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Sample records for fusarium moniliforme depsidipeptideos

  1. Introductory biology of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme is a name that has been applied to any of six biological species (or mating populations) that share the teleomorph (sexual stage) Gibberella fujikuroi. Two of these six biological species, termed "A" and "D", are known to produce fumonisin mycotoxins. Strains from the "A" biological species grow as endophytes on maize and often comprise 90+% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from healthy maize seed. It is possible to distinguish all six biological species using sexual fertility and isozymes. Other attributes, such as morphological characters and sequences from the ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region, can be used to identify some, but not all, of the biological species. Within a biological species, genetic variability and population structure can be assessed with anonymous RFLPs and tests of vegetative compatibility. The "A" biological species is genetically diverse, and the sexual cycle appears to be important in the life cycle of field populations of this organism in the United States. PMID:8850614

  2. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  3. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  4. Disseminated infection by Fusarium moniliforme during treatment for malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Young, N A; Kwon-Chung, K J; Kubota, T T; Jennings, A E; Fisher, R I

    1978-01-01

    Disseminated infection caused by Fusarium moniliforme is described in a 32-year-old granulocytopenic man with malignant lymphoma being treated with cytotoxic drugs and corticosteroids. Infected skin denuded by antecedent severe varicella-zoster infection was the probable source of fungemia. F. moniliforme grows rapidly on common mycological media as a lavender- to violet-colored mold at 25 to 37 degrees C. Its aerial hyphae produce fusoid macroconidia and characteristic fusiform microconidia in chains. The morphology of hyphae in tissue closely resembles species of Aspergillus and is not diagnostically specific. Morphological characteristics which distinguish cultures of F. moniliforme from other medically important species of Fusarium are discussed. Images PMID:670381

  5. Fusarin C production by North American isolates of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Sanders, G W

    1986-01-01

    A liquid culture medium was developed to screen North American isolates of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenw. and Reink.) Nelson, Toussoun, and Marasas for their ability to produce fusarin C. Parameters which were important for the optimal biosynthesis of fusarin C included pH (3.0 to 4.0), aeration, and sugar concentration (30 to 40%). Of seven sugars tested, sucrose and glucose were the best carbohydrate sources for mycotoxin production, resulting in levels of fusarin C of greater than 60 ppm (greater than 60 micrograms/g) in liquid culture (28 degrees C; 7 days). A time-course study of fusarin C production was done over a 21-day period, during which time pH values, glucose concentrations, nitrogen levels, and fungal biomass were determined. Of the two Fusarium spp. studied, 13 of 16 isolates of F. moniliforme produced fusarin C in liquid medium (14 of 16 in corn), while none of the 15 isolates of F. subglutinans studied was found to produce the compound. Levels of fusarin C produced by Fusarium sp. isolates growing on corn ranged from 18.7 to 332.0 micrograms/g. PMID:3954349

  6. Fusarin C production by North American isolates of Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Farber, J M; Sanders, G W

    1986-02-01

    A liquid culture medium was developed to screen North American isolates of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenw. and Reink.) Nelson, Toussoun, and Marasas for their ability to produce fusarin C. Parameters which were important for the optimal biosynthesis of fusarin C included pH (3.0 to 4.0), aeration, and sugar concentration (30 to 40%). Of seven sugars tested, sucrose and glucose were the best carbohydrate sources for mycotoxin production, resulting in levels of fusarin C of greater than 60 ppm (greater than 60 micrograms/g) in liquid culture (28 degrees C; 7 days). A time-course study of fusarin C production was done over a 21-day period, during which time pH values, glucose concentrations, nitrogen levels, and fungal biomass were determined. Of the two Fusarium spp. studied, 13 of 16 isolates of F. moniliforme produced fusarin C in liquid medium (14 of 16 in corn), while none of the 15 isolates of F. subglutinans studied was found to produce the compound. Levels of fusarin C produced by Fusarium sp. isolates growing on corn ranged from 18.7 to 332.0 micrograms/g. PMID:3954349

  7. Nitrate reduction mutants of Fusarium moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi)

    SciTech Connect

    Klittich, C.J.R.; Leslie, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    Twelve strains of Fusarium moniliforme were examined for their ability to sector spontaneously on toxic chlorate medium. All strains sectored frequently; 91% of over 1200 colonies examined formed chlorate-resistant, mutant sectors. Most of these mutants had lesions in the nitrate reduction pathway and were unable to utilize nitrate (nit mutants). nit mutations occurred in seven loci: a structural gene for nitrate reductase (nit1), a regulatory gene specific for the nitrate reduction pathway (nit3), and five genes controlling the production of a molybdenum-containing cofactors that is necessary for nitrate reductase activity (nit2, nit4, nit5, nit6, nit7). No mutations affecting nitrite reductase or a major nitrogen regulatory locus were found among over 1000 nit mutants. Mutations of nit1 were recovered most frequently (39-66%, depending on the strain) followed by nit3 mutations (23-42%). The frequency of isolation of each mutant type could be altered, however, by changing the source of nitrogen in the chlorate medium. The authors concluded that genetic control of nitrate reduction in F. moniliforme is similar to that in Aspergillus and Neurospora, but that the overall regulation of nitrogen metabolism may be different.

  8. Moniliformin produced by cultures of Fusarium moniliforme Var. subglutinans isolated from swine feed.

    PubMed

    Vesonder, R F

    1986-09-01

    Feed samples from Iowa suspected of causing vomiting and enlarged vulva as well as mortalities of swine were examined for toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and F. moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollenew. & Reink. accounted for 43% and 18.5%, respectively, of the total count of 4.75 X 10(5) propagules filamentous fungi per gram of swine feed, but representatives of various Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were also found. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme var. subglutinans from the feed produced 51-540 micrograms of moniliformin per g on cracked corn at 25 degrees C for six weeks. Zearalenone was not detected in these corn fermentations. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme from the feed did not produce detectable amounts of either zearalenone or monoliformin on cracked corn. Moniliformin was not detected in the feed samples. PMID:2945990

  9. Fusarium moniliforme contamination of maize in oesophageal cancer areas in Transkei.

    PubMed

    Marasas, W F; Jaskiewicz, K; Venter, F S; Van Schalkwyk, D J

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of human oesophageal cytological abnormalities was determined by means of brush biopsy capsules in the adult occupants of each of 12 households in a low, an intermediate and a high oesophageal cancer rate area in Transkei during 1985 and 1986. Mild cellular changes (folic acid deficiency, atypia and mild dysplasia) as well as advanced changes (dysplasia and cancer) occurred more frequently in the occupants of households in high than in intermediate and low oesophageal cancer rate areas. The prevalence of fungi in homegrown maize from the households in each area was determined by plating surface-sterilized kernels on agar. The prevalence of Fusarium moniliforme was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in maize from cytologically 'affected' households in the high oesophageal cancer rate area than from 'unaffected' households in the low oesophageal cancer rate area during both seasons. These results confirm previous reports on the difference in the prevalence of F. moniliforme in maize from low and high oesophageal cancer rate areas in Transkei. Whereas the previously established correlation was between F. moniliforme and oesophageal cancer rate, the present results provide evidence for an association between this fungus and oesophageal cytological abnormalities in living individuals. These people will be included in further clinical, epidemiological and aetiological studies. PMID:3399988

  10. Efficiency of gamma irradiation to inactivate growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme on corn grains.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Yu, Chun-Cheol; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-02-28

    The efficiency of gamma irradiation (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 kGy) as a sterilization method of corn samples (30 g) artificially contaminated with Fusarium moniliforme stored at normal condition (25ºC with approximate relative humidity (RH) of 55%) and optimal condition (25ºC with a controlled RH of 97%) was studied. The results showed that the fungal growth and the amount of fumonisin were decreased as the dose of gamma irradiation increased. Gamma irradiation at 1-5 kGy treatment significantly inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme by 1-2 log reduction on corn samples (P < 0.05). Sublethal effect of gamma irradiation was observed at 10-20 kGy doses after storage, and a complete inactivation required 30 kGy. Fungal growth and fumonisin production increased with higher humidity and longer storage time in all corn samples. This study also demonstrated that there was no strict correlation between fungal growth and fumonisin production. Storage at normal condition significantly resulted in lower growth and fumonisin production of F. moniliforme as compared with those stored at optimal condition (P < 0.05). Gamma irradiation with the dose of ≥ 5 kGy followed by storage at normal condition successfully prolonged the shelf life of irradiated corns, intended for human and animal consumptions, up to 7 weeks. PMID:24169453

  11. Effects of temperature and incubation period on production of fumonisin B1 by Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, J F; Gelderblom, W C; Thiel, P G; Marasas, W F; Van Schalkwyk, D J; Behrend, Y

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of the production of fumonisin B1 (FB1) by Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826 in corn cultures was investigated as a function of fungal growth at various incubation temperatures. The growth rate of F. moniliforme, as measured by ergosterol concentration, was higher at 25 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, reaching a stationary phase after 4 to 6 weeks in both cases. FB1 production commenced after 2 weeks during the active growth phase, continued to increase during the stationary phase, and decreased after 13 weeks. The overall maximal yield of FB1 (17.9 g/kg, dry weight) was obtained in corn cultures incubated at 20 degrees C for 13 weeks, but it was not significantly (P greater than 0.05) higher than the maximum yield (16.5 g/kg, dry weight) obtained at 25 degrees C after 11 weeks. However, a significantly (P less than 0.05) higher mean yield was detected at 25 degrees C (9.5 g/kg, dry weight) than at 20 degrees C (8.7 g/kg, dry weight). Production reached a plateau after 7 weeks of incubation at 25 degrees C or 9 weeks of incubation at 20 degrees C. The maximal production of FB1 at 30 degrees C was very low (0.6 g/kg, dry weight). FB1 was also found to be heat stable, as there was no reduction in the FB1 concentration after boiling culture material of F. moniliforme MRC 826. PMID:2383011

  12. Production of [14C]fumonisin B1 by Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826 in corn cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, J F; Gelderblom, W C; Vleggaar, R; Marasas, W F; Rheeder, J P

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826 in corn "patty" cultures were investigated, and a technique was developed for the production of [14C]fumonisin B1 ([14C]FB1) by using L-[methyl-14C]methionine as the precursor. A significant (P < 0.01) correlation exists between fungal growth and FB1 (r = 0.89) and FB2 (r = 0.87) production in corn patties, beginning after 2 days and reaching the stationary phase after 14 days of incubation. [14C]FB1 was produced by adding L-[methyl-14C]methionine daily to cultures during the logarithmic phase of production. Incorporation of the isotope occurred at C-21 and C-22 of the fumonism molecule and was enhanced in the presence of unlabeled L-methionine. Although the concentration of exogenous unlabeled methionine is critical for incorporation of the 14C label, optimum incorporation was achieved by adding 50 mg of unlabeled L-methionine and 200 mu Ci of L-[methyl-14C]methionine to a corn patty (30 g) over a period of 9 days, yielding [14C]FB1 with a specific activity of 36 mu Ci/mmol. PMID:8368853

  13. Fusaric acid and pathogenic interactions of corn and non-corn isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, a nonobligate pathogen of corn.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Hinton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliform is a nonobligate parasite of corn, which exists as a complex of closely related fungi from different mating population or biological species. Strains of this fungus isolated from corn, have been determined to belong to mating populations A, although other populations have been isolated from corn. The ultrastructural association of the fungus with corn during growth, and the effects of the host on suppression of disease suppression are reviewed. This fungus enters a relationship with corn cultivars that is not always pathogenic. Pathogenesis is delayed, if it ever occurs. F. moniliforme can exist entirely as an endophyte, systemically colonizing kernels, remaining there until germination upon which the fungus infects the emerging seedlings. The symptomless association persists during the growth cycle of corn, and the resulting endophytic hyphae may be the source of mycotoxin production. The host's ability to suppress the fungus appears to be related to one class of compounds, the cyclic hydroxamic acids and their decomposition products, which can be catabolized by the fungi of mating population A but not C. PMID:8850616

  14. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    PubMed

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  15. Effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known levels of fumonisin B1, on the young broiler chick.

    PubMed

    Weibking, T S; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Turk, J R; Rottinghaus, G E; Wang, E; Merrill, A H

    1993-03-01

    The effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1), were studied in broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were allotted randomly to dietary treatments containing 0, 1.02, 2.04, 3.06, 4.08, 5.10, 6.12, and 7.14% fumonisin culture material (FCM). These levels of FCM supplied 0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, and 525 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each dietary treatment was fed to four pen replicates of six birds each for 21 days. Chicks fed FCM that supplied 450 and 525 mg FB1/kg diet had lower (P < .05) feed intakes and BW gains; increased (P < .05) liver and kidney weights; and increased (P < .05) mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations. Compared with controls, chicks fed FCM had increased (P < .05) free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Treatment-associated histological lesions were only observed in the liver of chicks fed diets containing FCM that supplied 225 mg FB1/kg or higher. Diets containing FCM that supplied levels as low as 75 mg FB1/kg affected the physiology of chicks by increasing free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Because inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis has been hypothesized as the mechanism of action of FB1, this suggests that diets containing 75 mg FB1/kg FCM may be toxic to young broiler chicks. PMID:8464788

  16. Genetic analysis of fumonisin production and virulence of Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (Fusarium moniliforme) on maize (Zea mays) seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D; Nelsen, T C; Leslie, J F

    1995-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium moniliforme) produces fumonisins, which are toxic to a wide range of plant and animal species. Previous studies of field strains have identified a genetic locus, designated fum1, that can determine whether fumonisins are produced. To test the relationship between fumonisin production and virulence on maize seedlings, a cross between a fum1+ field strain that had a high degree of virulence and a fum1- field strain that had a low degree of virulence was made, and ascospore progeny were scored for these traits. Although a range of virulence levels was recovered among the progeny, high levels of virulence were associated with production of fumonisins, and highly virulent, fumonisin-nonproducing progeny were not obtained. A survey of field strains did identify a rare fumonisin-nonproducing strain that was quite high in virulence. Also, the addition of purified fumonisin B1 to virulence assays did not replicate all of the seedling blight symptoms obtained with autoclaved culture material containing fumonisin. These results support the hypothesis that fumonisin plays a role in virulence but also indicate that fumonisin production is not necessary or sufficient for virulence on maize seedlings. PMID:7887628

  17. Duckling toxicity and the production of fumonisin and moniliformin by isolates in the A and E mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium moniliforme).

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, J F; Marasas, W F; Shephard, G S; Sydenham, E W; Stockenström, S; Thiel, P G

    1996-01-01

    Two biological species of Gibberella fujikuroi (A and F mating populations) share the Fusarium moniliforme anamorph. Twenty strains of each of these biological species were tested for the ability to produce fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 and moniliformin and for toxicity to 1-day-old ducklings. Most of the members of the A mating population (19 of 20 strains) produced more than 60 micrograms of total fumonisins per g, whereas only 3 of 20 members of the F mating population produced more than trace levels of these toxins and none produced more than 40 micrograms of total fumonisins per g. In addition, only 3 of 20 members of the A mating population produced more than 1 microgram of moniliformin per g (and none produced more than 175 micrograms/g), while all 20 strains of the F mating population produced more than 85 micrograms of this toxin per g and 1 strain produced 10,345 micrograms/g. The duckling toxicity profiles of the strains of the two mating populations were similar, however, and the level of either toxin by itself was not strongly correlated with duckling toxicity. On the basis of our data we think that it is likely that the members of both of these mating populations produce additional toxins that have yet to be chemically identified. These toxins may act singly or synergistically with other compounds to induce the observed duckling toxicity. PMID:8919779

  18. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene from Dendrobium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene,1,5-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) was isolated and identified from the whole plants of Dendrobium moniliforme, as well as 24 known compounds including hircinol (2), (2R*,3S*)-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-phenanthro[4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol (3), diospyrosin (4), aloifol I (5), moscatilin (6), 3,4'-dihydroxy-3',4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (7), gigantol (8), 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), longicornuol A (10), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (11), paprazine (12), N-trans-feruloyl 3'-O-methyldopamine (13), moupinamide (14), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (15), dihydrosinapyl dihydro-p-coumarate (16), 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (17), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), vanillin (19), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (20), vanillic acid (21), protocatechuic acid (22), (+)-syringaresinol (23), β-sitosterol (24) and daucosterol (25). Compounds 3, 4, 13, 16, 17 and 20 were isolated from the Dendrobium genus for the first time, and compounds 2, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 21 and 22 were originally obtained from D. moniliforme. PMID:26132274

  19. Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Porter, J K; Norred, W P; Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it might be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is frequently found in grain, where Fusarium spp. are also isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum, F. napiforme, F. heterosporum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. proliferatum for their ability to produce fusaric acid. Strains in Fusarium section Liseola also were assigned to mating population of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The fungi could be divided into three classes, low (< 100 micrograms/g), moderate (100 to 500 micrograms/g), and high (> 500 micrograms/g), based on the amounts of this mycotoxin produced in culture on autoclaved corn. Strains of mating populations C from rice consistently produced moderate to high concentrations of fusaric acid. Two isolates, one each from mating populations C and D, produced fusaric acid in excess of 1,000 micrograms/g of corn. No isolates of any of the Fusarium species examined were negative for the production of fusaric acid on autoclaved corn. PMID:8899996

  20. Specific Detection of Fusarium Species in Blood and Tissues by a PCR Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Francois-Xavier; Huerre, Michel; Rouffault, Marie Ange; de Bievre, Claude

    1999-01-01

    Fusarium species are opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that often cause fatal invasive mycoses. We designed a primer pair that amplifies by PCR a fragment of a gene coding for the rRNA of Fusarium species. The DNAs of the main Fusarium species and Neocosmospora vasinfecta but not the DNAs from 11 medically important fungi were amplified by these primers. The lower limit of detection of the PCR system was 10 fg of Fusarium solani DNA by ethidium bromide staining. To test the ability of this PCR system to detect Fusarium DNA in tissues, we developed a mouse model of disseminated fusariosis. Using the PCR, we detected Fusarium DNA in mouse tissues and in spiked human blood. Furthermore, F. solani, Fusarium moniliforme, and Fusarium oxysporum were testing by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The bands produced by RAPD analysis were purified, cloned, and sequenced. The information was used to design primer pairs that selectively amplified one or several Fusarium species. The method developed may be useful for the rapid detection and identification of Fusarium species both from culture and from clinical samples. PMID:10405380

  1. Fusarium Pathogenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed compartmentalization of genomes into regions responsible for metabolism and reproduction (core genome) and p...

  2. Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, P E; Dignani, M C; Anaissie, E J

    1994-01-01

    There are several taxonomic systems available for identifying Fusarium species. The philosophy used in each taxonomic system is discussed as well as problems encountered in working with Fusarium species in culture. Fusarium species are toxigenic, and the mycotoxins produced by these organisms are often associated with animal and human diseases. The implications for the association of the carcinogens, fumonisins, produced by Fusarium moniliforme and other Fusarium species with human diseases are discussed. Foreign-body-associated fusarial infection such as keratitis in contact lens wearers, onychomycosis, skin infections, and disseminated multiorgan infections are discussed. Disseminated fusarial hyalohyphomycosis has emerged as a significant, usually fatal infection in the immunocompromised host. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression, the extent of the infection, and the presence of a removable focus such as an indwelling central venous catheter. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy, probably with one of the newer antifungal agents. Perhaps the use of such agents or the use of colony-stimulating factors may improve the outcome of this devastating infection. However, until new approaches for treatment develop, effective preventive measures are urgently needed. Images PMID:7834602

  3. Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium Species Isolated from Bananas

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, M.; Huerta, T.; Mateo, R.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Fusarium species isolated from bananas to produce mycotoxins was studied with 66 isolates of the following species: F. semitectum var. majus (8 isolates), F. camptoceras (3 isolates), a Fusarium sp. (3 isolates), F. moniliforme (16 isolates), F. proliferatum (9 isolates), F. subglutinans (3 isolates), F. solani (3 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates), F. graminearum (7 isolates), F. dimerum (3 isolates), F. acuminatum (3 isolates), and F. equiseti (3 isolates). All isolates were cultured on autoclaved corn grains. Their toxicity to Artemia salina L. larvae was examined. Some of the toxic effects observed arose from the production of known mycotoxins that were determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, or high-performance liquid chromatography. All F. camptoceras and Fusarium sp. isolates proved toxic to A. salina larvae; however, no specific toxic metabolites could be identified. This was also the case with eight isolates of F. moniliforme and three of F. proliferatum. The following mycotoxins were encountered in the corn culture extracts: fumonisin B(inf1) (40 to 2,900 (mu)g/g), fumonisin B(inf2) (150 to 320 (mu)g/g), moniliformin (10 to 1,670 (mu)g/g), zearalenone (5 to 470 (mu)g/g), (alpha)-zearalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), deoxynivalenol (8 to 35 (mu)g/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (5 to 10 (mu)g/g), neosolaniol (50 to 180 (mu)g/g), and T-2 tetraol (5 to 15 (mu)g/g). Based on the results, additional compounds produced by the fungal isolates may play prominent roles in the toxic effects on larvae observed. This is the first reported study on the mycotoxin-producing abilities of Fusarium species that contaminate bananas. PMID:16535503

  4. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  5. N-Methyl-4-Hydroxy-2-Pyridinone Analogs from Fusarium oxysporum⊥

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Lalith; Abbas, Hamed K.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Herath, Wimal H. M. W.; N. P., Dhammika Nanayakkara

    2008-01-01

    Three new N-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridinone analogs, 6-epi-oxysporidinone (3), the dimethyl ketal of oxysporidinone (4), and N-demethylsambutoxin (5), along with the known compounds, (−)-oxysporidinone (1), (−)-sambutoxin (2), wortmannin (6), enniatin A (7), enniatin A1 (8), and enniatin B1 (9) were isolated from Fusarium oxysporum (N17B) by bioassay-guided fractionation. Compounds 1 and 3 showed selective fungistatic activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and wortmannin had selective potent activity against Candida albicans. Moderate activity was observed with the enniatins 7–9 against C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 1–5 had no activity against the agriculturally important fungi Fusarium verticillioides (syn. F. moniliforme) and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:16562855

  6. Fusarium MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre’s Fusarium MLST website (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/Fusarium), and the corresponding Fusarium-ID site hosted at the Pennsylvania State University (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org; Geiser et al. 2004, Park et al. 2010) were constructed to facilitate identification of...

  7. Fusarium Wilt of Orchids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fu...

  8. Molecular Biology of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the 20th century ended, Fusarium mycotoxicology entered the age of genomics. With complete genomes of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and several Fusarium gene expression sequence databases on hand, researchers worldwide are working at a rapid pace to identify mycotoxin biosynthetic ...

