heat Recovery Model that calculates total heat availability in off-gases of existing EAF operations 2.Regenerative Drop-out Box System Model in which hot EAF off-gases alternately pass through one of two refractory heat sinks that store heat and then transfer it to another gaseous medium These models calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of EAF off-gases based on the off-gas chemical composition, temperature, and mass flow rate during tap to tap time, and variations in those parameters in terms of actual values over time. The models provide heat transfer analysis for the aforementioned concepts to confirm the overall system and major component sizing (preliminary) to assess the practicality of the systems. Real-time EAF off-gas composition (e.g., CO, CO2, H2, and H2O), volume flow, and temperature data from one EAF operation was used to test the validity and accuracy of the modeling work. The EAF off-gas data was used to calculate the sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases to generate steam and power. The article provides detailed results from the modeling work that are important to the success of ORNL s EAF WHR project. The EAF WHR project aims to develop and test new concepts and materials that allow cost-effective recovery of sensible and chemical heat from high-temperature gases discharged from EAFs.

  18. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-05-12

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

  19. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  20. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  1. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  3. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  4. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  8. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Sulfur Transfer via Gas Phase in Iron-making Blast Furnace under Intensive Coal Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiyuki, Matsui; Rikizou, Tadai; Kenji, Ito; Tadasu, Matsuo; Korehito, Kadoguchi; Reiji, Ono

    The steel industry will move toward more value additive products in the future. In order to support the value additive steel products, iron sources have to be secured with stable operation of furnaces and control of furnace have to be evolved. Environment consciousness including CO2 reduction leads more toward lower reducing agents ratio operation. It is common technical issue on both the more value additive products the environment consciousness to control the sulfur in the hot metal, slag and gas phase.In the present study, the amount of sulfur gasification was measured by combustion experiments with the attention on the simultaneous gasification of sulfur with carbon. By description of sulfurization from gas to burden materials based on the temperature distribution measured in actual furnace, the amount of sulfur transferred to gas was evaluated.

  10. Stabilization of mercury using waste ladle furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Sun, Darren Delai; Zhang, Lilin; Lai, Dickson

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of mercury waste has always provided unique challenges due to its high degree of complexity and volatility. This study evaluated the feasibility of using waste LF slag to form a cementitious matrix capable of providing an effective stabilization/solidification solution for the treatment of mercury wastes. The new matrix was synthesized and simulated through a combination of alkali activation and autoclaving process and doped with mercury nitrate at increasing dosage while monitoring the final form of the mercury and its effects on the mineral stability and structure of the new matrix. Compressive strength of up to 20 N/mm2 was achievable for the original matrix. Promising results were obtained in terms of reduced leachability of the mercury when compared to ordinary Portland cement systems at low doping concentration of around 0.5% by weight. A series of precipitation reactions was found to be the main cause responsible for this successful stabilization, especially the metal sulfide precipitation that occurred with the sulfur present in the original waste LF slag. PMID:24558709

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE INDICATOR FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF INCINERATORS, INDUSTRIAL FURNACES, AND BOILERS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a simple indicator-- Unsatisfied Oxygen Demand (UOD)--for measuring the performance of incinerators, industrial furnaces, and boilers burning hazardous waste. urrent RCRA regulations use destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of the princi...

  12. Mathematical modelling of particle mixing effect on the combustion of municipal solid wastes in a packed-bed furnace.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao Bin; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Packed bed combustion is still the most common way to burn municipal solid wastes. In this paper, a dispersion model for particle mixing, mainly caused by the movement of the grate in a moving-burning bed, has been proposed and transport equations for the continuity, momentum, species, and energy conservation are described. Particle-mixing coefficients obtained from model tests range from 2.0x10(-6) to 3.0x10(-5)m2/s. A numerical solution is sought to simulate the combustion behaviour of a full-scale 12-tonne-per-h waste incineration furnace at different levels of bed mixing. It is found that an increase in mixing causes a slight delay in the bed ignition but greatly enhances the combustion processes during the main combustion period in the bed. A medium-level mixing produces a combustion profile that is positioned more at the central part of the combustion chamber, and any leftover combustible gases (mainly CO) enter directly into the most intensive turbulence area created by the opposing secondary-air jets and thus are consumed quickly. Generally, the specific arrangement of the impinging secondary-air jets dumps most of the non-uniformity in temperature and CO into the gas flow coming from the bed-top, while medium-level mixing results in the lowest CO emission at the furnace exit and the highest combustion efficiency in the bed. PMID:17697769

  13. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  14. Investigation of urtite as an analog of waste slag from a plasma shaft furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V.

    1996-08-01

    Mineralogical-geochemical investigation of a sample of nepheline syenite (urtite) as a natural analog of final radioactive waste form has been performed. The specimen of urtite consists of nepheline, alkali feldspar, pyroxene, sphene, apatite and minor magnetite and amphibole. As a first approximation, urtite simulates the mineral composition of waste slag produced in a plasma shaft furnace at SIA Radon. Determination of chemical compositions of the minerals by electron-probe microanalysis has shown that the main phases that hosted radionuclides and their geochemical analogs are as follows: nepheline (Rb and probably Cs), feldspar (Ba), sphene (Zr, Nb, REE, and actinides) and apatite (Sr, REE, and actinides).

  15. Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

    2015-02-01

    Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

  16. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  17. New Gas Carburizing Method for Minimizing CO2 Emission by Saving Resources and Selective Removal of H2 in Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukoshi, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Hoshino, Hideaki; Ishigami, Itsuo; Usui, Tateo

    An attempt has been made to develop a new gas carburizing furnace with the system that discharges H2 gas selectively from the atmosphere in the furnace. Polyimide hollow-fiber membrane filter on the market was selected as a filter that was expected to have good H2 gas permeability and selectivity. The results of the various gas permeability measurements of this filter showed that it had superior H2 gas permeability and selectivity. Using this gas filter module, a new industrial gas carburizing furnace that had ‘H2 gas selective discharging system’ was produced as a trial. Use of this furnace made possible to stabilize the gas carburizing atmosphere in the furnace under the lower carrier gas flow rate condition (below 25% of standard condition). It was confirmed that the carbon concentration profile of the steel carburized with the new carburizing furnace under lower carrier gas flow rate condition was comparable to that of the specimen carburized under standard carrier gas flow rate condition.

  18. Modified Claus furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.

    1986-03-11

    A Claus thermal conversion furnace is described comprising a primary furnace chamber, a burner in the primary furnace chamber, an oxidant containing gas supply inlet connected to the burner, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the burner, an outlet extending from the furnace, a secondary reaction chamber in heat but not gas exchange relationship with the primary furnace chamber, the secondary reaction chamber extending through the length of the primary furnace chamber to a point in the outlet extending from the furnace, a hydrogen sulfide decomposing catalyst in the secondary reaction chamber, a hydrogen sulfide containing gas supply conduit connected to the secondary reaction chamber.

  19. Oxidation/corrosion of metallic and ceramic materials in an aluminum remelt furnace. [For fluidized bed waste heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; Jones, P.J.

    1985-12-01

    Both metallic alloys and ceramic materials are candidates for the distributor plate and other components of fluidized bed waste heat recovery (FBWHR) systems. Eleven Fe-, Ni-, and Co-base alloys were exposed to air at elevated temperatures in laboratory furnaces and to flue gases in an aluminum remelt furnace to assess their resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Four SiC ceramics and two oxide ceramics were also tested in the aluminum remelt furnace. Some alloys were coated with aluminum or SiO2 by commercial processes in an effort to enhance their oxidation and corrosion resistance.

