These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Genetic transformation of the fungal plant wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been developed. The system employs plasmids which contain a bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) linked to Aspergillus regulatory sequences and which confer hygromycin B resistance in Fusarium. Transformation resulted from integration of the vectors into heterologous regions of the Fusarium genome and occurred at a frequency of

H. Corby Kistler; Ulla K. Benny

1988-01-01

2

CANNABIS CLINIC Fusarium Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is caused by two closely-related fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cannabis. The disease was first described on hemp in Eastern Europe about 50 years ago, but is now found throughout the Northern hemisphere. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all cultivars of Cannabis that were tested are susceptible. Signs and symptoms, life history of

John M. McPartland; Karl W. Hillig

2004-01-01

3

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review)  

E-print Network

Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review) JM Kraft US Department of Agriculture January 1995) Summary - Pea wilt was first described in 1925 and the pathogen identified as Fusarium discusses what little is known about seed transmission of the pea wilt pathogen. Résumé - Fusariose du pois

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

5

Fusarium Wilt in Cotton - a New Record in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1993 Fusarium oxysporum was consistently isolated from the vascular system of wilted cotton plants from the Brookstead\\/Cecil Plains area of the Darling Downs (Queensland). Pathogenicity studies and re-isolation from the apical region of inoculated seedlings indicated that it was a true vascular wilt pathogen and confirmed that it was Fusarium oxysporum fsp, vasinfectum. This appears to be the

JK Kochman

1995-01-01

6

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

7

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana Brazil in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety Brazil. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana. PMID:24743270

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

8

Incidence of Fusarium wilt of cotton as affected by pathogen propagule type, age and source  

E-print Network

on pathogen population dynamics DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY LITERATURE CITED Page Vl VI I IX 20 20 28 30 37 37 44 48 58 67 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) APPENDIX A Effect of drying on inoculum propagule populations Introduction Materials... the inoculum age experiment 45 46 49 50 10 Effect of inoculum drying and method of population determination on the apparent number of colony forming units (cfu) of two different formac specialis of Fusarium oxysporum 81 11 Comparison of V-8-juice agar...

McEntee, James Philip

2012-06-07

9

20082009 Fusarium wilt trial results  

E-print Network

of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by Fov is more severe when fields are co-infested with the root-knot nematode strategies for this disease complex consist of the use of nematicides, rotation with non-host crops, soil impact Fusarium wilt via reducing nematode damage (3). Likewise, crop rotation affects M. incognita more

Mukhtar, Saqib

10

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization on Microbial Community in Rhizosphere Soil and Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is caused by soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and was infected with wilt disease. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus etunicatium) on the microbial community in the rhizosphere soil and Fusarium wilt in tomato (cv. Oogatafukuju).

Lixuan Ren; Yunsheng Lou; Kazunori Sakamoto; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Yoshimiki Amemiya; Qirong Shen; Guohua Xu

2010-01-01

11

Intercropping with aerobic rice suppressed Fusarium wilt in watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon is susceptible to Fusarium wilt in successively mono-cropped soil. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of intercropping with aerobic rice on Fusarium wilt in watermelon. The tested soil was classified as a loam soil, previously planted with watermelon and collected from Hexian county, Anhui province, China. The results obtained are listed as follows: (1) 66.7% of

Lixuan Ren; Shiming Su; Xingming Yang; Yangchun Xu; Qiwei Huang; Qirong Shen

2008-01-01

12

Extracellular Chitinases of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi Causing Carnation Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such\\u000a as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging\\u000a to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied

Naosekpam Singh Ajit; Rajni Verma; V. Shanmugam

2006-01-01

13

A wilt of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims) caused by Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wilt of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims) is widespread in Zimbabwe. Fusarium solani was consistently isolated from discoloured vascular tissue of plants obtained from several farms. All isolates of the fungus were pathogenic. The possible role of Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica in the wilt disease was investigated because it was frequently isolated from the stem base

D. L. Cole; T. R. Hedges; T. Ndowora

1992-01-01

14

Efficacy of Various Fungal and Bacterial Biocontrol Organisms for Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larkin, R. P., and Fravel, D. R. 1998. Effi cacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organ- isms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis. 82: 1022-1028. Numerous fungi and bacteria, including existing biocontrol strains with known activity against soilborne fungal pathogens as well as isolates collected from the roots and rhizosphere of to- mato plants growing in

Robert P. Larkin; Deborah R. Fravel

1998-01-01

15

Biological control of fusarium wilt of cucumber by chitinolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two chitinolytic bacterial strains, Paenibacillus sp. 300 and Streptomyces sp. 385, suppressed Fusarium wilt of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in nonsterile, soilless potting medium. A mixture of the two strains in a ratio of 1:1 or 4:1 gave significantly (P < 0.05) better control of the disease than each of the strains used individually or than mixtures in other ratios. Several formulations were tested, and a zeolite-based, chitosan-amended formulation (ZAC) provided the best protection against the disease. Dose-response studies indicated that the threshold dose of 6 g of formulation per kilogram of potting medium was required for significant (P < 0.001) suppression of the disease. This dose was optimum for maintaining high rhizosphere population densities of chitinolytic bacteria (log 8.1 to log 9.3 CFU/g dry weight of potting medium), which were required for the control of Fusarium wilt. The ZAC formulation was suppressive when added to pathogen-infested medium 15 days before planting cucumber seeds. The formulation also provided good control when stored for 6 months at room temperature or at 4 degrees C. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase enzymes were produced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. Partial purification of the chitinases, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining, revealed the presence of five bands with molecular masses of 65, 62, 59, 55, and 52 kDa in the case of Paenibacillus sp. 300; and three bands with molecular masses of 52, 38, and 33 kDa in the case of Streptomyces sp. 385. Incubation of cell walls of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum with partially purified enzyme fractions led to the release of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAGA). NAGA content was considerably greater when pooled enzyme fractions (64 to 67) from Paenibacillus sp. were used, because they contained high beta-1,3-glucanase activity in addition to chitinase activity. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by a combination of these two bacteria may involve the action of these hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:18944809

Singh, P P; Shin, Y C; Park, C S; Chung, Y R

1999-01-01

16

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon  

PubMed Central

Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusariumoxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F.oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H. Corby

2014-01-01

17

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon.  

PubMed

Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusariumoxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F.oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

Ma, Li-Jun; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H Corby

2014-01-01

18

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-09-01

19

New Fusarium wilts on vegetable crops in Italy.  

PubMed

Three Fusarium wilts recently observed in Italy on lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wild (Diplo taxis spp.) and cultivated (Eruca sativa) rocket and lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria) emerged as major production problems in Lumbardy (north-western Italy). Aspects of biology and epidemiology of the three diseases and some possibilities of disease management are discussed. PMID:15756819

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2004-01-01

20

Microbial Antagonism at the Root Level Is Involved in the Suppression of Fusarium Wilt by the Combination of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudomonas putida WCS358.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Two biological control agents, nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudomonas putida WCS358, were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium wilt of flax grown in nutrient solution and for suppression of the population density and metabolic activity of the causal organism F. oxysporum f. sp. lini strain Foln3GUS on root surfaces. Due to the presence of an introduced gusA reporter gene construct in Foln3GUS, the pathogen expressed beta-glucuronidase activity that was related to its carbon metabolism. At a Fo47 to Foln3GUS inoculum ratio of 100:1, both the population density of the pathogen and the beta-glucuronidase activity on and in flax roots were reduced by the nonpathogenic strain, and Fusarium wilt was suppressed. At a Fo47 to Foln3GUS inoculum ratio of 10:1, Fo47 decreased the severity of Fusarium wilt to a smaller extent and it also reduced beta-glucuronidase activity without reducing the density of Foln3GUS on flax roots. At a nonpathogenic to pathogenic Fusarium strains ratio of 10:1, the addition of P. putida WCS358 further suppressed Fusarium wilt and the density of the pathogen at the root level, whereas a mutant of WCS358 deficient in pseudobactin production had no significant effect. Iron availability to WCS358 on flax roots, assessed by ice-nucleation activity conferred from a transcriptional fusion (pvd-inaZ) of an ice-nucleation reporter gene to an iron-regulated promoter, was sufficiently low to allow pseudobactin production. P. putida WCS358 did not reduce the severity of Fusarium wilt of flax when inoculated without Fo47, and it did not improve disease suppression achieved by high inoculum doses of Fo47 (a Fo47 to Foln3GUS ratio of 100:1). Together, these data provide evidence that (i) suppression of Fusarium wilt of flax by Fo47 is related to reductions in the population density and metabolic activity of the pathogen on the root surface; (ii) WCS358 can enhance the biological control activity of Fo47, but this enhancement depends on the population of Fo47 relative to the pathogen; and (iii) pseudobactin contributes to suppression of Fusarium wilt by the combination of Fo47 and WCS358 on roots in which conditions are conducive to pseudobactin production by the bacterium. PMID:18944664

Duijff, B J; Recorbet, G; Bakker, P A; Loper, J E; Lemanceau, P

1999-11-01

21

EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN  

E-print Network

content and fertility, and can support the growth of soil-borne pathogens. Some growers choose to apply or to increase organic matter and improve soil fertility. The objective of this on-farm study was to determine, fusarium wilt incidence was not affected by soil treatment. Single applications of organic amendments

Ma, Lena

22

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

23

Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5??10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:22729873

Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

2012-11-01

24

Extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.  

PubMed

Vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Prill. & Delacr.) W. C. Synder & H.N. Hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. Mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on different substrates. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing media showed enhanced growth and enzyme production with increased anti-fungal activity against the pathogen. Furthermore, the cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing media also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth. Both the strains and their cell-free culture filtrate from chitin-amended media showed the formation of lytic zones on chitin agar, indicating chitinolytic ability. Extracellular proteins of highly antagonistic bacterial strain were isolated from cell-free extracts of media amended with chitin and fungal cell wall. These cell-free conditioned media contained one to seven polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed two isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 43 and 18.5 kDa. Further plate assay for mycelial growth inhibition showed the 43-kDa protein to be antifungal. The foregoing studies clearly established the significance of chitinases in the antagonism of fluorescent pseudomonads, showing avenues for possible exploitation in carnation wilt management. PMID:16550458

Ajit, Naosekpam Singh; Verma, Rajni; Shanmugam, V

2006-04-01

25

Studies of a New Fusarium Wilt of Spinach in Texas.  

E-print Network

as pathogenic to spinach, as is Fusarium soZuni. Results of these inoculations are shown in Fig. 2, a-h. Pusarium solani, according to Sherbakofl (6), is usually found on rotted potato tubers and on decaying organic matter. It is surprising, therefore... Storage potatoes from Idaho. . 22 March 20, 1925. Sixty per cent of tubers from College Stat~on, Texas. Variety unknown. show very sllght infection around inoculated area, causlng dry rat. Fusarium solani from Irish potatoes storaBe potatoes from Idaho...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1926-01-01

26

Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber with improvement of growth and mineral uptake using some antagonistic formulations.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt disease in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is widespread, responsible for serious economic losses. Amongst totally 15 isolates of Fusarium spp., obtained from different localities of Sohag governorate, Egypt, only the identified isolates as F. oxysporum were pathogenic on cucumber Denmark Beta-Alpha cv. and caused wilt symptoms. Totally 22 isolates of Trichoderma spp., B. subtilis and Pseudomonas spp., were obtained from rhizosphere of cucumber and some available commercial formulations and then tested for antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum (FO5) in vitro. The highest inhibitory effect on growth of FO5 was observed by isolate Trichodex of T. harzianum (89.29%) followed by Th4 of T. harzianum, Serenade and MBI 600 of B. subtilis, PS3 of Pseudomonas spp., and Treico and Tv2 of T. viride. Pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of formulated antagonists as seed treatment on Fusarium wilt incidence, growth and mineral uptake of cucumber. Results showed that all tested formulations significantly reduced percent of wilted plants and disease severity, and improved plant growth by increasing length of shoot and root, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root system, and number of leaves and flowers per plant compared with untreated control. They also significantly increased nutrient contents of plant shoot including N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Magnesium content in shoot slightly not significantly increased. Formulation of Trichodex was the most effective ones followed by Serenade, Th4 and PS3. PMID:23878960

Moharam, Moustafa H A; Negim, Osama O

2012-01-01

27

Control of Fusarium Wilt of Radish by Combining Pseudomonas putida Strains that have Different Disease-Suppressive Mechanisms.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the field has given variable results. By combining specific strains of microorganisms, multiple traits antagonizing the pathogen can be combined and this may result in a higher level of protection. Pseudomonas putida WCS358 suppresses Fusarium wilt of radish by effectively competing for iron through the production of its pseudobactin siderophore. However, in some bioassays pseudobactin-negative mutants of WCS358 also suppressed disease to the same extent as WCS358, suggesting that an, as yet unknown, additional mechanism may be operative in this strain. P. putida strain RE8 induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt. When WCS358 and RE8 were mixed through soil together, disease suppression was significantly enhanced to approximately 50% as compared to the 30% reduction for the single strain treatments. Moreover, when one strain failed to suppress disease in the single application, the combination still resulted in disease control. The enhanced disease suppression by the combination of P. putida strains WCS358 and RE8 is most likely the result of the combination of their different disease-suppressive mechanisms. These results demonstrate that combining biocontrol strains can lead to more effective, or at least, more reliable biocontrol of fusarium wilt of radish. PMID:18942986

de Boer, Marjan; Bom, Peter; Kindt, Frodo; Keurentjes, Joost J B; van der Sluis, Ientse; van Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

2003-05-01

28

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

29

In vit o biological control of Fusarium oxysporum- r causing wilt in Capsicum annuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma Viride, T. harzianum, T. Koningii, T. aureoviride and T. pseudokoningii were evaluated for their in vitro antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of wilt disease in sweet peppers (Capsicum annum). Among the Trichoderma species T. viride showed the best performance in vitro biological control of Fusarium oxysporum followed by T. harzianum, T. aureoviride,

Irfan Yousaf Sahi; A. N. Khalid

2007-01-01

30

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

31

Influence of Temperature and Inoculum Density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on Suppression of Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Rhizosphere Bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 on suppression of Fusarium wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cv. PV 61 by seed and soil treatments with rhizobacteria isolated from the chickpea rhizosphere were studied in a model system. Disease development over a range of temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and inoculum densities (25 to 1,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil) was described by the Gompertz model. The Gompertz relative rate of disease progress and final amount of disease increased exponentially and monomolecularly, respectively, with increasing inoculum densities. Disease development was greater at 25 degrees C compared with 20 and 30 degrees C. At 20 and 30 degrees C, disease development was greater at 250 to 1,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil compared with 25 to 100 chlamydospores per gram of soil. At 25 degrees C, increasing inoculum densities of the pathogen did not influence disease. Nineteen Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp. out of 23 bacterial isolates tested inhibited F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in vitro. Pseudomonas fluorescens RGAF 19 and RG 26, which did not inhibit the pathogen, showed the greatest Fusarium wilt suppression. Disease was suppressed only at 20 or 30 degrees C and at inoculum densities below 250 chlamydospores per gram of soil. Bacterial treatments increased the time to initial symptoms, reduced the Gompertz relative rate of disease progress, and reduced the overall amount of disease developed. PMID:18944039

Landa, B B; Navas-Corts, J A; Hervs, A; Jimnez-Daz, R M

2001-08-01

32

Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-01-01

33

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2009-01-01

34

Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.  

PubMed Central

Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. putida WCS358 had no effect on disease severity when inoculated on its own but significantly improved the control achieved with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. In contrast, a siderophore-negative mutant of WCS358 had no effect on disease severity even in the presence of Fo47b10. Since the densities of both bacterial strains at the root level were similar, the difference between the wild-type WCS358 and the siderophore-negative mutant with regard to the control of fusarium wilt was related to the production of pseudobactin 358. The production of pseudobactin 358 appeared to be responsible for the increased suppression by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 relative to that with Fo47b10 alone. PMID:1444411

Lemanceau, P; Bakker, P A; De Kogel, W J; Alabouvette, C; Schippers, B

1992-01-01

35

Effect of pseudobactin 358 production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 on suppression of fusarium wilt of carnations by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47.  

PubMed

Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 combined with Pseudomonas putida WCS358 efficiently suppressed fusarium wilt of carnations grown in soilless culture. This suppression was significantly higher than that obtained by inoculation of either antagonistic microorganism alone. The increased suppression obtained by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 only occurred when Fo47b10 was introduced at a density high enough (at least 10 times higher than that of the pathogen) to be efficient on its own. P. putida WCS358 had no effect on disease severity when inoculated on its own but significantly improved the control achieved with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. In contrast, a siderophore-negative mutant of WCS358 had no effect on disease severity even in the presence of Fo47b10. Since the densities of both bacterial strains at the root level were similar, the difference between the wild-type WCS358 and the siderophore-negative mutant with regard to the control of fusarium wilt was related to the production of pseudobactin 358. The production of pseudobactin 358 appeared to be responsible for the increased suppression by Fo47b10 combined with WCS358 relative to that with Fo47b10 alone. PMID:1444411

Lemanceau, P; Bakker, P A; De Kogel, W J; Alabouvette, C; Schippers, B

1992-09-01

36

Wilting of date palm branches by Fusarium oxysporum in south of Iran and its control managements with soil solarization method.  

PubMed

Wilting of some branches in nurseries and orchards of date palm were studied in south of Iran including Ahvaz and Abadan cities in 2005-2006 years. Different infected plants were visited and samples showing symptoms including wilting or death of branches collected from various areas and transferred to laboratory. Samples were cultured in common media (PDA) and different fungi were studied and identified. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Fusarium oxysporum which caused wilting of some branches of date palm seedling or trees in studied areas. Results showed that the disease caused main losses where date palm cuttings were cultured in infected soils, previously cropped to susceptible plants. Since chemical control was not managed the disease, soil disinfestations by soil solarization method was carried in Ahvaz as the warmer climate in studied areas to control the pathogen. Application of this method reduced population density of the pathogen from 1800 CFU -g/soil to 600 after 5 week. This method was simple, effective, non negative side and economic which can be used in nearly warm areas. PMID:18396818

Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M; Ashrafi, S J

2007-01-01

37

Routine mapping of Fusarium wilt resistance in BC1 populations of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Six RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM (RFO) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling the resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 to Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (FOM) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the F1 hybrid (BC1). In particular, the RFO1 QTL appears to interact with three other loci, RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6, and is attributed to the gene At1g79670. Results When resistance to FOM was mapped in a new BC1 population, in which the loss-of-function mutant of At1g79670 replaced wild type as the Col-0 parent, RFO1s major effect and RFO1s interaction with RFO2, RFO4 and RFO6 were absent, showing that At1g79670 alone accounts for the RFO1 QTL. Resistance of two QTLs, RFO3 and RFO5, was independent of RFO1 and was reproduced in the new BC1 population. In analysis of a third BC1 population, resistance to a second pathogen, F. oxysporum forma specialis conglutinans race 1 (FOC1), was mapped and the major effect locus RFO7 was identified. Conclusions Natural quantitative resistance to F. oxysporum is largely specific to the infecting forma specialis because different RFO loci were responsible for resistance to FOM and FOC1. The mapping of quantitative disease resistance traits in BC1 populations, generated from crosses between sequenced Arabidopsis accessions, can be a routine procedure when genome-wide genotyping is efficient, economical and accessible. PMID:24172069

2013-01-01

38

Mapping the I-3 gene for resistance to Fusarium wilt in tomato: application of an I-3 marker in tomato improvement and progress towards the cloning of I-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), is an economically damaging disease that results in huge losses in Australia and other countries worldwide. The I-3 gene, which confers resistance to Fol race 3, has been described in wild tomato, Lycopersicon pennellii, accessions LA716 and PI414773.We are pursuing the isolation of I-3 from

G. T. T. Lim; G.-P. Wang; M. N. Hemming; S. Basuki; D. J. McGrath; B. J. Carroll; D. A. Jones

2006-01-01

39

Wilts of the Watermelon and Related Crops: Fusarium Wilts of Cucurbits.  