  9. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  10. Molecular biology of Fusarium mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the 20th century ended, Fusarium mycotoxicology entered the age of genomics. With complete genomes of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides, and several Fusarium gene expression sequence databases on hand, researchers worldwide are working at a rapid pace to identify mycotoxin biosynthetic...

  11. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  12. Individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 present in Fusarium moniliforme culture material and T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Edrington, T S; Harvey, R B; Buckley, S A; Phillips, T D; Rottinghaus, G E; Casper, H H

    1997-09-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding diets containing 300 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 5 mg T-2 toxin (T-2)/kg of diet, or 15 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) from naturally contaminated wheat were evaluated in two studies in male broiler chicks from day of hatch to 19 or 21 d of age in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. When compared with controls, body weight gains were reduced 18 to 20% by FB1, 18% by T-2, 2% by DON, 32% by the FB1 and T-2 combination, and 19% by the FB1 and DON combination. The efficiency of feed utilization was adversely affected by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Mortality ranged from none for the controls to 15% for the FB1 and T-2 combination. Relative weights of the liver and kidney were significantly increased by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Serum concentrations of cholesterol were increased in chicks fed FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were increased in chicks fed FB1 at 300 mg/kg alone and in combination with T-2 or DON, indicating possible tissue damage and leakage of the enzymes into the blood. Results indicate additive toxicity when chicks were fed diets containing 300 mg FB1 and 5 mg T-2/kg of diet and less than additive toxicity when chicks were fed 300 mg FB1 and 15 mg DON/kg of diet. Of importance to the poultry industry is the fact that toxic synergy was not observed for either of these toxin combinations and the likelihood of encountering FB1 at this concentration in finished feed is small. However, under field conditions with additional stress factors, the toxicity of these mycotoxins could be altered to adversely affect the health and performance of poultry. PMID:9276886

  13. Bioguided fractionation and isolation of free radical scavenging components from in vitro propagated chinese medicinal plants Dendrobium tosaense Makino and Dendrobium moniliforme SW.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fung; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Chen, Chung-Li; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2004-11-17

    This study was performed to investigate the free radical scavenging active components from in vitro propagated medicinal herbs of the genus Dendrobium, namely, Dendrobium tosaense Makino and Dendrobium moniliforme SW, using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antioxidative assay. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half-strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by reculturing on full-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose, and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. Extracts were prepared from plants grown in the greenhouse for a period of 6 months. Methanolic extracts of D. tosaense and D. moniliforme scavenged DPPH at 95.9 and 83.4%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. Therefore, methanolic solubles of D. tosaense and D. moniliforme were subjected to bioguided fractionation and separation by column chromatographic methods individually. After chromatographic separation of these crude extracts, the obtained fractions (Dm 1, Dm 2, Dm 3, Dt 1, Dt 2, and Dt 3) were tested for their activity. Among them, fractions Dm 2 and Dt 1 showed significant antioxidant activity by DPPH radical antioxidative assay. Active fractions were purified further by column chromatography and resulted in identification of the antioxidant components alkyl ferulates from D. moniliforme and quercetin from D. tosaense. PMID:15537296

  14. Regulation by light in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

    2010-11-01

    The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

  15. Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent☆

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Macías, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans. PMID:24432236

  16. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the ...

  17. Structural dynamics of Fusarium genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi in the genus Fusarium have a great negative impact on the world economy, yet also hold great potential for answering many fundamental biological questions. The advance of sequencing technologies has made possible the connection between phenotypes and genetic mechanisms underlying the acquisiti...

  18. Fusarium Keratitis - Multiple States, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated an outbreak of corneal infections caused by Fusarium involving at least 17 states as of April, 2006. Initial outbreak reports were from Singapore and Hong Kong. Preliminary results suggest that these outbreaks may be linked ...

  19. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  20. Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium Proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species, especially Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are common pathogens of maize worldwide. Consumption of fumonisins has been shown to cause a number of mycotoxicoses, including leucoencephalomalacia in horses, pulmon...

  1. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis. PMID:26966007

  2. Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

  3. Biological and chemical complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium proliferatum (teleomorph Gibberella intermedia) is a genetically diverse biological and phylogenetic species with a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad host range. F. proliferatum is a frequent component of the Fusarium ear rot complexes of maize and ...

  4. Fusarium-Resistant Barley Through Genetic Transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation with antifungal genes could provide barley with the resistance to Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). More molecular studies are needed to 1) identify effective anti-Fusarium genes, 2) develop more tissue-specific gene promoters to target expression to the path of infection, and 3) ...

  5. Diversity of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can produce a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities, including pigmentation, plant growth regulation, and toxicity to humans and other animals. Contamination of grain-based food and feed with toxic SMs produced by Fusarium is associa...

  6. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), is a destructive disease and is distributed in almost all chickpea producing regions of the world. Foc has eight physiological races designated as 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The races are different...

  7. Systemic ketoconazole treatment for Fusarium leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Landau, M; Srebrnik, A; Wolf, R; Bashi, E; Brenner, S

    1992-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a large foot ulcer in an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man. Although tissue invasion could not be proven histologically, systemic antifungal treatment was administered with satisfactory response. Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. In humans, Fusarium is considered an opportunistic agent in skin ulcers, interdigital spaces, and burned skin, but can also cause mycotic keratitis, onychomycosis, and rarely deep-seated or disseminated infections, especially in an immunocompromised host. The distinction between skin infection and saprophytic growth, as well as optimal treatment regimens for the two types of infection, have not been clearly defined. We describe a case of leg ulcers caused by Fusarium oxysporum in a 69-year-old man treated successfully with oral ketoconazole. "Silent" immunologic disturbances were found in this apparently healthy patient. The case illustrates a relatively benign infection caused by Fusarium that responded to systemic antifungal drug treatment. PMID:1500248

  8. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Nunes, E; Silva, V; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Zaror, L; Fischman, O

    2004-04-01

    Fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. We report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani (4) and Fusarium oxysporum (4) in São Paulo, Brazil. These species were isolated from toenails in all cases. The infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. The clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkeratosis with yellowish brown coloration. The eight cases reported here suggest that Fusarium spp. should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of tinea unguium. PMID:15180157

  9. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Shirai, A; Sugiura, Y; Li, W; Yokoyama, K; Misawa, Y; Okuzumi, K; Tamaki, K

    2005-09-01

    Fusarium infections in humans are usually opportunistic, but the fungus sometimes infects healthy persons, causing keratomycosis or onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is usually caused by F. solani or F. oxysporum. We report the first two cases of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum, and discuss methods of diagnosis and effective treatment. Nail samples from the two patients were examined by direct microscopy, cultured, and identified morphologically and genetically as F. proliferatum. Both patients were treated successfully with oral itraconazole, even though the minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole was relatively high in Patient 1. This is the first report of F. proliferatum as an agent of onychomycosis. Itraconazole may be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum. PMID:16120158

  10. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  11. Diversity of the Fusarium complex on French maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear rot caused by Fusarium species is a major threat to maize production worldwide, causing yield reduction and poor grain quality. In addition, various species of the genus Fusarium can produce mycotoxins, which accumulate in the grain. The distribution and predominance of the different Fusarium sp...

  12. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  13. Temperature effects on the interactions of sugar beet Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, causes a significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. The environmental or agronomic factors that contribute to development and severity of Fusarium yellows have not been desc...

  14. Genomic analysis of Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Brown, D W; Butchko, R A E; Proctor, R H

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen-causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the sphingolipid sphinganine. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been associated with a number of animal diseases, including cancer in rodents, and exposure has been correlated with human oesophageal cancer in some regions of the world, and some evidence suggests that fumonisins are a risk factor for neural tube defects. A primary goal of the authors' laboratory is to eliminate fumonisin contamination of maize and maize products. Understanding how and why these toxins are made and the F. verticillioides-maize disease process will allow one to develop novel strategies to limit tissue destruction (rot) and fumonisin production. To meet this goal, genomic sequence data, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays are being used to identify F. verticillioides genes involved in the biosynthesis of toxins and plant pathogenesis. This paper describes the current status of F. verticillioides genomic resources and three approaches being used to mine microarray data from a wild-type strain cultured in liquid fumonisin production medium for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. Taken together, these approaches demonstrate the power of microarray technology to provide information on different biological processes. PMID:19238625

  15. The complete mitogenome of Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tomasz; Brankovics, Balazs; Sawicki, Jakub; van Diepeningen, Anne

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the Fusarium culmorum mitogenome is similar to that of closely related Fusarium spp.: it has a total length of 103,844 bp, the base composition of the genome is the following: A (35.4%), T (32.9%), C (14.6%), and G (17.1%). The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 28 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, all coded on the same strand of DNA. The gene order is identical to that of the other Fusarium and Hypocreales mitogenomes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis based on the concatenated amino acid dataset of mitochondrial protein-coding genes confirmed close genetic relationship of F. culmorum to the other type B trichothecene producers F. graminearum and F. gerlachii. PMID:26016874

  16. Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F

    1977-01-01

    Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

  17. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites. PMID:23606046

  18. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. PMID:25841054

  19. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4). PMID:26132832

  20. Identification and characterization of non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum capable of increasing and decreasing Fusarium wilt severity.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Leanne M; Smith, Linda J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2006-08-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana is a potentially devastating disease throughout the world. Options for control of the causal organism, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) are limited. Suppressive soil sites have previously been identified where, despite the presence of Foc, Fusarium wilt does not develop. In order to understand some aspects of this disease suppression, endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates were obtained from banana roots. These isolates were genetically characterized and compared with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum previously identified as being capable of suppressing Fusarium wilt of banana in glasshouse trials. Three additional isolates were selected for glasshouse trials to assess suppression of Fusarium wilt in two different cultivars of banana, Cavendish and Lady Finger. One isolate (BRIP 29089) was identified as a potential biocontrol organism, reducing the disease severity of Fusarium wilt in Lady Finger and Cavendish cultivars. Interestingly, one isolate (BRIP 45952) increased Fusarium wilt disease severity on Cavendish. The implications of an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum, non-pathogenic on banana, increasing disease severity and the potential role of non-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum in disease complexes are discussed. PMID:16891106

  1. Fusarium verticillioides: Talking to Friends and Enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is both a symptomless endophyte and a pathogen of maize. At some point, the fungus may synthesize fumonisins which have been linked to a variety of animal diseases including cancer in some animals. In order to minimize losses due to contaminated food or feed, we are workin...

  2. Molecular Identification and Databases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA sequence-based methods for identifying pathogenic and mycotoxigenic Fusarium isolates have become the gold standard worldwide. Moreover, fusarial DNA sequence data are increasing rapidly in several web-accessible databases for comparative purposes. Unfortunately, the use of Basic Alignment Sea...

  3. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  4. Toxicity of fumonisins, mycotoxins from Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, predominantly F. verticillioides. They are present in variable amounts in corn and corn-based feeds and food products. They are suspected risk factors for esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations depending on corn as a diet s...

  5. Investigating Spore killer of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. Fusarium verticillioides may colonize maize as an endophyte or as a pathogen, causing disease at any life stage of the plant. During growth on maize, F. verticillioides can synthesis a number of mycotoxins including fumonisins, which have been l...

  6. Biological and Chemical Complexity of Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the fungus Fusarium proliferatum has been confused with morphologically similar species. Today, F. proliferatum is well defined by morphology, its teleomorphic state (Gibberella intermedia), and DNA-based analyses. F. proliferatum has a worldwide distribution and an unusually broad ho...

  7. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  8. HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

  9. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are among the most studied plant pathogenic fungi, with several species causing diseases on corn, wheat, barley, and other food and feed grains. Decreased yield, as well as diminished quality and value of the grain, results in significant worldwide economic losses. Additionally, ...

  10. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  11. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season. PMID:25904523

  12. Structural and functional characterization of the TRI101 trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: kinetic insights to combating fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction o...

  13. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality. PMID:26813702

  14. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo. PMID:24779930

  15. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  16. Mycotoxin production by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Baccharis spp. from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mirocha, C J; Abbas, H K; Kommedahl, T; Jarvis, B B

    1989-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum isolated from roots of and soil around Baccharis species from Brazil produced the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and 3'-OH T-2 (TC-1), whereas Fusarium sporotrichioides from the same source produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, acetyl T-2, neosolaniol, TC-1, 3'-OH HT-2 (TC-3), iso-T-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and the nontrichothecenes moniliformin and fusarin C. Several unknown toxins were found but not identified. Not found were macrocyclic trichothecenes, zearalenone, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone (TDP-1). PMID:2705770

  17. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  18. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) at lower temperatures (13°C), low relative humidity levels (80%), and low initial inoculum levels for both pathogens. Sporulation of F. proliferatum was also reduced under the same conditions. Qualitative mycotoxin analysis of roots infected with one of five Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease. PMID:27050570

  19. Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

  20. Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

  1. Fusarium Mycotoxins: Biosynthetic Pathways and Role in Virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley is a devastating disease that has reached global proportions. Not only does this disease result in lower yields, but the mycotoxins produced by the fungus affect the quality of the grain. Fusarium sp. can produce a number of mycotoxins, including tric...

  2. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum Species Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphospecies Fusarium dimerum, known only from its anamorph, comprises at least 12 phylogenetically distinct species. Analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) show they are taxa of the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) and form a phylogenetically distinct clade within Fusarium. Accordin...

  3. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  4. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Yellows, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant yield losses for sugar beet growers. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range, and symptoms; and, it is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 – 2003, 8...

  5. Dry heat treatment of Fusarium-infected cotton seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

  6. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

  7. High speed sorting of Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have found that resistance to Fusarium fungal infection can be inherited in wheat from one generation to another. However, there is not yet available a cost effective method to separate Fusarium-damaged wheat kernels from undamaged kernels so that wheat breeders can take advantage of...

  8. Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, N. K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

  9. Fusarium Race 4: Commercial cultivar screening for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt (FOV) of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the past, damage from Fusarium has been notable only in areas with the combination of: (a) moderate to high populations of one or more sp...

  10. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief review of research on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. race 4 in California is presented. Fusarium wilt has recently emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L.) growers in California. An es...

  11. Discovery of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] is a soil-inhabiting fungus that can survive for long periods in the absence of a host, making it impractical to eradicate from infested fields. This cotton host specific forms of the fungus is comprised of different genotyp...

  12. Metabolomic studies for the interaction Glycine max- Fusarium tucumaniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean can be caused in Argentina by 4 different Fusarium species: F. brasiliense, F. crassistipitatum, F. tucumaniae and F. virguliforme. Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of soybean SDS in Argentina and United States, respect...

  13. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  14. First report of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet caused by F. oxysporum in Michigan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in the western United States, and has recently been reported in the Red River Valley. The primary causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2005, beet samples were found in Michigan with symptoms typical of Fusarium yellows. Isolates of Fusarium o...

  15. Population of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe associated with head and seedling blight in Slovakia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth of Fusarium species associated with Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) varies depending on agronomic characters and edaphic conditions. We have identified 15 Fusarium species during the 10 years of our investigations in the Slovak Republic. The most commonly identified Fusarium species involved...

  16. Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

  17. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Matthew B.; Crescencio, Juan Carlos Rico

    2015-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes. PMID:26793480

  18. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Matthew B; Crescencio, Juan Carlos Rico

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes. PMID:26793480

  19. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

  20. [Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Mauro; Castañares, Eliana; Dinolfo, María I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ≥ 1μg/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99μg/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5μg/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:24721273

  1. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  2. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  3. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Fusarium ELISA compared to QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance and deoxynivalenol content in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin produced by the causal agent Fusarium graminearum have reduced barley yield and quality throughout the world. This study was conducted to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB, DON, heading date, height, and spik...

  4. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum species group.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; O'Donnell, Kerry; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Kammeyer, Patricia L; Johnson, Stuart; Sutton, Deanna A; Rinaldi, Michael G; Geiser, David M; Summerbell, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    The morphospecies Fusarium dimerum, known only from its anamorph, comprises at least 12 phylogenetically distinct species. Analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) show they are taxa of the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales), related to F. domesticum and form a phylogenetically distinct clade within Fusarium. Fusarium dimerum, for which no herbarium material could be located, is characterized by macroconidia with a single, median septum, according to the original description and illustration. Fusarium lunatum (= F. dimerum var. violaceum) forms similar but longer macroconidia and purple, catenate or clustered chlamydospores. Fusarium delphinoides sp. nov., F. biseptatum sp. nov., F. penzigii sp. nov., F. nectrioides comb. nov. (= F. dimerum var. nectrioides) and two unnamed Fusarium spp. produce macroconidia with mostly two or rarely three septa. The name F. dimerum, which originally was applied to a fungus from a citron, is used for a taxon including isolates causing infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Fusarium nectrioides, F. delphinoides, F. penzigii and F. biseptatum are known from soil and dead plant substrata or rarely as agents of trauma-related eye infections of humans. Fusarium lunatum is an inhabitant of the cladodes of species within the cactus genera Opuntia and Gymnocalycium. Its unnamed closest sister taxon, which also forms 1-septate macroconidia and purple, clustered chlamydospores, was isolated from a human sinus. Fusarium delphinoides is a pathogen of the cactus-like African species Hoodia gordonii (Apocynaceae). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, LSU rDNA and partial sequences of the elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin genes identified a clade of several species producing predominately 2-septate macroconidia as the reciprocally monophyletic sister of F. dimerum. The basal sister group of the two aforementioned clades includes Fusarium lunatum and two

  5. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Schoffelmeer, E A; Klis, F M; Sietsma, J H; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50-60% of the total mass of the wall. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of alpha-1, 3-glucan in the alkali-soluble cell wall fraction and of beta-1, 3-glucan and chitin in the alkali-insoluble fraction. Electron microscopy and lectin binding studies indicated that glycoproteins form an external layer covering an inner layer composed of chitin and glucan. PMID:10441453

  6. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood. PMID:27165533

  7. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  8. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  9. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  10. Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides genes necessary for benzoxazolinone biotransformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize produces the benzoxazinones DIMBOA and DIBOA, which naturally transform into the more stable benzoxazolinones MBOA and BOA, respectively. These weed-suppressive allelopathic compounds are also implicated in resistance to microbial diseases and insect feeding. Fusarium verticillioides, the mo...

  11. Nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Shah, S R; Dalal, B D; Modak, M S

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. We report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from Buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). Bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. The case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of 250mg daily for 3 weeks. PMID:26852190

  12. Arabidopsis defense response against Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Molina, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) is the causal agent of root rot or wilt diseases in several plant species, including crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), banana (Musa sapientum) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). Colonization of plants by Fox leads to the necrosis of the infected tissues, a subsequent collapse of vascular vessels and decay of the plant. Plant resistance to Fox appears to be monogenic or oligogenic depending on the host. Perception of Fox by plants follows the concept of elicitor-induced immune response, which in turn activates several plant defense signaling pathways. Here, we review the Fox-derived elicitors identified so far and the interaction among the different signaling pathways mediating plant resistance to Fox. PMID:18289920

  13. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  14. Update on CODEX Committee on Contaminants in Foods & Proposed EU Regulations for Fumonisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally discovered and characterized in 1988, fumonisins are mycotoxins produced in maize by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (synonum F. moniliforme) (telomorph, Gibberella moniliformis) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima). Fumonisins are a structurally related family of 2-amino-12...

  15. Differentially expressed proteins associated with Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. Proteins play important roles in defense against the fungal infection. This study characterized differentially expressed proteins between near-isogenic lines (NILs) contr...

  16. Fusarium TRI8 determines 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) or 15ADON production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species can promote disease in small grain crops such as wheat and barley. Two main trichothecene production phenotypes (chemotypes) have been identified among strains of Fusarium graminearum and closely related species: strains produce either deoxyniv...

  17. INOCULATION METHODS TO ASSAY WHEAT SEEDLINGS FOR RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM CROWN ROT IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate Fusarium screening systems must be established to appropriately phenotype mapping populations for accurate QTL identification. The objective of this research was to find an inoculation method with the greatest consistency and least variation for identifying QTL. Two Fusarium pseudograminear...

  18. Disseminated Fusarium solani infection with cutaneous nodules in a bone marrow transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, D N; Paller, A S; Nelson, P E; Kaplan, R L

    1988-12-01

    Fusarium is a ubiquitous fungus that commonly colonizes ulcerated, burned, or traumatized skin and may cause keratitis and onychomycosis in healthy hosts. Serious disseminated infection due to Fusarium has been reported with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients. We describe a bone marrow transplant patient who developed fungal septicemia and disseminated skin nodules due to Fusarium solani. Fusarium should be recognized as a potential cause of deep fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3069758

  19. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  20. First report of Fusarium torulosum causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen species of Fusarium have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, eight species have been reported in the northern United S...

  1. Pathogenic and Phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugarbeet in Michigan and Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend:FR. f. sp. betae (Stewart) Snyd & Hans, can lead to significant reduction in root yield sucrose percentage, and juice purity. Fusarium yellows has become increasingly common in both Michigan and Minnesota sug...

  2. Evaluation of Methods for Assessing Resistance to Fusarium Crown Rot in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium species, of which F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum are the most important, reduces wheat yields in the PNW by an average of 35%. Breeding for resistance requires adequate Fusarium screening systems. One common barrier in Fusarium screening is the large ...

  3. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  4. First Report of Fusarium redolens Causing Crown Rot of Wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  5. Near-infrared versus visual sorting of Fusarium-damaged kernels in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum, often results in shriveled and/or discolored kernels referred to as Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK). FDK is one of the major grain grading factors and therefore is routinely determined for purposes of quality assurance. Determination o...

  6. Elite-upland cotton germplasm-pool assessment of Fusarium wilt resistance in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is currently the most economic and effective strategy for managing Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] disease. Over the past nine years, a new race of Fusarium (FOV race 4) has increasingly impacted cotton (Gossypium spp.) in production fields in the Sa...

  7. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  8. Evaluation of visual and optical sorting of Fusarium damaged kernels in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum, often results in shriveled and/or discolored kernels referred to as Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK). Determination of FDK usually is done visually. Visual sorting can be laborious and is subject to inconsistencies resulting from v...