  20. Vaporization Rate of Cesium from Molten Slag in a Plasma Melting Furnace for the Treatment of Simulated Low-Level Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Shinji; Amakawa, Tadashi

    2003-02-15

    The vaporization phenomena of cesium (Cs) from molten slag have been investigated in a plasma melting process for simulated radioactive waste materials. A direct current transfer-type plasma with a maximum output of 50 kW was used to melt carbon steel and granular oxide mixtures (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaO, and MgO) containing nonradioactive cesium nitrate, to measure Cs vaporization. These materials are the main components of low-level miscellaneous solid wastes. The vaporization rate of Cs from the molten slag during the plasma melting was observed and was compared with the vaporization rate obtained in an electric resistance furnace. The apparent vaporization rate of Cs was found to follow the first-order rate equation with respect to the molten slag's Cs content, and its rate constant values varied (3.5 to 21.0) x 10{sup -6} m/s varying with the chemical composition of the miscellaneous solid wastes. These rate constants were about one order larger than those obtained in the electric resistant furnace and also the diffusion coefficients of basic elements in the molten slag. These results suggest that the vaporization rate of Cs is controlled by the vaporization step from the free molten slag furnace to the gas phase and depends predominantly on the thermodynamic properties of the molten slag.

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  2. Development of mixed-waste analysis capability for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; TenKate, L.B.; Wroblewski, A.

    1995-03-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) are typically configured with ventilation to capture potentially toxic and corrosive gases emitted from the vaporization of sample aliquots. When radioactive elements are present, additional concerns (such as meeting safety guidelines and ALARA principles) must be addressed. This report describes a modification to a GFAAS that provides additional containment of vaporized sample aliquots. The modification was found to increase containment by a factor of 80, given expected operating conditions. The use of the modification allows more mixed-waste samples to be analyzed, permits higher levels of radioactive samples to be analyzed, or exposes the analyst to less airborne radioactivity. The containment apparatus was attached to a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 5000 spectrophotometer for analysis of mixed-waste samples; however, it could also be used on other systems and in other applications where greater containment of vaporized material is desired.

  3. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  4. Spontaneous Anti-Stokes Raman Probe for Gas Temperature Measurements in Industrial Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikratov, George; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; Norton, O. Perry; Kumar, R. Arun; Cook, Robert L.

    1999-03-01

    A compact, pulsed Nd:YAG laser-based instrument has been built to measure in situ absolute gas temperatures in large industrial furnaces by use of spontaneous anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The backscattering configuration was used to simplify the optics alignment and increase signal-to-noise ratios. Gated signal detection significantly reduced the background emission that is found in combustion environments. The anti-Stokes instead of the Stokes component was used to eliminate contributions to spectra from cold atmospheric nitrogen. The system was evaluated in a methane air flame and in a bench-top oven, and the technique was found to be a reliable tool for nonintrusive absolute temperature measurements with relatively clean gas streams. A water-cooled insertion probe was integrated with the Raman system for measurement of the temperature profiles inside an industrial furnace. Gas temperatures near 1500 1800 K at atmospheric pressure in an industrial furnace were inferred by fitting calculated profiles to experimental spectra with a standard deviation of less than 1% for averaging times of 200 s. The temperatures inferred from Raman spectra are in good agreement with data recorded with a thermocouple probe.

  5. Numerical Analysis on Effect of Areal Gas Distribution Pipe on Characteristics Inside COREX Shaft Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengli; Du, Kaiping; Xu, Jian; Shen, Wei; Kou, Mingyin; Zhang, Zhekai

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, two parallel pipes of areal gas distribution (AGD) were installed into the COREX shaft furnace to improve the furnace efficiency. A three-dimensional mathematical model at steady state, which takes a modified three-interface unreacted core model into consideration, is developed in the current work to describe the effect of the AGD pipe on the inner characteristics of shaft furnace. The accuracy of the model is evaluated using the plant operational data. The AGD pipe effectively improves the uniformity of reducing gas distribution, which leads to an increase in gas temperature and concentration of CO or H2 around the AGD pipe, and hence it further contributes to the iron oxide reduction. As a result, the top gas utilization rate and the solid metallization rate (MR) at the bottom outlet are increased by 0.015 and 0.11, respectively. In addition, the optimizations of the flow volume ratio (FVR) of the reducing gas fed through the AGD inlet and the AGD pipe arrangement are further discussed based on the gas flow distribution and the solid MR. Despite the relative suitability of the current FVR (60%), it is still meaningful to enable a manual adjustment of FVR, instead of having it driven by pressure difference, to solve certain production problems. On the other hand, considering the flatter distribution of gas flow, the higher solid MR, and easy installation and replacement, the cross distribution arrangement of AGD pipe with a length of 3 m is recommended to replace the current AGD pipe arrangement.

  6. CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-ω SST and k-ɛ Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

  7. Assessment of natural gas technology opportunities in the treatment of selected metals containing wastes. Topical report, June 1994-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McGervey, J.; Holmes, J.G.; Bluestein, J.

    1995-08-01

    The report analyzes the disposal of certain waste streams that contain heavy metals, as determined by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. Generation of the wastes, the regulatory status of the wastes, and current treatment practices are characterized, and the role of natural gas is determined. The four hazardous metal waste streams addressed in this report are electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, electroplating sludge wastes, used and off-specification circuit boards and cathode ray tubes, and wastes from lead manufacturing. This report assesses research and development opportunities relevant to natural gas technologies that may result from current and future enviromental regulations.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  9. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  10. Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.

    PubMed

    1991-07-17

    On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). PMID:10112734

  11. Evaluation of combustion processes for destruction of liquid organic wastes in a sulfuric-acid regeneration furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchida, P.

    1985-11-01

    The test mechanism, efforts, and results associated with incineration of liquid organic wastes in a sulfuric-acid regeneration furnace are described in the report. Industrial wastes representing those to be ultimately processed, if the system is acceptable, were not available or could not be clearly characterized as to chemical nature. A synthetic, or surrogate, mix was therefore burned with the alkylation acid to allow an analysis of potential emissions to be made. The tests conducted were broken down into three categories based on furnace operating conditions: base line (spent alkylation acid, only, being fed into the furnace under typical operating conditions); normal (spent alkylation acid spiked with the synthetic mix fed into the furnace under typical operating conditions) and; low O/sub 2/ (spent alkylation acid spiked with the synthetic mix fed into the furnace operating at nonstandard, or failure mode, conditions of low O/sub 2/ and low temperature). These test conditions helped established an operating envelope within which efficient combustion could be assured.

  12. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383

  13. EAF Gas Waste Heat Utilization and Discussion of the Energy Conservation and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Rong; Ma, Guo-hong

    2016-02-01

    As a large number of energy was taken away by the high temperature furnace gas during the EAF smelting process, a huge economic and environmental benefits would obtained to recycle and utilize. In this paper, the energy of the EAF was analyzed theoretically with the hot metal ratio of 50%. Combined with the utilization of the gas waste heat during the scrap preheating, electricity generation, production of steam and production of coal gas processes, the effect of the energy saving and emission was calculated with comprehensive utilization of the high temperature furnace gas. An optimal scheme for utilization of the waste heat was proposed based on the calculation. The results show that the best way for energy saving and carbon reduction is the production of coal gas, while the optimal scheme for waste heat utilization is combined the production of coal gas with the scrap preheating, which will save 170 kWh/t of energy and decrease 57.88 kg/t of carbon emission. As hot metal ratio in EAF steelmaking is often more than 50%, which will produce more EAF gas waste heat, optimizing EAF gas waste heat utilization will have more obvious effect on energy saving and emission reduction.

  14. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  15. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  16. Method and apparatus for filtering a stream of gas while drying waste lignocellulosic material

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G.R.

    1983-09-27

    A method is disclosed for using comminuted lignocellulosic waste material such as flake-like wood and bark chips which have been stored outside includes placing the material in a filter bed by movement in a first direction, and thereafter passing polluted effluent gas from a boiler furnace, for example through said filter bed in a direction generally perpendicular to said first direction to filter pollutants from said effluent gas and simultaneously dry the comminuted lignocellulosic waste material. During drying of the material a portion of the material on the gas outlet side of the filter bed, toward which the effluent gas proceeds, is maintained at a moisture content which is greater than the average moisture content of the lignocellulosic material at the time it is placed into the filter bed. The lignocellulosic waste material is thereafter used as furnace fuel or as a furnace for an industrial process. A filter/dryer apparatus includes a vertically oriented filter bed for holding a quantity of filter material, with downwardly sloping, upwardly convex, horizontally extending louvers on a gas inlet side to retain the filter material. On a gas outlet side, a grid of vertical triangular bars defines a slotted surface to retain the filter material. The grid is reciprocatingly movable up and down and a horizontally movable shuttle is located beneath the filter bed. Means coordinate the movement of the grid and shuttle to move filter material downward through the filter bed of the apparatus.