E-print Network

by different laboratcry helpers, who, because of the war, did not remaill long enough with t!ie work. In this connection, however, inention should he made of the ~alutzble assistance renclered by Mr. Albert Johnson, fornlerlp a graduate student of the Texas... later, is caused by a Fuearium which is distinct from the fungus that causes wilt of the watermelon. The scope of the present work attempted to answer the following poir,ts relative to wilt diseases of cucurbits and other crops: (1) Is Necos...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph)

1920-01-01

40

[Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].  

PubMed

Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was significantly higher than that of YM42. In conclusion, intercropping influenced the microbial activity and substrate utilization of soil microorganisms, altered the microbial community diversity in rhizosphere of faba bean, reduced the amount of F. oxysporum and disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt, and promoted faba bean growth. Effects of intercropping on disease control were influenced by the intercropped wheat variety, suggesting that the differences of root exudates of wheat were important factors that affected soil-borne diseases control in intercropping. PMID:25345048

Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

2014-07-01

41

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt and Fusarium Wilt by a Burkholderia nodosa Strain Isolated from Kalimantan Soils, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to suppress bacterial wilt of tomato (BWT) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum using biocontrol agents (BCAs) isolated from soils in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Five isolates were selected from 270 isolates as better performing BCAs through screening four times using a pumice medium. The isolates selected were identified as Burkholderia nodosa, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia terricola according to 16S rDNA sequences, fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization patterns. Among them, B. nodosa G5.2.rif1 had significant suppressive effects on Fusarium wilt of tomato (FWT) and spinach (FWS) as well as BWT. When B. nodosa G5.2rif1 was inoculated into a pumice medium in combination with sucrose, it showed even more stable disease suppression for BWT, but not for FWS. This suppression was considered to mainly occur through competition for nutrients. In two times greenhouse experiments for BWT using pots comparable in size to those used commercially, B. nodosa G5.2rif1 significantly suppressed the disease index by 33-79%, with no inhibitory effects on the growth, yield and quality of tomatoes. PMID:21558699

Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

2008-01-01

42

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.  

PubMed

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70% accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30% have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85% probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan. PMID:25017202

Ahmad, Zakia; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Ghafoor, Abdul; Ali, Amjad; Nisar, Mohammad

2014-10-01

43

Identification of the main toxins isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 2 and their relation with isolates' pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is a pathogen of field pea inducing severe vascular wilt worldwide. Plant resistance to races 1, 5, and 6, producing wilt symptoms, is conferred by a single dominant gene, while resistance to race 2, which gives near-wilt symptoms, have been recently showed to be quantitative. Among the virulence factors reported to play a role in the infection process, toxin production is one of the best studied. Thus, five race 2 isolates have been investigated for toxin production in vitro and their relation to isolates' pathogenicity. All the isolates produced different amounts of fusaric and 9,10-dehydrofusaric acids. The content of the two toxins has been quantitated and correlated with the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of isolates on field pea. Results suggested that toxin production is an important determinant of Fop race 2 pathogenicity. PMID:24568659

Bani, Moustafa; Rispail, Nicolas; Evidente, Antonio; Rubiales, Diego; Cimmino, Alessio

2014-03-26

44

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt  

PubMed Central

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-01-01

45

Variations in defense related enzyme activities in tomato during the infection with bacterial wilt pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was focused on the role of defense-related enzymes in imparting resistance in tomato against bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Twenty different tomato cultivars were collected from private seed agencies and screened for resistance to bacterial wilt disease, using artificial inoculation technique under greenhouse conditions. Involvement of defense related enzymes in bacterial wilt pathogenesis was studied in resistant,

S. C. Vanitha; S. Umesha

2008-01-01

46

Characterization of the formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by DNA fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive DNA sequences FOLR1 to FOLR4. The four FOLR clones were chosen from a genomic library made from F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. Total DNAs from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to other plants were digested with EcoRV and hybridized with 32P-labeled FOLR probes. The strains were clearly distinguishable at the formae specialis level on the basis of FOLR DNA fingerprints. Fifty-two fingerprint types were detected among the 56 strains by using all FOLR probes. These probes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the DNA fingerprint types by the unweighted pair group method using averages and parsimony analysis. The fingerprint types detected in each of the formae speciales cucumerinum, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae were grouped into a single cluster. However, two different genetic groups occurred in the formae specialis melonis. The two groups also differed in pathogenicity: one group caused wilts of muskmelon and oriental melon, while the second was pathogenic only to muskmelon. The fingerprint types of different formae speciales pathogenic to plants other than cucurbits were distinguishable from one another and from the fingerprints of the cucurbit-infecting strains. These results suggest that the cucurbit-infecting formae speciales are intraspecific variants distinguishable at the DNA level and in their host range. Images PMID:8085813

Namiki, F; Shiomi, T; Kayamura, T; Tsuge, T

1994-01-01

47

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

48

Relation of Cotton Root Rot and Fusarium Wilt to the Acidity and Alkalinity of the Soil.  

E-print Network

of the soil. Laboratory studies of the growth of the fungus on culture media showed that it grew best at about the neutral point, pH 7.0, and that it would not grow so well in more acid or in more alkaline media. Cotton fields in 16 counties of Texas were... examined, and the acidity or alkalinity of the soil studied in relation to the pres- ence of cotton root rot and also of Fusarium wilt. Root rot was found in acid soils (pH 5.5-6.4) as well as in neutral (pH 6.5-7.4) and alkaline soils (pH 7...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

1928-01-01

49

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

50

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

2005-08-01

51

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognitawilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

2005-01-01

52

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis?lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radicis?cucumerinum V03?2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well?known non?pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non?compatible pathogen Forc V03?2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3?week?old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox. PMID:21255375

Validov, Shamil Z.; Kamilova, Faina D.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

2011-01-01

53

Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-06-01

54

Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible Brazil were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant Nongke No.1 were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant Yueyoukang I were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were selected to validate through quantitative real time PCR method. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of these selected genes corroborate with their respective protein abundance after pathogen infection. Conclusions This report is the first to use proteomic profiling to study the molecular mechanism of banana roots infected with Foc4. The differentially regulated proteins involved in different defense pathways are likely associated with different resistant levels of the three banana cultivars. PMID:24070062

2013-01-01

55

Factors influencing pathogenicity of Fusarium tumidum on gorse (Ulex europaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors promoting pathogenicity of Fusarium tumidum on gorse (Ulex europaeus) were determined to develop a novel strategy for delivering this potential mycoherbicide using insects as vectors of inoculum. Fusarium tumidum sprayed as a suspension of 110 conidia mL on at least 50% of a gorse plant reduced shoot dry weight by 45% (P<0.05). A minimum of 910 viable conidia were

Emmanuel Yamoah; E. Eirian Jones; Graeme W. Bourdt; David M. Suckling; Richard J. Weld; Alison Stewart

2008-01-01

56

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10M EDDHA) than high iron availability (10Fe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

57

Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1? (EF-1?) and ?-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

2004-01-01

58

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.  

PubMed

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutumנG. hirsutum L. and G. barbadenseנG. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutumנG. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19% of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

2013-05-01

59

The Brassicaceae-Specific EWR1 Gene Provides Resistance to Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Soil-borne vascular wilt diseases caused by Verticillium spp. are among the most destructive diseases worldwide in a wide range of plant species. The most effective means of controlling Verticillium wilt diseases is the use of genetic resistance. We have previously reported the identification of four activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutants which showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. Among these, one mutant also showed enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial vascular wilt pathogen. Cloning of the activation tag revealed an insertion upstream of gene At3g13437, which we designated as EWR1 (for Enhancer of vascular Wilt Resistance 1) that encodes a putatively secreted protein of unknown function. The search for homologs of Arabidopsis EWR1 (AtEWR1) in public databases only identified homologs within the Brassicaceae family. We subsequently cloned the EWR1 homolog from Brassica oleracea (BoEWR1) and show that over-expression in Arabidopsis results in V. dahliae resistance. Moreover, over-expression of AtEWR1 and BoEWR1 in N. benthamiana, a member of the Solanaceae family, results in V. dahliae resistance, suggesting that EWR1 homologs can be used to engineer Verticillium wilt resistance in non-Brassicaceae crops as well. PMID:24505441

Yadeta, Koste A.; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Hanemian, Mathieu; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2014-01-01

60

Genome sequence of the tobacco bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum is a causal agent of plant bacterial wilt with thousands of distinct strains in a heterogeneous species complex. Here we report the genome sequence of a phylotype IB strain, Y45, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in China. Compared with the published genomes of eight strains which were isolated from other hosts and habitats, 794 specific genes and many rearrangements/inversion events were identified in the tobacco strain, demonstrating that this strain represents an important node within the R. solanacearum complex. PMID:21994922

Li, Zefeng; Wu, Sanling; Bai, Xuefei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Jianfei; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Bingguang; Lu, Xiuping; Fan, Longjiang

2011-11-01

61

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

SciTech Connect

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-18

62

Galleria mellonella as model host for the trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease, affects a wide range of plant species and can produce disseminated infections in humans. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate FGSC 9935 causes disease both on tomato plants and immunodepressed mice, making it an ideal model for the comparative analysis of fungal virulence on plant and animal hosts. Here we tested

Gesabel Y. Navarro-Velasco; Rafael C. Prados-Rosales; Almudena Ortz-Urquiza; Enrique Quesada-Moraga; Antonio Di Pietro

63

Pathogenicity of two species of Fusarium on some cultivars of bean in greenhouse.  

PubMed

Twenty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from the infected roots of bean in different farms of east Azarbaijan and Tehran Provinces and their pathogenicity determined. Most isolates of the fungi were identified as F. oxysporun. They caused root rot, yellowing and wilting of bean in the field. In this test, the roots of 6 cultivars of bean seedlings soaked in suspension of the 7 isolates of the fungi (a1, Gogan, a2, Bilverdi, a3, Savojbolagh-Hashtgerd, a4, field of Agr. Coll. a5, Khomein, a6, Ramjin of F. oxysporum and a7 of F. solani of Varamin, Iran) for 5 minute (106 spores/ml.) then transplanted into the sterilized soil in 4 pots (as replication). For control (a8) the roots soaked in distilled water. The results showed that percentage average of necrotic roots and crowns of isolates al, a2, a3, a5, a6, a7 was %20.31 in group a, a4 was %43.52 in group b and a8 was %2.77 in group c after 3 weeks. The isolate a4 (from the field of Agricultural College, Karaj) was more infectious than the other because it caused wilting, yellowing the leaves and decreased the growth very soon, followed by a5 with %25.32 rate was more pathogenic. Bean cultivar Goli-Red was more tolerant with %10.02 than the others of 16.29 (Naz Red) to 25.15 percent of necrotic the roots & stems. PMID:16637191

Faraji, M; Okhovvat, S M

2005-01-01

64

The Pseudomonas Wilt bacterium: it's identification and role as a cotton pathogen  

E-print Network

THE PSEUDOMONAS WILT BACTERIUM - IT'S IDENTIFICATION AND ROLE AS A COTTON PATHOGEN A Thesis By Robert Scott Pore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Plant Pathology THESIS ABSTRACT The causal organism of Pseudomonas Milt of cotton was ~ bout to be tbo boooottuu booilluo ~ obtilt ~ Cobe cooed Prasmowski. Bacillus Milt was suggested as a more appropriate name...

Pore, Robert Scott

2012-06-07

65

Combined use of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 with reduced fungicide application for the control of tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and suppressed the Fusarium wilt of tomato. The chemical fungicide, benomyl, did not suppress the disease incidence at low concentrations. However, the disease incidence was decreased by the combined application of benomyl at low concentrations with strain LRB3W1. Combined application of benomyl with the bacterium was more effective than treatment with the bacterium alone. The survival of strain LRB3W1 was not influenced by the presence of benomyl. This combined use of the biocontrol bacterium, strain LRB3W1, and a fungicide, benomyl, should be an attractive approach for suppressing tomato wilt. PMID:16789550

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2006-06-01

66

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in Egusi melon ( Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of Egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer Egusi\\u000a resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two Egusi genotypes, Ejagham and NHC1-130, were transformed with\\u000a Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary

Valentine Otang Ntui; Gunaratnam Thirukkumaran; Pejman Azadi; Raham Sher Khan; Ikuo Nakamura; Masahiro Mii

2010-01-01

67

Land use intensification affects soil microbial populations, functional diversity and related suppressiveness of cucumber Fusarium wilt in Chinas Yangtze River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of soil microbial diversity in agricultural soils is critical to the maintenance of soil health and quality. The\\u000a aim of this study was to investigate the influence of land use intensification on soil microbial diversity and thus the level\\u000a of soil suppressiveness of cucumber Fusarium wilt. We examined three typical microbial populations, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Fuasarium

Weishou Shen; Xiangui Lin; Nan Gao; Huayong Zhang; Rui Yin; Weiming Shi; Zengqiang Duan

2008-01-01

68

A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinumC. reticulatum cross: localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated molecular marker map of the chickpea genome was established using 130 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross\\u000a between a cultivar resistant to fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Snyd. &. Hans f. sp. ciceri (Padwick) Snyd & Hans, and an accession of Cicer reticulatum (PI 489777), the wild progenitor of chickpea. A total of 354

P. Winter; A.-M. Benko-Iseppon; B. Httel; M. Ratnaparkhe; A. Tullu; G. Sonnante; T. Pfaff; M. Tekeoglu; D. Santra; V. J. Sant; P. N. Rajesh; G. Kahl; F. J. Muehlbauer

2000-01-01

69

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province.  

PubMed

Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. PMID:25183948

Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

2014-09-01

70

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these bands (90.4%) were polymorphic. All strains were clustered into eight groups, though 14 strains of F. oxysporum were clustered into a single group. We concluded that UP-PCR could reveal the genetic relationships and differences among Fusarium strains. Moreover, the UP-PCR results suggested that F. oxysporum is distinguishable from other Fusarium spp. Thus, UP-PCR is a useful method for Fusarium classification. The pathogenicity of 13 strains of F. oxysporum to muskmelon, cucumber and watermelon seedlings was studied by infecting the seedlings with a spore suspension after cutting the root. The results showed that the F. oxysporum strains were pathogenic to all three melon types, although the pathogenicity differed significantly among the 13 strains. In addition, all strains had the greatest pathogenicity toward watermelon. Since the factors affecting pathogenicity vary widely, they should be considered in future studies on Fusarium spp. The results of such studies may then yield an accurate description of the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. PMID:25183948

Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

2013-01-01

71

Multilocus phylogenetic diversity of Fusarium avenaceum pathogenic on lisianthus.  

PubMed

Fusarium avenaceum is a globally distributed fungus commonly isolated from soil and a wide range of plants. Severe outbreaks of crown and stem rot of the flowering ornamental, lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), have been attributed to F. avenaceum. We sequenced portions of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef) and beta-tubulin (benA) protein coding genes as well as partial intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal genes in 37 Fusarium isolates obtained from lisianthus and other host plants. Isolates that were previously identified morphologically as F. acuminatum were included as an outgroup. Phylogenetic analyses of tef, benA, and IGS sequences showed that F. avenaceum isolates were an exclusive group with strong bootstrap support and no significant incongruence among gene genealogies. Isolates from lisianthus were scattered within this clade and did not form distinct groups based on host species or locality. Pathogenicity tests of F. avenaceum isolates obtained from several other hosts showed an ability to cause disease on lisianthus, suggesting that F. avenaceum may be pathogenic on lisianthus regardless of its phylogenetic origin. These findings have management implications and suggest that any host that supports F. avenaceum may serve as a source of inoculum for lisianthus growers. PMID:19271989

Nalim, F A; Elmer, W H; McGovern, R J; Geiser, D M

2009-04-01

72

Toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. Unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in Morocco and Algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Fao). Controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. Breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. Few naturally resistant cultivars with a mediocre fruit quality (dates) are known. Conventional and non-conventional methods are under development and have to use the simplest and easiest methods to screen for resistant individuals. The use of pathogen toxins as selective agents at the tissue culture step might be a source of variability that can lead to the selection of individuals with suitable levels of resistance to the toxin and/or to the pathogen among the genetic material available. Foa produces toxins such as fusaric, succinic, 3-phenyl lactic acids and their derivatives, marasmins and peptidic toxins. These toxins can be used bulked or separately as selective agents. The aim of this contribution was to give a brief overview on toxins and their use as a mean to select resistant lines and to initiate a discussion about the potential use of this approach for the date palm-Foa pathosystem. This review does not pretend to be comprehensive or exhaustive and was prepared mainly to highlight the potential use of Foa toxins for selecting date palm individuals with a suitable resistance level to bayoud using toxin-based selective media. PMID:16125651

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El Idrissi-Tourane, Abdelmalek; El Hassni, Majida; Daayf, Fouad; El Hadrami, Ismal

2005-08-01

73

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran.  

PubMed

Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20-35days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran. PMID:23961146

Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Reddy, K R N; Abbasi, S

2011-10-01

74

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

75

Influence of Climatic Factors on Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of small-grain cereals, ear rot of maize, seedling blight and foot rot of cereals are important diseases throughout the world. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale (formerly known as F. nivale) predominantly cause Fusarium diseases of small-grain cereals. Maize is predominantly attacked by F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans.

F. M. Doohan; J. Brennan; B. M. Cooke

2003-01-01

76

Construction of cDNA expression library of watermelon for isolation of ClWRKY1 transcription factors gene involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNAs are very important for genome annotation and functional analysis of genes. The number of full-length cDNAs from watermelon remains limited. Here we report first the construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library from Fusarium wilt stressed watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar PI296341 root tissues using the SMART method. The titer of primary cDNA library and amplified library was 2.21 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/ml, respectively and the rate of recombinant was above 85%. The size of insert fragment ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. In this study, we first cloned a gene named ClWRKY1, which was 1981 bp long and encoded a protein consisting of 394 amino acids. It contained two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ClWRKY1 expression levels reached maximum level at 12 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The full-length cDNA library of watermelon root tissues is not only essential for the cloning of genes which are known, but also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes that might be involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt. PMID:25296501

Yang, Bing-Yan; Huo, Xiu-Ai; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Cui-Xia; Duan, Hui-Jun

2014-08-01

77

THE PATHOGENICITY AND DNA POLYMORPHISM OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ORIGINATING FROM DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, GYPSOPHILA SPP. AND SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Fusarium oxysporum pathogenic isolates originating from Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila paniculata, G. repens and non-pathogenic strains obtained from soil was screened for pathogenicity and genetic variation. RAPD analysis con- ducted with arbitrary 10-mer primers gave 23 RAPD markers resulted from the DNA polymorphism. Clustering analysis based on RAPD fingerprint data revealed several distinct groups within F. oxysporum which

M. Werner; L. Irzykowska

78

Responses of Quercus sapwood to infection with the pathogenic fungus of a new wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus serrata andQ. crispula wilt during the summer in wide areas along the Sea of Japan. Mass attacks of trees by an ambrosia beetle (Platypus quercivorus) are characteristic before appearance of the wilting symptoms. This study investigated the pathogenic effects of a fungus\\u000a detected specifically in the wilting trees. This hyphomycete fungus,Raffaelea sp., has a distribution that correlates with the

Keiko Kuroda

2001-01-01

79

Pathogenicity and In Planta Mycotoxin Accumulation Among Members of the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex on Wheat and Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goswami, R. S., and Kistler, H. C. 2005. Pathogenicity and in planta mycotoxin accumulation among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on wheat and rice. Phytopathology 95:1397-1404. Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, is a destructive disease of small grains caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species com- plex, comprised of at least nine distinct, cryptic species. Members

Rubella S. Goswami; H. Corby Kistler

2005-01-01

80

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.  