  9. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  10. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  11. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers. PMID:26687343

  12. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

    2012-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

  13. Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y.H.; Wang, R.C.; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of the TRI101 Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: KINETIC INSIGHTS TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Rayment, Ivan

    2008-06-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat barley and rice. Thus far the gene of choice has been tri101 whose gene product catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the C3 hydroxyl moiety of several trichothecene mycotoxins. In vitro this has been shown to reduce the toxicity of the toxins by {approx}100-fold but has demonstrated limited resistance to FHB in transgenic cereal. To understand the molecular basis for the differences between in vitro and in vivo resistance the three-dimensional structures and kinetic properties of two TRI101 orthologs isolated from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum have been determined. The kinetic results reveal important differences in activity of these enzymes toward B-type trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol. These differences in activity can be explained in part by the three-dimensional structures for the ternary complexes for both of these enzymes with coenzyme A and trichothecene mycotoxins. The structural and kinetic results together emphasize that the choice of an enzymatic resistance gene in transgenic crop protection strategies must take into account the kinetic profile of the selected protein.

  15. Segregation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in hybrids of Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Studt, L; Troncoso, C; Gong, F; Hedden, P; Toomajian, C; Leslie, J F; Humpf, H-U; Rojas, M C; Tudzynski, B

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium proliferatum are two phylogenetically closely related species of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFC). In some cases, strains of these species can cross and produce a few ascospores. In this study, we analyzed 26 single ascospore isolates of an interspecific cross between F. fujikuroi C1995 and F. proliferatum D4854 for their ability to produce four secondary metabolites: gibberellins (GAs), the mycotoxins fusarin C and fumonisin B(1), and a family of red polyketides, the fusarubins. Both parental strains contain the biosynthetic genes for all four metabolites, but differ in their ability to produce these metabolites under certain conditions. F. fujikuroi C1995 produces GAs and fusarins, while F. proliferatum D4854 produces fumonisins and fusarubins. The segregation amongst the progeny of these traits is not the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. Only eight, six, three and three progeny, respectively, produce GAs, fusarins, fumonisin B(1) and fusarubins in amounts similar to those synthesized by the producing parental strain. Beside the eight highly GA(3)-producing progeny, some of the progeny produce small amounts of GAs, predominantly GA(1), although these strains contain the GA gene cluster of the non-GA-producing F. proliferatum parental strain. Some progeny had recombinant secondary metabolite profiles under the conditions examined indicating that interspecific crosses can yield secondary metabolite production profiles that are atypical of the parent species. PMID:22626844

  16. Fusarium-damaged kernels and deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-infected U.S. winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feng; Bai, Guihua; Zhang, Dadong; Dong, Yanhong; Ma, Lingjian; Bockus, William; Dowell, Floyd

    2014-05-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum) production in many areas worldwide. FHB infection results in Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) that dramatically reduce grain yield and quality. More effective and accurate disease evaluation methods are imperative for successful identification of FHB-resistant sources and selection of resistant cultivars. To determine the relationships among different types of resistance, 363 (74 soft and 289 hard) U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FDK and DON concentration in greenhouse and field experiments. Single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR)-estimated FDK and DON were compared with visually estimated FDK and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy-estimated DON. Significant correlations were detected between percentage of symptomatic spikelets and visual FDK in the greenhouse and field, although correlations were slightly lower in the field. High correlation coefficients also were observed between visually scored FDK and SKNIR-estimated FDK (0.72, P < 0.001) and SKNIR-estimated DON (0.68, P < 0.001); therefore, both visual scoring and SKNIR methods are useful for estimating FDK and DON in breeding programs. PMID:24400658

  17. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications. PMID:26496638

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is an important pathogen that is associated with plant diseases and primarily affects aerial plant parts by producing different mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Within the last decade, this fungus has also been described as one of the causes of red root rot or sudden death syndrome in soybean, which causes extensive damage to this crop. This study describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum as a tool for the disruption of pathogenicity genes. The genetic transformation was performed using two binary vectors (pCAMDsRed and pFAT-GFP) containing the hph (hygromycin B resistance) gene as a selection marker and red and green fluorescence, respectively. The presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane were evaluated for their effect on the transformation efficiency. A mean processing rate of 94% was obtained with 96 h of co-cultivation only in the presence of acetosyringone and the use of filter paper or nitrocellulose membrane did not affect the transformation process. Hygromycin B resistance and the presence of the hph gene were confirmed by PCR, and fluorescence due to the expression of GFP and DsRed protein was monitored in the transformants. A high rate of mitotic stability (95%) was observed. The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of F. proliferatum allows the technique to be used for random insertional mutagenesis studies and to analyze fungal genes involved in the infection process. PMID:27323127

  19. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    PubMed

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

  20. Host to a Stranger: Arabidopsis and Fusarium Ear Blight.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Helen C; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2015-10-01

    Fusarium ear blight (FEB) is a devastating fungal disease of cereal crops. Outbreaks are sporadic and current control strategies are severely limited. This review highlights the use of Arabidopsis to study plant-FEB interactions. Use of this pathosystem has identified natural variation in Fusarium susceptibility in Arabidopsis, and native plant genes and signalling processes modulating the interaction. Recent breakthroughs include the identification of plant- and insect-derived small molecules which increase disease resistance, and the use of a host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) construct to silence an important Fusarium gene to prevent infection. Arabidopsis has also been used to study other fungi that cause cereal diseases. These findings offer the potential for translational research in cereals which could yield much-needed novel control strategies. PMID:26440434

  1. Trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium species: chemistry, genetics, and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A E; Hohn, T M; McCormick, S P

    1993-01-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium and related fungi produce trichothecenes which are sesquiterpenoid epoxides that act as potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Interest in the trichothecenes is due primarily to their widespread contamination of agricultural commodities and their adverse effects on human and animal health. In this review, we describe the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway in Fusarium species and discuss genetic evidence that several trichothecene biosynthetic genes are organized in a gene cluster. Trichothecenes are highly toxic to a wide range of eukaryotes, but their specific function, if any, in the survival of the fungi that produce them is not obvious. Trichothecene gene disruption experiments indicate that production of trichothecenes can enhance the severity of disease caused by Fusarium species on some plant hosts. Understanding the regulation and function of trichothecene biosynthesis may aid in development of new strategies for controlling their production in food and feed products. Images PMID:8246841

  2. Fusarium langsethiae sp. nov. on cereals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Torp, Mona; Nirenberg, Helgard I

    2004-09-15

    A new species of Fusarium, Fusarium langsethiae, is described, illustrated and discussed. This species is isolated from kernels of oats, wheat and barley in several European countries. Morphologically, the species resembles Fusarium poae. It is differentiated from F. poae by slower growth, less aerial mycelium and absence of odour; its napiform or globose conidia are borne in the aerial mycelium on the agar surface on often bent phialides which exhibit sometimes more than one opening, whereas those of F. poae are produced on straight monophialides mostly in the aerial mycelium. No sporodochial conidia are formed by F. langsethiae even under near-UV light (nUV). Based on morphological characters, the species is placed in the section Sporotrichiella. PMID:15337590

  3. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite. PMID:23334041

  4. Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Ksenija; Ivanovic, Snezana; Nesic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins occurs worldwide, even though there are geographic and climatic differences in the amounts produced and occurrence of these substances.Mycotoxins are secondary chemical metabolites of different fungi. They are natural contaminants of cereals, so their presence is often inevitable. Among many genera that produce mycotoxins, Fusarium fungi are the most widespread in cereal-growing areas of the planet. Fusarium fungi produce a diversity of mycotoxin types, whose distributions are also diverse. What is produced and where it is produced is influenced primarily by environmental conditions, and crop production and storage methods. The amount of toxin produced depends on physical (viz., moisture, relative humidity, temperature, and mechanical damage), chemical (viz., carbon dioxide,oxygen, composition of substrate, insecticides and fungicides), and biological factors (viz., plant variety, stress, insects, spore load, etc.). Moisture and temperature have a major influence on mold growth rate and mycotoxin production.Among the most toxic and prevalent fusaria) toxins are the following: zearalenone,fumonisins, moniliformin and trichothecenes (T-2/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol,diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol). Zearalenone (ZEA; ZON, F-2 toxin) isaphy to estrogenic compound, primarily a field contaminant, which exhibits estrogenic activity and has been implicated in numerous mycotoxicoses of farm animals,especially pigs. Recently, evidence suggests that ZEA has potential to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells. Fumonisins are also cancer-promoting metabolites,of which Fumonisin 8 I (FBI) is the most important. Moniliformin (MON) isalso highly toxic to both animals and humans. Trichothecenes are classified as gastrointestinal toxins, dermatotoxins, immunotoxins, hematotoxins, and gene toxins.T-2 and HT-2 toxin, and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, anguidine) are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene group. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and

  5. Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

    2010-12-01

    Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

  6. Reduced susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in Brachypodium distachyon through priming with the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Blümke, Antje; Sode, Björn; Ellinger, Dorothea; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    The fungal cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum produces deoxynivalenol (DON) during infection. The mycotoxin DON is associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease that can cause vast grain losses. Whilst investigating the suitability of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for spreading resistance to F. graminearum, we unexpectedly discovered that DON pretreatment of spikelets could reduce susceptibility to FHB in this model grass. We started to analyse the cell wall changes in spikelets after infection with F. graminearum wild-type and defined mutants: the DON-deficient Δtri5 mutant and the DON-producing lipase disruption mutant Δfgl1, both infecting only directly inoculated florets, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase disruption mutant Δgpmk1, with strongly decreased virulence but intact DON production. At 14 days post-inoculation, the glucose amounts in the non-cellulosic cell wall fraction were only increased in spikelets infected with the DON-producing strains wild-type, Δfgl1 and Δgpmk1. Hence, we tested for DON-induced cell wall changes in B. distachyon, which were most prominent at DON concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppb. To test the involvement of DON in defence priming, we pretreated spikelets with DON at a concentration of 1 ppm prior to F. graminearum wild-type infection, which significantly reduced FHB disease symptoms. The analysis of cell wall composition and plant defence-related gene expression after DON pretreatment and fungal infection suggested that DON-induced priming of the spikelet tissue contributed to the reduced susceptibility to FHB. PMID:25202860

  7. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

  8. Global Analysis of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-occurrence of microbes within plants and other specialized niches may facilitate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting host-pathogen interactions. We recently identified fungal-to-fungal HGTs involving metabolic gene clusters. For a global analysis of HGTs in the maize pathogen Fusarium ve...

  9. Controlling fusarium wilt of California strawberries by anaerobic soil disinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 2014-15 season, the ASD-treated berry acreage exceeded 1,000 acres in California; more than doubled from the previous season. Fusarium wilt an emerging lethal disease of strawberries in California, can also be controlled by ASD. However, a study has shown that higher soil temperatures are n...

  10. Interaction of varying Fusarium oxysporum isolates with different sugarbeet lines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum can cause a wilt or yellows, as well as a root rot of sugar beet. Isolates that cause yellows symptoms on sugar beet are classified as F. oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB). While host resistance to FOB is available, growers have reported variable results when using resistant material...

  11. Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium proliferatum is a major cause of maize ear rot and fumonisin contamination and also can cause wheat kernel black point disease. The primary objective of this study was to characterize nine F. proliferatum strains from wheat from Nepal for ability to cause black point and fumonisin contamin...

  12. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  13. DISCONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTION OF THE FUMONISIN BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER IN FUSARIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, one of the most common ear and stalk rot pathogens of maize. Consumption of fumonisins has been associated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer in humans and experimentally with kidney and liver cancer in rodents. We us...

  14. Trehalose-related Gene Deletions in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widespread corn pathogen that causes root, stalk and ear rot and produces fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites associated with disease in livestock and humans. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of exploiting trehalose metabolism as a target for F. verticillioides...

  15. Case of Keratitis Caused by an Uncommon Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Rubio, Carmen; Gené, Josepa; Cano, Josep; Gil, Joaquina; Benito, Rafael; Moranderia, M. José; Miguez, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium polyphialidicum caused a corneal ulcer in a Spanish man. Diagnosis was established by a histopathological study and repeated cultures. The isolate was clearly resistant in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. This is the first case of human or animal mycosis by this rare fungus. PMID:14662993

  16. Current perspectives on Fusarium mycotoxins: fumonisin and deoxynivalenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and the fumonisins (FBs) are among the structurally diverse mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. DON is a contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize, FBs occur mainly in maize, and both are found in grain-based foodstuffs. Both cause diseases in farm animals...

  17. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often refered to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based foo...

  18. The transcriptome of Fusarium graminearum during the infection of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes head blight disease in wheat and barley. To help understand the infection process on wheat we studied global gene expression of F. graminearum in a time series from 24 to 196 hours after inoculation, compared to a water control. The infection is rapid and already after 48...

  19. Effects of xanthotoxin treatment on trichothecene production in Fusarium sporotrichioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are four P450 oxygenases involved in the biosynthesis of T-2 toxin in Fusarium sporotrichioides. Exactly how these enzymes react to antimicrobial plant defense compounds is unknown. Xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen), a phototoxic furanocoumarin, is a P450 oxygenase inhibitor. A previous study...

  20. Biosynthesis of fusaric acid by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetically unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen was first recognized in wilted and dead Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings in Australia in 1993. Since that time, the disease has spread rapidly with losses greater than 90 percent in some Australian fields where it was first disc...

  1. Effector profiles distinguish formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formae speciales (ff. spp.) of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are often polyphyletic in their origin, meaning that strains that infect a particular plant species are not necessarily more closely related to each other than to strains that cause disease in another host. Nevertheless, since strains of t...

  2. Spore development and trichothecene mutants of Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts are ongoing to understand the population structure of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (Fg) in the U.S., its dynamics and its significance for small grain production. At previous FHB forums, we described the existence of genetically divergent populations of Fg in some regions of Minnesota ...

  3. Molecular genetic classification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum races

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the pathogenic diversity present in a population of a given disease organism is necessary for the effective development and deployment of host-plant resistance. The need for rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for identifying races or genotypes of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusa...

  4. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  5. Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg−1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize. PMID:22069750

  6. Proposal for a new ISHAM Working group on Clinical Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections caused by Fusarium species can be classified in three classes: 1) Superficial infections of skin and nails; 2) Keratitis of the cornea; and 3) Deep and disseminated infections. Whereas the first two types of these opportunistic infections are generally seen in immunocompetent hosts, the d...

  7. Transgenic resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) have been a major problem in the primary malting barley growing regions in North America since 1993. Resistance to FHB and DON accumulation in barley is quantitative, with no immunity available in the primary or secondary gene pools. ...

  8. Fusarium verticillioides gene expression profiling by microarray analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and it can produce the toxic polyketide derived secondary metabolites called fumonisins. Fumonisins have been shown to cause animal diseases and are epidemiologically correlated to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans. The genes necess...

  9. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  10. Functional genomic studies of pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum is a disease of wheat and barley that occurs worldwide and that has great impact on U.S. agriculture and society. Infested cereals are often contaminated with trichothecene and estrogenic mycotoxins. To better understand fungal pathogenesis and deve...

  11. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis. PMID:26227503

  12. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is a major limiting factor of wheat production with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. Here we report a model for global Fg gene regulatory networks (GRNs) inferred from a large collection of transcriptomic data using a machine-learning appro...

  13. Soil treatments against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few economically feasible disease management options are available for California cotton producers with fields infested with race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. For treating soil to reduce inoculum levels, past studies indicate that solarization and fumigation with metam-sodium may be a...

  14. ELISA ANALYSIS FOR FUSARIUM IN BARLEY: APPLICATION IN FIELD NURSERIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we described a system of quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley by ELISA. ELISA had lower variability (lower CV's) than visual scoring or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barley doubled-haploid mappi...

  15. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  16. RAS2 regulates growth and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is a ubiquitous pathogen of cereal crops including wheat, barley, and maize. Diseases caused by F. graminearum are of particular concern because harvested grains are frequently contaminated with harmful mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Currently, little is known about ...

  17. Trehalose-related gene deletions in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widespread corn pathogen that causes root, stalk, and ear rot and produces fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites associated with disease in livestock and humans. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of exploiting trehalose metabolism as a target for F. verticillioide...

  18. Characterization of polyketide synthase genes in the genus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a stalk and ear rot pathogen of maize and can produce the fumonisin mycotoxins. Although the genetics and biochemistry of fumonisin biosynthesis is relatively well understood, little is known about the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites produced by F. verticilli...

  19. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  1. Fusarium Race 4 host plant resistance: upland and pima screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide range of commercial varieties and experimental germplasm from seed companies have been screened for relative susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum (race 4) in both naturally-infested grower field sites and artificially inoculated greenhouse evaluations. Evaluations have included a ...

  2. Gene Deletion and Functional Analysis of Fusarium verticillioides Trehalose Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a species of fungus that causes stalk, ear, and kernel rot of corn and produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that have dangerous health effects. We have observed previously that the intracellular concentration of trehalose, a disaccharide involved in resistance to st...

  3. Update on Fusarium Race 4 Varietal Evaluations in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, differences have been noted in field situations with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vas infectum (FOV), in Acala and Pima cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Typically, earlier-recognized races of FOV only caused significant crop damage and yield impacts ...

  4. A novel rat contact lens model for Fusarium keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Abou Shousha, Mohamed; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Oechsler, Rafael A.; Iovieno, Alfonso; Maestre-Mesa, Jorge; Ruggeri, Marco; Echegaray, Jose J.; Dubovy, Sander R.; Perez, Victor L.; Miller, Darlene; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a new contact lens–associated fungal keratitis rat model and to assess the ability of non-invasive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to detect pathological changes in vivo in fungal keratitis. Methods We used SD-OCT to image and measure the cornea of Sprague Dawley rats. Fusarium infection was initiated in the rat eye by fitting Fusarium solani–soaked contact lenses on the experimental eye, while the control animals received contact lenses soaked in sterile saline. The fungal infection was monitored with periodic slit-lamp examination and in vivo SD-OCT imaging of the rat eye, and confirmed by histology, counting of viable fungi in the infected rat cornea, and PCR with specific primers for Fusarium sp. Results We imaged and measured the rat cornea with SD-OCT. Custom-made contact lenses were developed based on the OCT measurements. Incubation of contact lenses in a F. solani suspension resulted in biofilm formation. We induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis by fitting the rat eyes for 4 h with the Fusarium-contaminated contact lenses. The SD-OCT images of the cornea correlated well with the slit-lamp and histopathological results and clearly defined clinical signs of infection, namely, increased corneal thickening, loss of epithelial continuity, hyper-reflective areas representing infiltrates, and endothelial plaques characteristic of fungal infection. Moreover, in three cases, SD-OCT detected the infection without any clear findings on slit-lamp examination. Infection was confirmed with histological fungal staining, PCR, and microbiological culture positivity. Conclusions We developed a highly reproducible rat contact lens model and successfully induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in this model. The clinical presentation of contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in the rat model is similar to the human condition. SD-OCT is a valuable tool that

  5. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  6. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  7. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  8. FUSARIUM-ID v.2.0: A DNA Sequence Database for Identification and Characterization of Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last two decades, extensive molecular systematic studies have allowed the development of evolutionarily robust species concepts in the genus Fusarium. These advances in species recognition have necessitated the development of sequence-based tools for species identification. In 2004, we re...

  9. Genome distribution and validation of novel microsatellite markers of Fusarium verticillioides and their transferability to other Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Madrigal, Karla Y; Larralde-Corona, Claudia P; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos L; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2014-06-01

    Improved population studies in the fungus Fusarium verticillioides require the development of reliable microsatellite markers. Here we report a set of ten microsatellite loci that can be used for genetic diversity analyses in F. verticillioides, and are equally applicable to other fungi, especially those belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi clade. PMID:24704573

  10. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  11. Comparison of ELISA for Fusarium, Visual Screening, and Deoxynivalenol analysis of Fusarium Head Blight for Barley Field Nurseries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we described an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley. ELISA had lower variability than visual disease assessment or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barl...

  12. Fusarium sibiricum sp. nov, a novel type A trichothecene-producing Fusarium from northern Asia closely related to F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of type A trichothecenes has been reported in the closely related species Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Here, we characterized a collection of Fusarium isolates from Siberia and the Russian Far East (hereafter Asian isolates) that produce high levels of the type A trichoth...

  13. Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

  14. Climate change impacts on the ecology of Fusarium graminearum species complex and susceptibility of wheat to Fusarium head blight: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a major threat to agricultural grain production, food safety, and animal health. The severity of disease epidemics and accumulation of associated trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kerne...

  15. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  16. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

  18. Spectrum of Fusarium infections in tropical dermatology evidenced by multilocus sequencing typing diagnostics.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Feng, Peiying; Ahmed, Sarah; Sudhadham, Montarop; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species are emerging causative agents of superficial, cutaneous and systemic human infections. In a study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of 464 fungal isolates from a dermatological ward in Thailand, 44 strains (9.5%) proved to belong to the genus Fusarium. Species identification was based on sequencing a portion of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), rDNA internal transcribed spacer and RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (rpb2). Our results revealed that 37 isolates (84%) belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), one strain matched with Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) complex 33, while six others belonged to the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex. Within the FSSC two predominant clusters represented Fusarium falciforme and recently described F. keratoplasticum. No gender differences in susceptibility to Fusarium were noted, but infections on the right side of the body prevailed. Eighty-nine per cent of the Fusarium isolates were involved in onychomycosis, while the remaining ones caused paronychia or severe tinea pedis. Comparing literature data, superficial infections by FSSC appear to be prevalent in Asia and Latin America, whereas FOSC is more common in Europe. The available data suggest that Fusarium is a common opportunistic human pathogens in tropical areas and has significant genetic variation worldwide. PMID:25530264

  19. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

  20. A new enniatin antibiotic from the endophyte Fusarium tricinctum Corda.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Ahmed M; Makboul, Makboul A; Moharram, Ahmad M; Tekwani, Babu L; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-03-01

    Enniatins (ENs), a group of antibiotics commonly produced by various strains of Fusarium, are six-membered cyclic depsipeptides formed by the union of three molecules of D-α-hydroxyisovaleric acid and three N-methyl-L-amino acids. The endophyte Fusarium tricinctum Corda was isolated from the fruits of Hordeum sativum Jess. and cultivated on a rice medium. The fungal metabolites were extracted with methanol and were identified, employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as ENs A, A1, B, B1, B2 and Q. EN Q is a new analog of EN A and the occurrence of EN B2 is reported for the first time from this endophyte, in addition to four well-known ENs (A, A1, B and B1). The methanol extract of F. tricinctum showed mild antibacterial and antileishmanial activities. Additionally the tested extract displayed inhibition of the activity of thioredoxin reductase enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:25315756

  1. Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals harvested from Hungarian fields.