  17. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. PMID:20542633

  18. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  19. An embedded boundary method for the modeling of unsteady combustion in an industrial gas-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Howell, L.H.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Beckner, V.E.

    1995-10-18

    A new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, axisymmetric reacting flow in industrial furnaces is presented. The method is an extension of previous work by the authors to complex geometries, multistep kinetics mechanisms, and realistic properties, especially thermochemical data. The walls of the furnace are represented as an embedded boundary in a uniform, rectangular grid. The grid then consists of uniform rectangular cells except at the furnace wall where irregular (mixed) cells may be present. We use finite volume differencing techniques for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element-based technique is used to solve the elliptic equation arising from the low-Mach number formulation. Results from the simulation of an experimental natural gas-fired furnace are shown.

  20. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas fired furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtvee, T.; Khoo, S. W.; Schaus, O. O.

    1981-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas fired furnace heat exchangers and in similar corrosive environments candidate materials were selected and tested on one of two identical test rigs built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in an actual gas fired condensing system heat exchanger. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated and CaCO3 dipped galvanized steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloy anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  1. The Effect of Operational Parameters on the Characteristics of Gas-Solid Flow Inside the COREX Shaft Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Du, Kaiping; Shen, Wei; Ma, Xiaodong; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-02-01

    The COREX shaft furnace is of great importance to the whole C-3000 process. There are many problems with the operation of the COREX shaft furnace, especially with gas and burden distribution, that have as yet been little studied. The present work establishes a three-dimensional quarter model. After validation by operating data in Baosteel, the model is used to investigate the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate of the COREX shaft furnace. The parameters, including the reducing gas flow, the volume fraction of gas phase, and the multilayered burden, are systematically investigated. The results show that the reducing gas flow has a great influence on the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate, while the volume fraction of gas phase has a more significant effect on the metallization rate than on the gas utilization rate. In order to obtain a higher metallization rate, the reducing gas flow needs to be adjusted step by step and the volume fraction of gas phase needs to be increased. In addition, ore and coke need to be discharged separately in order to increase the solid metallization rate.

  2. The characteristics of high temperature air combustion and its practical application to high performance industrial furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Shunichi; Suzukawa, Yutaka; Hino, Yoshimichi

    1999-07-01

    An experimental regenerative continuous slab reheat furnace was used for the data acquisition of high temperature air combustion. Obtainable preheated air temperature, gas temperature distribution of combustion field, NOx concentration in waste gas, heating pattern, furnace height etc were studied for this purpose. Main results were (1) preheated air temperature close to furnace temperature can be obtained, (2) gas temperature distribution is relatively uniform in main combustion field, (3) NOx concentration in waste gas is significantly reduced, (4) there exists the appropriate combustion capacity of a burner for every furnace width, (5) the optimum furnace height for regenerative continuous slab reheat furnace from the thermal efficiency point of view is lower than the convention one by about 0.5m.

  3. Advanced multispectral dynamic thermography as a new tool for inspection of gas-fired furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Goleniewski, Grzegorz; Komosa, Wojciech; Korytkowski, Waldemar

    2004-04-01

    The main special feature of elaborated method is that the dynamic IR thermography (DIRT) bases on forming of single image consisting of pixels of chosen minimum (IMAX) or maximum (IMAX) value, noted during adequately long sequence of thermograms with total independence to the moment of its (image's) capture. In this way, additive or suppressed interferences of fluctuating character become bypassed. Due to this method thereafter elaborated in classic way such "artificial thermogram" offers the quality impossible to achieve with a classic "one shot" method. Although preliminary, results obtained clearly show great potential of the method. and confirmed the validity in decreasing errors caused by fluctuating disturbances. In the case of process furnaces of gas-fired type and especially of coal-fired, application of presented solutions should result in significant increasing the reliability of IR thermography application. By use of properly chosen optical filters and algorithm, elaborated method offers a new potential attractive to test temperature problems other than in tubes , as for example symmetry and efficiency of the furnace heaters.

  4. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  5. Performance of a flameless combustion furnace using biogas and natural gas.

    PubMed

    Colorado, A F; Herrera, B A; Amell, A A

    2010-04-01

    Flameless combustion technology has proved to be flexible regarding the utilization of conventional fuels. This flexibility is associated with the main characteristic of the combustion regime, which is the mixing of the reactants above the autoignition temperature of the fuel. Flameless combustion advantages when using conventional fuels are a proven fact. However, it is necessary to assess thermal equipments performance when utilizing bio-fuels, which usually are obtained from biomass gasification and the excreta of animals in bio-digesters. The effect of using biogas on the performance of an experimental furnace equipped with a self-regenerative Flameless burner is reported in this paper. All the results were compared to the performance of the system fueled with natural gas. Results showed that temperature field and uniformity are similar for both fuels; although biogas temperatures were slightly lower due to the larger amount of inert gases (CO(2)) in its composition that cool down the reactions. Species patterns and pollutant emissions showed similar trends and values for both fuels, and the energy balance for biogas showed a minor reduction of the efficiency of the furnace; this confirms that Flameless combustion is highly flexible to burn conventional and diluted fuels. Important modifications on the burner were not necessary to run the system using biogas. Additionally, in order to highlight the advantages of the Flameless combustion regime, some comparisons of the burner performance working in Flameless mode and working in conventional mode are presented. PMID:19944602

  6. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  7. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  8. 25 CFR 226.37 - Waste of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Waste of oil and gas. 226.37 Section 226.37 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.37 Waste of oil and gas. Lessee shall conduct all operations in a manner that will prevent waste of oil and gas and shall not wastefully utilize...

  9. 25 CFR 226.37 - Waste of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waste of oil and gas. 226.37 Section 226.37 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.37 Waste of oil and gas. Lessee shall conduct all operations in a manner that will prevent waste of oil and gas and shall not wastefully utilize...

  10. 25 CFR 226.37 - Waste of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waste of oil and gas. 226.37 Section 226.37 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.37 Waste of oil and gas. Lessee shall conduct all operations in a manner that will prevent waste of oil and gas and shall not wastefully utilize...

  11. 25 CFR 226.37 - Waste of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Waste of oil and gas. 226.37 Section 226.37 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.37 Waste of oil and gas. Lessee shall conduct all operations in a manner that will prevent waste of oil and gas and shall not wastefully utilize...

  12. Characteristics and settling behaviour of particles from blast furnace flue gas washing.

    PubMed

    Kiventerä, Jenni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Keski-Ruismäki, Kirsi; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-05-01

    A lot of particles from iron-making are removed with blast furnace off-gas and routed to the gas cleaning system. As water is used for cleaning the gas, the produced wash water contains a large amount of particles such as valuable Fe and C. However, the presence of zinc prevents recycling. In addition, the high amount of calcium results in uncontrolled scaling. Therefore, the properties of the wash water from scrubber and sludge, from the Finnish metal industry (SSAB Raahe), were evaluated in this study. Size fractionation of wash water revealed that Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, V, Cr and Cd appeared mainly in the larger fractions (>1.2 μm) and Na, Mg, Si, Ni, K, Cu and As appeared mainly in the smaller fractions (<1.2 μm) or in dissolved form. Calcium was found both in the larger fractions and dissolved (∼60 mg/L). Most of the particles in wash water were included in the 1.2-10 μm particle size and were settled effectively. However, a clear benefit was observed when using a chemical to enhance particle settling. In comparison to 2.5 h of settling without chemical, the turbidity was further decreased by about 94%, iron 85% and zinc 50%. Coagulation-flocculation experiments indicated that both low and high molecular weight cationic polymers could provide excellent purification results in terms of turbidity. Calcium should be removed by other methods. The particles in sludge were mostly in the 2-4 μm or 10-20 μm fractions. Further sludge settling resulted in high solids removal. PMID:26945188