PubMed

Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2010-09-01

81

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

82

An adaptive evolutionary shift in Fusarium head blight pathogen populations is driving the rapid spread of more toxigenic Fusarium graminearum in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogen diversity revealed that 3ADON producing Fusarium graminearum are prevalent in North America and identified significant population structure associated with trichothecene chemotype differences (FST>0.285; P<0.001). In addition, we identified a trichothecene chemotype cline in Canada and documented a recent and significant shift in FHB pathogen composition by demonstrating that the 3ADON chemotype frequency in

Todd J. Ward; Randall M. Clear; Alejandro P. Rooney; Kerry ODonnell; Don Gaba; Susan Patrick; David E. Starkey; Jeannie Gilbert; David M. Geiser; Tom W. Nowicki

2008-01-01

83

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

84

Influence of Soil Fumigation on the Fusarium-Root-knot Nematode Disease Complex of Cotton in California.  

PubMed

For control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the pathogenic wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, on cotton, soil fumigants were applied in the field at conventional and higher rates. Conventional rates suppressed Fusarium wilt but higher rates gave quicker early growth, better stands, less stand loss over the season, a lower percentage of plants infected with wilt, fewer plants with vascular discoloration, and fewer nematodes. The best treatment about doubled the yields of untreated controls in one experiment and quadrupled them in another. PMID:19305846

Jorgenson, E C; Hyer, A H; Garber, R H; Smith, S N

1978-07-01

85

The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain

Christina A. Cuomo; Ulrich Gldener; Jin-Rong Xu; Frances Trail; B. Gillian Turgeon; Antonio Di Pietro; Jonathan D. Walton; Li-Jun Ma; Scott E. Baker; Martijn Rep; Gerhard Adam; John Antoniw; Thomas Baldwin; Sarah Calvo; Yueh-Long Chang; David DeCaprio; Liane R. Gale; Sante Gnerre; Rubella S. Goswami; Kim Hammond-Kosack; Linda J. Harris; Karen Hilburn; John C. Kennell; Scott Kroken; Jon K. Magnuson; Gertrud Mannhaupt; Evan Mauceli; Hans-Werner Mewes; Rudolf Mitterbauer; Gary Muehlbauer; Martin Mnsterktter; David Nelson; Kerry O'Donnell; Thrse Ouellet; Weihong Qi; Hadi Quesneville; M. Isabel G. Roncero; Kye-Yong Seong; Igor V. Tetko; Martin Urban; Cees Waalwijk; Todd J. Ward; Jiqiang Yao; Bruce W. Birren; H. Corby Kistler

2007-01-01

86

FGDB: a comprehensive fungal genome resource on the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIPS Fusarium graminearum Genome Database (FGDB) is a comprehensive genome database on one of the most devastating fungal plant pathogens of wheat and barley. FGDB provides information on two gene sets independently derived by automated annotation of the F.graminearum genome sequence. A complete manually revised gene set will be com- pleted within the near future. The initial results of

Ulrich Gldener; Gertrud Mannhaupt; Martin Mnsterktter; Dirk Haase; Matthias Oesterheld; Volker Stmpflen; Hans-werner Mewes; Gerhard Adam

2006-01-01

87

Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ?  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

2011-01-01

88

Watermelon wilt studies: seed-borne fusaria, fungicide trials, and host range of the pathogen  

E-print Network

etode ~Nloido yne . arenaria was present in the soil. Miltino and root necrosis was also was also observed to significantly increase in Charleston Gray. In- creased occurrence of wilt was observed to occur at intermediate pop- ulations of the fungus... etode ~Nloido yne . arenaria was present in the soil. Miltino and root necrosis was also was also observed to significantly increase in Charleston Gray. In- creased occurrence of wilt was observed to occur at intermediate pop- ulations of the fungus...

McLaughlin, Randy Joe

2012-06-07

89

Identification, pathogenicity and comparative virulence of Fusarium spp. associated with insect-damaged, diseased Centaurea spp. in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium spp. isolated from insect-infested, diseased Centaurea diffusa and Centaurea maculosa in Europe were assessed for pathogenicity to North American plants of their respective original hosts: either C. diffusa or C. maculosa. Of the ten isolates of Fusarium spp. isolated from diseased Centaurea spp. in the Caucasus region of Russia and eastern Europe, all caused one or more disease symptoms

A. J. Caesar; G. Campobasso; G. TERRAGITTI

2002-01-01

90

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

91

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-12-01

92

Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of Fusarium spp. in atmospheric dust and rainfall dust, samples were collected during September 2007, and July, August, and October 2008. The results reveal the prevalence of airborne Fusarium species coming from the atmosphere of the South East coast of Spain. Five different Fusarium species were isolated from the settling dust: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. dimerum, and F. proliferatum. Moreover, rainwater samples were obtained during significant rainfall events in January and February 2009. Using the dilution-plate method, 12 fungal genera were identified from these rainwater samples. Specific analyses of the rainwater revealed the presence of three species of Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. equiseti. A total of 57 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from both rainwater and atmospheric rainfall dust sampling were inoculated onto melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Pionet and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. San Pedro. These species were chosen because they are the main herbaceous crops in Almeria province. The results presented in this work indicate strongly that spores or propagules of Fusarium are able to cross the continental barrier carried by winds from the Sahara (Africa) to crop or coastal lands in Europe. Results show differences in the pathogenicity of the isolates tested. Both hosts showed root rot when inoculated with different species of Fusarium, although fresh weight measurements did not bring any information about the pathogenicity. The findings presented above are strong indications that long-distance transmission of Fusarium propagules may occur. Diseases caused by species of Fusarium are common in these areas. They were in the past, and are still today, a problem for greenhouses crops in Almera, and many species have been listed as pathogens on agricultural crops in this region. Saharan air masses dominate the Mediterranean regions. The evidence of long distance dispersal of Fusarium spp. by atmospheric dust and rainwater together with their proved pathogenicity must be taken into account in epidemiological studies. PMID:20820862

Palmero, D; Rodrguez, J M; de Cara, M; Camacho, F; Iglesias, C; Tello, J C

2011-01-01

93

The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme  

E-print Network

, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, United States of America, 4 revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

94

Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP, based on fractional factorial design. Three optimum conditions for producing the maximum SQR-T037 biomass and 6PAP yield were predicted by central composite design and validated. Bioorganic fertilizer containing 8.46 log(10) ITS copies g(-1) dry weight of SQR-T037 and 1291.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight of 6PAP, and having the highest (p<0.05) biocontrol efficacy, was achieved at 36.7 fermentation days, 25.9C temperature, 7.6% inoculum content, 41.0% vinegar-production residue, 20.0% rice straw and 39.0% cattle dung. This is a way to offer a high value-added use for agro-industrial wastes. PMID:21190841

Chen, Lihua; Yang, Xingming; Raza, Waseem; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fengge; Shen, Qirong

2011-02-01

95

Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica on Cicer arietinum.  

PubMed

Interaction of Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied on Fusarium wilt-susceptible (JG 62 and K 850) and resistant (JG 74 and Avrodhi) chickpea cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, inoculation of M. javanica juveniles prior to F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri caused greater wilt incidence in susceptible cultivars and induced vascular discoloration in roots of resistant cultivars. Nematode reproduction was greatest (P = 0.05) at 25 degrees C. Number of galls and percentage of root area galled increased when the temperature was increased from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Wilt incidence was greater at 20 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Chlorosis of leaves and vascular discoloration of plants did not occur at 15 degrees C. The nematode enhanced the wilt incidence in wilt-susceptible cultivars only at 25 degrees C. Interaction between the two pathogens on shoot and root weights was significant only at 20 degrees C, and F. o. ciceri suppressed the nematode density at this temperature. Wilt incidence was greater in clayey (48% clay) than in loamy sand (85% sand) soils. The nematode caused greater plant damage on loamy sand than on clayey soil. Fusarium wilt resistance in Avrodhi and JG 74 was stable in the presence of M. javanica across temperatures and soil types. PMID:19274140

Maheswari, T U; Sharma, S B; Reddy, D D; Haware, M P

1997-03-01

96

The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean  

PubMed Central

Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean. PMID:24454689

Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

2014-01-01

97

A Fungal Symbiont of Plant-Roots Modulates Mycotoxin Gene Expression in the Pathogen Fusarium sambucinum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried out in the greenhouse to evaluate the virulence of the strains on potato plants as well as their trichothecene production capacity, and the most aggressive strain was selected for further studies. This strain, identified as F. sambucinum, was used to determine if trichothecene gene expression was affected by the symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare. AMF form symbioses with plant roots, in particular by improving their mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens. We found that that G. irregulare significantly inhibits F. sambucinum growth. We also found, using RT-PCR assays to assess the relative expression of trichothecene genes, that in the presence of the AMF G. irregulare, F. sambucinum genes TRI5 and TRI6 were up-regulated, while TRI4, TRI13 and TRI101 were down-regulated. We conclude that AMF can modulate mycotoxin gene expression by a plant fungal pathogen. This previously undescribed effect may be an important mechanism for biological control and has fascinating implications for advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and controlling plant pathogens. PMID:21455305

Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

98

Extracellular xylanases from two pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris: enzyme production in culture and purification and characterization of a major isoform as an alkaline endo-beta-(1,4)-xylanase of low molecular weight.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of chickpea, comprises eight pathogenic races and two pathotypes. Races 0 and 5, representative of the least virulent yellowing pathotype and the most virulent wilt pathotype, respectively, produced extracellular xylanases when grown on minimal medium supplemented with either 1% commercial birchwood xylan or 0.3% chickpea cell walls. The pattern of extracellular proteins analysed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the two media presented some minor but distinctive differences between fungal races. By preparative isoelectrofocusing, the xylanase activity in cell wall-culture filtrates could be resolved into basic and neutral fractions with pI values around to 10 and 8, respectively, whereas the xylan-culture filtrates contained an additional acidic fraction of pI around 4. A common major xylanase was purified 7-fold to homogeneity by cation-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The purified xylanase has a molecular weight of 21.6 kDa, optimum pH and temperature of 5.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively, pI in the range of 8.2 to 9.0, and Km and Vmax values of 2.24 mg ml(-1) (birchwood xylan as substrate) and 1200 nkat mg(-1) protein (72 U mg(-1) protein), respectively. The enzyme has an endo mode of action, hydrolysing xylan to xylobiose and higher short-chain xylooligosaccharides without forming free xylose. PMID:15928976

Jorge, Inmaculada; de la Rosa, Olga; Navas-Corts, Juan A; Jimnez-Daz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2005-07-01

99

Fusarium pathogenomics.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed that the Fusarium genome is compartmentalized into regions responsible for primary metabolism and reproduction (core genome), and pathogen virulence, host specialization, and possibly other functions (adaptive genome). Genes involved in virulence and host specialization are located on pathogenicity chromosomes within strains pathogenic to tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and pea (Fusarium 'solani' f. sp. pisi). The experimental transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici into a nonpathogen transformed the latter into a tomato pathogen. Thus, horizontal transfer may explain the polyphyletic origins of host specificity within the genus. Additional genome-scale comparative and functional studies are needed to elucidate the evolution and diversity of pathogenicity mechanisms, which may help inform novel disease management strategies against fusarial pathogens. PMID:24024636

Ma, Li-Jun; Geiser, David M; Proctor, Robert H; Rooney, Alejandro P; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trail, Frances; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2013-01-01

100

A study on microbial diversity in different cultivars of Brassica napus in relation to its wilt pathogen, Verticillium longisporum.  

PubMed

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the major oilseed crops in the world but is vulnerable to attack by many pathogens and insect pests. In addition to the host plant genotype, micro-organisms present in the rhizosphere and within plant tissues affect the susceptibility to plant pathogens. While rapid progress has been achieved concerning the concept of plant resistance genes, information on the role of the microbial community in plant protection is less apparent. We have studied the endophytic bacterial populations present in different tissues of oilseed rape and also analysed several cultivars (Express, Libraska, Maluka and Westar), which differ in their susceptibility to the wilt pathogen Verticillium longisporum. The population diversity was studied using agar plating assay, fatty acid methyl ester analysis and functional characterisation of isolated strains. Our work shows that already in the seeds there exists diversity in populations as well as in the total microbial load between two of the four tested cultivars. About 50% of the strains isolated from cultivars Express and Libraska showed moderate to strong direct inhibition of V. longisporum. The diversity of the endophytic flora isolated from oilseed rape and its implications in crop protection are discussed. PMID:12892892

Granr, Georg; Persson, Paula; Meijer, Johan; Alstrm, Sadhna

2003-07-29

101

Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

2014-04-01

102

Wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work on wilt\\/root rot diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Ethiopia is reviewed. The five important wilt\\/root rot diseases in Ethiopia are wilt, dry root rot, wet root rot, black root rot and collar rot, which are caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, R. solani, F. solani and Sclerotium rolfsii respectively. Of these, dry root

S. P. S. Beniwal; S. Ahmed; D. Gorfu

1992-01-01

103

EpsR Modulates Production of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum  

PubMed Central

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt of many agriculturally important crops. Exopolysaccharide synthesized by products of the epsI operon is the major virulence factor for R. solanacearum. Expression of epsI has been demonstrated to be under the control of several proteins, including several two-component regulators. Overexpression of EpsR was found previously to reduce the amount of synthesis specifically from the epsI promoter. Here we present data that a single chromosomal copy of epsR activates the epsI promoter, suggesting that EpsR is a concentration-dependent effector of epsI gene expression. Furthermore, the ability of EpsR to modulate epsI expression is dependent on the phosphorylation state of EpsR. Gel mobility shift assays suggest that EpsR can specifically bind the epsI promoter and that this binding requires a phosphorylated form of EpsR. PMID:9422588

Chapman, Matt R.; Kao, C. Cheng

1998-01-01

104

Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia  

E-print Network

Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia). This lethal vascular wilt disease is caused by an ambrosia beetle symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr

Harrington, Thomas C.

105

Use of a Nitrate-Nonutilizing Mutant and Selective Media to Examine Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional Fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. Therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. Colony forming units of the pathogen were countable after soil-dilution plating onto nit mutant-selective media MMCPA, CMP, and CGMBP. Colony forming units of wild-type Fusarium spp. were countable using a wildtype Fusarium-selective medium, GMBP. By combining nit mutant- and wild-type-selective media, the population densities of pathogenic and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum in the same soil could be measured selectively. This method was useful in studying population dynamics of the pathogen after different soil treatments. Soil disinfested with hot water or chloropicrin was amended with the nit mutant pathogen, and subsequent changes in population densities of the pathogen were compared with those in nontreated field soil. The pathogen rapidly proliferated in disinfested soil and wilt developed faster than in nontreated soil. When a nonpathogenic isolate of F. oxysporum was added at high density to sterilized soil prior to the pathogen, growth of the pathogen was greatly suppressed. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum could not, however, reduce the density of preexisting pathogen. PMID:18944103

Takehara, Toshiaki; Kuniyasu, Katsuto; Mori, Mitsutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

106

The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

SciTech Connect

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

2007-09-07

107

In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.  

PubMed

Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

2014-03-01

108

Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia.  

PubMed

The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal symbionts. Individual X. glabratus were macerated in glass tissue grinders, and the slurry was serially diluted and plated onto malt agar medium amended with cycloheximide, a medium semiselective for Ophiostoma species and their anamorphs, including members of Raffaelea. R. lauricola was isolated from 56 of 85 beetles in Taiwan and 10 of 16 beetles in Japan at up to an estimated 10 000 CFUs per beetle. The next most commonly isolated species was R. ellipticospora, which also has been recovered from X. glabratus trapped in the USA, as were two other fungi isolated from beetles in Taiwan, R. fusca and R. subfusca. Three unidentified Raffaelea spp. and three unidentified Ophiostoma spp. were isolated rarely from X. glabratus collected in Taiwan. Isolations from beetles similarly trapped in Georgia, USA, yielded R. lauricola and R. ellipticospora in numbers similar to those from beetles trapped in Taiwan and Japan. The results support the hypothesis that R. lauricola was introduced into the USA in mycangia of X. glabratus shipped to USA in solid wood packing material from Asia. However differences in the mycangial mycoflora of X. glabratus in Taiwan, Japan and USA suggest that the X. glabratus population established in USA originated in another part of Asia. PMID:21471288

Harrington, Thomas C; Yun, Hye Young; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Goto, Hideaki; Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Fraedrich, Stephen W

2011-01-01

109

Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease: shifts in root microbiome associated with reduction of pathogen root colonization.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease was induced by incubating sandy soil with debris of wild rocket (WR; Diplotaxis tenuifolia) under field conditions. We studied microbial dynamics in the roots of cucumber seedlings following transplantation into WR-amended or nonamended soil, as influenced by inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. Disease symptoms initiated in nonamended soil 6 days after inoculation, compared with 14 days in WR-amended soil. Root infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Target numbers were similar 3 days after inoculation for both WR-amended and nonamended soils, and were significantly lower (66%) 6 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive (WR-amended) soil. This decrease in root colonization was correlated with a reduction in disease (60%) 21 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive soil. Fungal community composition on cucumber roots was assessed using mass sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer gene fragments. Sequences related to F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp. 14005, Chaetomium sp. 15003, and an unclassified Ascomycota composed 96% of the total fungal sequences in all samples. The relative abundances of these major groups were highly affected by root inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, with a 10-fold increase in F. oxysporum sequences, but were not affected by the WR amendment. Quantitative analysis and mass-sequencing methods indicated a qualitative shift in the root's bacterial community composition in suppressive soil, rather than a change in bacterial numbers. A sharp reduction in the size and root dominance of the Massilia population in suppressive soil was accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of specific populations; namely, Rhizobium, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Streptomyces spp. Composition of the Streptomyces community shifted significantly, as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulting in an increase in the dominance of a specific population in suppressive soils after only 3 days. This shift was related mainly to the increase in Streptomyces humidus, a group previously described as antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi. Thus, suitable soil amendment resulted in a shift in the root's bacterial communities, and infection by a virulent pathogen was contained by the root microbiome, leading to a reduced disease rate. PMID:22950737

Klein, Eyal; Ofek, Maya; Katan, Jaacov; Minz, Dror; Gamliel, Abraham

2013-01-01

110

Genetic analysis of growth, morphology and pathogenicity in the F(1) progeny of an interspecific cross between Fusarium circinatum and Fusarium subglutinans.  

PubMed

Fusarium circinatum and Fusarium subglutinans are two distinct species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. A genetic linkage map produced from an interspecific cross between these species was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with variation in mycelial growth and morphology of colony margins (CMs) in the 94 F(1) progeny. Mycelial growth was assessed by measuring culture size at 25C and 30C, while CM morphology was characterized in the parents and assessed in their F(1) progeny. In order to test the pathogenicity of the progeny, Pinus patula seedlings were inoculated and lesion lengths were measured after 3weeks. Seven putative QTLs were associated with mycelial growth, three for growth at 25C and four at 30C. One highly significant QTL (P<0.001) was present at both growth temperatures. For CM morphology, a QTL was identified at the same position (P<0.001) as the QTL responsible for growth at the two temperatures. The putative QTLs accounted for 45 and 41% of the total mycelial growth variation at 25C and 30C, respectively, and for 21% of the variation in CM morphology. Only one of the 94 F(1) progeny was pathogenic on P. patula seedlings. This observation could be explained by the genetic constitution of this F(1) isolate, namely that ?96% of its genome originated from the F. circinatum parent. This F(1) individual also grew significantly faster at 25C than the F. circinatum parent (P<0.05), as well as more rapidly than the average growth for the remaining 93 F(1) progeny (P<0.05). However, no association was found between mycelial growth and pathogenicity at 25C. The highly significant QTL associated with growth at two temperatures, suggests that this is a principal genomic region involved in mycelial growth at both temperatures, and that the same region is also responsible for CM morphology. PMID:21872187

De Vos, Lieschen; van der Nest, Magriet A; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Myburg, Alexander A; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

2011-09-01

111

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

112

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

113

Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.  