    PubMed

    Tima, Helga; Brückner, Andrea; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 frequently contaminate grain crops in Middle and Eastern Europe. In this survey, 116 cereal samples (maize, wheat, barley and oat) were examined for DON, ZEN and T-2 mycotoxins. Samples were collected from different areas in two Hungarian regions (North and South Transdanubia). The method of analysis was indirect competitive ELISA. Maize was the most contaminated grain regarding DON (86%), ZEN (41%) and T-2 (55%) toxins. The average results of the deoxynivalenol and zearalenone tests of maize proved to be significantly higher than those of barley or oat. DON was the most represented Fusarium mycotoxin followed by T-2 and ZEN. The examination of these mycotoxins would be necessary at a larger scale as to re-evaluate permissible levels, so increase of the monitoring programme would be advisable for the future. PMID:26892197

  2. [Invasive fungal disease due to Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales].

    PubMed

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The number of emerging organisms causing invasive fungal infections has increased in the last decades. These etiological agents include Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales. All of them can cause disseminated, virulent, and difficult-to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients, the most affected, due to their resistance to most available antifungal agents. Current trends in transplantation including the use of new immunosuppressive treatments, the common prescription of antifungal agents for prophylaxis, and new ecological niches could explain the emergence of these fungal pathogens. These pathogens can also affect immunocompetent individuals, especially after natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, tsunamis), combat wounds or near drowning. All the invasive infections caused by Scedosporium, Fusarium, and mucorales are potentially lethal and a favourable outcome is associated with rapid diagnosis by direct microscopic examination of the involved tissue, wide debridement of infected material, early use of antifungal agents including combination therapy, and an improvement in host defenses, especially neutropenia. PMID:25442383

  3. Multidrug-resistant Fusarium keratitis: diagnosis and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Sara, Sergio; Sharpe, Kendall; Morris, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic keratitis is an ocular infective process derived from any fungal species capable of corneal invasion. Despite its rarity in developed countries, its challenging and elusive diagnosis may result in keratoplasty or enucleation following failed medical management. Filamentous fungi such as Fusarium are often implicated in mycotic keratitis. Bearing greater morbidity than its bacterial counterpart, mycotic keratitis requires early clinical suspicion and initiation of antifungal therapy to prevent devastating consequences. We describe a case of multidrug-resistant mycotic keratitis in a 46-year-old man who continued to decline despite maximal therapy and therapeutic keratoplasty. Finally, enucleation was performed as a means of source control preventing dissemination of a likely untreatable fungal infection into the orbit. Multidrug-resistant Fusarium is rare, and may progress to endophthalmitis. We discuss potential management options which may enhance diagnosis and outcome in this condition. PMID:27489066

  4. Aspects of the ecology of Fusarium toxins in cereals.

    PubMed

    Miller, J David

    2002-01-01

    Species of the genus Fusarium account for three of the five agriculturally important mycotoxins which are deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin, fumonisin, zearalenone and ochratoxin. The toxigenic fusaria have been complicated to study because morphologically-similar strains represent different biologies: saprophytes, pathyotypes and endophytes. This might explain the difficulties with systems of taxonomy for Fusarium species and increasing reliance on molecular techniques to characterize taxa. Another remarkable feature of the toxigenic fusaria is that each species produces compounds that cross several species as well as families of compounds that are species specific. In addition, reproductively-isolated strains (from different continents) of important species such as F. graminearum produce different compounds, and even produce the same compounds by different biosynthetic pathways. PMID:11922087

  5. The changes in pectin metabolism in flax infected with Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Kostyn, Kamil; Szopa, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum are the most common fungal pathogens of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), thus leading to the greatest losses in crop yield. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed from flax seedlings exposed for two days to F. oxysporum. This revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in the flax defense responses. Two of those genes directly participate in cell wall sugar polymer metabolism: UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase (GAE; EC 5.1.3.6) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2). GAE delivers the main substrate for pectin biosynthesis, and decreases were detected in its mRNA level after Fusarium infection. FDH participates in the metabolism of formic acid, and the expression level of its gene increased after Fusarium infection. However, metabolite profiling analysis disclosed that the pectin content in the infected plants remained unchanged, but that there were reductions in both the levels of the soluble sugars that serve as pectin precursors, and in the level of formic acid. Since formic acid is the product of pectin demethylesterification, the level of mRNAs coding for pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) in the infected flax was measured, revealing a decrease in its expression upon plant infection. Transgenic flax plants overexpressing fungal polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) and rhamnogalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.-) showed a decrease in the pectin content and an elevated level of formic acid, but the level of expression of the FDH gene remained unchanged. It is suspected that the expression of the formate dehydrogenase gene is directly controlled by the pathogen in the early stage of infection, and additionally by pectin degradation in the later stages. PMID:21435891

  6. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Pentahydroxyscirpene, a Trichothecene Fusarium Mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pentahydroxyscirpene, a novel trichothecene-type compound, was isolated from Fusarium-inoculated rice. The structure of pentahydroxyscirpene was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The conformation in solution was determined by NOESY experiments supported by quantum chemical calculations. In vitro toxicity tests showed that pentahydroxyscirpene inhibits protein synthesis as do other trichothecenes. PMID:24367932

  7. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. PMID:27237111

  8. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  9. Cyber-infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF): Three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics, and knowledge sharing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on ...

  10. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species. PMID:26781381

  11. A small molecule species specifically inhibits Fusarium myosin I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengqi; Chen, Yun; Yin, Yanni; Ji, Huan-Hong; Shim, Won-Bo; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Mingguo; Li, Xiang-Dong; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of cereal crops worldwide. Recently, a novel fungicide JS399-19 has been launched into the marketplace to manage FHB. It is compelling that JS399-19 shows highly inhibitory activity towards some Fusarium species, but not to other fungi, indicating that it is an environmentally compatible fungicide. To explore the mode of action of this species-specific compound, we conducted a whole-genome transcript profiling together with genetic and biochemical assays, and discovered that JS399-19 targets the myosin I of F. graminearum (FgMyo1). FgMyo1 is essential for F. graminearum growth. A point mutation S217L or E420K in FgMyo1 is responsible for F. graminearum resistance to JS399-19. In addition, transformation of F. graminearum with the myosin I gene of Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast, also led to JS399-19 resistance. JS399-19 strongly inhibits the ATPase activity of the wild-type FgMyo1, but not the mutated FgMyo1(S217L/E420K) . These results provide us a new insight into the design of species-specific antifungal compounds. Furthermore, our strategy can be applied to identify novel drug targets in various pathogenic organisms. PMID:25404531

  12. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development. PMID:26316232

  13. Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed. PMID:18943184

  14. Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

  15. Beltwide breeders' elite-Upland germplasm-pool assessment of Fusarium wilt (FOV) races 1 & 4 in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is currently the most economic and effective strategy for managing Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. Recently, a strain of Fusarium (race 4) was identified in the SJV that damages most cultivars of Pima co...

  16. Identification of QTL controlling high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot is a common biotic restraint on pea yields worldwide and genetic resistance is the most feasible method for improving pea production. This study was conducted to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium s...

  17. Biosynthesis of DON/15-ADON and NX-2 by different variants of TRI1 from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the econimically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. During a large scale survey of Fusarium graminearum (sensu strictu) in the northern United States strains (termed N-strains)...

  18. New PCR Assays for the Identification of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium subglutinans, and Other Species of the Gibberella fujikuroi Complex

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Carla Bertechini; Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans are important fungal pathogens of maize and other cereals worldwide. In this study, we developed PCR-based protocols for the identification of these pathogens targeting the gaoB gene, which codes for galactose oxidase. The designed primers recognized isolates of F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans that were obtained from maize seeds from several producing regions of Brazil but did not recognize other Fusarium spp. or other fungal genera that were either obtained from fungal collections or isolated from maize seeds. A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect the genomic DNA from F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans. This protocol could detect the DNA from these fungi growing in artificially or naturally infected maize seeds. Another multiplex reaction with a pair of primers developed in this work combined with a pre-existing pair of primers has allowed identifying F. subglutinans, F. konzum, and F. thapsinum. In addition, the identification of F. nygamai was also possible using a combination of two PCR reactions described in this work, and another described in the literature. PMID:22312242

  19. Evolution of a Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium by Gene Relocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of fungi, including some plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. Trichothecenes contribute to virulence of Fusarium on some plants and are considered to be mycotoxins because of their human and animal toxicity. Previous analyses of...

  20. Disease Lesion Mimics of Maize as a Potential Source of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium ear rot of maize is a major problem worldwide, often resulting in poor quality grain and contamination with a family of mycotoxins called fumonisins. Fumonisins are produced by Fusarium verticillioides and related species and are acutely toxic to certain livestock. They function by inhibi...

  1. Genetic basis for the 3-ADON and 15-ADON Trichothecene chemotypes in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi in the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) and the related species F. cerealis (synonym F. crookwellense) and F. culmorum can cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, barley, and other small cereal grain crops worldwide and contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins. In general,...

  2. Genetic and phenotypic diversity within the Fusarium graminearum species complex in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As has been observed in several European countries, the frequency of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) has increased in Norwegian cereals in recent years, resulting in elevated levels of deoxynivalenol in cereal grains. The objective of t...

  3. Morphological and molecular variation among species of the Fusarium dimerum species group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The name Fusarium dimerum has been used in the past for saprotrophic fungi and opportunistic human pathogens with up to 3-septate but mostly 0- or 1-septate Fusarium-like conidia. On the basis of narrowly defined morphological characters, the varieties Pusillum, Nectrioides and Violaceum were disti...

  4. Comparison of sugar beet responses at different ages to isolates of Fusarium oxysporum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum has been reported to cause several diseases of sugar beet, including seedling damping-off, a mature plant wilt (Fusarium yellows), a mature plant root rot, and seed stalk blight. Recent work in our lab and others has shown a great deal of diversity in F. oxysporum from sugar beet....

  5. The nivalenol-producing Fusarium graminearum genotype in scabby North Carolina wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (or scab), caused primarily by F. graminearum in the U.S., leads to drastic decreases in yield and test weight of small grains. In addition, Fusarium mycotoxins in grain heads can render the crop unsuitable for human or animal consumption. In livestock, scabby grain can lead t...

  6. Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in Winter Wheat Cultivar NC-Neuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in the moderately resistant so...

  7. Species diversity and toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum complex isolates from maize fields in northwest Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex) are the causal agents of ear rot in maize and Fusarium head blight of wheat and other small grain cereals. The potential of these pathogens to contaminate cereals with trichothecene mycotoxins is a health risk for both humans and anima...

  8. Species diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium associated with rice seeds in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is commonly reported in association with rice seeds in Brazil, but knowledge on the species diversity and toxigenic potential is lacking. Such information is critical because maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins were set for Brazilian rice in 2011. Ninety-eight rice seed samples from the ...

  9. Aromatic polyketide synthases from 127 Fusarium: pas de deux for chemical diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including mycotoxins, of great concern. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases (PKSs), large enzymes that catalyze the condensation of simple carboxylic acids. To gain ...

  10. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  11. DGE-1, a durum alien disomic addition line with resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab or Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe., is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) and current durum cultivars have almost no FHB resistance. Because diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14; EE...

  12. Analyses of Fusarium wilt race 3 resistance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Uzbekistan, the most northern cotton country, as well as in many others worldwide, Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represents a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. At least eight genotypes of FOV, called races, have been described. Thes...

  13. BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOME-BASED PHYSICAL MAP OF GIBBERELLA ZEAE (FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal pathogen of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, a major disease problem in the wheat and barley growing regions of the world. To accelerate genomic analysis of F. graminearum, we developed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map and...

  14. Head blight of wheat in South Africa is associated with numerous Fusarium species and chemotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields during 2008 and...

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics of Fusarium head blight and Trichothecene toxin types in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many parts of the world Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of cereal crops that adversely affects crop yield, food safety, and animal health. We previously demonstrated population structure associated with differences in trichothecene toxin t...

  16. The TRI101 story: engineering wheat and barley to resist Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease of wheat and barley in the United States and Canada. FHB epidemics have been on the increase since 1993, and have caused severe monetary damage for the growers and the seed industry. Along with reduced yields,...

  17. AN OUTBREAK OF FUSARIUM KERATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH USE OF A NEW CONTACT LENS SOLUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Fusarium keratitis is a serious corneal infection, most commonly associated with corneal injury. Beginning in March, 2006, CDC received multiple reports of non-traumatic Fusarium keratitis among contact lens wearers. Objective: To define the specific activities, contact lens hygiene pra...

  18. Fusarium verticillioides: Managing the Endophytic Association with Maize for Reduced Fumonisins Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a very important fungus from the aspects of plant disease, cereal production and food safety, particularly as it relates to corn. A major concern of this species is the fumonisin toxins that are harmful to humans and animals ingesting Fusarium-contaminated food or feed p...

  19. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and leads to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storage for sugar beet producers. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum isolated from...

  20. First report of F. meridionale causing Fusarium Head Blight of wheat in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), also known as scab, is a destructive disease of small grain cereals caused by several species belonging to the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Members of the FGSC produce trichothecene toxins that represent a threat to human and animal health (1). Despite the...

  1. Cross pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, which causes Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, can be highly variable in virulence and morphology, with further diversity derived due to the wide geographic distribution of sugar beet production. Little is known about factors that determine pathogenicity to sugar beet...

  2. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  3. Fusaric acid production and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Fusarium wilt of cotton has gained increased importance with the emergence of extremely virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The recent discovery of new pathotypes not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a ...

  4. Disruption of Genes Involved in Butenolide and Culmorin Synthesis in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butenolide (4-acetamide-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid '-lactone) and culmorin (a tricyclic sesquiterpene diol) are two less-studied mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species, including Fusarium graminearum. A putative butenolide biosynthetic eight-gene cluster in F. graminearum includes fg08080 w...

  5. Secondary Metabolites and Toxins of Fusarium - What is Causing Disease Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species produce a plethora of phytotoxic secondary metabolites. In the case of various races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) that attacks cotton, alfalfa, okra and other crops, many of these metabolites are derived from the polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The recent dis...

  6. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  7. Observations on the effect of lower-temperature dry heat treatments on Fusarium in cotton seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

  8. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  9. Update of Commercial Cultivar Screening for Resistance to Race 4 Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt impacts on cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California focused mostly on race 1 Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum (FOV), with most economic impacts occurring when the disease was present in association with nematode damage. During the past five years, field investigations have found Fu...

  10. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  11. Convergent and divergent evolution of the trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium trichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety worldwide. Previous analyses indicate that during early evolution of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (FIESC), the tri...

  12. Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

  13. The TRI101 Story: Engineering Wheat and Barley to Resist Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease of wheat and barley in the United States and Canada. The disease process depends on high humidity and the presence of inoculum (fungal spores), and therefore, the amount of disease can vary from year to year wi...

  14. Identification of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen-derived small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) are known to be a common source of fungal effectors that trigger resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. This group of proteins has not been well studied in Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (...

  15. Presence of Fusarium spp. in air and soil associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum grain, valuable for feed, food and bioenergy, can be colonized by several Fusarium species; therefore, it was of interest to identify possible sources of conidia. Analysis of air and soil samples provided evidence for the presence of propagules from Fusarium genotypes that may cause grain in...

  16. Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL, and sequencing composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance is highly effective in limiting yield loss in cotton (Gossypium spp.) from Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans]. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 1 resistance by applying molec...

  17. Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton bre...

  18. Assessment of inoculation methods to identify resistance to Fusarium crown rot in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum, is one of the most pervasive diseases of wheat throughout the world. F. culmorum is the most prevalent causal agent in Turkey while F. pseudograminearum is the most predominant in the US. Consistent and reliable screening methods...

  19. Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that best preserves longstanding use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this talk I will present the argument of a diverse group of scientists advocating a phylogenetic circumscription of the genus Fusarium, that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This will free scientists from any o...

  20. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  1. THE ROLE OF FUSARIUM BIODIVERSITY IN PLANT PATHOGENICITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium disease complexes of maize, wheat, and other cereal grains are biologically highly diverse. This biodiversity is believed to have a major impact on the types and levels of mycotoxins in food grains. The first dimension of complexity is at the Fusarium species level. Identification an...

  2. Characterization of Fusarium strains recovered from wheat with symptoms of head blight in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) members cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and small grains in the United States. The U.S. population is diverse, and includes several genetically distinct local emergent subpopulations, some more aggressive and toxigenic than...

  3. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  4. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  5. Fusarium Head Blight resistance QTL in the NC-Neuse / AGS2000 recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for resistance to Fusarium Head Blight is of major importance as the disease can have serious negative impacts on wheat production in warm and humid regions of the world, including the state of North Carolina. Fusarium Head Blight can cause significant grain yield reduction, but also severe...

  6. Stalk rot of sugar beet caused by Fusarium solani on the Pacific coast.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight can cause loss of seed production in sugar beet. The only known causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2006, plants that had been grown as stecklings in Oregon and planted in the greenhouse in California for seed production showed symptoms of stalk blight. In add...

  7. Frequency of the nivalenol mycotoxin genotype in Fusarium graminearum sampled from North Carolina wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., Fusarium head blight (or scab) is caused primarily by F. graminearum. Fusarium mycotoxins in small grain heads can render the crop unsuitable for human or animal consumption. In livestock, scabby grain can lead to feed refusal and/or poor weight gain. Although this fungus produces var...

  8. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates, and comparing...

  9. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  10. Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...

  11. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  12. Role of fusaric acid in the virulence of cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a potent phytotoxin to cotton. It has also long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fusarium wilt for a number of plant species including cotton, tomato, watermelon, and flax. The Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) produce copious amount of ...

  13. Introgression and genetic characterization of alien Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alien species are an important source of genetic variability in wheat (Triticum spp.) and carry genes for resistance to numerous pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). The goal of this project was to develop breeder-friendly, FHB-resistant ...

  14. Greenhouse and Field Demonstration of Microbial Supression of Fusarium Head Blight in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of wheat and barley responsible for extensive losses in quality and yield. The primary causative agent for FHB is Gibberella zeae (anamorph = Fusarium graminearum) which initially infects spikes to produce dark brown water-soaked spots on glumes of florets an...

  15. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  16. Greenhouse studies reveal increased aggressiveness of emergent Canadian Fusarium graminearum chemotypes in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of Fusarium graminearum trichothecene-chemotypes in disease outcomes was evaluated in a series of wheat lines with different levels of resistance to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB). Four inocula, each consisting of a composite of four strains with either 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (ADON) chemotypes...

  17. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases, large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequ...

  18. Variation in Sequence and Location of the Fumonisin Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC) and rare strains of F. oxysporum can produce fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins associated with multiple health disorders in humans and animals. In Fusarium, the ability to produce fumonisins is governed by a 17-gene fumoni...

  19. New genotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum from the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were collected from cotton plants (Gossypium spp.) with symptoms of Fusarium wilt to determine the composition of races present in the southeastern U.S. Analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor gene revealed four n...

  20. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  1. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  2. Temporal dynamics and population genetic structure of Fusarium graminearum in the upper Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, and contaminates grains with several trichothecene mycotoxins, causing destructive yield losses and economic impact in the United States. Recently, a F. graminearum strain collected from Minnesota (MN) was dete...

  3. Rapid detection method for fusaric acid-producing species of Fusarium by PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin produced by species of the fungus Fusarium and can act synergistically with other Fusarium toxins. In order to develop a specific detection method for fusaric acid-producing fungus, PCR prim¬ers were designed to amplify FUB10, a transcription factor gene in fusaric acid ...

  4. Genetic transformation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with Agrobacterium to study pathogenesis in Gladiolus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Fog) is one of the most serious diseases of Gladiolus, both in the field and in stored bulbs. In order to study the pathogenesis of this fungus, we have transformed Fog with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vectors containing the hygromycin B...

  5. Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Fusarium Isolates: Effects of Culture Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium genus includes soil saprobes as well as pathogenic or toxin-producing species. Traditional classification of Fusarium isolates is slow and requires a high level of expertise. The objective of this project is to describe culture condition effects on mid-infrared (MidIR) and near-infrared...

  6. Systematics, phylogeny and trichothecene mycotoxin potential of fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight(FHB)or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species,Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over the p...

  7. Effect of soil biochar amendment on wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases of wheat and other cereal grains. Fusarium graminearum, the fungal pathogen responsible for FHB, reduces crop yield and results in contamination of grain w...

  8. Systematics, Phylogeny and Trichothecene Mycotoxin potential of Fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species, Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over th...

  9. Systematics, Phylogeny and Trichothecene Mycotoxin Potential of Fusarium Head Blight Cereal Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically devastating outbreaks and epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and barley have occurred worldwide over the past two decades. Although the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species, Fusarium graminearum, a series of studies we...

  10. The role of trichothecenes in the Triticeae-Fusarium graminearum interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem for the small grain crops wheat and barley. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) that increase the aggressiveness of the fungus and reduces grain quality....

  11. A North American isolate of Fusarium graminearum: toxicity and biosynthesis of a new type A trichothecene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the economically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum is a virulence factor in wheat and probably also on other host...

  12. Novel fusarium head blight pathogens from Nepal and Louisiana revealed by multilocus genealogical concordance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess evolutionary relationships, species diversity, and trichothecene toxin potential of five Fusarium graminearum complex (FGSC) isolates identified as genetically novel during prior Fusarium head blight (FHB) surveys in Nepal and Louisiana. Results of a multilocus gen...

  13. Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use ma...

  14. New tricks of an old enemy: Isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  15. New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, whi...

  16. Fusarium head blight resistance in U.S. winter wheat cultivars and elite breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Fusarium graminearum) head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize FHB resistance in U.S. wheat germplasm, 363 U.S. winter wheat accessions were repeatedly evaluated for FHB resistance. A high correlation (r = 0.73, P < 0.001) for me...

  17. The origin, distribution, and evolution of Type A trichothecenes in the Fusarium graminearum species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the major cause of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of cereal crops worldwide. FGSC strains typically produce one of three B trichothecenes (3ADON, 15ADON, NIV), which can contaminate grain and have toxic effects in animals and humans. Product...

  18. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  19. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an important disease of cotton. Fov race 4, identified in the San Joaquin Valley of California, has caused serious losses and is a potential threat to US cotton production. Tests have been developed to rapidly identify race 4 i...

  20. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an economically significant disease of cultivated cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense). Fov race 4 has spread among soils planted to cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California and has caused serious losses. Because ...