  13. Formation of the ZnFe2O4 phase in an electric arc furnace off-gas treatment system.

    PubMed

    Suetens, T; Guo, M; Van Acker, K; Blanpain, B

    2015-04-28

    To better understand the phenomena of ZnFe2O4 spinel formation in electric arc furnace dust, the dust was characterized with particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Different ZnFe2O4 formation reaction extents were observed for iron oxide particles with different particle sizes. ZnO particles were present as both individual particles and aggregated on the surface of larger particles. Also, the slag particles found in the off-gas were shown not to react with the zinc vapor. After confirming the presence of a ZnFe2O4 formation reaction, the thermodynamic feasibility of in-process separation - a new electric arc furnace dust treatment technology - was reevaluated. The large air intake and the presence of iron oxide particles in the off-gas were included into the thermodynamic calculations. The formation of the stable ZnFe2O4 spinel phase was shown to be thermodynamically favorable in current electric arc furnace off-gas ducts conditions even before reaching the post combustion chamber. PMID:25646901

  14. Advanced gas heating systems for high temperature furnaces for refractories firing

    SciTech Connect

    Zvyaghintsev, K.N.; Sinitsyn, E.A.; Verozub, E.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigations are presented. On the basis of these results the heating systems and burner arrangements with the adjustment of flame parameters for rotary furnaces and tunnel kilns for refractories production are developed. It is shown that the realization of results makes it possible to reduce the specific consumption of fuel, to increase the quality of fired products together with furnaces output and to assimilate now technological processes.

  15. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  16. DISPOSAL OF FLUE-GAS-CLEANING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article describes current commercial and emerging technology for disposal of wastes from flue gas cleaning (FGC) systems for coal-fired power plants. Over 80 million metric tons/yr (dry) of coal ash and desulfurization solids are expected to be produced by the 1980's. Althoug...

  17. Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams

    SciTech Connect

    Whellock, J.G.; Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

  18. 25 CFR 226.37 - Waste of oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Waste of oil and gas. 226.37 Section 226.37 Indians BUREAU... FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.37 Waste of oil and gas. Lessee shall conduct all operations in a manner that will prevent waste of oil and gas and shall not wastefully utilize oil or...

  19. On-line and in situ monitoring of oxygen concentration and gas temperature in a reheating furnace utilizing tunable diode-laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandström, Lars; Malmberg, Donald

    2002-09-01

    Increased demands on energy savings and quality control in metallurgical processes have created incentives for new methods to monitor and control the process. In this paper we will present a field trial that shows the potential of tunable diode-laser spectroscopy (TDLS) for simultaneous contact free measuring and monitoring of the oxygen concentration as well as the gas temperature in a reheating furnace during production. The field trials were carried out at an oil-fueled reheating furnace during 7 weeks of production. The tunable diode-laser spectrometer was measuring in situ across the preheating zone and the soaking zone in the furnace. During the campaign the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature in the furnace environment were simultaneously monitored and instantaneous variations in these parameters could easily be recorded and subsequently correlated to actual changes in the process. Furthermore, the much shorter response-time of the TDLS technique compared with conventional measurement methods such as thermocouples and extractive gas analyzers was also demonstrated during the trials. The results show the potential for the TDLS technique to be used for energy savings as well as product quality improvements by controlling the burners in the reheating furnace. The results show that it would be possible to control and optimize the oxygen concentration with TDLS in the control loop of the reheating furnace.

  20. Development of an advanced gas-fired furnace for high-temperature heating of continuously cast thin-section steel products. Final report, January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The project involved the development of preliminary design parameters for two different types of gas-fired furnaces capable of reheating thin sections (i.e., 1-inch thick) of continuously cast steel. These reheated thin steel sections are sent directly into with Hot Strip Mill finishing stands without further reductions. For the Hot Strip Mill configurations where a thin section continuous caster may be close coupled in-line with the finishing stands, a roller hearth furnace was developed. This furnace was designed to reheat the as-cast thin section in flat form at a production rate of 250 tons/hour. For the Hot Strip Mill configuration where a thin section caster may have to be located remote from the finishing stands, a car bottom furnace was developed. This furnace was designed to reheat the thin section in coiled form at a production rate of 125 tons/hour. Either of these thin section reheat furnaces will require only 32% of the fuel requirement of existing reheat furnace operations that process continuously cast steel slabs.

  1. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas fired furnaces. Annual report Oct 79-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Khoo, S.W.; Schaus, O.O.

    1981-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired furnace heat exchangers and in similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were selected and tested on one of two identical test rigs built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in an actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchanger. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated and CaCO3 dipped galvanized steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloy anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  2. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities. PMID:19808731

  3. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  5. Cr(VI) Generation During Flaring of CO-Rich Off-Gas from Closed Ferrochromium Submerged Arc Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Preez, S. P.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    Ferrochromium (FeCr) is the only source of new Cr units used in stainless steel production, which is a vital modern day alloy, making FeCr equally important. Small amounts of Cr(VI) are unintentionally formed during several FeCr production steps. One such production step is the flaring of CO-rich off-gas from closed submerged arc furnaces (SAF), for which Cr(VI) formation is currently not quantified. In this study, the influence of flaring temperature, size of the particles passing through the flare, and retention time within the flame were investigated by simulating the process on laboratory scale with a vertical tube furnace. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted on the overall dataset obtained, which indicated that retention time had the greatest impact on pct Cr(VI) conversion, followed by particle size and temperature. The MLR analysis also yielded an optimum mathematical solution, which could be used to determine the overall impact of these parameters on pct Cr(VI) conversion. This equation was used to determine realistic and unrealistic worst-case scenario pct Cr(VI) conversions for actual FeCr SAFs, which yielded 2.7 × 10-2 and 3.5 × 10-1 pct, respectively. These values are significantly lower than the current unsubstantiated pct Cr(VI) conversion used in environmental impact assessments for FeCr smelters, i.e., 0.8 to 1 pct.

  6. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  7. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Chun, Jaehun; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. Foams from the residual gases can significantly alter the melting rate through mass and heat transfers. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) and developed a simple calibration model which correlates the overall mass loss rate with the evolution rates for individual gases. The model parameters are obtained from the least squares analysis, assuming that the gas-evolving reactions are independent. Thus, the EGAmore » adds the ‘chemical identity’ to the reactions indicated by the ‘phenomenological’ kinetic model.« less

  8. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Chun, Jaehun; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. Foams from the residual gases can significantly alter the melting rate through mass and heat transfers. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) and developed a simple calibration model which correlates the overall mass loss rate with the evolution rates for individual gases. The model parameters are obtained from the least squares analysis, assuming that the gas-evolving reactions are independent. Thus, the EGA adds the ‘chemical identity’ to the reactions indicated by the ‘phenomenological’ kinetic model.

  9. The characteristics of a wall gas layer and their influence on slagging of furnace waterwalls during the combustion of Berezovo coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, S. G.; Skuratov, A. P.

    2010-07-01

    Results from an experimental research work on studying the structure of wall gas layer at furnace waterwalls and their slagging are presented. It is established that the temperature of gases in close vicinity of waterwalls has a dominating effect on the nature and formation rate of primary deposits during the combustion of Berezovo coal.