PubMed

Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease. PMID:24224251

Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

2013-10-01

114

Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

2014-01-01

115

MYT3, A Myb-Like Transcription Factor, Affects Fungal Development and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the ?myt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the ?myt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the ?myt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the ?myt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum. PMID:24722578

Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-01-01

116

Effect of azoxystrobin on activities of antioxidant enzymes and alternative oxidase in wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale have distinct sensitivities to strobilurin fungicides, which inhibit activity of complex III in the mitochondrial electron\\u000a transport chain. When mycelia were cultured in medium with the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ), F. graminearum increased its oxygen-consumption, but M. nivale, which is more sensitive than Fusarium species to strobilurins, did not. There was

Isao Kaneko; Hideo Ishii

2009-01-01

117

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

118

Biocontrol of vascular wilt and corm rot of gladiolus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli using plant growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Talc-based formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strain S2BC-2 (Bacillus atrophaeus) and strain mixture, S2BC-2+TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia), inhibitory to the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (FOG), were developed for corm dressing and soil application in gladiolus. In comparison to the individual strain, the strain mixture recorded maximum spike and corm production of 100 and 150%, respectively with less

Veerubommu Shanmugam; Nandina Kanoujia; Markandey Singh; Sukhjinder Singh; Ramdeen Prasad

2011-01-01

119

Variation in Pathogenicity Associated with the Genetic Diversity of Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened 188 isolates of Fusarium graminearum, which originated from northwest Europe, the USA and Nepal, for genetic diversity using a sequence-characterised amplified region polymorphism (SCAR). On the basis of this analysis, 42 of the 118 isolates were selected for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Three groups were identified, two of which, A and B, contained the isolates from

J. P. Carter; H. N. Rezanoor; D. Holden; A. E. Desjardins; R. D. Plattner; P. Nicholson

2002-01-01

120

[Successful treatment of Fusarium-associated keratitis with multiresistant pathogen and multimorbid patient].  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man (not a contact lens wearer) presented with Fusarium-associated hypopyon keratitis. After several weeks of empirical and subsequently targeted antimycotic treatment, no considerable improvement was observed. However, after sclerokeratoplasty (11.2??11.2mm) combined with prolonged antimycotic therapy a good local result with relapse-free long-term follow-up was achieved. PMID:23774966

Alnawaiseh, M; Bhm, M R R; Idelevich, E A; Becker, K; Grewe, S; Grenzebach, U H; Eter, N

2014-03-01

121

A Putative Transcription Factor pcs1 Positively Regulates Both Conidiation and Sexual Reproduction in the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight in cereal crops and produces mycotoxins that are harmful to animals and humans. For the initiation and spread of disease, asexual and sexual reproduction is required. Therefore, studies on fungal reproduction contribute to the development of new methods to control and maintain the fungal population. Screening a previously generated transcription factor mutant collection, we identified one putative C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor, pcs1, which is required for both sexual and asexual reproduction. Deleting pcs1 in F. graminearum resulted in a dramatic reduction in conidial production and a complete loss of sexual reproduction. The pathways and gene ontology of pcs1-dependent genes from microarray experiments showed that several G-protein related pathways, oxidase activity, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA binding and processing were highly enriched, suggesting that pcs1 is involved in several different biological processes. Further, overexpression of pcs1 increased conidial production and resulted in earlier maturation of ascospores compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, the vegetative growth of the overexpression mutants was decreased in nutrient-rich conditions but was not different from the wild-type strain in nutrient-poor conditions. Overall, we discovered that the pcs1 transcription factor positively regulates both conidiation and sexual reproduction and confers nutrient condition-dependent vegetative growth. PMID:25289009

Jung, Boknam; Park, Jungwook; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Yin-Won; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-09-01

122

Antifungal activity and mechanism of palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide photocatalyst on agricultural pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is the pathogen for Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, which could significantly reduce grain quality/yield and produce a variety of mycotoxins posing a potential safety concern to human foods. As an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used chemical fugicides, a highly effective photocatalytic disinfection of F. graminearum macroconidia under visible light illumination was demonstrated on a visible-light-activated palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/PdO) nanoparticle photocatalyst. Because of the opposite surface charges of the TiON/PdO nanoparticles and the F. graminearum macroconidium, the nanoparticles were strongly adsorbed onto the macroconidium surface, which is beneficial to the photocatalytic disinfection of these macroconidia. The photocatalytic disinfection mechanism of TiON/PdO nanoparticles on these macroconidia could be attributed to their cell wall/membrane damage caused by the attack from reactive oxygen species (ROSs) as demonstrated by the fluorescence/phase contrast microscopy observations, while a breakage of their cell structure was not necessary for their loss of viability. PMID:24175751

Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Yang; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Shang, Jian Ku

2013-11-13

123

A Putative Transcription Factor pcs1 Positively Regulates Both Conidiation and Sexual Reproduction in the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight in cereal crops and produces mycotoxins that are harmful to animals and humans. For the initiation and spread of disease, asexual and sexual reproduction is required. Therefore, studies on fungal reproduction contribute to the development of new methods to control and maintain the fungal population. Screening a previously generated transcription factor mutant collection, we identified one putative C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor, pcs1, which is required for both sexual and asexual reproduction. Deleting pcs1 in F. graminearum resulted in a dramatic reduction in conidial production and a complete loss of sexual reproduction. The pathways and gene ontology of pcs1-dependent genes from microarray experiments showed that several G-protein related pathways, oxidase activity, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA binding and processing were highly enriched, suggesting that pcs1 is involved in several different biological processes. Further, overexpression of pcs1 increased conidial production and resulted in earlier maturation of ascospores compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, the vegetative growth of the overexpression mutants was decreased in nutrient-rich conditions but was not different from the wild-type strain in nutrient-poor conditions. Overall, we discovered that the pcs1 transcription factor positively regulates both conidiation and sexual reproduction and confers nutrient condition-dependent vegetative growth. PMID:25289009

Jung, Boknam; Park, Jungwook; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Yin-Won; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-01-01

124

Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University;); Mary L. Powelson (Oregon State University;)

2000-08-01

125

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

126

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-03-01

127

Phylogenetics and taxonomy of the fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium, with the descriptions of five new species.  

PubMed

Knowledge of pathogen biology and genetic diversity is a cornerstone of effective disease management, and accurate identification of the pathogen is a foundation of pathogen biology. Species names provide an ideal framework for storage and retrieval of relevant information, a system that is contingent on a clear understanding of species boundaries and consistent species identification. Verticillium, a genus of ascomycete fungi, contains important plant pathogens whose species boundaries have been ill defined. Using phylogenetic analyses, morphological investigations and comparisons to herbarium material and the literature, we established a taxonomic framework for Verticillium comprising ten species, five of which are new to science. We used a collection of 74 isolates representing much of the diversity of Verticillium, and phylogenetic analyses based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial sequences of the protein coding genes actin (ACT), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and tryptophan synthase (TS). Combined analyses of the ACT, EF, GPD and TS datasets recognized two major groups within Verticillium, Clade Flavexudans and Clade Flavnonexudans, reflecting the respective production and absence of yellow hyphal pigments. Clade Flavexudans comprised V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus as well as the new species V. zaregamsianum, V. isaacii and V. klebahnii, of which the latter two were morphologically indistinguishable from V. tricorpus but may differ in pathogenicity. Clade Flavnonexudans comprised V. nubilum, V. dahliae and V. longisporum, as well as the two new species V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae, which resembled the distantly related V. albo-atrum in morphology. Apart from the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, each of the ten species corresponded to a single clade in the phylogenetic tree comprising just one ex-type strain, thereby establishing a direct link to a name tied to a herbarium specimen. A morphology-based key is provided for identification to species or species groups. PMID:22174791

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Bostock, Richard M; Davis, R Michael; Usami, Toshiyuki; Platt, Harold W; Subbarao, Krishna V

2011-01-01

128

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of pathogen biology and genetic diversity is a cornerstone of effective disease management, and accurate identification of the pathogen is a foundation of pathogen biology. Species names provide an ideal framework for storage and retrieval of relevant information, a system that is contingent on a clear understanding of species boundaries and consistent species identification. Verticillium, a genus of ascomycete fungi, contains important plant pathogens whose species boundaries have been ill defined. Using phylogenetic analyses, morphological investigations and comparisons to herbarium material and the literature, we established a taxonomic framework for Verticillium comprising ten species, five of which are new to science. We used a collection of 74 isolates representing much of the diversity of Verticillium, and phylogenetic analyses based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial sequences of the protein coding genes actin (ACT), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and tryptophan synthase (TS). Combined analyses of the ACT, EF, GPD and TS datasets recognized two major groups within Verticillium, Clade Flavexudans and Clade Flavnonexudans, reflecting the respective production and absence of yellow hyphal pigments. Clade Flavexudans comprised V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus as well as the new species V. zaregamsianum, V. isaacii and V. klebahnii, of which the latter two were morphologically indistinguishable from V. tricorpus but may differ in pathogenicity. Clade Flavnonexudans comprised V. nubilum, V. dahliae and V. longisporum, as well as the two new species V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae, which resembled the distantly related V. albo-atrum in morphology. Apart from the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, each of the ten species corresponded to a single clade in the phylogenetic tree comprising just one ex-type strain, thereby establishing a direct link to a name tied to a herbarium specimen. A morphology-based key is provided for identification to species or species groups. PMID:22174791

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Bostock, Richard M.; Davis, R. Michael; Usami, Toshiyuki; Platt, Harold W.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2011-01-01

129

Mating, conidiation and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum , the main causal agent of the headblight disease of wheat, are regulated by the MAP kinase gpmk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, only very little is known about the molecular infection mechanisms of the head-blight pathogen of wheat, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae). Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of the Fus3\\/Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue Gpmk1 from F. graminearum. Disruption of the gpmk1 gene in F. graminearum results in mutants that are reduced in conidial production, are

Nicole J. Jenczmionka; Frank J. Maier; Anke P. Lsch; Wilhelm Schfer

2003-01-01

130

Fusarium graminearum Gene Deletion Mutants Map1 and tri5 Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Pathogenicity Requirements to Cause Disease on Arabidopsis and Wheat Floral Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F graminearum (strain PH-1) and two

Alayne Cuzick; Martin Urban; Kim Hammond-Kosack

2008-01-01

131

The Arabidopsis thaliana DNA-binding protein AHL19 mediates verticillium wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Verticillium spp. are destructive soilborne fungal pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in a wide range of plant species. Verticillium wilts are particularly notorious, and genetic resistance in crop plants is the most favorable means of disease control. In a gain-of-function screen using an activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant collection, we identified four mutants, A1 to A4, which displayed enhanced resistance toward the vascular wilt species Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum but not to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Further testing revealed that mutant A2 displayed enhanced Ralstonia solanacearum resistance, while mutants A1 and A3 were more susceptible toward Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Identification of the activation tag insertion site in the A1 mutant revealed an insertion in close proximity to the gene encoding AHL19, which was constitutively expressed in the mutant. AHL19 knock-out alleles were found to display enhanced Verticillium susceptibility whereas overexpression of AHL19 resulted in enhanced Verticillium resistance, showing that AHL19 acts as a positive regulator of plant defense. PMID:21864046

Yadeta, Koste A; Hanemian, Mathieu; Smit, Patrick; Hiemstra, Jelle A; Pereira, Andy; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P H J

2011-12-01

132

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of Specific Endoglucanase Gene Sequence for Detection of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

2014-01-01

133

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Jolle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

134

The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth  

PubMed Central

Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth. PMID:19851506

Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

135

Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized JG-62 xylem vessels of root and stem but in WR-315, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

Jimenez-Fernandez, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jimenez-Diaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortes, Juan A.

2013-01-01

136

Cottons Resistant to Wilt and Root Knot and the Effect of Potash Fertilizer in East Texas.  

E-print Network

to the respective isolates of the 6 BULLETIN NO. 627, TEXAS AGRlCULTURAL EXPER,IIVIEK STATIOS SYMPTOMS OF F'USARIUM WIL!F wilt fungus, although there was much difference in the virulence of dif- ferent isolates. Apparently one species of Fusarium caused...) separated cotton varieties on the basis of their resistance to root knot and stated Wilt is caused by a parasitic fungus named Fusarium vasinfectum Atk. It enters cotton roots from the soil and grows mainly in the water- , that resistance to root knot...

Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

1943-01-01

137

Fot 1 insertions in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome provide diagnostic PCR targets for detection of the date palm pathogen.  

PubMed

Populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar Fot 1 hybridization patterns. In order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several DNA clones containing a copy of the transposable element Fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. Regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences were used to design PCR primers that amplify the DNA regions at several Fot 1 insertion sites. When tested on a large sample of Fusarium isolates, including 286 F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates, 17 other special forms, nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates from palm grove soils, and 8 other Fusarium species, the primer pair TL3-FOA28 allowed amplification of a 400-bp fragment found only in F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. Sequence analysis showed that one of the Fot 1 copies was truncated, lacking 182 bp at its 3' terminus. The primer pair BI03-FOA1 amplified a 204-bp fragment which overlapped the Fot 1 truncated copy and its 3' site of insertion in the F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome and identified 95% of the isolates. The primer pairs BIO3-FOA1 and TL3-FOA28 used in PCR assays thus provide a useful diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates. PMID:9464402

Fernandez, D; Ouinten, M; Tantaoui, A; Geiger, J P; Daboussi, M J; Langin, T

1998-02-01

138

Enhanced Control of Cucumber Wilt Disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by Altering the Regulation of Its DegU Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan

2014-01-01

139

Enhanced control of cucumber wilt disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by altering the regulation of Its DegU phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU?P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU?P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qirong

2014-05-01

140

Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme  

PubMed Central

Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species. PMID:24743166

Sarmiento-Ramirez, Jullie M.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2014-01-01

141

Bronze Wilt of Cotton  

E-print Network

,? ?red wilt? and ?antho- cyanosis? in other countries. The disease occurs on short-season varieties of Upland and Pima cotton. Bronze wilt was first recognized as a problem in Mississippi and Louisiana in 1995, and in Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee and North... State University, Texas A&M University, University of Tennessee, Texas Cooperative Extension, University of Tennessee, University of Missouri, and University of Arkansas. Table 1. Stages of development, or levels of severity, of Bronze Wilt. Stage...

Bell, Alois A.; Nichols, Robert L.; Lemon, Robert G.

2002-02-12

142

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-01-01

143

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2007-01-01

144

Comparative analysis and characterization of the soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen Fusarium virguliforme in the northern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, has occurred in several US states and Ontario since 1985 but is a new problem in the northern states, including Minnesota. The characteristics and distribution of F. virguliforme and SDS in Minnesota and other northern soybean production areas were unknown. In 2006 and 2007, SDS was confirmed in 21 counties from the

D. K. Malvick; K. E. Bussey

2008-01-01

145

Antimicrobial activities of Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens and S. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in Egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. Most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. On starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of Fusarium wilt), 18 against Verticillium albo-atrum (the cause of Verticillium wilt), and 18 against Alternaria solani (the cause of early blight). In liquid media, 14 isolates antagonized Pseudomonas solanacearum (the cause of bacterial wilt) and 20 antagonized Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (the cause of bacterial canker). The most active antagonists of the pathogenic microorganisms studied were found to be Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens (syn. S. albidoflavus) and S. citreofluorescens (syn. S. anulatus). The antagonistic activities of S. pulcher and S. canescens against pathogenic fungi were assessed on solid media, and those of S. pulcher and S. citreofluorescens against pathogenic bacteria in liquid media under shaking conditions. The optimum culture conditions were determined. PMID:9131789

el-Abyad, M S; el-Sayed, M A; el-Shanshoury, A R; el-Sabbagh, S M

1996-01-01

146

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed? of BM 1, 30 ?l seed? of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed? of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

147

Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was con- structed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between mutants of the sequenced strain (PH-1, NRRL 31084, originally isolated from Michigan) and a field strain from Minnesota (00-676, NRRL 34097). A total

L. R. Gale; J. D. Bryant; S. Calvo; H. Giese; T. Katan; K. O'Donnell; H. Suga; M. Taga; T. R. Usgaard; T. J. Ward; H. C. Kistler

2005-01-01

148

Transposition of the miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1 in the wheat pathogen Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

High-throughput methods are needed for functional genomics analysis in Fusarium culmorum, the cause of crown and foot rot on wheat and a type B trichothecene producer. Our aim was to develop and test the efficacy of a double-component system based on the ability of the impala transposase to transactivate the miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1 of Fusarium oxysporum. We report, for the first time, the application of a tagging system based on a heterologous transposon and of splinkerette-polymerase chain reaction to identify mimp1 flanking regions in the filamentous fungus F.?culmorum. Similar to previous observations in Fusarium graminearum, mimp1 transposes in F.?culmorum by a cut-and-paste mechanism into TA dinucleotides, which are duplicated on insertion. mimp1 was reinserted in open reading frames in 16.4% (i.e. 10 of 61) of the strains analysed, probably spanning throughout the entire genome of F.?culmorum. The effectiveness of the mimp1/impala double-component system for gene tagging in F.?culmorum was confirmed phenotypically for a putative aurofusarin gene. This system also allowed the identification of two genes putatively involved in oxidative stress-coping capabilities in F.?culmorum, as well as a sequence specific to this fungus, thus suggesting the valuable exploratory role of this tool. PMID:22897438

Spanu, Francesca; Pasquali, Matias; Scherm, Barbara; Balmas, Virgilio; Marcello, Angela; Ortu, Giuseppe; Dufresne, Marie; Hoffmann, Lucien; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Migheli, Quirico

2012-12-01

149

Characteristics of Ralstonia Solanacearum Strains of Potato Wilt Disease from Nepal and Thailand1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of strains of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of potato bacterial wilt disease from Nepal and Thailand was performed based on pathogenicity, biochemical\\/physiological and serological tests. Fifteen R. solanacearum strains isolated from wilt infected potato plants and tubers grown in Nepal were characterized as race 3, biovar II based on the pathogenicity on different host plants, hypersensitive re action

Shambhu P Dhital; N Thaveechai; Sundar K Shrestha

150

Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles and their interactive effect with a biocontrol bacterium on growth antagonism of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fungal plant pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum cause severe global economic losses in cereals crops, and current control measures are limited. This work addresses the potential for ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and biocontrol bacteria to be used in plant fungal control strategies. Growth of F. graminearum was significantly (p = 0.05) inhibited by inclusion of the NPs in a mung bean broth agar and in sand. Suspension in mung bean broth medium modified the surface charge, dissolution, and aggregation state of the ZnO NPs, in comparison to processes occurring in water suspension. The ZnO NPs were significantly more inhibitory to fungal growth than micro-sized particles of ZnO, although both types of particles released similar levels of soluble Zn, indicating size-dependent toxicity of the particles. Zn ions produced dose-dependent inhibition, noticeable at the level of soluble Zn released from NPs after seven-day suspension in medium; inhibitory levels caused acidification of the growth medium. Transfer of fungal inoculum after exposure to the ZnO NPs to fresh medium did not indicate adaptation to the stress because growth was still inhibited by the NPs. The ZnO NPs did not prevent metabolites from a biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, from inhibiting Fusarium growth: no synergism was observed in the mung bean agar. Because other studies find that soil amendment with ZnO NPs required high doses for inhibition of plant growth, the findings of pathogen growth control reported in this paper open the possibility of using ZnO NP-based formulations to complement existing strategies for improving crop health in field settings. PMID:23933719

Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

2013-12-01

151

A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W  

PubMed Central

During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen sourceindependent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ?meaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-01-01

152

The Adenylyl Cyclase Plays a Regulatory Role in the Morphogenetic Switch from Vegetative to Pathogenic Lifestyle of Fusarium graminearum on Wheat  

PubMed Central

Cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a nucleotide derived from adenosine triphosphate that acts as a second messenger throughout all kingdoms. Intracellular cAMP levels are synthesized by a membrane-bound protein, the adenylyl cyclase. In order to analyze the function of this gene and the importance of cAMP in the life cycle of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the adenylyl cyclase gene (FGSG_01234) was deleted by gene replacement (?Fgac1). The ?Fgac1 mutant displayed a drastically reduced growth on agar medium which could be rescued by a cAMP analogon. Furthermore, the ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce perithecia on detached wheat nodes. However, artificial conditions like carrot agar allowed perithecia development. Pathogenicity towards wheat was drastically reduced in ?Fgac1 compared to the wild type. Point-inoculated spikelets showed only small lesions but no typical head blight disease symptoms. Fluorescence microscopy using dsRed-expressing strains revealed that the ?Fgac1 strain was unable to develop any complex infection structures like lobate appressoria and infection cushions. Instead, hyphal anastomosis occurs frequently. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the lack of fungal penetration. Hence, the formation of compound appressoria seems to be essential for infection of wheat. Hyphae on flower leaves produced huge amounts of new conidia, thereby circumventing the infection cycle. This abundant sporulation on wheat epidermis was not observed in wild type. Intriguingly, the Fgac1 deletion mutant was able to infect maize cobs as wild type, indicating that cAMP signaling is not important for maize infection. The ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol both in vitro and during wheat infection. In this study, we show that cAMP signaling controls important cellular processes such as development of infection structures, pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production and sexual reproduction. For the first time, we show that cAMP regulates the switch from vegetative to pathogenic lifestyle of F. graminearum on wheat. PMID:24603887

Bormann, Jorg; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Bruckner, Elena; Firat, Demet; Schafer, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

153

Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a cosmopolitan fungus known almost exclusively from animal infections and biofilms. To better understand its diversity and population dynamics, we developed and utilized a nine-locus sequence-based typing system to make inferences about clonality, recombination, population structure, species boundaries and hybridization. Results High levels of genetic diversity and evidence for recombination and clonality were detected among 75 clinical and 156 environmental isolates of Fusarium keratoplasticum. The multilocus sequence typing system (MLST) resolved 111 unique nine-locus sequence types (STs). The single locus bifactorial determinants of mating compatibility (mating types MAT1-1 and MAT1-2), were found in a ratio of 70:30. All but one of the 49 isolates of the most common ST (FSSC 2d-2) came from human infections, mostly of the cornea, and from biofilms associated with contact lenses and plumbing surfaces. Significant levels of phylogenetic incongruence were found among loci. Putative clonal relationships among genotypes were estimated, showing a mixture of large clonal complexes and unrelated singletons. Discordance between the nuclear ribosomal rRNA and other gene genealogies is consistent with introgression of ribosomal RNA alleles of phylogenetic species FSSC 9 into F. keratoplasticum. No significant population subdivision based on clinical versus non-clinical sources was found. Conclusions Incongruent phylogenetic trees and the presence of both mating types within otherwise identical STs were observed, providing evidence for sexuality in F. keratoplasticum. Cryptic speciation suggested in a published three-locus MLST system was not supported with the addition of new loci, but evidence of introgression of ribosomal RNA genes from another strongly supported phylogenetic species (FSSC 9), also known from plumbing systems and human infections, was detected in two isolates. Overall, F. keratoplasticum is a diverse and geographically unstructured species with a mixed clonal and recombinant life history. PMID:24766947

2014-01-01

154

Host perception of jasmonates promotes infection by Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales that produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonates.  