  1. Molecular strategies for detection and quantification of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species: a review.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Jiang, Yueming; Chen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium contamination is considered a major agricultural problem, which could not only significantly reduce yield and quality of agricultural products, but produce mycotoxins that are virulence factors responsible for many diseases of humans and farm animals. One strategy to identify toxigenic Fusarium species is the use of modern molecular methods, which include the analysis of DNA target regions for differentiation of the Fusarium species, particularly the mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction assays are used to determine the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the toxins in order to facilitate a qualitative and quantitative detection of Fusarium-producing mycotoxins. Also, it is worth mentioning that some factors that modulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins are not only determined by their biosynthetic gene clusters, but also by environmental conditions. Therefore, all of the aforementioned factors which may affect the molecular diagnosis of mycotoxins will be reviewed and discussed in this paper. PMID:25255897

  2. Evaluation of two methods for direct detection of Fusarium spp. in water.

    PubMed

    Graça, Mariana G; van der Heijden, Inneke M; Perdigão, Lauro; Taira, Cleison; Costa, Silvia F; Levin, Anna S

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium is a waterborne fungus that causes severe infections especially in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Traditionally, the detection of Fusarium in water is done by culturing which is difficult and time consuming. A faster method is necessary to prevent exposure of susceptible patients to contaminated water. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular technique for direct detection of Fusarium in water. A direct DNA extraction method from water was developed and coupled to a genus-specific PCR, to detect 3 species of Fusarium (verticillioides, oxysporum and solani). The detection limits were 10cells/L and 1cell/L for the molecular and culture methods, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first method developed to detect Fusarium directly from water. PMID:26844885

  3. Study of Fungal Colonization of Wheat Kernels in Syria with a Focus on Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Alkadri, Dima; Nipoti, Paola; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio; Pisi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the main crops in Mediterranean countries, and its cultivation has an important role in the Syrian economy. In Syria, Fusarium head blight (FHB) has not been reported so far. Mycological analysis of 48 samples of wheat kernels collected from cultivation areas with different climatic conditions were performed in 2009 and 2010. Fungal isolates were identified at the genus level morphologically; Fusarium species were characterized morphologically and by species-specific PCR. The most frequent fungal genera found were Alternaria spp. and Cladosporium spp., with frequencies of 24.7% and 8.1%, respectively, while the frequency of Fusarium spp. was 1.5% of kernels. Most frequent Fusarium species were F. tricinctum (30% of all Fusarium isolates), F. culmorum (18%), F. equiseti (14%) and F. graminearum (13%). The mycotoxin production potential of selected Fusarium isolates was assessed by HPLC-MS analysis of rice cultures; chemotyping by PCR was carried out for comparison. All six F. graminearum strains tested produced small amounts (<3 mg/kg) of nivalenol (NIV). All ten F. culmorum strains tested produced large amounts of trichothecenes (>100 mg/kg); four strains produced NIV and six strains produced deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3Ac-DON). PCR chemotyping lead to an oversimplified picture, because all 3Ac-DON chemotype strains produced more DON than 3Ac-DON; furthermore, the strongest NIV producers produced significant amounts of DON. All tested strains of F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. pseudograminearum (two strains) and most F. equiseti strains (five of six strains) produced zearalenone. Grains of durum wheat were more frequently colonized by Fusarium spp. than grains of soft wheat. Incidence of Fusarium spp. in irrigated fields was higher than in rainfed fields. The incidence of Fusarium strains producing mycotoxins raises concerns about the risk of Fusarium head blight to Syria and its consequences for public health. PMID:23493058

  4. Study of fungal colonization of wheat kernels in syria with a focus on fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Alkadri, Dima; Nipoti, Paola; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio; Pisi, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is one of the main crops in Mediterranean countries, and its cultivation has an important role in the Syrian economy. In Syria, Fusarium head blight (FHB) has not been reported so far. Mycological analysis of 48 samples of wheat kernels collected from cultivation areas with different climatic conditions were performed in 2009 and 2010. Fungal isolates were identified at the genus level morphologically; Fusarium species were characterized morphologically and by species-specific PCR. The most frequent fungal genera found were Alternaria spp. and Cladosporium spp., with frequencies of 24.7% and 8.1%, respectively, while the frequency of Fusarium spp. was 1.5% of kernels. Most frequent Fusarium species were F. tricinctum (30% of all Fusarium isolates), F. culmorum (18%), F. equiseti (14%) and F. graminearum (13%). The mycotoxin production potential of selected Fusarium isolates was assessed by HPLC-MS analysis of rice cultures; chemotyping by PCR was carried out for comparison. All six F. graminearum strains tested produced small amounts (<3 mg/kg) of nivalenol (NIV). All ten F. culmorum strains tested produced large amounts of trichothecenes (>100 mg/kg); four strains produced NIV and six strains produced deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3Ac-DON). PCR chemotyping lead to an oversimplified picture, because all 3Ac-DON chemotype strains produced more DON than 3Ac-DON; furthermore, the strongest NIV producers produced significant amounts of DON. All tested strains of F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. pseudograminearum (two strains) and most F. equiseti strains (five of six strains) produced zearalenone. Grains of durum wheat were more frequently colonized by Fusarium spp. than grains of soft wheat. Incidence of Fusarium spp. in irrigated fields was higher than in rainfed fields. The incidence of Fusarium strains producing mycotoxins raises concerns about the risk of Fusarium head blight to Syria and its consequences for public health. PMID:23493058

  5. Changes in communities of Fusarium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as related to different asparagus cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a high-value perennial vegetable crop that has shown a marked decline in productivity after many years of continuous harvesting. This decline is caused by an increase in both abiotic (autotoxicity, harvesting pressure) and biotic stresses [fungal infections, mainly Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR)]. To gain insight into disease development and possible mitigation strategies, we studied the effects of harvesting, time in the growing season, and field age on FCRR development, Fusarium species composition, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in both a controlled field experiment and an ecological survey of commercial fields. In one experiment, a 3-year-old asparagus field was subdivided into plots that were harvested or not and sampled throughout the growing season to assess short-term dominant Fusarium species shifts. In addition, diseased and healthy asparagus plants sampled from six commercial fields in the same geographical region were used to assess Fusarium and AMF communities in relation to different parameters. Fusarium and AMF communities were described by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach, and results were analyzed by mainly correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that dominant Fusarium taxa assemblages changed throughout the growing season. Harvested plots had significantly more FCRR symptomatic plants at the end of the growing season, but this effect was not related with any trend in Fusarium community structure. Sampling site and plant age significantly influenced AMF community structure, whereas only sampling site consistently influenced the Fusarium community. Diseased and healthy plants harbored similar Fusarium and AMF communities. Shifts in Fusarium community might not be responsible for different disease incidence because they are ubiquitous regardless of plant health status or harvesting regime

  6. Evaluation of ability of ferulic acid to control growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media.

    PubMed

    Ferrochio, Laura; Cendoya, Eugenia; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, María Laura

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ferulic acid (1, 10, 20 and 25 mM) at different water activity (aw) values (0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25 °C on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media. For both Fusarium species, the lag phase significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001), and the growth rates increased (p ≤ 0.001) at the lowest ferulic acid concentration used (1mM), regardless of the aw. However, high doses of ferulic acid (10 to 25 mM) significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.001) the growth rate of both Fusarium species, regardless of the a(w). In general, growth rate inhibition increased as ferulic acid doses increased and as media aw decreased. Fumonisin production profiles of both Fusarium species showed that low ferulic acid concentrations (1-10mM) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.001) toxin production, regardless of the aw. High doses of ferulic acid (20-25 mM) reduced fumonisin production, in comparison with the controls, by both Fusarium species but they were not statistically significant in most cases. The results show that the use of ferulic acid as a post-harvest strategy to reduce mycotoxin accumulation on maize needs to be discussed. PMID:24140805

  7. Histopathological assessment of the infection of maize leaves by Fusarium graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Steiner, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Young maize plants were inoculated on unfolded mature leaves and on folded immature leaves with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides suspensions. Infection and symptom development of disease on these asymptomatic mature leaves and immature leaves were then documented. Subcuticular infection was found by the three Fusarium species on both symptomatic and symptomless leaves. The three Fusarium species penetrated the stomata of immature leaves by the formation of appressoria-like structures, infection cushions or by direct penetration. Infection by the three species of Fusarium via stomata is reported here for the first time. The superficial hyphae and re-emerging hyphae of the three species produced conidia. The macroconidia of F. graminearum produced secondary macroconidia and F. proliferatum formed microconidia inside the leaf tissues that sporulated through stomata and trichomes. The infection of maize leaves by the three species of Fusarium and their sporulation may contribute inoculum to cob and kernel infection. PMID:27567716

  8. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  9. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  10. [Enniatin B synthesis by a Fusarium sambucinum Fuck culture].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskiĭ, D N; Ellanskaia, I A

    1978-01-01

    Three fungal strains belonging to the genus Fusarium Lk. ex. Fr. (F. sambucinum Fuck. 52377, F. avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.) 52311, F. gibbosum App. et. Wr. emend Bilai 52021) whcih form 800-1200 mg of enniatin B per litre during submerged cultivation have been selected. The morphology of F. sambucinum 52377 in the course of growth and production of enniatin B on the selected medium is described. The maximum accumulation of the product is found at the stationary growth phase. The active accumulation of fatty inclusions during this period suggests the participation of metabolism of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of enniatin B. PMID:580630

  11. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  12. Differentially Expressed Proteins Associated with Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianghui; Fu, Jianming; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pan, Hongyu; Bai, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. Proteins play important roles in defense against the fungal infection. This study characterized differentially expressed proteins between near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting in alleles of Fhb1, a major FHB resistance gene in wheat, to identify proteins underlining FHB resistance of Fhb1. Methods The two-dimensional protein profiles were compared between the Fusarium-inoculated spikes of the two NILs collected 72 h after inoculation. The protein profiles of mock- and Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL were also compared to identify pathogen-responsive proteins. Results Eight proteins were either induced or upregulated in inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with mock-inoculated Fhb1+NIL; nine proteins were either induced or upregulated in the Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1−NIL. Proteins that were differentially expressed in the Fhb1+NIL, not in the Fhb1−NIL, after Fusarium inoculation included wheat proteins for defending fungal penetration, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and detoxification. Conclusions Coordinated expression of the identified proteins resulted in FHB resistance in Fhb1+NIL. The results provide insight into the pathway of Fhb1-mediated FHB resistance. PMID:24376514

  13. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M A; Martínez, M C; Bielza, P; Tello, J; Lacasa, A

    2011-01-01

    In the region of Murcia (southeast Spain), sweet pepper has been grown as a monoculture in greenhouses for many years. Until 2005, when it was banned, soils were disinfested with methyl bromide (MB) to control pathogens and to prevent soil fatigue effects. The genus Fusarium plays an important role in the microbiological component associated with yield decline in pepper monocultures. In the present study, soils were treated with manure amendments, alone (biofumigation, B) or in combination with solarization (biosolarization, BS), with or without the addition of pepper plant residues. The B and BS treatments were compared with a treatment using MB. The extent of disinfestation was measured from the density of Fusarium spp. isolated from the soil before and after the respective treatments. Three different species were systematically isolated: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti. The repeated use of manure amendments with pepper crop residues, without solarization, was unable to decrease the Fusarium spp. density (which increased from 2,047.17 CFU g(-1) to 3,157.24 CFU g(-1) before and after soil disinfestation, respectively), unlike MB-treated soil (in which the fungi decreased from 481.39 CFU g(-1) to 23.98 CFU g(-1)). However, the effectiveness of the repeated application of BS in diminishing doses (with or without adding plant residues) on Fusarium populations (reductions greater than 72%) was similar to or even greater than the effect of MB. PMID:20820866

  14. Insights into natural products biosynthesis from analysis of 490 polyketide synthases from Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Proctor, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Species of the fungus Fusarium collectively cause disease on almost all crop plants and produce numerous natural products (NPs), including some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to agriculture. Many Fusarium NPs are derived from polyketide synthases (PKSs), large multi-domain enzymes that catalyze sequential condensation of simple carboxylic acids to form polyketides. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of polyketide-derived NPs in Fusarium, we retrieved 488 PKS gene sequences from genome sequences of 31 species of the fungus. In addition to these apparently functional PKS genes, the genomes collectively included 81 pseudogenized PKS genes. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the PKS genes into 67 clades, and based on multiple lines of evidence, we propose that homologs in each clade are responsible for synthesis of a polyketide that is distinct from those synthesized by PKSs in other clades. The presence and absence of PKS genes among the species examined indicated marked differences in distribution of PKS homologs. Comparisons of Fusarium PKS genes and genes flanking them to those from other Ascomycetes provided evidence that Fusarium has the genetic potential to synthesize multiple NPs that are the same or similar to those reported in other fungi, but that have not yet been reported in Fusarium. The results also highlight ways in which such analyses can help guide identification of novel Fusarium NPs and differences in NP biosynthetic capabilities that exist among fungi. PMID:26826610

  15. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  16. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  17. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  18. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  19. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, Theo; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne; Waalwijk, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionised our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene-producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions, and human interference by the global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay; and NIV-producing F asiaticum in the southern United States. PMID:25530109

  20. Fusarium toxins of the scirpentriol subgroup: a review.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, Margit; Drochner, Winfried; Müller, Hans-Martin

    2007-09-01

    Scirpentriol and its seven acetylated derivatives comprise a family of type-A trichothecene toxins produced by several species of Fusarium fungi. Out of this group 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol has attracted most attention. It elicits toxic responses in several species and was detected in a variety of substrates. Out of the three possible monoacetylated derivatives 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol and the parent alcohol scirpentriol received some attention, whereas the remaining members of the family were mentioned in few reports. The present review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, analysis and toxicity of scirpentriol toxins. Formation by Fusarium species as well as culture conditions used for toxigenicity studies are reviewed; data about the natural occurrence of scirpentriol toxins in different cereal types, cereal associated products as well as in non-grain matrices including potato and soya bean are reported. Basing on literature reports about the toxicity of scirpentriol toxins an attempt is made to summarise the state of knowledge for risk evaluation for human and animal health. PMID:17610049

  1. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Theo; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne; Waalwijk, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionised our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene-producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions, and human interference by the global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay; and NIV-producing F asiaticum in the southern United States. PMID:25530109

  2. Acanthamoeba and Fusarium interactions: A possible problem in keratitis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Thais Esther Teixeira; Brazil, Nathalya Tesch; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of Acanthamoeba and Fusarium species has increased in contact lens-related infectious keratitis. They share several environments and cases of co-infection have been reported. The interaction between the amoebae and other microorganisms may result in significant changes for both, like increased virulence in mammalian hosts. In this study, we evaluated the interaction of three Acanthamoeba castellanii strains with Fusarium conidia and the possible implications on keratitis. F. conidia were internalized by A. castellanii strains and were able to germinate inside the amoebae. The co-culture with the live amoebae, as well as the amoebal culture supernatant and lysate, increased the fungal growth significantly. Moreover, live F. solani and its culture supernatant enhanced the survival of amoebae, but in a different way in each amoebal strain. The encystment of the A. castellanii strain re-isolated from rat lung was increased by the fungus. These results show that A. castellanii and F. solani interaction may have an important influence on survival of both, and specially indicate a possible effect on virulence characteristics of these microorganisms. These data suggest that the A. castellanii-F. solani interaction may cause severe impacts on keratitis. PMID:26851515

  3. Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kye-Yong; Zhao, Xinhua; Xu, Jin-Rong; Güldener, Ulrich; Kistler, H Corby

    2008-04-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2h, germination tube emergence and elongation from conidia at 8h and hyphal branching at 24h. To understand changes in gene expression during these developmental changes, RNA was isolated from spores and used to interrogate the F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip. RNAs corresponding to 5813 genes were detected in fresh spores and 5146, 5249 and 5993, respectively, in spores incubated in germination medium after 2, 8 or 24h (P<0.001). Gene expression data were used to predict the cellular and physiological state of each developmental stage for known processes. Predictions were confirmed microscopically for several previously unreported developmental events such as manifestation of peroxisomes in fresh spores and nuclear division resulting in binuclear cells within macroconidia prior to spore germination. Knowledge of stage-specific gene expression and changes in gene expression levels between developmental stages are an important first step to understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for spore germination and development. PMID:17950638

  4. Transcriptome analysis of wheat inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Erayman, Mustafa; Turktas, Mine; Akdogan, Guray; Gurkok, Tugba; Inal, Behcet; Ishakoglu, Emre; Ilhan, Emre; Unver, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    Plants are frequently exposed to microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, and viruses that cause biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an economically risky wheat disease, which occurs upon Fusarium graminearum (Fg) infection. Moderately susceptible (cv. "Mizrak 98") and susceptible (cv. "Gun 91") winter type bread wheat cultivars were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to Fg infection. To examine the early response to the pathogen in wheat, we measured gene expression alterations in mock and pathogen inoculated root crown of moderately susceptible (MS) and susceptible cultivars at 12 hours after inoculation (hai) using 12X135K microarray chip. The transcriptome analyses revealed that out of 39,179 transcripts, 3668 genes in microarray were significantly regulated at least in one time comparison. The majority of differentially regulated transcripts were associated with disease response and the gene expression mechanism. When the cultivars were compared, a number of transcripts and expression alterations varied within the cultivars. Especially membrane related transcripts were detected as differentially expressed. Moreover, diverse transcription factors showed significant fold change values among the cultivars. This study presented new insights to understand the early response of selected cultivars to the Fg at 12 hai. Through the KEGG analysis, we observed that the most altered transcripts were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. PMID:26539199

  5. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  6. Fusarium nail and skin infection: a report of eight cases from Natal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; Sousa, Francisco; Gomes, Nadja Oliveira; Cardoso, Fernando Ramos; Zaror, Luis Conrado; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium spp. are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds distributed worldwide and recovered from the nature as soil saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. We report eight cases of cutaneous lesions caused by Fusarium spp. All patients were immunocompetent. Seven cases with presented onychomycosis and one patient with interdigital intertrigo. It is important to alert the medical community about the relevance of the opportunistic fungi, such as Fusarium spp., which have emerged as human infectious agents, emphasizing the importance of correct etiological identification, allowing for appropriate treatment. PMID:16389481

  7. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed. PMID:27231937

  8. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed. PMID:27231937

  9. Chiral Phosphinate Degradation by the Fusarium Species: Scope and Limitation of the Process

    PubMed Central

    Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable capacities of fungal strains of Fusarium oxysporum (DSMZ 2018) and Fusarium culmorum (DSMZ 1094) were tested towards racemic mixture of chiral 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl) acetic acid—a compound with two stereogenic centres. The effectiveness of decomposition was dependent on external factors such as temperature and time of the process. Optimal conditions of complete mineralization were established. Both Fusarium species were able to biodegrade every isomer of tested compound at 30°C, but F. culmorum required 10 days and F. oxysporum 11 days to accomplish the process, which was continuously monitored using the 31P NMR technique. PMID:24324893

  10. Fusarium Species Isolated from Mangrove Soil in Kampung Pantai Acheh, Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Latiffah, Zakaria; Mah Kok, Foong; Heng Mei, Hsuan; Maziah, Zakaria; Baharuddin, Salleh

    2010-01-01

    A total of 33 isolates of Fusarium sp. were isolated from soil samples collected from a mangrove forest in an area in Kampung Pantai Acheh, Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The isolates were isolated using soil dilution, direct isolation and debris isolation techniques. The debris isolation technique yielded the most isolates, with a total of 22 Fusarium isolates. Based on identification using morphological characteristics, three Fusarium species were identified: F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. F. solani (91%) was the most common species recovered from the mangrove soil samples, followed by F. oxysporum (6%) and F. verticillioides (3%). PMID:24575187

  11. Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-01-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  12. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  13. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    PubMed Central

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  14. Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex.

    PubMed

    Fourie, G; Steenkamp, E T; Ploetz, R C; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

    2011-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungal species that includes human and animal pathogens and a diverse range of nonpathogens. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of this species can be distinguished from each other with pathogenicity tests, but not with morphological analysis or sexual compatibility studies. Substantial genetic diversity among isolates has led to the realization that F. oxysporum represents a complex of cryptic species. F. oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is one of the more than 150 plant pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies of Foc revealed at least eight phylogenetic lineages, a finding that was supported by random amplified polymorphic DNAs, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Most of these lineages consist of isolates in closely related vegetative compatibility groups, some of which possess opposite mating type alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2; thus, the evolutionary history of this fungus may have included recent sexual reproduction. The ability to cause disease on all or some of the current race differential cultivars has evolved convergently in the taxon, as members of some races appear in different phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, various factors including co-evolution the plant host and horizontal gene transfer are thought to have shaped the evolutionary history of Foc. This review discusses the evolution of Foc as a model formae specialis in F. oxysporum in relation to recent research findings involving DNA-based studies. PMID:21256980

  15. Inhibitory effects of gossypol, gossypolone, and apogossypolone on a collection of economically important filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racemic gossypol and derivatives gossypolone and apogossypolone demonstrated significant growth inhibition against a diverse collection of filamentous fungi that included Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. alliaceus, A. fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, F. moniliforme, Penicillium chrysogenum, P....

  16. The genetic basis for 3-ADON and 15-ADON trichothecene chemotypes in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum isolates typically produce trichothecene mycotoxins as secondary metabolites. These can be classified into three chemotypes: 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) producers, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) producers, and nivalenol (NIV) producers. Here we report the genetic basis fo...

  17. Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

  18. Identification of early fumonisin biosynthetic intermediates by inactivation of the FUM6 gene in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and are associated with multiple human and animal diseases. A fumonisin biosynthetic pathway has been proposed, but structures of early pathway intermediates have not been demonstrated. The F. verticillioide...

  19. Two horizontally transferred xenobiotic resistance gene clusters associated with detoxification of benozoxazolinones by Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of chemical compounds in their diverse environments. These xenobiotics may negatively impact growth or cause death. To counter such adverse effects, many microbes possess metabolic strategies to detoxify and biotransform xenobiotics. Fusarium verticillioides is a ...

  20. Differential Expression of Putative Polyketide Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides can produce a number of polyketide derived secondary metabolites, including fumonisins. Fumonisins cause diseases in animals, and show epidemiological correlation with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. The F. verticillioides genome contains ...

  1. Fumonisin-nonproducing mutants exhibit differential expression of putative polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces a group of polyketide derived secondary metabolites called fumonisins. Fumonisins can cause diseases in animals, and have been correlated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. The fumonisin biosynthetic gene clust...

  2. Phylogenetically marking the limits of the genus Fusarium for post-Article 59 usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic fungi. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial nucleotide sequences of genes encod...

  3. Genetic variation in isolates of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex recovered from cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) includes mycotoxigenic species associated with several diseases of cereals and other crops. These species are considered moderately aggressive and are reported to produce multiple mycotoxins, including beauvericin, zearalenone, equisetin, fusa...