  10. Two-stage high temperature sludge gasification using the waste heat from hot blast furnace slags.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, disposal of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants and recovery of waste heat from steel industry, become two important environmental issues and to integrate these two problems, a two-stage high temperature sludge gasification approach was investigated using the waste heat in hot slags herein. The whole process was divided into two stages, i.e., the low temperature sludge pyrolysis at ⩽ 900°C in argon agent and the high temperature char gasification at ⩾ 900°C in CO2 agent, during which the heat required was supplied by hot slags in different temperature ranges. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms were identified and it was indicated that an Avrami-Erofeev model could best interpret the stage of char gasification. Furthermore, a schematic concept of this strategy was portrayed, based on which the potential CO yield and CO2 emission reduction achieved in China could be ∼1.92∗10(9)m(3) and 1.93∗10(6)t, respectively. PMID:26409106

  11. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  12. [Design of gas and electric rotary furnaces for the glass industry]. Quarterly progress report, September 20--December 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pochan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have continually stressed that the two most critical material parameters for the success of the rotary furnace are the hearth plate and the molding release powder. Both of these issues have been solidly addressed in this quarter. They have tested the three best candidates for hearth plate material this quarter. Although they had to use the in-house gas furnaces for the testing, one of the materials combines the best heating efficiency with the least sticking tendency. This material will be used for the electric prototype. The molding release powder is mainly used for preventing the glass from adhering to the hearth plate while the glass is softening for pressing. They recently visited several companies in Japan who also repress glass. The release agent that they use is Boron Nitride. They have identified a supplier within New York state, but their concern is the very high price of this material. They are bringing in samples of different grades for experimentation, but the focus continues to be to eliminate the need for any powder. An additional area for material testing was addressed during this quarter. Once the glass is in the tool (mold) for pressing, the glass has the potential to adhere to the metal that the tool and die are made from (usually steel). Both the powder and a spraying of a carbon product are currently used to reduce this problem. Alternate materials for the tooling and/or surface coatings of the steel need to be identified and tested. During this quarter, they conducted some off-site test runs on two candidate coating materials: platinum and titanium.

  13. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  14. Computer simulation of velocity and temperature fields during gas quenching in vacuum heat treatment furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Meekisho, L.; Zhang, J.; Blicblau, A.; Doyle, D.

    1995-12-31

    Gas quenching is a form of cooling process in heat treatment, especially widely applied in vacuum heat treatment. Using computational fluid dynamic package Flow-3D and self-programmed heat transfer software, the gas flow velocity distribution during some of the typical gas quenching processes and temperature fields within the components are simulated. The simulated results are not only important in determining the heat transfer behavior of the quenched components, but also helpful in quenching optimization, quenching equipment design and further simulation and final distortion control of the heat treated components.

  15. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  16. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  17. Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}. Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles.

  18. Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, and H[sub 2]. Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles.

  19. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report submitted

  20. Development of an Energy Efficient High temperature Natural Gas Fired Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mark G. Stevens; Dr. H. Kenneth Staffin; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-02-28

    The design concept is designated the ''Porous Wall Radiation Barrier'' heating mantle. In this design, combustion gas flows through a porous wall surrounding the retort, transferring its heat to the porous wall, which then radiates heat energy to the retort. Experiments demonstrate that heat transfer rates of 1.8-2.4 times conventional gas fired mantles are achievable in the temperature range of 1600-2350 degrees fahrenheit.

  1. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  2. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  3. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  4. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  5. Comparison of residential air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems in 16 California climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.

    1987-06-01

    Heat pumps with coefficients of performance ranging from 2.5 to 3.1 and gas furnaces with thermal efficiencies of 75% to 90% are analyzed through DOE-2 computer simulations and life-cycle cost analyses. The annual heating performances and the life-cycle costs of air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems operating in single-family detached residences located in 16 climatic zones defined by the California Energy Commission are compared. With standard performance equipment, heat pumps cost more in all zones except for China Lake and Sacramento, but with high performance equipment, heat pumps cost less in all zones except for Fresno and Mt. Shasta.

  6. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages.

  7. Onset of thermally induced gas convection in mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; Zhang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A mine waste dump in which active oxidation of pyritic materials occurs can generate a large amount of heat to form convection cells. We analyze the onset of thermal convection in a two-dimensional, infinite horizontal layer of waste rock filled with moist gas, with the top surface of the waste dump open to the atmosphere and the bedrock beneath the waste dump forming a horizontal and impermeable boundary. Our analysis shows that the thermal regime of a waste rock system depends heavily on the atmospheric temperature, the strength of the heat source and the vapor pressure. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid... of the standards under 40 CFR 266.105, 266.106, and 266.107 to control those pollutants. Replacement... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the standards for...

  9. Implement proper furnace safety interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.D.; Schoenmaker, G.J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur during the initial light-off process for the furnace. The deficiencies that cause these events can be grouped into three broad categories: (1) human error; (2) incorrect or incomplete safety controls and equipment arrangement; and (3) equipment malfunction. This article presents a safety system that helps address all three of these categories for light-off events. No system is totally foolproof, but the use of a safety system, along with strict operating discipline, will reduce the number of furnace events encountered over the lifetime of the equipment. (Note that the controls typically referred to as ``combustion control,`` which include process temperature control, fuel-gas control, oxygen trim/draft control, and the like, are not part of the control described here.) Note also that although this system was developed for cracking furnaces in ethylene plants, it is equally applicable to other types of radiant-wall multiple-burner furnaces. It can be used for both new installations and retrofit situations. This safety system is not applicable to boilers or other devices with only one or two burners.

  10. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  11. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  12. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  13. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  14. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  15. Toxic gas phase emissions from the combustion of pulverized coal mixed with powders of waste plastics or tire crumb

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanche, B.; Atal, A.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents results on the gas phase emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative waste fuels (plastics and automobile tires). The plastics examined were poly(ethylene) and poly(styrene). All fuels were burned in powder form. Mixtures (50- 50 by weight) of the above waste fuels with coal were also burned. Results are reported on the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and CO{sub 2} emissions. For a limited number of cases results are also presented on the release of organic air toxics, in particular the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments were conducted under well-controlled conditions in bench-scale laboratory facilities. Coal particles, {approx}100 {mu}m, and particles of pulverized alternative fuels, {approx}200 {mu}m, were injected and burned in an electrically-heated droptube furnace. The furnace temperature was set to 1250{degrees}C. The residence time of the gas was 1 s. Experiments spanned a range of fuel-lean ({phi} < 1), stoichiometric ({phi} = 1) and fuel-rich ({phi} > 1) conditions. Results showed that (a) the NO{sub x} emissions of tires were a few times lower than those of coal and those of plastics were even lower. Thus, blending these alterative fuels with coal drastically reduced NO{sub x} emissions.

  16. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.; Arvidson, A.N.

    1994-05-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

  17. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  18. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  19. Combustion process with waste gas purification

    SciTech Connect

    Almlof, G.; Hagqvist, P.

    1983-07-12

    The invention relates to a combustion process with cleansing of the waste gases by compressing, cooling and expanding said gases. The invention provides a continuous process in which highly contaminated low-grade fuels having a high water content can be effectively burned and the waste gases efficiently cleansed, by subjecting the cooled waste gases, together with residual non-desired substances, to a rapid drop in pressure in one or more stages by means of an expansion means, whereat the input drive power of the compressor, required for compressing said gases, is so high that the temperature downstream of the expansion means is sufficiently low for the condensation and precipitation of frozen contaminants in the waste gases, together with ice crystals. The invention can be applied to all forms of combustion plants, primarily combined power and heating plants fired with fuel having a high sulphur and water content.

  20. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  1. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  2. Flashback from waste gas incinerator into air supply piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.E.; Dowell, A.M. III; Mynaugh, J.B. )

    1992-04-01

    A waste gas incinerator experienced a flashback with a pressure wave in the Suction Vent Gas (SVG) system. Extensive damage resulted to the SVG flame arrestor, SVG fan, SVG valves, and incinerator piping. There were no injuries. The primary cause of the incident is believed to have been a fuel rich SVG stream that was rapidly introduced into the incinerator creating a puff.' This puff' allowed flame from the natural gas ring burner to blow back into the windbox igniting the fuel rich SVG. The combustion of gas in the ducting then created a pressure wave that blew apart the flame arrestor and caused the remainder of the damage.

  3. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  4. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  5. Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1997-11-01

    The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible formation of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the buildup of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be the main contributors during waste transport operations. In this paper, the authors provide a review of applicable gas generation data resulting from the degradation of various waste forms under conditions typical for transport. The effects of radiolytic and thermal degradation mechanisms will be discussed in the context of transportation safety.