PubMed

Three pathogenic forms, or formae speciales (f. spp.), of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana below ground, instigating symptoms of wilt disease in leaves above ground. In previous reports, Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid or salicylic acid or insensitive to ethylene or jasmonates exhibited either more or less wilt disease, than the wild-type, implicating the involvement of hormones in the normal host response to F.?oxysporum. Our analysis of hormone-related mutants finds no evidence that endogenous hormones contribute to infection in roots. Mutants that are deficient in abscisic acid and insensitive to ethylene show no less infection than the wild-type, although they exhibit less disease. Whether a mutant that is insensitive to jasmonates affects infection depends on which forma specialis (f. sp.) is infecting the roots. Insensitivity to jasmonates suppresses infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F.?oxysporum f. sp. matthioli, which produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonate (JA-Ile/Leu), respectively, in culture filtrates, whereas insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on infection by F.?oxysporum f. sp. raphani, which produces no detectable JA-Ile/Leu. Furthermore, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on wilt disease of tomato, and the tomato pathogen F.?oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces no detectable jasmonates. Thus, some, but not all, F.?oxysporum pathogens appear to utilize jasmonates as effectors, promoting infection in roots and/or the development of symptoms in shoots. Only when the infection of roots is promoted by jasmonates is wilt disease enhanced in a mutant deficient in salicylic acid biosynthesis. PMID:24387225

Cole, Stephanie J; Yoon, Alexander J; Faull, Kym F; Diener, Andrew C

2014-08-01

155

Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen. PMID:23825955

Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J.; Huss, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B.; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M.; Brown, Daren W.; Proctor, Robert H.; Munsterkotter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Guldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-01-01

156

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martnez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldn, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

157

The Genome of the Generalist Plant Pathogen Fusarium avenaceum Is Enriched with Genes Involved in Redox, Signaling and Secondary Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and associated with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The sizes of the three genomes range from 41.643.1 MB, with 1321713445 predicted protein-coding genes. Whole-genome analysis showed that the three genomes are highly syntenic, and share>95% gene orthologs. Comparative analysis to other sequenced Fusaria shows that F. avenaceum has a very large potential for producing secondary metabolites, with between 75 and 80 key enzymes belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, terpene, alkaloid and indole-diterpene synthase classes. In addition to known metabolites from F. avenaceum, fuscofusarin and JM-47 were detected for the first time in this species. Many protein families are expanded in F. avenaceum, such as transcription factors, and proteins involved in redox reactions and signal transduction, suggesting evolutionary adaptation to a diverse and cosmopolitan ecology. We found that 20% of all predicted proteins were considered to be secreted, supporting a life in the extracellular space during interaction with plant hosts. PMID:25409087

Lyse, Erik; Harris, Linda J.; Walkowiak, Sean; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Divon, Hege H.; Riiser, Even S.; Llorens, Carlos; Gabaldn, Toni; Kistler, H. Corby; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Thrane, Ulf; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.

2014-01-01

158

Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

2013-12-01

159

The role of MADS-box transcription factors in secondary metabolism and sexual development in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) regulate functionally diverse gene targets in eukaryotes. In select ascomycetes, MADS-box TFs have been shown to play a role in virulence, and vegetative and sexual development. Here, we characterized Fusarium verticillioides MADS-box TFs, Mads1 and Mads2, in terms of their roles in secondary metabolism and sexual mating. Sequence analyses showed that MADS1 and MADS2 encode TFs with a SRF-type dimerization domain and a MEF2-type dimerization domain, respectively. The MADS1 and MADS2 knockout mutants (Fmt1 and Fmt2 strains, respectively) exhibited decreased vegetative growth and FB1 production when compared to the wild-type. Fmt1 showed reduced expression of 14 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes present in the organism, whereas Fmt2 did not display a change in PKS gene expression. Significantly, the deletion of MADS1 and MADS2 in the MAT1-2 genotype (Fmt4 and Fmt5 strains, respectively) led to strains that failed to produce perithecia and ascospores when crossed with the MAT1-1 wild-type strain. Notably, deletion of either gene did not have an effect on the ability of the fungus to colonize maize stalk or kernels. FB1 production and PKS expression data suggest that Mads1 is a broad regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides, and may target regulons upstream of Mads2 to influence FB1 production. In addition, MADS-box TFs in F. verticillioides play a critical role in the perithecia development. PMID:23985144

Ortiz, Carlos S; Shim, Won-Bo

2013-11-01

160

Dermatitis and systemic mycosis in lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus associated with a marine-adapted Fusarium solani species complex pathogen.  

PubMed

During a 4 mo epizootic, 100% of 152 lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus in 3 separate groups died while in quarantine following shipment to a public aquarium. Twelve animals with skin depigmentation and ulceration were received by the Aquatic Pathology Service, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA, for diagnostic evaluation. Microscopically, lesions in 11 seahorses included multifocal epithelial necrosis and ulceration associated with 2 to 7 m diameter, branching, septate fungal hyphae, typically accompanied by deeper infiltration into underlying skeletal muscle. Angioinvasion, with vascular thrombosis and tissue infarction, was a prominent feature in multiple animals. Fungal invasion of one or more internal organs was observed in 4 animals. Hyphae appeared to course freely through tissues and elicited little or no inflammatory response. Fusariosis has been reported sporadically in fish and other aquatic organisms, but identification has often been limited to the genus level based solely on morphologic features. Morphologic characteristics of the fungus isolated from this case were consistent with the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), which includes over 50 members that can only be identified definitively using DNA sequence data. A 3-locus typing scheme identified the isolate as a distinct species/haplotype, designated FSSC 12-a, belonging to a specific lineage that appears adapted to aquatic environments and disease in marine animals. Empirical treatment with itraconazole failed to stop mortalities, and subsequent in vitro antifungal susceptibility data explained a lack of clinical efficacy for this agent. Effective treatment in human medicine has similarly been limited by poor susceptibility to several classes of antifungal compounds. PMID:23047188

Salter, Caroline E; O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Marancik, David P; Knowles, Susan; Clauss, Tonya M; Berliner, Aimee L; Camus, Alvin C

2012-10-10

161

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants  

PubMed Central

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2014-01-01

162

Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.  

PubMed

In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. PMID:24996429

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-01-01

163

Transformation of Fusarium oxysporum by particle bombardment and characterisation of the resulting transformants expressing a GFP transgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium is the causative agent of a variety of economically significant vascular wilt diseases of vegetables, flowers and field crops. The completion of the first Fusarium genome and the availability of an EST database now provides a platform for both forward and reverse genetic approaches to ascribe gene function in this phytopathogen. To underpin these strategies effective gene transfer procedures

Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud; Byung-Wook Yun; Lucy A. Harrier; Gary J. Loake

2004-01-01

164

Coprinellus curtus (Hitoyo-take) prevents diseases of vegetables caused by pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A strain of Coprinellus curtus (designated GM-21), a basidiomycete that suppressed bottom-rot disease of Chinese cabbage, 'pak-choi' (Brassica campestris), caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Pak-choi 2 was isolated. The mechanism of plant disease suppression was discovered to be hyphal interference, a combative fungal interaction between strain GM-21 and the pathogen. The antifungal spectrum of strain GM-21 was shown to include R. solani and Fusarium sp., i.e. strain GM-21 showed disease-suppressive ability against bottom-rot disease of lettuce and Rhizoctonia-patch disease of mascarene grass caused by strains of R. solani. In addition, clear evidence of hyphal interference between strain GM-21 and Fusarium pathogens that cause crown (foot) and root-rot disease of tomato and Fusarium wilt of melon, respectively, was demonstrated. It was thus considered that GM-21 is effective for suppressing soil-borne pathogens, and that GM-21 presents new possibilities for biological control of vegetable diseases. PMID:17850327

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Saito, Miyuki; Suzuki, Nobuaki

2007-10-01

165

Regulation by light in Fusarium.  

PubMed

The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

2010-11-01

166

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

2013-01-01

167

Verticillium wilt of cauliflower in Belgium.  

PubMed

Since several years commercial cauliflower in Belgium is severely affected by a vascular wilt disease. Plants wilt and a vascular discoloration of the cauliflower stems can be observed. The pathogen causes significant yield and quality losses. The first objective of this study was to isolate and characterise the causal agent of this disease. Verticillium species could be isolated out of the vascular tissue of symptomatic cauliflower plants. Morphological and physiological characteristics indicated that the isolates from cauliflower could be identified as the new and brassica-related species V. longisporum. Secondly, the susceptibility of several cauliflower cultivars to V. longisporum was evaluated by way of field experiments in naturally infested soil. At harvest, vascular discoloration was evaluated by a visual score. These experiments pointed to considerable differences between cultivars in their susceptibility to V. longisporum. The final goal of this study was to find a way to control the wilt disease on cauliflower. A field experiment showed that vascular discoloration of cauliflower was significantly reduced when soil was incorporated with broccoli residues, two Brassica green manures (B. juncea or B. nigra) or two commercial biological products based on Talaromyces flavus or Trichoderma sp.. PMID:12701428

Debode, J; Spiessens, K; De Rooster, L; Hfte, M

2002-01-01

168

Antibody-mediated prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins in the field.  

PubMed

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. PMID:19325726

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-10-01

169

A Genetic and Biochemical Approach to Study Trichothecene Diversity in Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trichothecenes T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are natural fungal products that are toxic to both animals and plants. Their importance in the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. on crop plants has inspired efforts to understand the genetic and biochemical mechanisms leading to trichothecene synthesis. In order to better understand T-2 toxin biosynthesis by Fusarium sporotrichioides and DON biosynthesis by F.

Daren W. Brown; Susan P. McCormick; Nancy J. Alexander; Robert H. Proctor; Anne E. Desjardins

2001-01-01

170

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels. PMID:24998294

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N; Schenk, Peer M

2014-01-01

171

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels. PMID:24998294

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N.; Schenk, Peer M.

2014-01-01

172

Identification of simple sequence repeat markers associated with wilt resistance in pigeonpea.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out with the objective of identifying markers for Fusarium wilt resistance in pigeonpea using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and bulk segregant analysis (BSA). The wilt resistant (ICPL 87119) and wilt susceptible (T. Vishakha-1) genotypes were crossed and their F2 population was used for marker analysis. Although, the parents were surveyed with 76 SSR primers to identify the polymorphic markers, only 26 primers were found polymorphic between the parents under study. The polymorphic information content scores of SSR markers ranged between 0.077 to 0.333, with an average of 0.18 per marker. These 26 primers were selected for BSA, which indicated that five SSR primers (PFW 26, PFW 31, PFW 38, PFW 56, and PFW 70) were able to distinguish the resistant and susceptible bulks and parents for wilt resistance. Hence, these five SSR markers can be utilized further for identification of wilt resistant genotypes of pigeon pea and for development of new wilt resistant varieties of pigeonpea. PMID:25204073

Khalekar, Ganesh D; Akhare, Amrapali A; Gahukar, Santosh J; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Kumar, Mithlesh

2014-09-01

173

Cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. Here we describe that cerebroside C is produced in diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. In addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside A, B, or C was detected in other soilborne phytopathogens, such as Pythium and Botrytis. Treatment of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), melon (Cucumis melo), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with cerebroside B resulted in resistance to infection by each pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum. Induction of pathogenesis-related genes and H(2)O(2) production by treatment with cerebroside B were observed in tomato root tissues. The cerebroside elicitor showed no antifungal activity against F. oxysporum in vitro, indicating that the cerebroside elicitor activates defense mechanisms to confer resistance to Fusarium disease. These results suggest that cerebroside functions as a non-race-specific elicitor in a wide range of plant-phytopathogenic fungus interactions. Additionally, cerebroside elicitor serves as a potential biologically derived control agent. PMID:18943100

Umemura, Kenji; Tanino, Shigeki; Nagatsuka, Tadako; Koga, Jinichiro; Iwata, Michiaki; Nagashima, Kenji; Amemiya, Yoshimiki

2004-08-01

174

Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici in substrates and roots by PCR.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne fungus that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of plant species. Basil is recognized as an ecological niche for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici (FOB) and this fungus is now present in most countries where basil is cultivated. The rapid identification of the species affecting basil plants is necessary to define a successful method for crop protection. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR method for the rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici in substrates. The specificity of the primers used was tested using the DNA extracted directly from substrate samples. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilici was artificially inoculated with decreasing amounts in a commercial substrate (sphagnum peat moss) and in a mixture with 40% of municipal compost, after steam disinfestation. Basil seeds (cv. Fine verde) were sown in pots that were laid on a bench in the greenhouse. At time 0 and after 7, 14 and 21 days from the inoculation, substrate and root samples were collected and prepared for microbial analysis and for the DNA extraction. DNA extraction was carried out using NucleoSpin Soil Kit (Macherey-Nagel, Germany). PCR amplification for the specific detection was carried out using primer sets Bik 1 (5'-ATT CAA GAG CTA AAG GTC C-3') and Bik 4 (5'-TTT GAC CAA GAT AGA TGC C-3') for the first PCR, while primers Bik 1 + Bik 2 (5'-AAA GGT AGT ATA TCG GAG G-3') for the nested PCR to increase detection sensitivity. Disease incidence was also assessed 21 days after seeding. The results showed the presence of amplified fragments of the expected size when the concentration of F. oxysporum f.sp. basilici was at least 3.5 Log CFU g(-1) by using DNA extract directly from substrate, before roots were infected by the pathogen. The detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici by PCR method developed in this study is certainly simple and fast and can be useful for its reliable detection in substrate samples, but not to guarantee that the substrate is totally free of pathogens. PMID:25151841

Pugliese, M; Ferrocino, I; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2013-01-01

175

Preliminary Identification and Typing of Pathogenic and Toxigenic Fusarium Species Using Restriction Digestion of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 Region  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusarium species are capable of causing a wide range of crop plants infections as well as uncommon human infections. Many species of the genus produce mycotoxins, which are responsible for acute or chronic diseases in animals and humans. Identification of Fusaria to the species level is necessary for biological, epidemiological, pathological, and toxicological purposes. In this study, we undertook a computer-based analysis of ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 in 192 GenBank sequences from 36 Fusarium species to achieve data for establishing a molecular method for specie-specific identification. Methods: Sequence data and 610 restriction enzymes were analyzed for choosing RFLP profiles, and subsequently designed and validated a PCR-restriction enzyme system for identification and typing of species. DNA extracted from 32 reference strains of 16 species were amplified using ITS1 and ITS4 universal primers followed by sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products. Results: The following 3 restriction enzymes TasI, ItaI and CfoI provide the best discriminatory power. Using ITS1 and ITS4 primers a product of approximately 550bp was observed for all Fusarium strains, as expected regarding the sequence analyses. After RFLP of the PCR products, some species were definitely identified by the method and some strains had different patterns in same species. Conclusion: Our profile has potential not only for identification of species, but also for genotyping of strains. On the other hand, some Fusarium species were 100% identical in their ITS-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 sequences, therefore differentiation of these species is impossible regarding this target alone. ITS-PCR-RFLP method might be useful for preliminary differentiation and typing of most common Fusarium species. PMID:23113036

Mirhendi, H; Ghiasian, A; Vismer, HF; Asgary, MR; Jalalizand, N; Arendrup, MC; Makimura, K

2010-01-01

176

Effect of certain fungal and bacterial phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted under field condition in microplots to explore the feasibility of using certain fungal and bacterial\\u000a phosphate solubilizing microoganisms (PSMs) through soil application and root-dip treatment to manage wilt of tomato caused\\u000a by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Aspergillus awamori and A. niger were cultured on potato dextrose broth, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. striata were cultured

M. R. Khan; S. M. Khan; F. A. Mohiddin

177

Phylogenetic relationship between different race representative populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in respect of translation elongation factor-1?, ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer region genes.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1? (TEF-1?), ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1?, ?-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1?, the groups generated by ?-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1? partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately. PMID:24639029

Dubey, Sunil C; Priyanka, Kumari; Singh, Vivek

2014-06-01

178

Resistance to top yellows and fusarium wilt in peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruim dertig jaar lang werd topvergeling, een virusziekte van erwten, tuin- en veldbonen, aangeduid met voetziekte. Van L. Quantz (Braunschweig), die deze ziekte met Blattroll betitelde, werd in 1954 vernomen, dat de verspreiding er van uitsluitend door bladluizen geschiedt.

N. Hubbeling

1956-01-01

179

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

180

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

181

Agricultural factors affecting Verticillium wilt in olive orchards in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is often related to intensive modern farming of highly productive cultivars, planted at high densities, usually irrigated,\\u000a and under a mechanised system. The effects of agricultural factors associated with olive orchards were investigated in an\\u000a important olive-growing area in southern Spain, as

E. Rodrguez; J. M. Garca-garrido; P. A. Garca; M. Campos

2008-01-01

182

In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv). Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a

Jiazheng Yuan; Mengxia Zhu; David A Lightfoot; M Javed Iqbal; Jack Y Yang; Khalid Meksem

2008-01-01

183

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

184

First Report of Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2 Race 1 on Tomato in Egypt  

PubMed Central

This study aims to isolate and identify the causal pathogen of tomato bacterial wilt in Egypt. In 2008, tomato plants showing typical symptoms of bacterial wilt disease with no foliar yellowing were observed in Minia, Assiut and Sohag governorates, Egypt. When cut stems of symptomatic plants were submerged in water, whitish ooze was evident and longitudinal sections showed a brown discoloration in the vascular tissues. Bacteria were isolated on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride medium and fifteen isolates shown typical morphological and cultural characteristics were confirmed as Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 race 1. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates proved to be pathogenic to tomato plants, varied from 52 to 97% wilting. This is the first report of R. solanacearum biovar 2 race 1 causing bacterial wilt in tomato crop in Egypt. PMID:25289016

Seleim, Mohamed A. A.; Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A. M.; Abd-El-Moneem, Kenawy M.; Saead, Farag A.