  4. Effects of root isoquinoline alkaloids from Hydrastis canadensis on Fusarium oxysporum isolated from Hydrastis root tissue.

    PubMed

    Tims, Michael c; Batista, Charisma

    2007-07-01

    Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) is a popular medicinal plant distributed widely in North America. The rhizome, rootlets, and root hairs produce medicinally active alkaloids. Berberine, one of the Hydrastis alkaloids, has shown antifungal activity. The influence of a combination of the major Hydrastis alkaloids on the plant rhizosphere fungal ecology has not been investigated. A bioassay was developed to study the effect of goldenseal isoquinoline alkaloids on three Fusarium isolates, including the two species isolated from Hydrastis rhizosphere. The findings suggest that the Hydrastis root extract influences macroconidia germination, but that only the combined alkaloids--berberine, canadine, and hydrastine--appear to synergistically stimulate production of the mycotoxin zearalenone in the Fusarium oxysporum isolate. The Hydrastis root rhizosphere effect provided a selective advantage to the Fusarium isolates closely associated with the root tissue in comparison with the Fusarium isolate that had never been exposed to Hydrastis. PMID:17549565

  5. Fusarium Toxins in Cereals: Occurrence, Legislation, Factors Promoting the Appearance and Their Management.

    PubMed

    Ferrigo, Davide; Raiola, Alessandro; Causin, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium diseases of small grain cereals and maize cause significant yield losses worldwide. Fusarium infections result in reduced grain yield and contamination with mycotoxins, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. Regulations on maximum limits have been established in various countries to protect consumers from the harmful effects of these mycotoxins. Several factors are involved in Fusarium disease and mycotoxin occurrence and among them environmental factors and the agronomic practices have been shown to deeply affect mycotoxin contamination in the field. In the present review particular emphasis will be placed on how environmental conditions and stress factors for the crops can affect Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production, with the aim to provide useful knowledge to develop strategies to prevent mycotoxin accumulation in cereals. PMID:27187340

  6. Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Buśko, Maciej; Boczkowska, Maja; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota; Wiśniewska, Halina; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars – for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or

  7. [Impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population in soybean rhizosphere].

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Si-Jia; Li, S

    2014-02-01

    The impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population abundance and diversity, pathogenicity and phylogeny in soybean field were analyzed by using isolation, morphological identification, pathogenicity test, sequencing analysis and molecular marker with restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The soybean field was located at the Hailun Experimental Station of Agricultural Ecology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Northeast China and had been under a long-term rotation experiment designed to two treatments, i. e., long-term continuous cropping (LCC) of soybean for 20 years and short-term continuous cropping (SCC) for 3 years. In SCC field, the population density of Fusarium spp. was 6.0 x 10(4) CFU x g(-1), in which F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides possessing high pathogenicity and F. solani possessing moderate pathogenicity were the dominant species. In LCC field, the population density of Fusarium population and the dominance index of dominant species were significantly lower than that in SCC. The population density of F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. solani were only 36% , 32% and 22% of that in SCC, and F. verticillioide with highest pathogenicity was absent. The diversity and evenness index of Fusarium population were significantly higher than that in SCC. F. tricinctum, F. lateritium and F. avenaceum, just isolated from LCC, possessing a distant genetic relationship with Fusarium isolates possessing high pathogenicity based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, were non-pathogenicity for soybean. Thus, it seemed that LCC of soybean could cause the inhibition of soil Fusarium population size, alteration of Fusarium community composition and genetic diversity, and even the decline of pathogenicity for soybean root rot disease of Fusarium population. PMID:24830251

  8. The Fdb3 transcription factor of the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone gene cluster is required for MBOA but not BOA degradation in Fusarium pseudograminearum.

    PubMed

    Kettle, Andrew J; Carere, Jason; Batley, Jacqueline; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald M

    2016-03-01

    A number of cereals produce the benzoxazolinone class of phytoalexins. Fusarium species pathogenic towards these hosts can typically degrade these compounds via an aminophenol intermediate, and the ability to do so is encoded by a group of genes found in the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone (FDB) cluster. A zinc finger transcription factor encoded by one of the FDB cluster genes (FDB3) has been proposed to regulate the expression of other genes in the cluster and hence is potentially involved in benzoxazolinone degradation. Herein we show that Fdb3 is essential for the ability of Fusarium pseudograminearum to efficiently detoxify the predominant wheat benzoxazolinone, 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), but not benzoxazoline-2-one (BOA). Furthermore, additional genes thought to be part of the FDB gene cluster, based upon transcriptional response to benzoxazolinones, are regulated by Fdb3. However, deletion mutants for these latter genes remain capable of benzoxazolinone degradation, suggesting that they are not essential for this process. PMID:26828593

  9. Assessment of Parasitic Activity of Fusarium Strains Obtained from a Heterodera schachtii-Suppressive Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuebiao; Yin, Bei; Borneman, James; Becker, J. Ole

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the potential impact of various Fusarium strains on the population development of sugarbeet cyst nematodes. Fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt that were obtained from a field suppressive to that nematode. Twenty-six strains of Fusarium spp. were subjected to a phylogenic analysis of their rRNA-ITS nucleotide sequences. Seven genetically distinct Fusarium strains were evaluated for their ability to influence population development of H. schachtii and crop performance in greenhouse trials. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) seedlings were transplanted into fumigated field soil amended with a single fungal strain at 1,000 propagules/g soil. One week later, the soil was infested with 250 H. schachtii J2/100 cm3 soil. Parasitized eggs were present in all seven Fusarium treatments at 1,180 degree-days after fungal infestation. The percentage of parasitism ranged from 17 to 34%. Although the most efficacious F. oxysporum strain 471 produced as many parasitized eggs as occurred in the original suppressive soil, none of the Fusarium strains reduced the population density of H. schachtii compared to the conducive check. This supports prior results that Fusarium spp. were not the primary cause of the population suppression of sugarbeet cyst nematodes at this location. PMID:19259511

  10. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  11. Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram.

    PubMed

    Osman, Awad G; Sherif, Ashraf M; Elhussein, Adil A; Mohamed, Afrah T

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD(50) and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD(50) values for these microorganisms were in 2-5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD(50) value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value. PMID:22783146

  12. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species. PMID:27019679

  13. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes. PMID:25543026

  14. Restoration of Gibberellin Production in Fusarium proliferatum by Functional Complementation of Enzymatic Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Malonek, S.; Rojas, M. C.; Hedden, P.; Hopkins, P.; Tudzynski, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine biological species, or mating populations (MPs), denoted by letters A to I, and at least 29 anamorphic Fusarium species have been identified within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Members of this species complex are the only species of the genus Fusarium that contain the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic gene cluster or at least parts of it. However, the ability of fusaria to produce GAs is so far restricted to Fusarium fujikuroi, although at least six other MPs contain all the genes of the GA biosynthetic gene cluster. Members of Fusarium proliferatum, the closest related species, have lost the ability to produce GAs as a result of the accumulation of several mutations in the coding and 5′ noncoding regions of genes P450-4 and P450-1, both encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, resulting in metabolic blocks at the early stages of GA biosynthesis. In this study, we have determined additional enzymatic blocks at the first specific steps in the GA biosynthesis pathway of F. proliferatum: the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate and the synthesis of ent-kaurene. Complementation of these enzymatic blocks by transferring the corresponding genes from GA-producing F. fujikuroi to F. proliferatum resulted in the restoration of GA production. We discuss the reasons for Fusarium species outside the G. fujikuroi species complex having no GA biosynthetic genes, whereas species distantly related to Fusarium, e.g., Sphaceloma spp. and Phaeosphaeria spp., produce GAs. PMID:16204516

  15. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  16. Dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M M; Rep, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  17. [Biosynthesis of enniatin by washed cells of Fusarium sambucinum].

    PubMed

    Minasian, A E; Chermenskĭ, D N; Bezborodov, A M

    1979-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the depsipeptide membrane ionophore--enniatin B by the washed mycelium Fusarium sambucinum Fuck 52 377 was studied. Metabolic precursors of enniatin B, alpha-ketovaleric acid, 14C-L-valine, and 14CH3-methionine, were added to the system after starvation. The amino acid content in the metabolic pool increased 1.5 times after addition of alpha-ketovaleric acid, 2.2 times after that of valine, and 2.5 times after addition of methionine. 14C-L-valine and 14CH3-methionine were incorporated into the molecule of enniatin B. Valine methylation in the molecule occurred at the level of synthesized depsipeptide. Amino acids of the metabolic pool performed the regulatory function in the synthesis. PMID:583180

  18. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hamed K; Yoshizawa, Takumi; Shier, W Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to both plants and mammals. Simple trichothecenes, including type A (e.g., T-2 toxin) and type B (e.g., deoxynivalenol), are generally less toxic than macrocyclic trichothecenes. We sought to determine if simple trichothecenes are a potential source of candidates for development as bioherbicides, which require high phytotoxicity and low mammalian toxicity. We examined 28 simple trichothecenes in vitro for phytotoxicity using a small aquatic plant, Lemna pausicostata, and for mammalian toxicity using four cultured mammalian cell lines. Several structure-activity relationships were identified, including the following two, which may be relevant to bioherbicide development: peracetylation of type B trichothecenes and de-epoxidation of type A trichothecenes both substantially reduced mammalian toxicity with little effect on phytotoxicity. It was concluded that simple trichothecenes possessing strong phytotoxicity and minimal mammalian toxicity in vitro can be identified. PMID:23933195

  19. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  20. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ΔTRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ΔTRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to

  1. Variation in nucleotide sequence of TRI1 in 13 trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium: evidence for a complex evolutionary history of a mycotoxin biosynthetic locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by several genera of fungi, including some agriculturally important Fusarium species. In the two species, Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides, that have been examined most thoroughly, trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: (1) ...

  2. Genotyping and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycosis in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhavi; Jongman, Marit; Das, Shukla; Snehaa, K; Bhattacharya, S N; Seyedmousavi, S; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2016-08-01

    Onychomycosis refers to fungal infection of the nail and is commonly caused by dermatophytes, while yeasts and non-dermatophytic molds (NDM) are increasingly recognized as pathogens in nail infections. The present study was done to delineate molecular epidemiology of Fusarium onychomycosis in India. Five hundred nail samples of Indian patients clinically suspected of onychomycosis were subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Representative Fusarium isolates were further identified to species level by multi-locus sequencing for internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1-α) and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) regions (primer pairs: ITS1/ITS4, EF1/EF2, 5f2/7cr, respectively). These representative strains were also tested for in vitro antifungal susceptibility by the broth microdilution method. Members of the genus Fusarium proved to be the most common NDM responsible for onychomycosis. The Fusarium spp. responsible for onychomycosis belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (F. keratoplasticum and F. falciforme) and Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (F. proliferatum, F. acutatum and F. sacchari). Antifungal susceptibility results indicated that amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal across all isolates (MIC ranging 0.5-2 mg/L), followed by voriconazole (MIC ranging 1-8 µg/ml). However, a large variation was shown in susceptibility to posaconazole (MIC ranging 0.5 to >16 µg/ml). To conclude, we identified different Fusarium spp. responsible for onychomycosis in India with variation within species in susceptibility to antifungal agents, showing that fusariosis requires correct and prompt diagnosis as well as antifungal susceptibility testing. PMID:27138574

  3. Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Sanna; Nikulin, Marjo; Berg, Seija; Parikka, Päivi; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa

    Farmers' exposure to airborne dust, fungi and possibly also to Fusarium toxins during the drying and milling of grain and feeding of cattle was studied on eight Finnish farms. Airborne viable and total spores were collected on polycarbonate filters. Spore concentrations and fungal flora were determined by cultivation and epifluorescence microscope counting. Eighteen airborne dust samples were taken on glass-fiber filters with a high-volume sampler, and biological toxicity was tested from those samples. In toxic dust samples, Fusarium toxins were analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fungi and Fusarium toxins were also analyzed in ten grain samples collected from the farms during the air sampling. Yeasts, as well as species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Absidia and Fusarium occurred in the air at all three stages of grain handling. Airborne spore concentrations ranged from 103 to 10 6 cfu m -3 for viable fungi and from 10 5 to 10 7 spores m -3 for total spores; airborne dust concentrations varied from 0.04 to 81.1 mg m -3. Low deoxynivalenol concentrations (3 and 20 ng m -3) were found in two air samples collected during milling. Fusarium spp. were identified in eight grain samples, and DON concentrations of 0.004-11 mg kg -1 were detected in all samples analyzed. Although any conclusion on Finnish farmers' exposure to mycotoxins cannot be done on the basis of this small data, it can be assumed that toxigenic fungi and Fusarium toxins may occur in the air and inhalation exposure of farmers to Fusarium toxins is possible in agricultural environment.

  4. Cross-Species Hybridization with Fusarium verticillioides Microarrays Reveals New Insights into Fusarium fujikuroi Nitrogen Regulation and the Role of AreA and NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In filamentous fungi, the GATA-type transcription factor AreA plays a major role in transcriptional activation of genes needed to utilize poor nitrogen sources. Previously we have shown that in Fusarium fujikuroi AreA also controls genes involved in biosynthesis of nitrogen-free secondary metabolit...

  5. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt. PMID:25460190

  6. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

  7. Corn seedling disease, fusaric acid as the wilt toxin and the need for biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) was first discovered during the laboratory culture of Fusarium heterosporum, and was one of the first fungal metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of wilt symptoms of plants especially under adverse conditions. In addition to a primary role in plant pathoge...

  8. FUSARIUM FOETENS, A NEW SPECIES PATHOGENIC TO ELATIOR BEGONIA (BEGONIA X HIEMALIS) HYBRIDS AND THE SISTER TAXON OF THE FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM SPECIES COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new disease was recently discovered in Elatior hybrid begonia (Begonia x hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting. A species of Fusarium was consistently isolated from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. This spe...

  9. An adaptive evolutionary shift in Fusarium head blight pathogen populations is driving the rapid spread of more toxigenic Fusarium graminerarum in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic fungi responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) place significant constraints on the production of cereals worldwide and contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety. A fraction of the global FHB species and trichothecene chemotype diversity i...

  10. Progress in breeding for tolerance to Fusarium wilt (FOV) races 1 and 4 in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vulnerability of cotton production in California to Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] highlights the need for comprehensive research to protect the future of the cotton industry in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A recently identified problematic strain of Fusarium (race ...

  11. Species and trichothecene genotypes of the Fusarium graminearum species complex causing head blight of wheat in Rio Grande do Sul State, 2011 season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of global concern to wheat especially where legislation sets maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins, including Brazil. The disease is caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) which are commonly classified into three trichothecene ch...

  12. Fast and Accurate Microplate Method (Biolog MT2) for Detection of Fusarium Fungicides Resistance/Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Kotowicz, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (BiologTM) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reports concerning the use of this technical tool to determine fungicides resistance of the Fusarium isolates. For this reason, the objectives of this study are to develop a fast method for Fusarium resistance to fungicides detection and to validate the effectiveness approach between both traditional hole-plate and MT2 microplates assays. In presented study MT2 microplate-based assay was evaluated for potential use as an alternative resistance detection method. This was carried out using three commercially available fungicides, containing following active substances: triazoles (tebuconazole), benzimidazoles (carbendazim) and strobilurins (azoxystrobin), in six concentrations (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2%), for nine selected Fusarium isolates. In this study, the particular concentrations of each fungicides was loaded into MT2 microplate wells. The wells were inoculated with the Fusarium mycelium suspended in PM4-IF inoculating fluid. Before inoculation the suspension was standardized for each isolates into 75% of transmittance. Traditional hole-plate method was used as a control assay. The fungicides concentrations in control method were the following: 0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50%. Strong relationships between MT2 microplate and traditional hole

  13. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium-Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sink, Stacy; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Hulcr, Jiri; Kasson, Matthew T; Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Ploetz, Jill N; Carrillo, Daniel; Campbell, Alina; Duncan, Rita E; Liyanage, Pradeepa N H; Eskalen, Akif; Na, Francis; Geiser, David M; Bateman, Craig; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Sharon, Michal; Aoki, Takayuki; Cossé, Allard A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-09-01

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symbionts in paired mandibular mycangia from their natal gallery to woody hosts where they are cultivated in galleries as a source of food. Native to Asia, several exotic Euwallacea species were introduced into the United States and Israel within the past two decades and they now threaten urban landscapes, forests and avocado production. To assess species limits and to date the evolutionary diversification of the mutualists, we reconstructed the evolutionary histories of key representatives of the Fusarium and Euwallacea clades using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Twelve species-level lineages, termed AF 1-12, were identified within the monophyletic AFC and seven among the Fusarium-farming Euwallacea. Bayesian diversification-time estimates placed the origin of the Euwallacea-Fusarium mutualism near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ∼19-24 Mya. Most Euwallacea spp. appear to be associated with one species of Fusarium, but two species farmed two closely related fusaria. Euwallacea sp. #2 in Miami-Dade County, Florida cultivated Fusarium spp. AF-6 and AF-8 on avocado, and Euwallacea sp. #4 farmed Fusarium ambrosium AF-1 and Fusarium sp. AF-11 on Chinese tea in Sri Lanka. Cophylogenetic analyses indicated that the Euwallacea and Fusarium phylogenies were largely incongruent, apparently due to the beetles switching fusarial symbionts (i.e., host shifts) at least five times during the evolution of this mutualism. Three cospeciation events between Euwallacea and their AFC symbionts were detected, but randomization tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that the putative parallel cladogenesis is a stochastic pattern. Lastly, two collections of Euwallacea sp. #2 from Miami

  14. Fast and Accurate Microplate Method (Biolog MT2) for Detection of Fusarium Fungicides Resistance/Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Frąc, Magdalena; Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Kotowicz, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (Biolog(TM)) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reports concerning the use of this technical tool to determine fungicides resistance of the Fusarium isolates. For this reason, the objectives of this study are to develop a fast method for Fusarium resistance to fungicides detection and to validate the effectiveness approach between both traditional hole-plate and MT2 microplates assays. In presented study MT2 microplate-based assay was evaluated for potential use as an alternative resistance detection method. This was carried out using three commercially available fungicides, containing following active substances: triazoles (tebuconazole), benzimidazoles (carbendazim) and strobilurins (azoxystrobin), in six concentrations (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2%), for nine selected Fusarium isolates. In this study, the particular concentrations of each fungicides was loaded into MT2 microplate wells. The wells were inoculated with the Fusarium mycelium suspended in PM4-IF inoculating fluid. Before inoculation the suspension was standardized for each isolates into 75% of transmittance. Traditional hole-plate method was used as a control assay. The fungicides concentrations in control method were the following: 0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50%. Strong relationships between MT2 microplate and traditional hole

  15. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

  16. Combined effect of chitosan and water activity on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize-based media.

    PubMed

    Ferrochio, Laura V; Cendoya, Eugenia; Zachetti, Vanessa G L; Farnochi, Maria C; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, Maria L

    2014-08-18

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the in vitro efficacy of chitosan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/mL) under different water availabilities (0.995, 0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25°C on lag phase, growth rate and fumonisin production by isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. The presence of chitosan affected growth and fumonisin production, and this effect was dependent on the dose and aW treatment used. The presence of chitosan increased the lag phase, and reduced the growth rate of both Fusarium species significantly at all concentrations used, especially at 0.93 aW. Also, significant reduction of fumonisin production was observed in both Fusarium species at all conditions assayed. The present study has shown the combined effects of chitosan and aW on growth and fumonisin production by the two most important Fusarium species present on maize. Low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan with more than 70% of degree of deacetylation (DD) at 0.5mg/mL was able to significantly reduce growth rate and fumonisin production on maize-based media, with maximum levels of reduction in both parameters obtained at the highest doses used. As fumonisins are unavoidable contaminants in food and feed chains, their presence needs to be reduced to minimize their effects on human and animal health and to diminish the annual market loss through rejected maize. In this scenario post-harvest use of chitosan could be an important alternative treatment. PMID:24929683

  17. An antibody that confers plant disease resistance targets a membrane-bound glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu-Shi; Xing, Shu; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jin-He; Fan, Chao; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jin-Long; Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Sheng; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-05-01

    Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against globally important toxigenic Fusarium are inadequate. CWP2, a Fusarium genus-specific antibody, confers durable resistance to different Fusarium pathogens that infect cereals and other crops, producing mycotoxins. However, the nature of the CWP2 target is not known. Thus, investigation of the gene coding for the CWP2 antibody target will likely provide critical insights into the mechanism underlying the resistance mediated by this disease-resistance antibody. Immunoblots and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels containing cell wall proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg) revealed that a glyoxal oxidase (GLX) is the CWP2 antigen. Cellular localization studies showed that GLX is localized to the plasma membrane. This GLX efficiently catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production; this enzymatic activity was specifically inhibited by the CWP2 antibody. GLX-deletion strains of Fg, F. verticillioides (Fv) and F. oxysporum had significantly reduced virulence on plants. The GLX-deletion Fg and Fv strains had markedly reduced mycotoxin accumulation, and the expression of key genes in mycotoxin metabolism was downregulated. This study reveals a single gene-encoded and highly conserved cellular surface antigen that is specifically recognized by the disease-resistance antibody CWP2 and regulates both virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium species. PMID:26720747

  18. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  19. Fusarium culmorum is a single phylogenetic species based on multilocus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Obanor, Friday; Erginbas-Orakci, G; Tunali, B; Nicol, J M; Chakraborty, S

    2010-09-01

    Fusarium culmorum is a major pathogen of wheat and barley causing head blight and crown rot in cooler temperate climates of Australia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To better understand its evolutionary history we partially sequenced single copy nuclear genes encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF), reductase (RED) and phosphate permease (PHO) in 100 F. culmorum isolates with 11 isolates of Fusarium crookwellense, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium pseudograminearum. Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence (MLS) data using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony analysis showed that F. culmorum from wheat is a single phylogenetic species with no significant linkage disequilibrium and little or no lineage development along geographic origin. Both MLS and TEF and RED gene sequence analysis separated the four Fusarium species used and delineated three to four groups within the F. culmorum clade. But the PHO gene could not completely resolve isolates into their respective species. Fixation index and gene flow suggest significant genetic exchange between the isolates from distant geographic regions. A lack of strong lineage structure despite the geographic separation of the three collections indicates a frequently recombining species and/or widespread distribution of genotypes due to international trade, tourism and long-range dispersal of macroconidia. Moreover, the two mating type genes were present in equal proportion among the F. culmorum collection used in this study, leaving open the possibility of sexual reproduction. PMID:20943185

  20. Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.