  6. [Purification of complicated industrial organic waste gas by complex absorption].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Sheng; Cen, Chao-Ping; Tang, Zhi-Xiong; Fang, Ping; Chen, Zhi-Hang

    2011-12-01

    Complicated industrial organic waste gas with the characteristics of low concentration,high wind volume containing inorganic dust and oil was employed the research object by complex absorption. Complex absorption mechanism, process flow, purification equipment and engineering application were studied. Three different surfactants were prepared for the composite absorbent to purify exhaust gas loaded with toluene and butyl acetate, respectively. Results show that the low surface tension of the composite absorbent can improve the removal efficiency of toluene and butyl acetate. With the advantages of the water film, swirl plate and fill absorption device, efficient absorption equipment was developed for the treatment of complicated industrial organic waste gas. It is with superiorities of simple structure, small size, anti-jam and high mass transfer. Based on absorption technology, waste gas treatment process integrated with heating stripping, burning and anaerobic and other processes, so that emissions of waste gas and absorption solution could meet the discharge standards. The technology has been put into practice, such as manufacturing and spraying enterprises. PMID:22468539

  7. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view. PMID:27040089

  8. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation for 241-SX-105

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980.

  9. U.S. Space Station Freedom waste fluid disposal system with consideration of hydrazine waste gas injection thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of a study of various methods for propulsively disposing of waste gases. The options considered include hydrazine waste gas injection, resistojets, and eutectic salt phase change heat beds. An overview is given of the waste gas disposal system and how hydrozine waste gas injector thruster is implemented within it. Thruster performance for various gases are given and comparisons with currently available thruster models are made. The impact of disposal on station propellant requirements and electrical power usage are addressed. Contamination effects, reliability and maintainability assessments, safety issues, and operational scenarios of the waste gas thruster and disposal system are considered.

  10. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  11. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  12. Ammonia recovery from livestock waste using gas permeable membrane technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation shows new methods and systems being developed for reducing ammonia emissions from livestock waste and recovering concentrated liquid nitrogen that could be sold as fertilizer. These systems use gas-permeable membranes as components of new processes to capture and recover the ammoni...

  13. DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal field evaluation project sponsored by EPA at TVA's Shawnee steam plant, Paducah, KY. This pilot-scale project, initiated in 1974 and completed in September 1980, evaluated methods and costs for dis...

  14. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  15. Effects of oxygen cover gas and NaOH dilution on gas generation in tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Person, J.C.

    1996-05-30

    Laboratory studies are reported of gas generation in heated waste from tank 241-SY-101. The rates of gas generation and the compositions of product gas were measured. Three types of tests are compared. The tests use: undiluted waste, waste diluted by a 54% addition of 2.5 M NaOH, and undiluted waste with a reactive cover gas of 30% Oxygen in He. The gas generation rate is reduced by dilution, increased by higher temperatures (which determines activation energies), and increased by reactions of Oxygen (these primarily produce H{sub 2}). Gases are generated as reduction products oxidation of organic carbon species by nitrite and oxygen.

  16. Furnace afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.F. II

    1987-01-13

    An afterburner is described for the exhaust effluvia of a furnace, which exhaust contains combustible material, the afterburner comprising: a. an elongated, generally cylindrical combustion chamber having an inlet for the exhaust at or adjacent one end thereof, and an outlet at or adjacent its other end, b. means operable to induce a draft through the combustion chamber from its inlet to its outlet, c. a series of air nozzles disposed to direct jets of air into the interior of the combustion chamber. Certain nozzles are arranged to direct air jets into the combustion chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a clockwise direction, and the remainder of the nozzles and arranged to direct air jets into the chamber substantially tangentially thereto in a counter-clockwise direction, whereby to induce turbulence within the chamber to intermix the air and the exhaust thoroughly, and d. means operable to deliver air to the air nozzles.

  17. Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, J.

    1994-11-01

    for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

  18. Binding waste anthracite fines with Si-containing materials as an alternative fuel for foundry cupola furnaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Fox, John T; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kulik, Joseph; Furness, Jim

    2011-04-01

    An alternative fuel to replace foundry coke in cupolas was developed from waste anthracite fines. Waste anthracite fines were briquetted with Si-containing materials and treated in carbothermal (combination of heat and carbon) conditions that simulated the cupola preheat zone to form silicon carbide nanowires (SCNWs). SCNWs can provide hot crushing strengths, which are important in cupola operations. Lab-scale experiments confirmed that the redox level of the Si-source significantly affected the formation of SiC. With zerovalent silicon, SCNWs were formed within the anthracite pellets. Although amorphous Si (+4) plus anthracite formed SiC, these conditions did not transform the SiC into nanowires. Moreover, under the test conditions, SiC was not formed between crystallized Si (+4) and anthracite. In a full-scale demonstration, bricks made from anthracite fines and zerovalent silicon successfully replaced a part of the foundry coke in a full-scale cupola. In addition to saving in fuel cost, replacing coke by waste anthracite fines can reduce energy consumption and CO2 and other pollution associated with conventional coking. PMID:21366305

  19. Investigation of exhaust gas temperature distribution within a furnace of a stoker fired boiler as a function of its operating parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr; Badyda, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Jacek; Młynarz, Szczepan

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of the exhaust gas temperature within the furnace of a grate boiler greatly depends on its operating parameters such as output. It has a considerably different character than temperature distributions in other types of boilers (with pulverised or fluidised bed), as it varies considerably across the chamber. Results presented in this paper have been obtained through research of a grate-fired hot water boiler with a nominal rating of some 30 MW. Measurements have been taken by introducing temperature sensors into prearranged openings placed in the boiler side walls. Investigation has been carried out for different output levels. Tests involved thermocouples in ceramic coating and aspirated thermocouples. The latter were used to eliminate influence of radiative heat transfer on measured results. Values obtained with both methods have been cross-checked.

  20. Energy aspects of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Janice E.; Dugdale, Peter J.; Landry, Christian J. F.; R. Morris, David; Steward, Frank R.; Wilson, Timothy C. W.

    1980-06-01

    The energy effects accompanying the processing of the feed material to a lead blast furnace are considered in terms of a reversible model. Relative to this model the efficiencies of operating furnaces are found to be in the range 18 to 35 pct. The effects of the effluent gas CO2/CO ratio and temperature and oxygen enrichment of the blast air in the thermodynamic efficiency are quantified. Improvements in efficiency achieved in industrial furnaces as a result of oxygen enrichment of the blast air are substantially greater than those predicted. Mass and enthalpy balances on an industrial lead blast furnace are presented from which it is estimated that approximately 9 pct of the carbon charged to the furnace is lost due to the solution loss reaction in the upper regions of the furnace.

  1. Gas generation and gas migration in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Haijtink, B.

    1996-12-31

    It is generally accepted that there will be some degree of gas generation in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. This gas generation will depend on a number of factors such as the nature of the waste, the waste container, the buffer material and the near field host rock. In an ideal situation the gas generated would all dissolve in the groundwater and/or be transported away from the deep repository by the mechanisms of advection, diffusion and dispersion. However the sought-after characteristic of a repository host medium of very low permeability, e.g. bentonite buffer material and argillaceous geological media can be problematic when considering gas migration. High gas pressures might be build-up which could lead to potential fracturing of engineered barriers in the near field and enhancing groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Various theoretical as well as experimental research activities have been undertaken to investigate the different phenomena. Within the framework of R&D programmes on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, conducted by the European Commission, some of the research activities are grouped together in a coordinated project named PEGASUS (Project on the Effects of GAS in an Underground Storage facility). In this project a total of about twenty research institutes and laboratories from seven different European countries are involved. This PEGASUS project will be followed up by a new project named PROGRESS (PROject of Research into Gas generation and migration in radioactive waste REpository SystemS). In this paper, an overview is given of the various research activities carried out and results obtained so far.