2014-01-01

185

Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-Gonzlez, M D; Ruiz-Roldn, M C; Garca Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

1999-02-01

186

Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results confirmed the good suppressive activity of the compost under study against soil-borne pathogens. The selection of antagonists from compost is a promising strategy for the development of new biological control agents against soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21534476

Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2010-01-01

187

Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity. PMID:22662271

Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

2012-01-01

188

Icebergs and species in populations of Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Accepted for publication August 2001 and published electronically 22 October 2001) ''Why is the name of the pathogen I work on changing?'' is a common question raised by plant pathologists. Species in the genus Fusarium (and the authors of this article) often are the target for such questions. Species descriptions, even very thorough ones, usually rely on a limited set

John F. Leslie; Kurt A. Zeller; Brett A. Summerell

2001-01-01

189

REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-01-01

190

Diversity of endophytic fungi from different verticillium-wilt-resistant Gossypium hirsutum and evaluation of antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae in vitro.  

PubMed

Cotton plants were sampled and ranked according to their resistance to Verticillium wilt. In total, 642 endophytic fungi isolates representing 27 genera were recovered from Gossypium hirsutum root, stem, and leaf tissues, but were not uniformly distributed. More endophytic fungi appeared in the leaf (391) compared with the root (140) and stem (111) sections. However, no significant difference in the abundance of isolated endophytes was found among resistant cotton varieties. Alternaria exhibited the highest colonization frequency (7.9%), followed by Acremonium (6.6%) and Penicillium (4.8%). Unlike tolerant varieties, resistant and susceptible ones had similar endophytic fungal population compositions. In three Verticillium-wilt-resistant cotton varieties, fungal endophytes from the genus Alternaria were most frequently isolated, followed by Gibberella and Penicillium. The maximum concentration of dominant endophytic fungi was observed in leaf tissues (0.1797). The evenness of stem tissue endophytic communities (0.702) was comparatively more uniform than the other two tissues. Eighty endophytic fungi selected from 27 genera were evaluated for their inhibition activity against highly virulent Verticillium dahliae isolate Vd080 in vitro. Thirty-nine isolates exhibited fungistasis against the pathogen at varying degrees. Seven species, having high growth inhibition rates (?75%), exhibited strong antifungal activity against V. dahliae. The antifungal activity of both volatile and nonvolatile metabolites was also investigated. The nonvolatile substances produced by CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-325 (Fusarium solani), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), and CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus) completely inhibited V. dahliae growth. These findings deepen our understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions and provide a platform for screening G. hirsutum endophytes with biocontrol potential. PMID:24836187

Li, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Ling-Fei; Feng, Zi-Li; Zhao, Li-Hong; Shi, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, He-Qin

2014-09-01

191

Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses. PMID:19230952

Shi, Kai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Yun-Long; Yu, Jing-Quan

2009-05-01

192

J. For. Res. 4: 187-190 (1999) Susceptibility of Elite Acacia mearnsii Families to Ceratocystis Wilt in  

E-print Network

is a recently described fungal pathogen of A. meamsii in South Africa (De Beer, 1994; Wingfield el af., 1996 with diseases of these trees. No effective control measures cUITently existS for the control of Ceratocystis wilt, or any other fungal pathogen, of A. mearnsii. Clonal forestry with Eucalyptus spp. have, however

193

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1  

PubMed Central

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 23-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 24-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Anderson, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

194

Isolation and characterization of an exopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 and race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt is an economically devastating disease that affects banana production. Although Cavendish banana cultivars are resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 (FOC1) and maitain banana production after Gros Michel was destructed by race 1, a new race race 4 (FOC4) was found to infect Cavendish. Results An exopolygalacturonase (PGC2) was isolated and purified from the supernatant of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). PGC2 had an apparent Mr of 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 51.7 kDa by mass spectrometry. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. PGC2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. To obtain adequate amounts of protein for functional studies between the PGC2 proteins of two races of the pathogen, pgc2 genes encoding PGC2 from race 4 (FOC4) and race 1 (FOC1), both 1395 bp in length and encoding 465 amino acids with a predicted amino-terminal signal sequence of 18 residues, were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC2 products, r-FOC1-PGC2 and r-FOC4-PGC2, were expressed and purified as active extracellular proteins. Optimal PGC2 activity was observed at 50C and pH 5. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC1-PGC2 were 0.43 mg.mL-1 and 94.34 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC4-PGC2 were 0.48 mg.mL-1 and 95.24 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. Both recombinant PGC2 proteins could induce tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that PGC2 is the first exoPG reported from the pathogen FOC, and we have shown that fully functional PGC2 can be produced in the P. pastoris expression system. PMID:21920035

2011-01-01

195

Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host  

PubMed Central

Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2011-01-01

196

Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother. PMID:25383318

Carvalho, Vania O.; Vicente, Vania A.; Werner, Betina; Gomes, Renata R.; Fornari, Gheniffer; Herkert, Patricia F.; Rodrigues, Cristina O.; Abagge, Kerstin T.; Robl, Renata; Camina, Ricardo H

2014-01-01

197

Water relations of rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri Lush.) citrus seedlings infected with Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryRough lemon citrus seedlings were inoculated withFusarium solani and evaluated for changes in water relations of leaves, stems, and roots. Inoculated seedlings had decreased leaf stomatal\\u000a conductance, lower leaf water potential, lower water content, and higher leaf osmotic values compared to healthy plants. Visible\\u000a wilt symptoms occurred as early as 24 h after inoculation. Transpiration and root conductivity were lower

S. Nemec; J. Syversten; Y. Levy

1986-01-01

198

Suppression of maize root diseases caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 and two bacilli isolates MR-11(2) and MRF, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. EM85 produced antifungal antibiotics (Afa+), siderophore (Sid+), HCN (HCN+) and fluorescent pigments (Flu+) besides exhibiting plant growth promoting traits like nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of organic acids and IAA. While MR-11(2) produced siderophore (Sid+), antibiotics (Afa+) and antifungal volatiles (Afv+), MRF exhibited the production of antifungal antibiotics (Afa+) and siderophores (Sid+). Bacillus spp. MRF was also found to produce organic acids and IAA, solubilized tri-calcium phosphate and fixed nitrogen from the atmosphere. All three isolates suppressed the diseases caused by Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium graminearum and Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro. A Tn5:: lacZ induced isogenic mutant of the fluorescent Pseudomonas EM85, M23, along with the two bacilli were evaluated for in situ disease suppression of maize. Results indicated that combined application of the two bacilli significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the Macrophomina-induced charcoal rots of maize by 56.04%. Treatments with the MRF isolate of Bacillus spp. and Tn5:: lacZ mutant (M23) of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 significantly reduced collar rots, root and foot rots, and wilting of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme and F. graminearum (P = 0.05) compared to all other treatments. All these isolates were found very efficient in colonizing the rhizotic zones of maize after inoculation. Evaluation of the population dynamics of the fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85 using the Tn5:: lacZ marker and of the Bacillus spp. MRF and MR-11(2) using an antibiotic resistance marker revealed that all the three isolates could proliferate successfully in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and endorhizosphere of maize, both at 30 and 60 days after seeding. Four antifungal compounds from fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, one from Bacillus sp. MR-11(2) and three from Bacillus sp. MRF were isolated, purified and tested in vitro and in thin layer chromatography bioassays. All these compounds inhibited R. solani, M. phaseolina, F. moniliforme, F. graminearum and F. solani strongly. Results indicated that antifungal antibiotics and/or fluorescent pigment of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. EM85, and antifungal antibiotics of the bacilli along with the successful colonization of all the isolates might be involved in the biological suppression of the maize root diseases. PMID:11716210

Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

2001-01-01

199

Identification of Fusarium from a patient with fungemia after multiple organ injury.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a filamentous fungus widely distributed in nature, which is an important opportunistic pathogen and could cause fusariosis both in plants and animals. In human, Fusarium could cause local and disseminated infections both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We describe here a case of a male patient suffered from multiple organ injury, whose blood fungal culture was positive. The isolate was confirmed as "Fusarium solani" according to the morphology of the fungus and the results of phenotypic and molecular identification. PMID:23703243

Kang, Yuli; Li, Li; Zhu, Junhao; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Qiangqiang

2013-08-01

200

Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Ma, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the resistance of banana plants to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection when supplied with Si. PMID:24350769

Fortunato, Alessandro Antnio; da Silva, Washington Lus; Rodrigues, Fabrcio vila

2014-06-01

201

A model for multiseasonal spread of verticillium wilt of lettuce.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease in lettuce, and the pathogen is seedborne. Even though maximum seed infestation rates of <5% have been detected in commercial lettuce seed lots, it is necessary to establish acceptable contamination thresholds to prevent introduction and establishment of the pathogen in lettuce production fields. However, introduction of inoculum into lettuce fields for experimental purposes to determine its long term effects is undesirable. Therefore, we constructed a simulation model to study the spread of Verticillium wilt following pathogen introduction from seed. The model consists of four components: the first for simulating infection of host plants, the second for simulating reproduction of microsclerotia on diseased plants, the third for simulating the survival of microsclerotia, and the fourth for simulating the dispersal of microsclerotia. The simulation results demonstrated that the inoculum density-disease incidence curve parameters and the dispersal gradients affect disease spread in the field. Although a steep dispersal gradient facilitated the establishment of the disease in a new field with a low inoculum density, a long-tail gradient allowed microsclerotia to be dispersed over greater distances, promoting the disease spread in fields with high inoculum density. The simulation results also revealed the importance of avoiding successive lettuce crops in the same field, reducing survival rate of microsclerotia between crops, and the need for breeding resistance against V. dahliae in lettuce cultivars to lower the number of microsclerotia formed on each diseased plant. The simulation results, however, suggested that, even with a low seed infestation rate, the pathogen would eventually become established if susceptible lettuce cultivars were grown consecutively in the same field for many years. A threshold for seed infestation can be established only when two of the three drivers of the disease-(i) low microsclerotia production per diseased plant, (ii) long-tail dispersal gradient, and (iii) low microsclerotia survival between lettuce crops-are present. PMID:24624952

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

2014-09-01

202

CURRENT UNDERSTANDING OF OAKS AND OAK WILT  

E-print Network

populace, and is prominent in literature � often as a symbol of strength or character. There are many susceptibility of red oaks to both oak wilt and sudden oak death (SOD), these differences in wood anatomy may

Harrington, Thomas C.

203

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases. PMID:22837572

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

204

PCR detection assays for the trichothecene-producing species Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium poae, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium sporotrichioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of small-grain cereals with the fungal species Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. equiseti is an important source of trichothecenes, Zearalenone and other mycotoxins which cause serious diseases in human and animals. Additionally, these species contribute to Fusarium Head Blight, a disease which produces important losses in cereal yield. Early detection and control of these

Miguel Jurado; Covadonga Vzquez; Beln Patio; M. Teresa Gonzlez-Jan

2005-01-01

205

Systemic expression of defense response genes in wheat spikes as a response to Fusarium graminearum infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat spikes infected by Fusarium graminearum result in Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat. The spikes respond to infection by inducing a set of defense response genes in infected spikelets much as has been shown in other plant-pathogen interactions. To determine whether defense response genes are expressed systemically within F. graminearum -inoculated wheat spikes, we examined transcript accumulation

Clara Pritsch; Carroll P. Vance; William R. Bushnell; David A. Somers; Thomas M. Hohn; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2001-01-01

206

Influence of Soil Copper Pollution and Fusarium culmorum on the Heavy Metal Content in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BOGOEVA, I., E. BONCHEVA, R. STEFANOVA and B. BLAJEV, 2007. Influence of soil copper pollution and Fusarium culmorum on the heavy metal content in wheat. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 13: 333-339 A greenhouse experiment in pots was carried out in order to assess the effect of combination of stress factors - copper pollution and Fusarium culmorum pathogen on the bioavailability

I. BOGOEVA; E. BONCHEVA

207

A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive-negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The Fusarium oxysporum species complex consists of fungal pathogens that cause serial vascular wilt disease on more than 100 cultivated species throughout the world. Gene function analysis is rapidly becoming more and more important as the whole-genome sequences of various F. oxysporum strains are being completed. Gene-disruption techniques are a common molecular tool for studying gene function, yet are often a limiting step in gene function identification. In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10?F capacitance, 300? resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1?g of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95 transformants per ?g DNA. And after positive-negative selection, the transformants were efficiently screened by PCR, screening efficiency averaged 85%: 90% (RdRP1), 85% (RdRP2) and 77% (RdRP3). This gene-disruption strategy should pave the way for high throughout genetic analysis in F. oxysporum. PMID:24755311

Liang, Liqin; Li, Jianqiang; Cheng, Lin; Ling, Jian; Luo, Zhongqin; Bai, Miao; Xie, Bingyan

2014-11-01

208

Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity.  

PubMed

Recent developments in genomics have opened up for newer opportunities to study the diversity and classification of fungi. The genus Fusarium contains many plant pathogens that attack diverse agricultural crops. Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium species still remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy, given that the number of species recognized in the genus has been constantly changing in the last century due to the different taxonomic systems. This review focuses of various molecular-based techniques employed to study the diversity of Fusarium species causing diseases in major food crops. An introduction of fusarial diseases and their mycotoxins and molecular-marker-based methods for detection introduce the concept of marker application. Various well-known molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplification fragment length polymorphism, etc. to more modern ones such as DNA microarrays, DNA barcoding, and pyrosequencing and their application form the core of the review. Target regions in the genome which can be potential candidates for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole fungal community. This will be of extreme value for diagnosticians and researchers concerned with fungal biology, ecology, and genetics. PMID:21494869

Chandra, Nayaka S; Wulff, E G; Udayashankar, A C; Nandini, B P; Niranjana, S R; Mortensen, C N; Prakash, H S

2011-06-01

209

Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.  

PubMed

Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of ?-macrocarpene and ?-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Kllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

2014-06-01

210

[Impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population in soybean rhizosphere].  

PubMed

The impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population abundance and diversity, pathogenicity and phylogeny in soybean field were analyzed by using isolation, morphological identification, pathogenicity test, sequencing analysis and molecular marker with restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The soybean field was located at the Hailun Experimental Station of Agricultural Ecology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Northeast China and had been under a long-term rotation experiment designed to two treatments, i. e., long-term continuous cropping (LCC) of soybean for 20 years and short-term continuous cropping (SCC) for 3 years. In SCC field, the population density of Fusarium spp. was 6.0 x 10(4) CFU x g(-1), in which F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides possessing high pathogenicity and F. solani possessing moderate pathogenicity were the dominant species. In LCC field, the population density of Fusarium population and the dominance index of dominant species were significantly lower than that in SCC. The population density of F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. solani were only 36% , 32% and 22% of that in SCC, and F. verticillioide with highest pathogenicity was absent. The diversity and evenness index of Fusarium population were significantly higher than that in SCC. F. tricinctum, F. lateritium and F. avenaceum, just isolated from LCC, possessing a distant genetic relationship with Fusarium isolates possessing high pathogenicity based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, were non-pathogenicity for soybean. Thus, it seemed that LCC of soybean could cause the inhibition of soil Fusarium population size, alteration of Fusarium community composition and genetic diversity, and even the decline of pathogenicity for soybean root rot disease of Fusarium population. PMID:24830251

Wei, Wei; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Si-Jia; Li, S

2014-02-01

211

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/l plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

212

Retransformation of marker-free potato for enhanced resistance against fungal pathogens by pyramiding chitinase and wasabi defensin genes.  

PubMed

Multi-auto-transformation vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators and thus facilitating transgene stacking. In the study reported here, retransformation was carried out in marker-free transgenic potato CV. May Queen containing ChiC gene (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) with wasabi defensin (WD) gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica) to pyramid the two disease resistant genes. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the existence of both the genes of interest (ChiC and WD) in transgenic plants. Co-expression of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Disease resistance assay of in vitro plants showed that the transgenic lines co-expressing both the ChiC and WD genes had higher resistance against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Alternaria solani (early blight) compared to the non-transformed control and the transgenic lines expressing either of the ChiC or WD genes. The disease resistance potential of the transgenic plants could be increased by transgene stacking or multiple transformations. PMID:24802621

Khan, Raham Sher; Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khattak, Bushra; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Shimomae, Kazuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2014-09-01

213

Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Agricultural soils suppressive to soilborne plant pathogens occur worldwide, and for several of these soils the biological basis of suppressiveness has been described. Two classical types of suppressiveness are known. General suppression owes its activity to the total microbial biomass in soil and is not transferable between soils. Specific suppression owes its activity to the effects of individual or select groups of microorganisms and is transferable. The microbial basis of specific suppression to four diseases, Fusarium wilts, potato scab, apple replant disease, and take-all, is discussed. One of the best-described examples occurs in take-all decline soils. In Washington State, take-all decline results from the buildup of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce the antifungal metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. Producers of this metabolite may have a broader role in disease-suppressive soils worldwide. By coupling molecular technologies with traditional approaches used in plant pathology and microbiology, it is possible to dissect the microbial composition and complex interactions in suppressive soils. PMID:12147763

Weller, David M; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Gardener, Brian B McSpadden; Thomashow, Linda S

2002-01-01

214

Genome Sequence of Fusarium graminearum Isolate CS3005.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important fungal pathogens of wheat, barley, and maize worldwide. This announcement reports the genome sequence of a highly virulent Australian isolate of this species to supplement the existing genome of the North American F.graminearum isolate Ph1. PMID:24744326

Gardiner, Donald M; Stiller, Jiri; Kazan, Kemal

2014-01-01

215

Field performance of maize grown from Fusarium verticillioides -inoculated seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungus occupying dual roles in the maize plant. The fungus functions as an endophyte, a fungal\\/host interaction beneficial to the growth of some plants. At other times, the fungus may function as a mycotoxin producing pathogen. The advantages and\\/or disadvantages of the endophytic relationship must be established in order to target appropriate sites for controlling

I. E. Yates; N. W. Widstrom; C. W. Bacon; A. Glenn; D. M. Hinton; D. Sparks; A. J. Jaworski

2005-01-01

216

Genome Sequence of Fusarium graminearum Isolate CS3005  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important fungal pathogens of wheat, barley, and maize worldwide. This announcement reports the genome sequence of a highly virulent Australian isolate of this species to supplement the existing genome of the North American F.graminearum isolate Ph1. PMID:24744326

Stiller, Jiri; Kazan, Kemal

2014-01-01

217

MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding siteleucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S.; Han, Cliff S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A.

2014-01-01

218

MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S; Han, Cliff S; Stajich, Jason E; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A

2014-10-01

219

Raffaelea lauricola, a new ambrosia beetle symbiont and pathogen on the Lauraceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undescribed species of Raffaelea earlier was shown to be the cause of a vascular wilt disease known as laurel wilt, a severe disease on redbay (Persea borbonia ) and other members of the Lauraceae in the Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastern USA. The pathogen is likely native to Asia and probably was introduced to the USA in the

T. C. Harrington; S. W. Fraedrich; D. N. Aghayeva

220

Reduction of isoprene emissions from live oak (Quercus fusiformis) with oak wilt.  