    PubMed

    Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

    2014-04-01

    Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

  1. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    France, R. A.; S.Abawi, G.

    1994-01-01

    Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an earlier onset and increased severity of Fusarium wilt symptoms and plant stunting. However, the Fop-resistant Calima developed symptoms of Fusarium wilt only in the presence of M. incognita. Genotype A-107 (resistant to both M. incognita and Fop) exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms and a moderately susceptible reaction to Fop only after the breakdown of its M. incognita resistance by elevated incubation temperatures (27 C). Root galling and reproduction of M. incognita was generally increased as inoculum density of M. incognita was increased on the M. incognita susceptible cultivars. However, these factors were decreased as the inoculum density of Fop was increased. It was concluded that severe infections of bean roots by M. incognita increase the severity of Fusarium wilt on Fop-susceptible genotypes and may modify the resistant reaction to Fop. PMID:19279917

  2. Maize kernel antioxidants and their potential involvement in Fusarium ear rot resistance.

    PubMed

    Picot, Adeline; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Pons, Sebastien; Marchegay, Gisèle; Barreau, Christian; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Roucolle, Joël; Daveau, Florie; Caron, Daniel; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2013-04-10

    The potential involvement of antioxidants (α-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and ferulic acid) in the resistance of maize varieties to Fusarium ear rot was the focus of this study. These antioxidants were present in all maize kernel stages, indicating that the fumonisin-producing fungi (mainly Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum ) are likely to face them during ear colonization. The effect of these compounds on fumonisin biosynthesis was studied in F. verticillioides liquid cultures. In carotenoid-treated cultures, no inhibitory effect of fumonisin accumulation was observed while a potent inhibitory activity was obtained for sublethal doses of α-tocopherol (0.1 mM) and ferulic acid (1 mM). Using a set of genotypes with moderate to high susceptibility to Fusarium ear rot, ferulic acid was significantly lower in immature kernels of the very susceptible group. Such a relation was nonexistent for tocopherols and carotenoids. Also, ferulic acid in immature kernels ranged from 3 to 8.5 mg/g, i.e., at levels consistent with the in vitro inhibitory concentration. Overall, our data support the fact that ferulic acid may contribute to resistance to Fusarium ear rot and/or fumonisin accumulation. PMID:23484637

  3. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. PMID:25732000

  4. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  5. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  6. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  7. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  8. Mutual Exclusion between Fungal Species of the Fusarium Head Blight Complex in a Wheat Spike.

    PubMed

    Siou, Dorothée; Gélisse, Sandrine; Laval, Valérie; Suffert, Frédéric; Lannou, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. FHB is caused by a species complex that includes two genera of Ascomycetes: Microdochium and Fusarium. Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium poae, and Microdochium nivale are among the most common FHB species in Europe and were chosen for these experiments. Field studies and surveys show that two or more species often coexist within the same field or grain sample. In this study, we investigated the competitiveness of isolates of different species against isolates of F. graminearum at the scale of a single spike. By performing point inoculations of a single floret, we ensured that each species was able to establish independent infections and competed for spike colonization only. The fungal colonization was assessed in each spike by quantitative PCR. After establishing that the spike colonization was mainly downwards, we compared the relative colonization of each species in coinoculations. Classical analysis of variance suggested a competitive interaction but remained partly inconclusive because of a large between-spike variance. Further data exploration revealed a clear exclusion of one of the competing species and the complete absence of coexistence at the spike level. PMID:25934622

  9. Identification of mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium and Stachybotrys obtained from Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Szathmary, C I; Mirocha, C J; Palyusik, M; Pathre, S V

    1976-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium and Stachybotrys spp. and crude extracts from these fungi were obtained from Hungary and the U.S.S.R. and used for the evaluation of the mycotoxins they produced. The cultures were grown on millet and oats and extracted in Budapest, Hungary (Veterinary Medical Research Institute) and chemically analyzed at the University of Minnesota using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the rat skin bioassay. Zearalenone was found in most of the Fusarium cultures, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and HT-2 toxin were found in extracts of Fusarium poae and F. sporotrichioies. A special effort was made to isolate the steroid-like toxins reported in the early Russian literature as sporofusarin and poaefusarin. None of the extracts from the Fusarium species yielded poaefusarin or sporofusarin when analyzed by our chemical methods or by those of L.E. Olifson, S.M. Kenina, and V.L. Kartashova, 1972. We therefore accounted for the toxicity of the Fusarium extracts as due to the 12,13,epoxytrichothecenes. One culture of Stachybotrys alternans yielded a macrocyclic ester of 12,13-epoxytrichothecene which, upon hydrolysis, yielded verrucarol; a steroid-like molecule (SB-3) was also isolated. The former had skin-irritant activity but SB-3 did not; the latter exhibited cardiac activity on the heart of the cockroach. PMID:988785

  10. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains and several grasses, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), an important forage crop, but also a common weed in wheat, rice and maize agroecosystem in southern Brazil. Although i...

  11. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  12. Population dynamics of the fusarium head blight biocontrol agent cryptococcus flavescens OH182.9 on wheat anthers and heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 (NRRL Y-30216) reduces Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited by Fusarium graminearum and DON contamination of grain in greenhouse and field settings. Yet little is known about the population dynamics of OH 182.9 on wheat heads and anthers from the time of inoculating he...

  13. Optimization of Real Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) for Fusarium pseudograminearum and F. culmorum on wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium crown rot of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species, of which F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum are the most important. Crown rot reduces wheat yields by an average of 9% in the Pacific Northwest. Traditional methods of species identification have included morphological charact...

  14. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus velezensis RC 218 was originally isolated for the anthers of wheat as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearium, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen with in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study ...

  15. Rainfastness of Prothioconazole+Tebuconazole for Fusarium head blight and Deoxynivalenol management in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides are most warranted for control of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, when wet, rainy conditions occurs during anthesis. However, it is unclear whether rainfall directly following application affects fungicide efficacy against...

  16. Population Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium, and Genetic Diversity in Soft Winter Wheat Enriched for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, in U.S. winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during the past two decades has resulted in increased emphasis on development of resistant cultivars. Understanding the effect of focused breeding efforts fo...

  17. Development of a field inoculation method to screen for sugar beet seedling resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in many sugar beet production areas throughout the U.S. and yield losses can be devastating. Also seedling damping off caused by Fusarium can result in serious damage to the sugar beet stand establishment. This can lead to a severe loss in yield. The object...

  18. BIOCONTROL AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM-INDUCED CHANGES IN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN TOMATO LEAVES AND ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 was previously shown to reduce incidence of Fusarium wilt of tomato through an uncharacterized host-mediated response. Since phenolic compounds are involved in the defense response of tomato to pathogens and other stressors, this work was undert...

  19. Varying Response of Sugar Beet Lines to Different Fusarium Oxysporum F. sp. Betae Isolates from the United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae, the cause of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet, were tested for their interaction with different sugar beet lines. In addition, two of these isolates were tested in the presence or absence of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii. Differen...

  20. Fusarium spp. Associated with Field-Grown Grain of Near-Isogenic Low Lignin and Wild-Type Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium spp. associated with field-grown grain of near-isogenic low lignin and wild-type sorghum. Deanna Funnell-Harris and Jeff Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE Previous studies indicated that low lignin brown midrib (bmr) sorghum may be more resistant to Fusarium spp. than wild-type and that phen...

  1. Effects of integrating cultivar resistance and fungicide application on fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab, caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, can cause significant economic losses in small grain production. There is a need to develop effective management strategies for FHB. Five field experiments were conducted from 2007 to 2009 to determine the effects of integ...

  2. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  3. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  4. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of Durum Alien Disomic Addition Line with Enhanced Tolerance to Fusarium Head Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes). Current durum cultivars have very little or no FHB resistance. A wild relative, diploid wheatgrass Lophopyrum elongatum (Hos...

  5. Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae Utilizing Phylogenetic Analysis and Vegetative Compatibility Grouping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. Previous research into FOB, has demonstrated that isolates known to be pathogenic on sugar beet can be highly variable. This diver...

  6. Relative Aggressiveness and Production of 3- or 15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol by Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is the principal cause of fusarium head blight in North America, a disease that has cased severe losses in yield and quality of cereals. In North America, the vast majority of F. graminearum isolates produce either 3- or 15- acetyl deoxynivalenol (ADON) in addition to D...

  7. Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a ...

  8. One Fungus, One Name: Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that preserves longstanding use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine and basic research. This phylogenetically-guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to...

  9. Research solutions in a non-model system: developing tools to understand Sugar Beet-Fusarium Oxysporum interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (Fob), is a problem for sugar beet production throughout the United States and Europe. Little is known about how Fob infects sugar beet roots to elicit disease symptoms. Additionally, a high rate of non-patho...

  10. Identification and mapping of quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight resistance in emmer and durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, presently threatens durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) production in many durum-growing regions. It is critical to identify useful sources of FHB resistance for durum wheat. A domesticated emmer wheat (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccu...

  11. Post-flowering moisture increased Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in North Carolina field experiment with winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current models to forecast Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in wheat are based on weather near anthesis, and breeding for resistance to Fusarium often relies on irrigation before and shortly after anthesis to encourage disease development. The effects of post-anthesis envi...

  12. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  13. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  14. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase detoxifies deoxynivalenol and provides high levels of resistance to Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that results in huge economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and decreas...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATES FROM COMMON BEAN AND SUGAR BEET USIG PATHOGENICITY ASSAYS AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract. Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common bean and Fusarium yellows of sugar beet in the Central High Plains (CHP) region of the United States with yield losses approaching 30% under appropriate environmental conditions. The objective of this study was ...

  16. Development and evaluation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, is an important soilborne pathogen in many areas of the world where spinach is grown. The pathogen is persistent in acid soils of maritime western Oregon and Washington, the only region of the USA suitable for commercial spi...

  17. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  18. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) [caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe; telomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch] is a major disease of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the US mid- Atlantic region. The objective of this research was to derive soft red winter wheat (SRWW) germplasm with enhanced ...

  19. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WEBB, KIMBERLY M.*, PAUL COVEY, BRETT KUWITZKY, AND MIA HANSON, USDA-ARS, Sugar Beet Research Unit, 1701 Centre Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes. Fusarium oxysp...

  20. Examining the transcriptional response in wheat Fhb1 near-isogenic lines to Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum that affects wheat and other small grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulate during infection and increa...

  1. Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

  2. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition. PMID:22186063

  3. Responses to recurrent index selection for reduced fusarium ear rot and lodging and for increased yield in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium ear rot caused by the pathogen Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg damages maize (Zea mays L.) grain production and is associated with contamination of grain by fumonisin, a mycotoxin harmful to both humans and animals. Recurrent selection may be an effective way to combine improveme...

  4. Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli in transgenic Gladiolus plants expressing either a bacterial chloroperoxidase or fungal chitinase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three antifungal genes, a non-heme chloroperoxidase from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, and an exochitinase and endochitinase from Fusarium venetanum under regulation by the CaMV 35S promoter, were used to transform Gladiolus for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Gladiolus plants were conf...

  5. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  6. Genomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis OH 131.1 and coculturing with Cryptococcus flavescens for control of fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis OH131.1 is a bacterial antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes Fusarium head blight in wheat. The genome of B. subtilis OH131.1 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed to understand its potential to produce bioactive metabolites. The analysis identified 6 sy...

  7. Relationships among resistances to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and contamination by fumonisin and aflatoxin in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus cause ear rots of maize and contaminate the grain with mycotoxins (fumonisin or aflatoxin). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between resistance to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and fumonisin and a...

  8. Functional roles of FgLaeA in controlling secondary metabolism, sexual development, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in cereal crops, produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone in infected plants. Here, we focused on the function of FgLaeA in F. graminearum, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans LaeA encoding the global regulator for both s...

  9. A molecular based strategy for rapid diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species associated to cereal grains from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, D A; Marín, P; Iglesias, J; Presello, D A; Vattuone, M A; Catalan, C A N; Gonzalez Jaen, M T

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium species are worldwide causal agents of ear rot in cereals. Their toxigenic potential is a health risk for both humans and animals. In Argentina, most identification of these fungi has been based on morphological and cross-fertility criteria which are time consuming and require considerable expertise in Fusarium taxonomy and physiology. DNA based approaches have been reported as rapid, sensitive and specific alternatives to identify the main fumonisin and trichothecene-producing Fusarium species. In this work, we used PCR assays and the partial sequence of TEF1-alpha gene (Translation Elongation Factor-1 alpha) to identify the fumonisin and trichothecene-producing species in Fusarium isolates from diverse regions of Argentina. The relative efficiency and reliability of those methods to improve mycotoxin risk prediction in this country were also assessed. Species-specific PCR assays were targeted toward multicopy IGS (Intergenic Spacer of rDNA units) and on the toxin biosynthetic genes FUM1 (fumonisins) and TRI13 and TRI7 genes (trichothecenes). PCR assays based on FUM1 gene and IGS sequences allowed detection and discrimination of the fumonisin producers Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. Molecular identification of nonfumonisin producers from Gibberella fujikuroi species complex was possible after determination of TEF1-alplha gene sequences, which indicated the presence of Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium andiyazi and Fusarium thapsinum. TEF-1 alpha gene sequences also allowed discrimination of the different species of the Fusarium graminearum complex (F. graminearum sensu lato) as F. graminearum sensu stricto, Fusarium meridionale and Fusarium boothii. The last two species belonged to NIV chemotype and were detected for the first time in the subtropical region of Argentina while F. graminearum sensu stricto was DON producer only, which was also confirmed by specific PCR assays based on TRI137/TRI7 genes. Our results indicated that the PCR

  10. Disseminated Fusarium infection originating from paronychia in a neutropenic patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Greg P; Cafardi, Jennifer A; Sellheyer, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A

    2010-04-01

    Fusarium is a saprophytic organism that is widely found distributed in soil, subterranean and aerial plants, plant debris, and other organic substrates. It can cause local tissue infections in immunocompetent patients, such as onychomycosis, bone and joint infections, or sinusitis. The incidence of disseminated disease has notably increased since the initial cases of disseminated Fusarium were described, particularly affecting immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a 39-year-old man hospitalized with newly diagnosed acute myelocytic leukemia who developed disseminated Fusarium infection originating from toenail paronychia in the setting of neutropenia. Pathologic diagnosis of Fusarium is difficult because the septate hyphae of Fusarium are difficult to distinguish from Aspergillus, which has a more favorable outcome. Cultures of potential sources of infection as well as tissue cultures are essential in identifying the organism and initiating early aggressive therapy. PMID:20486458

  11. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests. PMID:25529980

  12. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis after photo refractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Ducange, Pietro; Volante, Veronica; Benatti, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), performed two weeks prior; slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ulcer and stromal infiltration. After 5 days of antifungal and antibacteric treatment, the infiltrate progressively increased so that a therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary. The microbiological analyses revealed the presence of fungal filaments. Twenty days after surgery the patient had recurrent fungal infiltrate in the donor cornea with wound dehiscence. We performed a second penetrating keratoplasty. With the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight analysis (MALDI-TOF) we identified a Fusarium solani. Intravenous amphothericine B, a combination of intracameral and intrastromal voriconazole and intracameral amphotericine B were administered. After 6 months from the last surgery the infection was eradicated. The management of fungal keratitis after PRK depends on many factors: In our experience, a prompt keratoplasty and the use of intracameral antifungal medication proved to be very effective. PMID:24178402

  13. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rohan G. T.; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases. PMID:26635820

  14. Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-08-01

    The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

  15. A genetic map of Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum).

    PubMed Central

    Jurgenson, J E; Bowden, R L; Zeller, K A; Leslie, J F; Alexander, N J; Plattner, R D

    2002-01-01

    We constructed a genetic linkage map of Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) by crossing complementary nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants of G. zeae strains R-5470 (from Japan) and Z-3639 (from Kansas). We selected 99 nitrate-utilizing (recombinant) progeny and analyzed them for amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). We used 34 pairs of two-base selective AFLP primers and identified 1048 polymorphic markers that mapped to 468 unique loci on nine linkage groups. The total map length is approximately 1300 cM with an average interval of 2.8 map units between loci. Three of the nine linkage groups contain regions in which there are high levels of segregation distortion. Selection for the nitrate-utilizing recombinant progeny can explain two of the three skewed regions. Two linkage groups have recombination patterns that are consistent with the presence of intercalary inversions. Loci governing trichothecene toxin amount and type (deoxynivalenol or nivalenol) map on linkage groups IV and I, respectively. The locus governing the type of trichothecene produced (nivalenol or deoxynivalenol) cosegregated with the TRI5 gene (which encodes trichodiene synthase) and probably maps in the trichothecene gene cluster. This linkage map will be useful in population genetic studies, in map-based cloning, for QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis, for ordering genomic libraries, and for genomic comparisons of related species. PMID:11973300

  16. Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in F. avenaceum. Seven monosaccharides (arabinose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, glucose), five disaccharides (cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and three polysaccharides (dextrin, inulin and xylan) were used as substrates. Three F. avenaceum strains were used in the experiments. These were all able to grow and produce aurofusarin on the tested carbon sources. Moniliformin and enniatins were produced on all carbon types, except on lactose, which suggest a common conserved regulation mechanism. Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:24064720

  17. Optimization of Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Ashari, Zeynab; Iravani, Siavash; Abbasi, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. Objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by Fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. The reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1-10 mM) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 mM) as the electron donor, and phosphate buffer (pH= 7, 100 mM). The samples were taken from the reaction mixtures at different times, and the absorbance (430 nm) of the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles hydrosols was read freshly (without freezing) and immediately after dilution (1:40). SEM and TEM analyses were performed on selected samples. The presence of AgNO3 (0.1 mM) in the culture as enzyme inducer, and glucose (560 mM) as electron donor had positive effects on nanoparticle production. In SEM micrographs, silver nanoparticles were almost spherical, single (25-50 nm) or in aggregates (100 nm), attached to the surface of biomass. The reaction mixture was successfully optimized to increase the yield of silver nanoparticles production. More details of the location of nanoparticles production by this fungus were revealed, which support the hypothesis that silver nanoparticles are synthesized intracellularly and not extracellularly. PMID:24250635

  18. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Guoyi; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kistler, H Corby; Gao, Lixin; Ma, Li-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum threatens world-wide wheat production, resulting in both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. We reconstructed the global F. graminearum gene regulatory network (GRN) from a large collection of transcriptomic data using Bayesian network inference, a machine-learning algorithm. This GRN reveals connectivity between key regulators and their target genes. Focusing on key regulators, this network contains eight distinct but interwoven modules. Enriched for unique functions, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, transcription, translation and stress responses, each module exhibits distinct expression profiles. Evolutionarily, the F. graminearum genome can be divided into core regions shared with closely related species and variable regions harboring genes that are unique to F. graminearum and perform species-specific functions. Interestingly, the inferred top regulators regulate genes that are significantly enriched from the same genomic regions (P < 0.05), revealing a compartmentalized network structure that may reflect network rewiring related to specific adaptation of this plant pathogen. This first-ever reconstructed filamentous fungal GRN primes our understanding of pathogenicity at the systems biology level and provides enticing prospects for novel disease control strategies involving the targeting of master regulators in pathogens. The program can be used to construct GRNs of other plant pathogens. PMID:26990214

  19. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis after photo refractive keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Ducange, Pietro; Volante, Veronica; Benatti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a history of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), performed two weeks prior; slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ulcer and stromal infiltration. After 5 days of antifungal and antibacteric treatment, the infiltrate progressively increased so that a therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was necessary. The microbiological analyses revealed the presence of fungal filaments. Twenty days after surgery the patient had recurrent fungal infiltrate in the donor cornea with wound dehiscence. We performed a second penetrating keratoplasty. With the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight analysis (MALDI-TOF) we identified a Fusarium solani. Intravenous amphothericine B, a combination of intracameral and intrastromal voriconazole and intracameral amphotericine B were administered. After 6 months from the last surgery the infection was eradicated. The management of fungal keratitis after PRK depends on many factors: In our experience, a prompt keratoplasty and the use of intracameral antifungal medication proved to be very effective. PMID:24178402

  20. Coordinated and Distinct Functions of Velvet Proteins in Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Nan; Zhang, Hanxing; Hu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wenzhao; Calvo, Ana M.; Harris, Steven D.; Chen, She

    2014-01-01

    Velvet-domain-containing proteins are broadly distributed within the fungal kingdom. In the corn pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, previous studies showed that the velvet protein F. verticillioides VE1 (FvVE1) is critical for morphological development, colony hydrophobicity, toxin production, and pathogenicity. In this study, tandem affinity purification of FvVE1 revealed that FvVE1 can form a complex with the velvet proteins F. verticillioides VelB (FvVelB) and FvVelC. Phenotypic characterization of gene knockout mutants showed that, as in the case of FvVE1, FvVelB regulated conidial size, hyphal hydrophobicity, fumonisin production, and oxidant resistance, while FvVelC was dispensable for these biological processes. Comparative transcriptional analysis of eight genes involved in the ROS (reactive oxygen species) removal system revealed that both FvVE1 and FvVelB positively regulated the transcription of a catalase-encoding gene, F. verticillioides CAT2 (FvCAT2). Deletion of FvCAT2 resulted in reduced oxidant resistance, providing further explanation of the regulation of oxidant resistance by velvet proteins in the fungal kingdom. PMID:24792348

  1. The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Tadashi; Morimiya, Tatsuo; Johdo, Osamu; Nakamura, Takumi

    2007-09-01

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian soybean-fermented food produced by filamentous fungi, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. We isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Fusarium sp. BLB. The genomic gene was 856 bp in length and contained two introns. An isolated cDNA clone encoded a protein of 250 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of FP showed highest homology, of 76%, with that of trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum. The hydrolysis activity of FP toward synthetic peptide was higher than that of any other protease tested, including Nattokinases. Furthermore, the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood. PMID:17827689

  2. Fatal disseminated fusarium infection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in complete remission

    PubMed Central

    Austen, B; McCarthy, H; Wilkins, B; Smith, A; Duncombe, A

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium species are increasingly recognised as serious pathogens in the immunocompromised. The outcome in the context of persistent severe neutropenia has been almost universally fatal. However, there have been several case reports of successful treatment if neutrophil recovery can be achieved. This report presents the case of a fatality that occurred despite neutrophil recovery. A 67 year old man developed disseminated fusariosis during the neutropenic phase of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Fusarium dimerum was isolated from blood cultures. This species is highly unusual and very few case reports exist in the literature. An initial response to amphotericin treatment coincided with neutrophil recovery but a subsequent relapse occurred, despite adequate neutrophil counts, which proved fatal. It is postulated that reseeding of the blood from an occult site, namely the right vitreum in this case, led to this secondary relapse despite achieving complete leukaemic remission. Key Words: fusarium • disseminated • neutropenia • remission PMID:11376027

  3. Polyamine metabolism in flax in response to treatment with pathogenic and non–pathogenic Fusarium strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Namysł, Katarzyna; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flax crop yield is limited by various environmental stress factors, but the largest crop losses worldwide are caused by Fusarium infection. Polyamines are one of the many plant metabolites possibly involved in the plant response to infection. However, in flax plants the polyamine composition, genes involved in polyamine synthesis, and in particular their regulation, were previously unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the polyamine synthesis pathway in flax and its involvement in response to pathogen infection. It is well established that polyamines are essential for the growth and development of both plants and fungi, but their role in pathogen infection still remains unknown. In our study we correlated the expression of genes involved in polyamine metabolism with the polyamine levels in plant tissues and compared the results for flax seedlings treated with two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium. We observed an increase in the expression of genes participating in polyamine synthesis after fungal infection, and it was reflected in an increase of polyamine content in the plant tissues. The highest level of mRNA was characteristic for ornithine decarboxylase during infection with all tested, pathogenic and non-pathogenic, Fusarium strains and the arginine decarboxylase gene during infection with the pathogenic strain of Fusarium culmorum. The main polyamine identified in the flax seedlings was putrescine, and its level changed the most during infection. Moreover, the considerable increase in the contents of cell wall-bound polyamines compared to the levels of free and conjugated polyamines may indicate that their main role during pathogen infection lies in strengthening of the cell wall. In vitro experiments showed that the polyamines inhibit Fusarium growth, which suggests that they play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in metabolism and content of polyamines indicate different defense mechanisms

  4. Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry of Fusarium Macro Conidia for Fast Isolate and Species Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongjuan; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Winkler, Wolfgang; Lohninger, Hans; Allmaier, Guenter

    The focus of this paper is the development of an approach called intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) or intact spore mass spectrometry (ISMS) based on the technique matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the rapid differentiation and identification of Fusarium species. Several parameters, which are known to affect the quality of IC mass spectra, have been investigated in detail by varying the MALDI matrix as well as the solvent system, in which the matrix has been dissolved, the solvent system for sample purification and the type of sample/MALDI matrix deposition technique. In the end characteristic as well as highly reproducible IC or IS mass spectra or peptide/protein fingerprints of three Fusarium species (F. cerealis, F. graminearum and F. poae) including 16 Fusarium isolates derived from different hosts and geographical locations have been obtained. Unscaled hierarchical cluster analysis based on ICMS data of eight selected Fusarium isolates of two species F. graminearum and F. poae revealed significant difference among the peptide/protein pattern of them. The results of the applied cluster analysis proved that, ICMS is a powerful approach for the rapid differentiation of Fusarium species. In addition, an on-target tryptic digestion was applied to Fusarium macro conidia spores to identify proteins using MALDI post source decay (PSD) fragment ion analysis. Two kinds of trypsin, namely bead-immobilized - to favor cleavage of surface-associated proteins - and non-immobilized trypsin were applied and compared. The results showed that the latter is more suitable for generating sequence tags by PSD fragment ion analysis.