  2. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  3. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  4. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  5. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  6. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  7. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kujawa, Stephan T.; Battleson, Daniel M.; Rademacher, Jr., Edward L.; Cashell, Patrick V.; Filius, Krag D.; Flannery, Philip A.; Whitworth, Clarence G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  8. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  9. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  11. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W. ); Huckaby, James L. ); Meyer, Perry A. )

    2002-08-30

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single-shell and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a significant volume of retained gas. Analyses are presented for expected gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. Recommendations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are also given.

  12. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 6, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degree}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degree}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  13. Bench scale experiment of recovery of chlorine from waste gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hine, F.; Kurata, Y.; Nozaki, M.

    1984-12-01

    A bench scale experiment with a 50A cell equipped with a Nafion membrane has been conducted. Electrolyte is a mixture of HCl and CuCl/sub 2/. Chlorine is generated at the graphite anode, and cupric chloro-comple ions are reduced at the graphite cathode. The catholyte effluent is sent to the packed tower, where the cuprous ions are oxidized by chlorine in the waste gas. The cost evaluation for chlorine production in full-scale plants of various sizes is also described.

  14. Precision control of high temperature furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.G.

    1994-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to provide precision control of high temperature furnaces. It is another object of the present invention to combine the power of two power supplies of greatly differing output capacities in a single furnace. This invention combines two power supplies to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. Further, this invention comprises a means for high speed measurement of temperature of the process by the method of measuring the amount of current flow in a deliberately induced charged particle current.

  15. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas-fired furnaces. Final report Oct 79-Dec 81

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Schaus, O.O.

    1982-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired heat exchangers and similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were examined on test equipment built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchangers. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloys, anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  16. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  17. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  18. Method for treating reactive metals in a vacuum furnace

    DOEpatents

    Hulsey, W.J.

    1975-10-28

    The invention is directed to a method for reducing the contamination of reactive metal melts in vacuum furnaces due to the presence of residual gaseous contaminants in the furnace atmosphere. This reduction is achieved by injecting a stream of inert gas directly over the metal confined in a substantially closed crucible with the flow of the gas being sufficient to establish a pressure differential between the interior of the crucible and the furnace atmosphere.

  19. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  20. Combination gas producing and waste water disposal well

    SciTech Connect

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1984-02-07

    The present invention is directed to a waste water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased borehole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. By-pass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the by-pass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  1. Formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in Ar and nitrogen gas atmosphere by using laser furnace technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Asai, N.; Kataura, H.; Achiba, Y.

    2007-07-01

    The formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by using laser vaporization technique in different ambient gas atmosphere was investigated. SWNTs were prepared with Rh/Pd (1.2/1.2 atom%)-carbon composite rod in Ar and nitrogen gas atmosphere, respectively. Raman spectra of raw carbon materials including SWNTs and photoluminescence mapping of dispersed SWNTs in a surfactant solution demonstrate that the diameter distribution of SWNTs prepared in Ar atmosphere is narrower than those obtained by using CVD technique (e.g. HiPco nanotube), even when the ambient temperature is as high as 1150 ?C. It was also found that nitrogen atmosphere gives wider diameter distribution of SWNTs than that obtained with Ar atmosphere. Furthermore, the relative yield of fullerenes (obtained as byproducts) is investigated by using HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) technique. It was found that the relative yield of higher fullerenes becomes lower, when nitrogen is used as an ambient gas atmosphere. Based on these experimental findings, a plausible formation mechanism of SWNTs is discussed.

  2. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  3. Water-cooled furnace heads for use with standard muffle tube furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1975-01-01

    The design of water-cooled furnace seals for use in high-temperature controlled-atmosphere gas and vacuum studies is presented in detailed engineering drawings. Limiting design factors and advantages are discussed.

  4. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  5. Contamination of furnace-drawn silica fibers.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, P

    1977-03-01

    Contamination originating in an electric resistance furnace was found to increase substantially the losses of unclad and plastic-clad silica fibers. In contrast, the losses of doped silica fibers with sufficient cladding thickness were unaffected by impure drawing conditions. Operating the furnace without muffle tube and protecting the preform with a pure, inert gas injected via a counter-flow resulted in practically contamination-free operation and unclad-fiber losses as low as 3 dB/km. The removal of the muffle tube significantly simplified the furnace operation and reduced the cycling time from many hours to a few minutes. PMID:20168565

  6. Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

  7. Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bockreis, A. . E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I.

    2005-07-01

    In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

  8. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  9. Steel mill ORC turns waste gas into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This article discusses the installation of a 14 MW ORC waste heat recovery plant at the Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. The recovery plant is composed of six basic components: a boiler, turbine, electric generator, condenser, condensate pump, and feed pump. The article describes operation of the plant in detail. According to figures released by the company, the total cost of operating the ORC on the steel mill's sintering unit is approximately 8.88 yen per HWH of electricity generated. The figure includes depreciation on the ORC, replacement parts, cost of cooling water for the exhaust gas, interest, tax, and insurance as well as cost for labor, and is computed on a rate of 230 yen to the dollar.

  10. Status and integration of studies of gas generation in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to review recent progress in determining the mechanism, kinetics, and stoichiometry of gas generation in Hanford waste tanks. Information has been gathered from the results of (1) laboratory studies with simulated wastes; (2) laboratory studies with actual waste core samples (Tanks SY-101 and SY-103); (3) studies of thermal and radiolytic reactions in the gas phase; (4) gas solubility evaluations; and (5) in-tank gas composition data. The results of laboratory studies using simulated wastes, which were aimed at determining chemical mechanisms responsible for gas generation, are summarized in Section 2. Emphasized are findings from work performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), which was conducted under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and completed in FY 1996. Thermally activated pathways for the decomposition of hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA, trisodium salt) in simulated wastes were established by this work, among other accomplishments.

  11. LABORATORY METHOD TO ESTIMATE HYDROGEN CHLORIDE POTENTIAL BEFORE INCINERATION OF A WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory method has been developed to provide an estimate of the amount of hydrogen chloride gas that will form during incineration of a waste. he method involves incineration of a sample of the waste at 900 C in a tube furnace, removal of particles from the resulting gases b...

  12. In situ rheology and gas volume in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Brewster, M.E.; Chen, G.; Reid, H.C.; Shepard, C.L.; Terrones, G.; Mendoza, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a detailed characterization of gas retention and release in 6 Hanford DS waste tanks. The results came from the ball rheometer and void fraction instrument in (flammable gas watch list) tanks SY-101, SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 are presented. Instrument operation and derivation of data reduction methods are presented. Gas retention and release information is summarized for each tank and includes tank fill history and instrumentation, waste configuration, gas release, void fraction distribution, gas volumes, rheology, and photographs of the waste column from extruded core samples. Potential peak burn pressure is computed as a function of gas release fraction to portray the `hazard signature` of each tank. It is shown that two tanks remain well below the maximum allowable pressure, even if the entire gas content were released and ignited, and that none of the others present a hazard with their present gas release behavior.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from mechanical and biological waste treatment of municipal waste.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Cuhls, C

    2003-06-01

    The mechanical and biological waste treatment (MBT) is an increasingly important technology for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) before landfilling. This process includes composting of the material with intensive aeration in order to minimize the organic fraction that may induce methane and leachate emissions after landfilling. The exhaust air is treated by biofilters to remove odorous and volatile organic compounds. The emission of direct and indirect greenhouse gases, namely methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) was studied in four existing treatment plants. All gases except NO were emitted from the composting material. The emission factors were 12 to 185 kg ton(-1) substrate for CO2, 6-12 x 10(3) g ton(-1) substrate for CH4, 1.44 to 378 g ton(-1) substrate for N2O and 18-1150 g ton(-1) for NH3. In general, emission factors increased with increasing treatment time. The biofilters had no net effect on CH4, but removed 13-89% of the NH3. For CO2 the biofilters were a small, for N2O a major and for NO the exclusive source. Approximately 26% of the NH3-N that was removed in the biofilter was transformed into N2O when NH3 was the exclusive nitrogen source. Assuming that all municipal waste was treated by MBT, the emissions would account for 0.3 to 5% of the N2O and for 0.1 to 3% of the CH4 emissions in Germany, respectively. Optimising aeration and removing NH3 before the exhaust gas enters the biofilter could lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:12868530