PubMed

Many plants emit isoprene, a hydrocarbon that has important influences on atmospheric chemistry. Pathogens may affect isoprene fluxes, both through damage to plant tissue and by changing the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. Live oaks (Quercus fusiformis (Small) Sarg. and Q. virginiana Mill) are major emitters of isoprene in the southern United States, and oak populations in Texas are being dramatically reduced by oak wilt, a widespread fungal vascular disease. We investigated the effects of oak wilt on isoprene emissions from live oak leaves (Q. fusiformis) in the field, as a first step in exploring the physiological effects of oak wilt on isoprene production and the implications of these effects for larger-scale isoprene fluxes. Isoprene emission rates per unit dry leaf mass were 44% lower for actively symptomatic leaves than for leaves on healthy trees (P = 0.033). Isoprene fluxes were significantly negatively correlated with rankings of disease activity in the host tree (fluxes in leaves on healthy trees > healthy leaves on survivor trees > healthy leaves on the same branch as symptomatic leaves > symptomatic leaves; isoprene per unit dry mass: Spearman's rho = -0.781, P = 0.001; isoprene per unit leaf area: Spearman's rho = -0.652, P = 0.008). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 57 and 63%, respectively, in symptomatic relative to healthy leaves (P < 0.05); these reductions were proportionally greater than the reductions in isoprene emissions. Low isoprene emission rates in symptomatic leaves are most simply explained by physiological constraints on isoprene production, such as water stress as a result of xylem blockage, rather than direct effects of the oak wilt fungus on isoprene synthesis. The effects of oak wilt on leaf-level isoprene emission rates are probably less important for regional isoprene fluxes than the reduction in oak leaf area across landscapes. PMID:12651496

Anderson, Laurel J.; Harley, Peter C.; Monson, Russell K.; Jackson, Robert B.

2000-11-01

221

Integrated Management of Verticillium Wilt in Cotton  

E-print Network

the germination of microsclerotia. The fungus infects through the roots, invades the vascular system resulting). Discoloration of the vascular system (Fig. 3) can be observed on infected plants. Younger bolls may abscise to transport s water and nutrients. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt may be observed on relatively young plants

Behmer, Spencer T.

222

Fusaric acid accelerates the senescence of leaf in banana when infected by Fusarium.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC) is a causal agent of vascular wilt and leaf chlorosis of banana plants. Chloroses resulting from FOC occur first in the lowest leaves of banana seedlings and gradually progress upward. To investigate the responses of different leaf positions to FOC infection, hydroponic experiments with FOC inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Fusarium-infected seedlings exhibited a decrease in net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of all leaves. The wilting process in Fusarium-infected seedlings varied with leaf position. Measurements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(max) and visualization with transmission electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between chloroplast impairment and severity of disease symptoms. Furthermore, results of malondialdehyde content and relative membrane conductivity measurements demonstrated that the membrane system was damaged in infected leaves. Additionally, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were increased and total soluble phenolic compounds were significantly accumulated in the leaves of infected plants. The structural and biochemical changes of infected plants was consistent with plant senescence. As the FOC was not detected in infected leaves, we proposed that the chloroplast and membrane could be damaged by fusaric acid produced by Fusarium. During the infection, fusaric acid was first accumulated in the lower leaves and water-soluble substances in the lower leaves could dramatically enhance fusaric acid production. Taken together, the senescence of infected banana plants was induced by Fusarium infection with fusaric acid production and the composition of different leaf positions largely contribute to the particular senescence process. PMID:24282097

Dong, Xian; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2014-04-01

223

Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline ofsugar beet in north central USA.  

PubMed

This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1?, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

2014-01-01

224

Genetic dissection of Verticillium wilt resistance mediated by tomato Ve1.  

PubMed

Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins. PMID:19321708

Fradin, Emilie F; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C; Castroverde, Christian D M; Nazar, Ross N; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P H J

2009-05-01

225

Genetic Dissection of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Mediated by Tomato Ve11[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins. PMID:19321708

Fradin, Emilie F.; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C.; Castroverde, Christian D.M.; Nazar, Ross N.; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

2009-01-01

226

Quantification of Trichothecene-Producing Fusarium Species in Harvested Grain by Competitive PCR To Determine Efficacies of Fungicides against Fusarium Head Blight of Winter Wheat  

PubMed Central

We developed a PCR-based assay to quantify trichothecene-producing Fusarium based on primers derived from the trichodiene synthase gene (Tri5). The primers were tested against a range of fusarium head blight (FHB) (also known as scab) pathogens and found to amplify specifically a 260-bp product from 25 isolates belonging to six trichothecene-producing Fusarium species. Amounts of the trichothecene-producing Fusarium and the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested grain from a field trial designed to test the efficacies of the fungicides metconazole, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole to control FHB were quantified. No correlation was found between FHB severity and DON in harvested grain, but a good correlation existed between the amount of trichothecene-producing Fusarium and DON present within grain. Azoxystrobin did not affect levels of trichothecene-producing Fusarium compared with those of untreated controls. Metconazole and tebuconazole significantly reduced the amount of trichothecene-producing Fusarium in harvested grain. We hypothesize that the fungicides affected the relationship between FHB severity and the amount of DON in harvested grain by altering the proportion of trichothecene-producing Fusarium within the FHB disease complex and not by altering the rate of DON production. The Tri5 quantitative PCR assay will aid research directed towards reducing amounts of trichothecene mycotoxins in food and animal feed. PMID:11282607

Edwards, S. G.; Pirgozliev, S. R.; Hare, M. C.; Jenkinson, P.

2001-01-01

227

Disseminated Fusarium infection in a multiple trauma patient.  

PubMed

The hyalohyphomycetes (especially Fusarium sp.) have emerged as significant pathogens in severely immunocompromised patients. Human infections by Fusarium sp. can be superficial or limited to single organs in otherwise healthy patients. Such infections are rare and tend to respond well to therapy. By contrast, disseminated fusarial hylohyphomycosis affects the immunocompromised host and frequently is fatal. Successful outcome is determined by the degree of immunosuppression and the extent of the infection. These infections may be suspected clinically on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy. PMID:18364666

Testerman, George M; Steagald, Melinda K; Colquitt, Landon A; Maki, Anton

2008-03-01

228

Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R.solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R.solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R.solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

2014-05-01

229

Two rhizobacterial strains, individually and in interactions with Rhizobium sp., enhance fusarial wilt control, growth, and yield in pigeon pea.  

PubMed

A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, RRLJ 04, and a Bacillus cereus strain, BS 03, were tested both individually and in combination with a Rhizobium strain, RH 2, for their ability to enhance plant growth and nodulation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) under gnotobiotic, greenhouse and field conditions. Both of the rhizobacterial strains exhibited a positive effect on growth in terms of shoot height, root length, fresh and dry weight, nodulation and yield over the non-treated control. Co-inoculation of seeds with these strains and Rhizobium RH 2 also reduced the number of wilted plants, when grown in soil infested with Fusarium udum. Gnotobiotic studies confirmed that the suppression of wilt disease was due to the presence of the respective PGPR strains. Seed bacterization with drug-marked mutants of RRLJ 04 and BS 03 confirmed their ability to colonize and multiply along the roots. The results suggest that co-inoculation of these strains with Rhizobium strain RH 2 can be further exploited for enhanced growth, nodulation and yield in addition to control of fusarial wilt in pigeon pea. PMID:25224506

Dutta, Swarnalee; Morang, Pranjal; Kumar S, Nishanth; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-09-01

230

Evaluation of Fusarium head blight in barley infected by Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight, which is primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease in the barley field. A real-time PCR protocol was developed to evaluate the growth of this pathogen in the host plant tissues. All four strains harbored the gene encoding ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER (FgABC; FGSG_00541) as a single copy within their genomes. Our Southern blot result was identical with the genomic data for F. graminearum strain PH-1. Based on the crossing point (CP) values obtained in our TaqMan real-time PCR analysis, two standard curves describing the relationship among the CP value, FgABC copy number, and amount of fungal DNA were constructed. Chronological enumeration of fungal growth was coincided with the symptom development. PMID:23990309

Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Lee, Theresa; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-08-01

231

Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens in Plants  

E-print Network

(yellowing). For example, wilt-causing bacteria clog the vascular tissue, preventing movement of water-surface-based surveillance system that detects conserved pathogen molecules and (3) an intracellular surveillance system system, plants have to rely solely on their innate immune system to defend themselves against invading

Innes, Roger

232

Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.  

PubMed

This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

Pouzoulet, Jrme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Rolshausen, Philippe E

2014-01-01

233

Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine  

PubMed Central

This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

Pouzoulet, Jerome; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

2014-01-01

234

Pythium oligandrum in the control of Fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.  

PubMed

Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of P. oligandrum may reduce Fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm3 caused inhibition of tulip root growth. PMID:12425035

Skrzypczak, C

2001-01-01

235

Random Insertional Mutagenesis Identifies Genes Associated with Virulence in the Wheat Scab Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seong, K., Hou, Z., Tracy, M., Kistler, H. C., and Xu, J.-R. 2005. Random insertional mutagenesis identifies genes associated with viru- lence in the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum. Phytopathology 95:744-750. Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F. graminearum pathogenesis, we used

Kyeyong Seong; Zhanming Hou; Miles Tracy; H. Corby Kistler; Jin-Rong Xu

2005-01-01

236

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

237

Hrp- Mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum as Potential Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt  

PubMed Central

There have been many attempts to control bacterial wilt with antagonistic bacteria or spontaneous nonpathogenic mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum that lack the ability to colonize the host, but they have met with limited success. Since a large gene cluster (hrp) is involved in the pathogenicity of P. solanacearum, we developed a biological control strategy using genetically engineered Hrp- mutants of P. solanacearum. Three pathogenic strains collected in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were rendered nonpathogenic by insertion of an ?-Km interposon within the hrp gene cluster of each strain. The resulting Hrp- mutants were tested for their ability to control bacterial wilt in challenge inoculation experiments conducted either under growth chamber conditions or under greenhouse conditions in Guadeloupe. Compared with the colonization by a pathogenic strain which spread throughout the tomato plant, colonization by the mutants was restricted to the roots and the lower part of the stems. The mutants did not reach the fruit. Moreover, the presence of the mutants did not affect fruit production. When the plants were challenge inoculated with a pathogenic strain, the presence of Hrp- mutants within the plants was correlated with a reduction in disease severity, although pathogenic bacteria colonized the stem tissue at a higher density than the nonpathogenic bacteria. Challenge inoculation experiments conducted under growth chamber conditions led, in some cases, to exclusion of the pathogenic strain from the aerial part of the plant, resulting in high protection rates. Furthermore, there was evidence that one of the pathogenic strains used for the challenge inoculations produced a bacteriocin that inhibited the in vitro growth of the nonpathogenic mutants. Images PMID:16349373

Frey, Pascal; Prior, Philippe; Marie, Corinne; Kotoujansky, Alain; Trigalet-Demery, Daniele; Trigalet, Andre

1994-01-01

238

Verticillium systematics and evolution: how confusion impedes Verticillium wilt management and how to resolve it.  

PubMed

Verticillium wilts are important vascular wilt diseases that affect many crops and ornamentals in different regions of the world. Verticillium wilts are caused by members of the ascomycete genus Verticillium, a small group of 10 species that are related to the agents of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. Verticillium has a long and complicated taxonomic history with controversies about species boundaries and long overlooked cryptic species, which confused and limited our knowledge of the biology of individual species. We first review the taxonomic history of Verticillium, provide an update and explanation of the current system of classification and compile host range and geographic distribution data for individual species from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) GenBank records. Using Verticillium as an example, we show that species names are a poor vehicle for archiving and retrieving information, and that species identifications should always be backed up by DNA sequence data and DNA extracts that are made publicly available. If such a system were made a prerequisite for publication, all species identifications could be evaluated retroactively, and our knowledge of the biology of individual species would be immune from taxonomic changes, controversy and misidentification. Adoption of this system would improve quarantine practices and the management of diseases caused by various plant pathogens. PMID:24548214

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Subbarao, Krishna V

2014-06-01

239

Using the Ralstonia solanacearum Tat Secretome To Identify Bacterial Wilt Virulence Factors?  

PubMed Central

To identify secreted virulence factors involved in bacterial wilt disease caused by the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, we mutated tatC, a key component of the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) secretion system. The R. solanacearum tatC mutation was pleiotropic; its phenotypes included defects in cell division, nitrate utilization, polygalacturonase activity, membrane stability, and growth in plant tissue. Bioinformatic analysis of the R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 genome predicted that this pathogen secretes 70 proteins via the Tat system. The R. solanacearum tatC strain was severely attenuated in its ability to cause disease, killing just over 50% of tomato plants in a naturalistic soil soak assay where the wild-type parent killed 100% of the plants. This result suggested that elements of the Tat secretome may be novel bacterial wilt virulence factors. To identify contributors to R. solanacearum virulence, we cloned and mutated three genes whose products are predicted to be secreted by the Tat system: RSp1521, encoding a predicted AcvB-like protein, and two genes, RSc1651 and RSp1575, that were identified as upregulated in planta by an in vivo expression technology screen. The RSc1651 mutant had wild-type virulence on tomato plants. However, mutants lacking either RSp1521, which appears to be involved in acid tolerance, or RSp1575, which encodes a possible amino acid binding protein, were significantly reduced in virulence on tomato plants. Additional bacterial wilt virulence factors may be found in the Tat secretome. PMID:17468289

Gonzalez, Enid T.; Brown, Darby G.; Swanson, Jill K.; Allen, Caitilyn

2007-01-01

240

Characterization of an antimicrobial material from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from mangrove for biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms of the antagonistic endophytic bacteria is helpful in controlling plant diseases. An endophytic bacterium, Bg-C31, from mangrove was found to be antagonistic to some fungal and bacterial pathogens of plants and to be effective in the biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt in pot and field trials. Bg-C31 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by biochemical and physiological tests

Han Qiao Hu; Xin Shen Li; Hong He

2010-01-01

241

Cloning and expression analysis of NhL1, a gene encoding an extracellular lipase from the fungal pea pathogen Nectria haematococca MP VI (Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi) that is expressed in planta.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Nectria haematococca (anamorph Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi) resides in soil, and attacks pea seedlings in the area of the underground epicotyl and upper tap root, causing foot rot disease. We detected lipase activity during in vitro growth of N. haematococca. Subsequently, a lipase gene was cloned and functionally characterised by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The full-length cDNA of 1152 bp was cloned using a 3' RACE-PCR approach coupled with cDNA library screening. The genomic clone, comprising an ORF of 999 bp interrupted by two introns of 56 and 64 bp, was isolated from a newly constructed lambda phage library. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence revealed the presence of a typical signal peptide at the N-terminus, and of the three conserved amino acids forming the active site of lipases. The lipase of N. haematococca has a low degree of similarity to the lipases from Humicola lanuginosa (37.2%), Rhizomucor miehei (21.6%), Rhizopus delemar (23.1%), Rhizopus niveus (25.9%), and to mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from Penicillium camembertii (30.8%), and very high similarity (94.6%) to a lipase from Fusarium heterosporum. The lipase from N. haematococca shows maximal activity at 37 degrees C and pH 8.0. Based on Southern analysis, the lipase clone represents a single-copy gene in N. haematococca. Expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR. In vitro, the lipase gene shows a low basal expression, but is highly inducible by lipase substrates, and repressed by glucose. During plant infection, transcripts of this fungal lipase gene were detected 4, 8, and 10 days after infection. PMID:11361331

Nasser Eddine, A; Hannemann, F; Schfer, W

2001-04-01

242

Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

2014-09-01

243

Characterization of rhizosphere fungi that mediate resistance in tomato against bacterial wilt disease.  

PubMed

Plant immunization for resistance against a wide variety of phytopathogens is an effective strategy for plant disease management. Seventy-nine plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPFs) were isolated from rhizosphere soil of India. Among them, nine revealed saprophytic ability, root colonization, phosphate solubilization, IAA production, and plant growth promotion. Seed priming with four PGPFs exhibited early seedling emergence and enhanced vigour of a tomato cultivar susceptible to the bacterial wilt pathogen compared to untreated controls. Under greenhouse conditions, TriH_JSB27 and PenC_JSB41 treatments remarkably enhanced the vegetative and reproductive growth parameters. Maximum NPK uptake was noticed in TriH_JSB27-treated plants. A significant disease reduction of 57.3% against Ralstonia solanacearum was observed in tomato plants pretreated with TriH_JSB27. Furthermore, induction of defence-related enzymes and genes was observed in plants pretreated with PGPFs or inoculated with pathogen. The maximum phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity (111U) was observed at 24h in seedlings treated with TriH_JSB27 and this activity was slightly reduced (99U) after pathogen inoculation. Activities of peroxidase (POX, 54U) and ?-1,3-glucanase (GLU, 15U) were significantly higher in control plants inoculated with pathogen after 24h and remained constant at all time points. A similar trend in gene induction for PAL was evident in PGPFs-treated tomato seedlings with or without pathogen inoculation, whereas POX and GLU were upregulated in control plus pathogen-inoculated tomato seedlings. These results determine that the susceptible tomato cultivar is triggered after perception of potent PGPFs to synthesize PAL, POX, and GLU, which activate defence resistance against bacterial wilt disease, thereby contributing to plant health improvement. PMID:23956415

Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Shin-ichi, Ito

2013-09-01

244

A Genetic Map of Gibberellafijikuroi Mating Population A (Fusarium moniliforme)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a recombination-based map of the fungal plant pathogen Gibberellafujikuroi mating population A (asexual stage Fusarium moniliforme). The map is based on the segregation of 142 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, two auxotrophic genes (argl, nicl), mating type (matA+\\/matA-), female sterility (stel), spore-killer (Sk), and a gene governing the production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (fuml) among 121

Jin-rong Xu; John F. Leslie

1996-01-01

245

Components of priming-induced resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat revealed by two distinct mutants of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Two mutants (tri6? and noxAB?) of the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum were assessed for their ability to prime immune responses in wheat (cv. Roblin) against challenge with pathogenic F.?graminearum. Priming treatments generated Fusarium head blight (FHB)-resistant wheat phenotypes and reduced the accumulation of fungal mycotoxins in infected tissues. Microarray analysis identified 260 transcripts that were differentially expressed during the priming period. Expression changes were observed in genes associated with immune surveillance systems, signalling cascades, antimicrobial compound production, oxidative burst, secondary metabolism, and detoxification and transport. Specifically, genes related to jasmonate, gibberellin and ethylene biosynthesis exhibited differential expression during priming. In addition, the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathways that lead to flavonoid, coumarin and hydroxycinnamic acid amide accumulation was also observed. This study highlights the utility of nonpathogenic mutants to both elicit and delineate stages of defence responses in wheat. PMID:24751103

Ravensdale, Michael; Rocheleau, Hlne; Wang, Li; Nasmith, Charles; Ouellet, Thrse; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

2014-12-01

246

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar Yueyoukang 1 was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar Brazilian in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant Nongke No 1 banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar Yueyoukang 1. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of Yueyoukang 1 and Brazilian and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in Yueyoukang 1 than Brazilian, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that Yueyoukang 1 had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than Brazilian. Expression patterns of genes involved in Plant-pathogen interaction and Plant hormone signal transduction pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in Yueyoukang 1 than Brazilian, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in Brazilian but down-regulated in Yueyoukang 1, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant Yueyoukang 1 was found to differ from that in middle resistant Nongke No 1 banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

247

Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum causing tomato wilt disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to apply ?- irradiation in a breeding program of Trichoderma harzianum to enhance its biocontrol ability against F. oxysporum through increasing their production of antifungal metabolites (i.e., hydrolytic enzymes,antibiotics and total phenols) under salt stress conditions. Exposing a wild-type culture of the mycoparasitic fungus T. harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 & Th50M11).Under

Hassan Abdel-Latif; A. Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

248

Genetic Diversity of Human Pathogenic Members of the Fusarium oxysporum Complex Inferred from Multilocus DNA Sequence Data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses: Evidence for the Recent Dispersion of a Geographically Widespread Clonal Lineage and Nosocomial Origin  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. Although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in San Antonio, Tex., and from patients and the water system in a Houston, Tex., hospital during the 1990s, little is known about their genetic relatedness and population structure. This study was conducted to investigate the global genetic diversity and population biology of a comprehensive set of clinically important members of the F. oxysporum complex, focusing on the 33 isolates from patients at the San Antonio hospital and on strains isolated in the United States from the water systems of geographically distant hospitals in Texas, Maryland, and Washington, which were suspected as reservoirs of nosocomial fusariosis. In all, 18 environmental isolates and 88 isolates from patients spanning four continents were genotyped. The major finding of this study, based on concordant results from phylogenetic analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphisms, is that a recently dispersed, geographically widespread clonal lineage is responsible for over 70% of all clinical isolates investigated, including all of those associated with the pseudoepidemic in San Antonio. Moreover, strains of the clonal lineage recovered from patients were conclusively shown to genetically match those isolated from the hospital water systems of three U.S. hospitals, providing support for the hypothesis that hospitals may serve as a reservoir for nosocomial fusarial infections. PMID:15528703

O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Magnon, Karen C.; Cox, Patricia A.; Revankar, Sanjay G.; Sanche, Stephen; Geiser, David M.; Juba, Jean H.; van Burik, Jo-Anne H.; Padhye, Arvind; Anaissie, Elias J.; Francesconi, Andrea; Walsh, Thomas J.; Robinson, Jody S.