  5. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  6. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  7. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-01-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  8. Determination of the ice-nucleating ability of Fusarium caucascium microconidia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Ryan H.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biological particles may be an important class of ice nuclei on regional scales. Quantitative measurements on the immersion ice-activity of spores of the common genus Fusarium have been performed. Droplets containing an average of approximately five Fusarium caucasicum microconidia were found to have a median freezing temperature of -33.6°C. The activity spectrum revealed that 0.1% and 1% of spores are active at -29.1°C and -30.7°C, respectively.

  9. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  10. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-06-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  11. Bacterial Cytochrome P450 System Catabolizing the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Michihiro; Sato, Ikuo; Ishizaka, Masumi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural toxin of fungi that cause Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals. DON accumulates in infected grains and promotes the spread of the infection on wheat, posing serious problems to grain production. The elucidation of DON-catabolic genes and enzymes in DON-degrading microbes will provide new approaches to decrease DON contamination. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 system capable of catabolizing DON in Sphingomonas sp. strain KSM1, a DON-utilizing bacterium newly isolated from lake water. The P450 gene ddnA was cloned through an activity-based screening of a KSM1 genomic library. The genes of its redox partner candidates (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]-dependent ferredoxin reductase and mitochondrial-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin) were not found adjacent to ddnA; the redox partner candidates were further cloned separately based on conserved motifs. The DON-catabolic activity was reconstituted in vitro in an electron transfer chain comprising the three enzymes and NADH, with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 6.4 mM−1 s−1. The reaction product was identified as 16-hydroxy-deoxynivalenol. A bioassay using wheat seedlings revealed that the hydroxylation dramatically reduced the toxicity of DON to wheat. The enzyme system showed similar catalytic efficiencies toward nivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, toxins that frequently cooccur with DON. These findings identify an enzyme system that catabolizes DON, leading to reduced phytotoxicity to wheat. PMID:23275503

  12. Ecophysiology of Fusarium temperatum isolated from maize in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fumero, María Verónica; Sulyok, Michael; Chulze, Sofía

    2016-01-01

    The effect of water activity (aw = 0.95, 0.98 and 0.995), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C), incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), and their interactions on growth and moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), fusaproliferin (FUS) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) production by two strains of Fusarium temperatum isolated from Argentinean maize were determined in vitro on sterile layers of maize grains. The results showed that there was a wide range of conditions for growth and mycotoxins production by F. temperatum. Both strains were found to grow faster with increasing aw and at 30°C. In relation to mycotoxin production, the two strains produced more FUS than the other mycotoxins regardless of aw or temperature evaluated (maximum = 50,000 μg g(-1)). For FUS, MON and BEA, the maximum levels were observed at 0.98 aw and 30°C (50,000, 5000 and 2000 μg g(-1) respectively). The lowest levels for these three mycotoxins were detected at 15°C and 0.95 aw (1700 and 100 μg g(-1) for FUS and MON respectively), and at 0.98 aw (400 μg g(-1) for BEA). The maximum levels of FB1 were produced at 15°C and 0.98 aw (1000 μg g(-1)). At all aw and temperatures combinations evaluated there was an increase in toxin concentrations with time incubation. The maximum levels were detected at 21 days. Statistical analyses of aw, temperature, incubation time, and the two- and three-way interactions between them showed significant effects on mycotoxins production by F. temperatum. For its versatility on growth and mycotoxin production, F. temperatum represents a toxicological risk for maize in the field and also during grain storage. PMID:26535974

  13. Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

  14. Interactions between root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium wilt disease, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Melonis in different varieties of melon.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, E; Kheiri, A; Etebarian, H R; Roostaei, A

    2004-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) are destructive pathogens on cucurbits in Varamin area of Iran. The interaction between two pathogens was studied on local melon cultivars, Garmsar and Sooski. Inoculum of Meloidogyne javanica was prepared on susceptible cultivar, Rutgers using single egg mass method in greenhouse. Inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (race 1) was prepared using Richard solution. A concentration of 2 x 10(5) micro conidia of fungus and 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 eggs of nematode was used in 1 kg of autoclaved soil. Plants were inoculated with nematode at 2-3 leave stage then with fungus 2 weeks after nematode inoculation. The experiment was conducted in factoriel design based on CRD with 20 treatments, including varieties in 2 levels (Garmsar and Sooski), nematode in 5 levels (0, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 eggs) and fungus in 2 levels (presence and absence) and 3 replicates. The index that evaluated were growth index including fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, height, Fusarium wilt index and root gall index. Results of this experiment showed that all of treatments comparison to control were significantly different (p = 0.05) in growth index. Combination of fungus and nematode (5000 eggs) caused the most decrease in growth index on Garmsar and Sooski. PMID:15759439

  15. Assessing pigmented pericarp of maize kernels as possible source of resistance to fusarium ear rot, Fusarium spp. infection and fumonisin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Giovanni; Babazadeh, Laleh; Casati, Paola; Pilu, Roberto; Salomoni, Daiana; Toffolatti, Silvia L

    2016-06-16

    One of the purposes of maize genetic improvement is the research of genotypes resistant to fusarium ear rot (FER) and fumonisin accumulation. Flavonoids in the pericarp of the kernels are considered particularly able to reduce the fumonisin accumulation (FUM). The aim of this field study was to assess the effect of flavonoids, associated with anti-insect protection and Fusarium verticillioides inoculation, on FER symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels. Two isogenic hybrids, one having pigmentation in the pericarp (P1-rr) and the other without it (P1-wr), were compared. P1-rr showed lower values of FER symptoms and FUM contamination than P1-wr only if the anti-insect protection and the F. verticillioides inoculations were applied in combination. Fusarium spp. kernel infection was not influenced by the presence of flavonoids in the pericarp. Artificial F. verticillioides inoculation was more effective than anti-insect protection in enhancing the inhibition activity of flavonoids toward FUM contamination. The interactions between FUM contamination levels and FER ratings were better modeled in the pigmented hybrid than in the unpigmented one. The variable role that the pigment played in kernel defense against FER and FUM indicates that flavonoids alone may not be completely effective in the resistance of fumonisin contamination in maize. PMID:27071055

  16. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  17. Inoculum Potential of Fusarium spp. Relates to Tillage and Straw Management in Norwegian Fields of Spring Oats

    PubMed Central

    Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Seehusen, Till; Aamot, Heidi U.; Riley, Hugh; Razzaghian, Jafar; Le, Vinh H.; Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete R.; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Brodal, Guro

    2016-01-01

    The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing) on the inoculum potential (IP) and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year’s crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fusarium dispersal, quantified by qPCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to the IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the

  18. Inoculum Potential of Fusarium spp. Relates to Tillage and Straw Management in Norwegian Fields of Spring Oats.

    PubMed

    Hofgaard, Ingerd S; Seehusen, Till; Aamot, Heidi U; Riley, Hugh; Razzaghian, Jafar; Le, Vinh H; Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete R; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Brodal, Guro

    2016-01-01

    The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing) on the inoculum potential (IP) and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year's crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fusarium dispersal, quantified by qPCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to the IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the general

  19. Evaluations of Fusarium wilt resistance in Upland cotton from Uzbek cotton germplasm resources.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Atk. Sny & Hans (FOV), in combination with Verticillium dahliae Kleb, causes a wilt disease complex in cotton that significantly reduces yield. A highly virulent strain of FOV, No. 316, was isolated that caused up to 80% plant death in commercial cotton in Uzbe...

  20. Haplotype analysis of genes for Fusarium head blight resistance in tetraploid wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haplotype analysis at the molecular marker loci associated with the known Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance QTL in wheat can be used to identify resistance genes in the resistant germplasm, and thus provides practical information of pyramiding different sources of resistance for the development ...

  1. Fusarium verticillioides gene clusters associated with biotransformation of maize allelopathic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize produces the benzoxazinones DIMBOA and DIBOA, which naturally transform into the more stable benzoxazolinones MBOA and BOA, respectively. These weed-suppressive allelopathic compounds are also implicated in resistance to microbial diseases and insect feeding. Fusarium verticillioides is able t...

  2. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  3. Regulation of secondary metabolite production in Fusarium species by the global regulator LAE1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are pathogens of corn and wheat and are capable of producing secondary metabolites that are a food safety concern. These mycotoxins include fumonins and trichothecenes which have known carcinogenic potential and can inhibit protein synthesis respectively in animals. In addition to t...

  4. Characterization and complementation of a fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster deletion in banana isolates of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity. This ascomycete is also reported from banana, but such strains do not produce fumonisins and are not pathogenic on maize seedlings. Southern analysis of several ...

  5. Fusarium graminearum: an pathogen of maize in Nepal, pathogenic variability and mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of maize in hills of Nepal. It predominantly occurs on maize grown in cool and humid environment of high hills. The pathogen is also known to infect other cereal crops including wheat and rice causing important diseases. The incidence of ear rot is hi...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF A FUMONISIN BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER IN FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM STRAIN O-1890

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species. Most species, including F. verticillioides, produce predominantly B fumonisins (FBs), but the F. oxysporum strain O-1890 produces predominantly C fumonisins (FCs). FBs have an alanine-derived, methyl function that is absent ...

  7. Genes, Gene Clusters, and Biosynthesis of Trichothecenes and Fumonisins in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes and fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, a filamentous fungus that can cause disease on some crop plants, including corn, rice, and wheat. Research on the genetics and biochemistry of trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis has provided important insights into the genetic...

  8. A novel quantitative trait locus for Fusarium head blight resistance in chromosome 7A of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Chinese Spring-Sumai 3 chromosome 7A disomic substitution line (CS-Sumai 3-7ADSL) was reported to have a high level of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance for symptom spread within a spike (Type II) and low deoxynivalenol accumulation in infected kernels (Type III), but quantitative trait locus ...

  9. Identification and analysis of Fusarium verticillioides genes differentially expressed during conidiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, an endophytic maize pathogen, is the causal agent of diseases such as ear rot, seedling blight, and stalk rot, resulting in major economic losses in maize production. This fungus can also cause certain diseases in animals due to consumption of feed contaminated with fumonis...

  10. Quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight resistance in Huangcandou x 'Jagger' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum), and growing resistant cultivars is one of the most effective strategies to minimize its damage. Huangcandou (HCD) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II)...

  11. Evaluation of inoculation methods to assay wheat for resistance to Fusarium crown rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rot is a major biotic constraint on rainfed wheat production systems throughout the world and in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the U.S. Caused by a complex of Fusarium species, of which F. pseudograminearum and F.culmorum are the most important, crown rot reduces wheat yields by an average of...

  12. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian Longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Previous work demonstrated that larval guts collected from a variety of geographically di...

  13. Molecular Diversity of Seed-borne Fusarium Species Associated with Maize in India.

    PubMed

    Aiyaz, Mohammed; Divakara, Shetty Thimmappa; Mudili, Venkataramana; Moore, Geromy George; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa

    2016-04-01

    A total of 106 maize seed samples were collected from different agro-climatic regions of India. Sixty-two Fusarium isolates were recovered, 90% of which were identified as Fusarium verticillioides based on morphological and molecular characters. Use of the tef-1α gene corrected/refined the morphological species identifications of 11 isolates, and confirmed those of the remaining isolates. Genetic diversity among the Fusarium isolates involved multilocus fingerprinting profiles by Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) UPGMA and tef-1α gene phenetic analyses; for which, we observed no significant differences among the isolates based on geographic origin or fumonisin production; most of the subdivision related to species. Genotyping was performed on the F. verticillioides isolates, using 12 primer sets from the fumonisin pathway, to elucidate the molec-ular basis of fumonisin production or non-production. One fumonisin-negative isolate, UOMMF-16, was unable to amplify nine of the 12 fumonisin cluster genes tested. We also used the CD-ELISA method to confirm fumonisin production for our 62 Fusarium isolates. Only 15 isolates were found to be fumonisin-negative. Interestingly, genotypic characterization re-vealed six isolates with various gene deletion patterns that also tested positive for the production of fumonisins via CD-ELISA. Our findings confirm the importance of molecular studies for species delimitation, and for observing genetic and phenotypic diversity, among the Fusaria. PMID:27226769

  14. CLM1 of Fusarium graminearum Encodes a Longiborneol Synthase Required for Culmorin Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is a serious fungal pathogen of cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley, maize) and produces a number of mycotoxins including 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, butenolide, zearalenone, and culmorin. To identify a biosynthetic gene for the culmorin pathway, an EST database was examined for terp...

  15. Characterization and complementation of an apparent FUM gene cluster deletion in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides is a worldwide pathogen of maize and produces the fumonisin mycotoxins. Contamination of maize kernels with fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of significant concern because of its causal role in equine leukoencephalomalacia, porcine pulmonary edema, liver and...

  16. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  17. Insights into the evolution of toxin biosynthesis in the fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional characterization of mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters has provided insights into genetic bases for variation in production of Fusarium mycotoxins. For example, production of B versus C fumonisin mycotoxins results from sequence variation in the FUM8 gene of the fumonisin biosynthetic g...

  18. Identification of gene clusters associated with fusaric acid, fusarin, and perithecial pigment production in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Fusarium is of concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety because of its ability to cause crop disease and to produce mycotoxins, secondary metabolites (SMs) that are toxic to humans and other animals. Understanding the genetic basis for production of mycotoxins and other SMs ...

  19. Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presentation type: poster Presentation title: Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites Sorghum lines were bred for reduced lignin for cellulosic bioenergy uses, through the incorporation of brown midrib (bmr) bmr6 and/or 12 into two gen...

  20. A GOOD ENDOPHYTE OF MAIZE: ACREMONIUM ZEAE ANTIBIOTICS INHIBITORY TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize endophyte Acremonium zeae Gams and Sumner is antagonistic to kernel rotting and mycotoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in cultural tests for antagonism and interferes with A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of preharvest maize kernels. Chemi...

  1. Influence of water activity on fumonisin and bikaverin gene expression and toxin production in fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is known as the main cause of ear rot disease in maize. It can produce a variety of secondary metabolites including fumonisins (FUM) and bikaverin (BIK). The former are toxins known to cause diseases and cancers in both animals and humans; the latter is a red-pigment with de...

  2. FUM and BIK gene expression contribute to describe fumonisin and bikaverin synthesis in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a maize-pathogen that causes ear and stalk rot and produces toxic secondary metabolites including fumonisins and bikaverin. Fumonisins are known to cause disease in animals and humans; bikaverin is a pigment associated with self-defense. Water activity (aw) is one of the ...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium inferred from partial RNA polymerase II gene sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there are no robust phylogenetic hypotheses for Fusarium based on large-scale sampling across the breadth of this important group of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens. Nucleotide variation within the second largest RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) protein-coding gene, however, has clearly demonst...

  4. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  5. Characterization of Protein Changes Associated with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Resistance and Susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum is serious threat to sugar beet production worldwide. Although certain sugar beet lines appear to have resistance against F. oxysporum, little is understood about the basis for that resistance. Examination of F. oxysporum-induced changes in the sugar beet proteome has the poten...

  6. Molecular diversity of seed-borne Fusarium species associated with maize in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 62 Fusarium isolates were recovered from 106 maize seeds sampled across 13 states in India, 90% of which were identified as F. verticillioides. Our study included (1) species confirmation through PCR assay using the tef-1a gene, (2) a fumonisin cluster genotype assay using developed multi...

  7. Variability in mycotoxin biosynthetic genes in Fusarium and its effect on mycotoxin contamination of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium metabolites fumonisins and trichothecenes are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety worldwide. As is the case for other fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes, mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are often located adjacent to one another in gene clusters. Thu...

  8. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES OF TRICHOTHECENE BIOSYNTHETIC ENZYMES: A NOVEL APPROACH TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat, barley, and rice. Thus far th...

  9. Shift of Bacterial Community in Synanthropic Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae Induced by Fusarium Fungal Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Ságová-Marečková, Markéta; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Astigmata) and Fusarium sp. co-occur in poorly managed grain. In a laboratory experiment, mite grazing resulted in significant reduction of fungal mycelium on cultivation plates. The destruction of mycelium appeared to be a result of an interaction between the mites, fungi and associated bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings A laboratory experiment was performed to simulate a situation of grain multiinfested by mites and Fusarium fungi. Changes of mite-associated bacterial community in T. putrescentiae were described in 3 habitats: (i) T. putrescentiae mites from a rearing diet prior to their transfer to fungal diet; (ii) fungal mycelium before mite introduction; (iii) mites after 7 day diet of each Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae and F. verticillioides. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In total, 157 nearly full-length 16 S rRNA gene sequences from 9 samples representing selected habitats were analyzed. In the mites, the shift from rearing to fungal diet caused changes in mite associated bacterial community. A diverse bacterial community was associated with mites feeding on F. avenaceum, while feeding on the other three Fusarium spp. led to selection of a community dominated by Bacillaceae. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated changes of bacterial community associated with T. putrescentiae after shift to fungal diets suggesting selection for Bacillaceae species known as chitinase producers, which might participate in the fungal mycelium hydrolysis. PMID:23119013

  10. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of actio...

  11. Cyanonectria, a new genus for “Nectria” cyanostoma and its Fusarium anamorph

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new genus Cyanonectria is proposed for Nectria cyanostoma (= Cyanonectria cyanostoma comb. nov.). This genus is characterized by Nectria-like, red perithecia that have a bluish-purple papilla and a Fusarium anamorph. DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rD...

  12. Seed treatment with live or dead Fusarium verticillioides equivalently reduces the severity of subsequent stalk rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widely distributed fungus that can associate with maize as a deleterious pathogen and an advantageous endophyte. Here, we show that seed treatment with live F.verticillioides enhances maize resistance to secondary stalk rot infection, and demonstrate that dead F.vertici...

  13. Metabolomic evaluation of conditions favoring mycotoxin production in isolates of Fusarium fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of Fusarium have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that have been identified as mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are often found in plants that serve as hosts for invasive fungi. Toxicity can serve as a mechanism for imparting virulence to invasive fungi, and can cause toxicity in...

  14. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  15. Evaluation of nitric oxide detoxifying flavohaemoglobin in the Fusarium verticillioides – maize interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate pathogen causing a number of maize diseases. Apart from these diseases, F. verticillioides is also known to asymptomatically infect most tissues of the plant. The production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 by F. verticillioides and other complexities of the i...

  16. Nitric oxide metabolism and the role of NO detoxifying flavohaemoglobin in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small free radical, highly reactive, and responsible for both cytotoxic and cytostimulant effects in the cell. The dual nature of NO makes it the perfect candidate for both molecular signaling and an effective first line of defense against pathogens. Fusarium verticillioides i...

  17. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  18. Survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum chlamydospores under solarization temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solarization is an effective soil treatment against race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Despite the lack of effective alternatives, solarization is rarely used in cotton because of its high cost. Use of solarization might be increased if soil temperatures could be used to predict redu...

  19. Production of a new type A trichothecene by isolates of Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of deoxynivalenol (DON) is a virulence factor of Fusarium graminearum on wheat and most likely on other host plants. A large survey of F. graminearum (sensu strictu) in the northern United States revealed the existence of strains which - based on molecular markers - belong to the 3-acetyl...

  20. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium globosum Strains from South African Maize and Japanese Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium globosum was first isolated from maize in South Africa and subsequently from wheat in Japan. Here, multiple analyses revealed that, despite morphological similarities, South African maize and Japanese wheat isolates of the fungus exhibit multiple differences. An AFLP-based simi...