  14. Reheat furnace upgrade results in production increase

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, A.H.; Fuhrman, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    This project is a unique example of the technique of high-intensity convective heating for generating significant material preheating that can be used to increase furnace production rate. The mathematical model predicted a production increase of 17%. The furnace has demonstrated a 22% higher sustained production rate. Oxidation rates have been gradually reduced and will be improved further by the installation of level 2 controls. The burner systems have proved to be reliable in a harsh operating environment. There has been a small improvement in the specific fuel consumption. In the case of a top-fired reheat furnace, convective pre-heating installed at the charge end of the furnace will result in a significant increase in production rate. The static thermal model developed for this project is a reliable tool for the prediction of performance of the modified furnace. The use of the high-velocity burners in the mixing zone was an effective substitute for the customary baffle wall. The installation had the benefit of preventing over-pressurization of the furnace discharge doors and enabled the operator to achieve a considerable improvement in pressure control. In addition, the removal of the baffle wall eliminated the shadowing effect where the incoming load is shaded from radiation from the heating zone. Additional turbulence in the mixing zone also had a significant impact by increasing the amount of heat removed from flue gas before it is vented from the furnace.

  15. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Huckaby, James L.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2003-07-30

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford tanks that disturb all or much of the waste. The globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given. This revision (Rev. 2)incorporates additional comments from Office of River Protection reviewers. An appendix presents the checklist for technical peer review of Revision 1 of this report.

  16. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Huckaby, James L.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2002-12-18

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  17. WASTE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2008-02-15

    A recent independent review led to uncertainty about the technical basis for characterizing the residual amount of tritium in polymer components used in the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities that are sent for waste disposal. A review of a paper published in the open literature firmly establishes the basis of the currently used characterization, 10 Ci/cc. Information provided in that paper about exposure experiments performed at the DOE Mound Laboratory allows the calculation of the currently used characterization. These experiments involved exposure of high density polyethylene (HD-PE) to initially 1 atm tritium gas. In addition, a review of recent research at the Savannah River Site not only further substantiates this characterization, but also establishes its use for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide. 10 Ci/cc tritium is a representative characterization for any type of polymer components exposed at ambient temperature and at approximately 1 atm. tritium gas.

  18. Use of optimization modeling to evaluate industrial waste reduction options: Application to a sour gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, H.D. ); Sikora, R.P. ); Baetz, B.W. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    This note reports on a study of waste reduction options for the upstream oil and gas industry and involves the application of a waste reduction optimization model to a generic sour gas plant. The waste reduction optimization model is meant as an aid for decision-making relating to the implementation of waste reduction options. The generic facility was developed from process knowledge provided by industry members of a project steering committee, as well as waste management information from industry manuals and represents a facility of average capacity and typical configuration. Several waste minimization options were modeled for selected waste streams. The selected streams were chosen based upon waste flows and disposal costs and their potential for waste reduction. The results of the modeling for the generic sour gas plant have shown that a set of cost-effective waste reduction options exist, there is significant potential for reducing the total quantity of waste to be managed and disposed of, and that implementation of the options would lead to considerable cost savings. The value and usefulness of the modeling approach lie not only in the generated results, but also in the fact that to construct the model, relevant waste flows and every possible manner that these waste flows can be minimized or processed are systematically identified. Once modeled, the parameters can be readily manipulated to determine various possible waste management strategies. To effectively use the modeling approach, the waste reduction team should have knowledge of the plant processes, existing waste management practices and costs, information on potential waste reduction options and technologies, as well as experience in mathematical modeling and analysis.

  19. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  20. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  1. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  2. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  3. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  4. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  6. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, J.P.; Johnson, B.E.; Beri, J.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a rotary hearth furnace. It comprises a stationary furnace wall with connecting roof and floor defining a closed furnace chamber therein; a rotatable hearth within the furnace chamber having a gas perforate surface for supporting a charge material thereon and having an open center region; a vertical cylindrical conduit supporting the hearth and communicating with the open center region thereof, the vertical cylindrical conduit extending from the hearth downwardly through an opening formed in the furnace floor and the vertical cylindrical conduit supported for rotation on bearing means positioned beneath the furnace floor; sealing means associated with the vertical cylindrical conduit and the furnace floor to seal off the opening therebetween; drive means for rotating the vertical cylindrical conduit and the hearth, feed means extending into the furnace chamber for charging particulate material onto the hearth, means for supplying hot gases to the furnace chamber between the hearth and the floor; means for withdrawing spent gas from the furnace chamber above the hearth; rabble means for moving the charge material across the hearth for discharge into the open enter region and the vertical cylindrical conduit.

  7. Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-29

    The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

  8. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  9. Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

  10. PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH FORM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses tests of the applicability of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) waste solids for use as synthetic waste landfill liners by measuring the mechanical strength and permeability of moisture-cured samples. SI waste solids were received from the EPA-sponsored demonstr...

  11. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation in Hanford High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Pederson, Larry R.; King, C. M.

    2000-01-31

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground storage tanks containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate and retain large quantities of flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable and have the potential for rapid release, the gas generation rate for each tank must be determined to establish the flammability hazard (Johnson et al. 1997). An understanding of gas generation is important to operation of the waste tanks for several reasons. First, knowledge of the overall rate of generation is needed to verify that any given tank has sufficient ventilation to ensure that flammable gases are maintained at a safe level within the dome space. Understanding the mechanisms for production of the various gases is important so that future waste operations do not create conditions that promote the production of hydrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide. Studying the generation of gases also provides important data for the composition of the gas mixture, which in turn is needed to assess the flammability characteristics. Finally, information about generation of gases, including the influence of various chemical constituents, temperature, and dose, would aid in assessing the future behavior of the waste during interim storage, implementation of controls, and final waste treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of gas generation pathways and discusses models used in predicting gas generation rates from actual Hanford radioactive wastes. A comparison is made between measured gas generation rates and rates by the predictive models.

  12. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  13. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  14. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  15. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  17. Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Choi, A.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference.

  18. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...

  19. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. Landfill gas generation after mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste. Estimation of gas generation rate constants.

    PubMed

    Gioannis, G De; Muntoni, A; Cappai, G; Milia, S

    2009-03-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) was investigated with respect to landfill gas generation. Mechanically treated RMSW was sampled at a full-scale plant and aerobically stabilized for 8 and 15 weeks. Anaerobic tests were performed on the aerobically treated waste (MBTW) in order to estimate the gas generation rate constants (k,y(-1)), the potential gas generation capacity (L(o), Nl/kg) and the amount of gasifiable organic carbon. Experimental results show how MBT allowed for a reduction of the non-methanogenic phase and of the landfill gas generation potential by, respectively, 67% and 83% (8 weeks treatment), 82% and 91% (15 weeks treatment), compared to the raw waste. The amount of gasified organic carbon after 8 weeks and 15 weeks of treatment was equal to 11.01+/-1.25kgC/t(MBTW) and 4.54+/-0.87kgC/t(MBTW), respectively, that is 81% and 93% less than the amount gasified from the raw waste. The values of gas generation rate constants obtained for MBTW anaerobic degradation (0.0347-0.0803y(-1)) resemble those usually reported for the slowly and moderately degradable fractions of raw MSW. Simulations performed using a prediction model support the hypothesis that due to the low production rate, gas production from MBTW landfills is well-suited to a passive management strategy. PMID:18954969

  1. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  2. STUDIES RELATED TO CHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF GAS FORMATION IN HANFORD HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering ...

  3. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts.

    PubMed

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO(2)-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved. PMID:22079250

  4. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process. PMID:25084404

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles. PMID:27236164

  6. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. PMID:27118738

  7. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  8. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  9. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  10. Space Station Furnace Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, S.D.; Lehoczky, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} g) environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks (IRs). The Core System provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate Experiment Modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first Instrument Rack include a High Temperature Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ), and a Low Temperature Gradient Furnace (LGF). A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.