2004-01-01

249

The influence of Pratylenchus penetrans on the incidence and severity of verticillium wilt of potato.  

PubMed

The influence of Pratylenchus penetrans on the incidence and severity of Verticillium wilt was examined in the potato cultivars 'Kennebec', 'Katahdin', and 'Abnaki'. Single-stem plants were grown in soil maintained at a temperature of 22 +/- 1 C. Axenically cultured nematodes were suspended in water and introduced to the soil, at a rate of ca 5,000/25.4-cm pot, through holes made around each stem. Ten days after infestation with nematodes, conidial suspensions of Verticillium albo-atrum were introduced into the soil at a rate of ca 1,000,000/pot. Among Katahdin plants, the severity of foliar symptoms was increased in the presence of both pathogens 2 and 3 weeks after soil intestation. During the remaining 5 weeks, severity of foliar symptoms was not different between plants infected by both pathogens and those infected by Verticillium alone. Within the wilt-susceptible cultivar Kennebec and the resistant eultivar Abnaki, no effects on foliar symptom severity were observed. When plant heights, shoot weights, and tuber yields were analyzed, a Pratylenchus-Verticillium interaction was not evident within any of the cultivars tested. Nematode populations in roots and rhizosphere were suppressed in Kennebec and Katahdin plants in the presence of Verticillium. PMID:19305819

Burpee, L L; Bloom, J R

1978-01-01

250

Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens. PMID:22416119

de Jonge, Ronnie; Peter van Esse, H.; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Bolton, Melvin D.; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Zhang, Zhao; Usami, Toshiyuki; Lievens, Bart; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2012-01-01

251

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robertâs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

252

Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tomato with rolB Gene Results in Enhancement of Fruit Quality and Foliar Resistance against Fungal Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most important cultivated crop next to potato, worldwide. Tomato serves as an important source of antioxidants in human diet. Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum cause early blight and vascular wilt of tomato, respectively, resulting in severe crop losses. The foremost objective of the present study was to generate transgenic tomato plants with rolB gene and evaluate its effect on plant morphology, nutritional contents, yield and resistance against fungal infection. Tomato cv. Rio Grande was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring rolB gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. rolB. Biochemical analyses showed considerable improvement in nutritional quality of transgenic tomato fruits as indicated by 62% increase in lycopene content, 225% in ascorbic acid content, 58% in total phenolics and 26% in free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, rolB gene significantly improved the defence response of leaves of transgenic plants against two pathogenic fungal strains A. solani and F. oxysporum. Contrarily, transformed plants exhibited altered morphology and reduced fruit yield. In conclusion, rolB gene from A. rhizogenes can be used to generate transgenic tomato with increased nutritional contents of fruits as well as improved foliar tolerance against fungal pathogens. PMID:24817272

Arshad, Waheed; Haq, Ihsan-ul-; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Mirza, Bushra

2014-01-01

253

Gibberellin biosynthesis and gibberellin oxidase activities in Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium konzum and Fusarium subglutinans strains.  

PubMed

Several isolates of three Fusarium species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex were characterized for their ability to synthesize gibberellins (GAs): Fusarium sacchari (mating population B), Fusarium konzum (mating population I) and Fusarium subglutinans (mating population E). Of these, F. sacchari is phylogenetically related to Fusarium fujikuroi and is grouped in the Asian clade of the complex, while F. konzum and F. subglutinans are only distantly related to Fusarium fujikuroi and belong to the American clade. Variability was found between the different F. sacchari strains tested. Five isolates (B-12756; B-1732, B-7610, B-1721 and B-1797) were active in GA biosynthesis and accumulated GA(3) in the culture fluid (2.76-28.4 microg/mL), while two others (B-3828 and B-1725) were inactive. GA(3) levels in strain B-12756 increased by 2.9 times upon complementation with ggs2 and cps-ks genes from F. fujikuroi. Of six F. konzum isolates tested, three (I-10653; I-11616; I-11893) synthesized GAs, mainly GA(1), at a low level (less than 0.1 microg/mL). Non-producing F. konzum strains contained no GA oxidase activities as found for the two F. subglutinans strains tested. These results indicate that the ability to produce GAs is present in other species of the G. fujikuroi complex beside F. fujikuroi, but might differ significantly in different isolates of the same species. PMID:20570295

Troncoso, Claudia; Gonzlez, Ximena; Bmke, Christiane; Tudzynski, Bettina; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Rojas, M Cecilia

2010-08-01

254

The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R.solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R.solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 108CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato andthe epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300M sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. PMID:22807564

Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2012-01-01

255

Fusarium subglutinans: A new eumycetoma agent?  

PubMed Central

Eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by Madurella spp. Fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. We report a case of eumycetoma by F. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by PCR sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. To our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by Fusarium subglutinans. PMID:24432236

Campos-Macias, Pablo; Arenas-Guzman, Roberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Francisca

2013-01-01

256

Interaction of Fusarium graminearum and F. moniliforme in Maize Ears: Disease Progress, Fungal Biomass, and Mycotoxin Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reid, L. M., Nicol, R. W., Ouellet, T., Savard, M., Miller, J. D., Y oung, J. C., Stewart, D. W., and Schaafsma, A. W. 1999. Interaction of Fusarium graminearum and F. moniliforme in maize ears: Disease progress, fungal biomass, and mycotoxin accumulation. Phytopathology 89:1028-1037. To investigate the interaction between two major ear-rotting pathogens, maize ears were inoculated with either Fusarium

L. M. Reid; R. W. Nicol; T. Ouellet; M. Savard; J. D. Miller; J. C. Young; D. W. Stewart; A. W. Schaafsma

1999-01-01

257

Expression Analysis of Defense-Related Genes in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) after Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Infection and Following Chemical Elicitation using a Salicylic Acid Analog and Methyl Jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is considered as a major threat for commercial cotton production worldwide. Relative expression ratios of two key pathogenesis-related\\u000a (PR) genes (PR-3 and PR-10) and a detoxification gene (GST18) were compared between a fully susceptible (LACTA) and a partially field-resistant (EMERALD) cultivar after challenging\\u000a with an Australian Fov isolate,

Antonios G. Zambounis; Mairi S. Kalamaki; Eleni E. Tani; Epameinondas J. Paplomatas; Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

258

New PCR Assays for the Identification of Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium subglutinans, and Other Species of the Gibberella fujikuroi Complex  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium subglutinans are important fungal pathogens of maize and other cereals worldwide. In this study, we developed PCR-based protocols for the identification of these pathogens targeting the gaoB gene, which codes for galactose oxidase. The designed primers recognized isolates of F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans that were obtained from maize seeds from several producing regions of Brazil but did not recognize other Fusarium spp. or other fungal genera that were either obtained from fungal collections or isolated from maize seeds. A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect the genomic DNA from F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans. This protocol could detect the DNA from these fungi growing in artificially or naturally infected maize seeds. Another multiplex reaction with a pair of primers developed in this work combined with a pre-existing pair of primers has allowed identifying F. subglutinans, F. konzum, and F. thapsinum. In addition, the identification of F. nygamai was also possible using a combination of two PCR reactions described in this work, and another described in the literature. PMID:22312242

Faria, Carla Bertechini; Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri Jose; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

2012-01-01

259

Shotgun Analysis of the Secretome of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight, caused predominately by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To characterize the profile of proteins secreted by F. graminearum, the extracellular proteins were collectively obtained from F. graminearum culture supernatants and evaluated using one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 87 proteins have been identified, of which 63 were predicted as secretory proteins including those with known functions. Meanwhile, 20 proteins that are not homologous to genomic sequences with known functions have also been detected. Some of the identified proteins are possible virulence factors and may play extracellular roles during F. graminearum infection. This study provides a valuable dataset of F. graminearum extracellular proteins, and a better understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the pathogen. PMID:24426143

Ji, Xian-Ling; Yan, Mei; Yang, Zai-Dong; Li, An-Fei; Kong, Ling-Rang

2013-12-01

260

Susceptibility of zinc-deficient wheat plants to colonization by Fusarium graminearum Schw. Group 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat plants were grown at three levels of zinc nutrition in potted soil under controlled conditions. The surface soil in half of the pots was inoculated with a thin layer of milled chaff colonized byFusarium graminearum Group 1. Forty days after sowing, the plants were assessed for dry matter production and the extent of colonization by the pathogen. The concentration

Denise H. Sparrow; Robin D. Graham

1988-01-01

261

Characterization of an Extracellular Serine Protease of Fusarium eumartii and its Action on Pathogenesis Related Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteases have been proposed as part of the invasion strategies of some pathogenic fungi. In this work, a serine protease produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f.sp. eumartii was purified and characterized. Purification of the enzyme was accomplished by gel filtration through a Superose 12 column, followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography in Phenyl Superose and gel filtration chromatography through

Florencia Olivieri; Mara Eugenia Zanetti; Claudia R. Oliva; Alejandra A. Covarrubias; Claudia A. Casalongu

2002-01-01

262

Use of Fusarium graminearum transformed with gfp to follow infection patterns in barley and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum attacks the seed spikes of barley and wheat, causing sterility, reduced seed weight and accumulation of mycotoxins. To explore infection patterns in barley and in the Arabidopsis model system, the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was used to transform F. graminearum. Inoculation of intact barley spikes resulted in rapid colonization of the brush hairs (ovary

Ronald W Skadsen; Thomas M Hohn

2004-01-01

263

Induction of chlamydospore formation in fusarium by cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis C2.  

PubMed

The culture filtrate of Bacillus subtilis strain C2 showed strong activity against the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. radicicola. A partially purified fraction (PPF) from the extract induced chlamydospore formation in Fusarium. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography yielded 8 different fractions, six of which had chlamydospore-inducing activity. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses identified the main active constituent as C(17) fengycin A (FA17), a cyclic lipopeptide. The effect of FA17 on morphology and physiology of two Fusarium species was dependent on the lipopeptide concentration. When challenged with FA17 at concentrations (0.5, 8, 64 ?g ml(-1)) below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (128 ?g ml(-1)), two species of Fusarium formed chlamydospores from hyphae, germ tubes, or inside the conidia within 2 days. At concentrations close to the MIC, FA17 caused Fusarium to form sparse and swollen hyphae or lysed conidia. The other five fractions were identified as fengycin A homologues. The homologues could also induce chlamydospore-like structures in 17 species of filamentous fungi including some specimens that do not normally produce chlamydospores, according to their taxonomic descriptions. Like other chlamydospores, these structures contained nuclei and lipid bodies as revealed by DAPI and Nile Red staining, and could germinate. This is the first study to demonstrate that under laboratory conditions fengycin, an antifungal lipopeptide produced by B. subtilis, can induce chlamydospore formation in Fusarium and chlamydospore-like structures in many filamentous fungi. PMID:22932866

Li, Lei; Ma, Mingchuan; Huang, Rong; Qu, Qing; Li, Guohong; Zhou, Jinwei; Zhang, Keqin; Lu, Kaiping; Niu, Xuemei; Luo, Jun

2012-08-01

264

Antifungal properties of essential oils from Thai medical plants against rice pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of essential oils. Two Thai medicinal plants; Frankincense oil (Boswellia carteri Bird.) and Cassia oil (Acacia farnesiana Linn) were applied against 7 species of economically important rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia arisea and Rhizoctonia solani.

Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

265

Disease Interactions in a Shared Host Plant: Effects of Pre-Existing Viral Infection on Cucurbit Plant Defense Responses and Resistance to Bacterial Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and hence pathogen acquisition by) cucumber beetles. PMID:24155951

Mauck, Kerry E.; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.

2013-01-01

266

The isolation and evaluation of endophytic bacteria from live oaks as potential biological control agents for oak wilt in Texas  

E-print Network

shown in vitro inhibition of both the DED and verticillium wilt pathogens in- clude Pseudomonas spp. , Bacillus spp. , Trichoderma spp. , and ~S pp (6. 7. 14, 15, 25). S 1 p ' d' 5'5' f ~5' 1 by 1 p ' f P d (5, 14, 15, 20, 23), and biological..., expressing in vitro inhibition of C. ~E GENUS SPECIESa Bacillus. B. alvei (1) x B. licheniformis (1) x B. maceracans (1) z 1 m " ())y, * B. ~d (1) B. ~umilus (3) x, y B. subtilis (1) z B. ~h ~ (1(l) . , y, Erwinia: E. herbicola (1) x Pseudomonas...

Brooks, David Stewart

2012-06-07

267

The in planta transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: conserved physiological and virulence strategies during bacterial wilt of tomato.  

PubMed

Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 10(8) CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 M sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle. IMPORTANCE Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt disease. It inflicts serious crop losses on tropical farmers, with major economic and human consequences. It is also a model for the many destructive microbes that colonize the water-conducting plant xylem tissue, which is low in nutrients and oxygen. We extracted bacteria from infected tomato plants and globally identified the biological functions that R. solanacearum expresses during plant pathogenesis. This revealed the unexpected presence of sucrose in tomato xylem fluid and the pathogen's dependence on host sucrose for virulence on tomato, potato, and the common weed bittersweet nightshade. Further, R. solanacearum was highly responsive to the plant environment, expressing several metabolic and virulence functions quite differently in the plant than in pure culture. These results reinforce the utility of studying pathogens in interaction with hosts and suggest that selecting for reduced sucrose levels could generate wilt-resistant crops. PMID:22807564

Jacobs, Jonathan M; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2012-01-01

268

Identification of a Chitinase-modifying Protein from Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Chitinase-modifying proteins (cmps) are proteases secreted by fungal pathogens that truncate the plant class IV chitinases ChitA and ChitB during maize ear rot. cmp activity has been characterized for Bipolaris zeicola and Stenocarpella maydis, but the identities of the proteases are not known. Here, we report that cmps are secreted by multiple species from the genus Fusarium, that cmp from Fusarium verticillioides (Fv-cmp) is a fungalysin metalloprotease, and that it cleaves within a sequence that is conserved in class IV chitinases. Protein extracts from Fusarium cultures were found to truncate ChitA and ChitB in vitro. Based on this activity, Fv-cmp was purified from F. verticillioides. N-terminal sequencing of truncated ChitA and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of reaction products showed that Fv-cmp is an endoprotease that cleaves a peptide bond on the C-terminal side of the lectin domain. The N-terminal sequence of purified Fv-cmp was determined and compared with a set of predicted proteins, resulting in its identification as a zinc metalloprotease of the fungalysin family. Recombinant Fv-cmp also truncated ChitA, confirming its identity, but had reduced activity, suggesting that the recombinant protease did not mature efficiently from its propeptide-containing precursor. This is the first report of a fungalysin that targets a nonstructural host protein and the first to implicate this class of virulence-related proteases in plant disease. PMID:21878653

Naumann, Todd A.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Price, Neil P. J.

2011-01-01

269

Corolla wilting facilitates delayed autonomous self-pollination in Pedicularis dunniana (Orobanchaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes associated with corolla wilting may serve as a mechanism for effecting self-pollination. Low pollinator visitation, high seed production and a corolla that persists after anthesis indicates that Pedicularis dunniana is autogamous. Delayed autonomous self-pollination is facilitated by corolla wilting. Wilting of the upper lip (galea) brought the pollen laden anthers into contact with the stigma resulting in the

S.-G. Sun; Y.-H Guo; R. W. Gituru; S.-Q. Huang

2005-01-01

270

The role of mycelium production and a MAPK-mediated immune response in the C. elegans-Fusarium model system.  

PubMed

Fusariosis is an emerging infectious complication of immune deficiency, but models to study this infection are lacking. The use of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study the pathogenesis of Fusarium spp. was investigated. We observed that Fusarium conidia consumed by C. elegans can cause a lethal infection and result in more than 90% killing of the host within 120 hours, and the nematode had a significantly longer survival when challenged with Fusarium proliferatum compared to other species. Interestingly, mycelium production appears to be a major contributor in nematode killing in this model system, and C. elegans mutant strains with the immune response genes, tir-1 (encoding a protein containing a TIR domain that functions upstream of PMK-1) and pmk-1 (the homolog of the mammalian p38 MAPK) lived significantly shorter when challenged with Fusarium compared to the wild type strain. Furthermore, we used the C. elegans model to assess the efficacy and toxicity of various compounds against Fusarium. We demonstrated that amphotericin B, voriconazole, mancozeb, and phenyl mercury acetate significantly prolonged the survival of Fusarium-infected C. elegans, although mancozeb was toxic at higher concentrations. In conclusion, we describe a new model system for the study of Fusarium pathogenesis and evolutionarily preserved host responses to this important fungal pathogen. PMID:22225407

Muhammed, Maged; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Wu, Michael P; Breger, Julia; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2012-07-01

271

Ice Nucleation Activity in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum  

PubMed Central

Twenty fungal genera, including 14 Fusarium species, were examined for ice nucleation activity at ?5.0C, and this activity was found only in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum. This characteristic is unique to these two species. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was compared with ice nucleation activity of a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Cumulative nucleus spectra are similar for both microorganisms, while the maximum temperatures of ice nucleation were ?2.5C for F. avenaceum and ?1.0C for the bacteria. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was stable at pH levels from 1 to 13 and tolerated temperature treatments up to 60C, suggesting that these ice nuclei are more similar to lichen ice nuclei than to bacterial ones. Ice nuclei of F. avenaceum, unlike bacterial ice nuclei, pass through a 0.22-?m-pore-size filter. Fusarial nuclei share some characteristics with the so-called leaf-derived nuclei with which they might be identified: they are cell free and stable up to 60C, and they are found in the same kinds of environment. Highly stable ice nuclei produced by fast-growing microorganisms have potential applications in biotechnology. This is the first report of ice nucleation activity in free-living fungi. PMID:16348770

Pouleur, Stphan; Richard, Claude; Martin, Jean-Guy; Antoun, Hani

1992-01-01

272

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits. PMID:23717215

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

273

Toxicity of abiotic stressors to Fusarium species: differences in hydrogen peroxide and fungicide tolerance.  

PubMed

Stress sensitivity of three related phytopathogenic Fusarium species (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides) to different oxidative, osmotic, cell wall, membrane, fungicide stressors and an antifungal protein (PAF) were studied in vitro. The most prominent and significant differences were found in oxidative stress tolerance: all the three F. graminearum strains showed much higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and, to a lesser extent, to menadione than the other two species. High sensitivity of F. verticillioides strains was also detectable to an azole drug, Ketoconazole. Surprisingly, no or limited differences were observed in response to other oxidative, osmotic and cell wall stressors. These results indicate that fungal oxidative stress response and especially the response to hydrogen peroxide (this compound is involved in a wide range of plant-fungus interactions) might be modified on niche-specific manner in these phylogenetically related Fusarium species depending on their pathogenic strategy. Supporting the increased hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of F. graminearum, genome-wide analysis of stress signal transduction pathways revealed the absence one CatC-type catalase gene in F. graminearum in comparison to the other two species. PMID:24939687

Nagygyrgy, Emese D; Kovcs, Barbara; Leiter, Eva; Miskei, Mrton; Pcsi, Istvn; Hornok, Lszl; Adm, Attila L

2014-06-01

274

SOUTHERN BACTERIAL WILT OF FIELD TOMATOES IN SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Sm., the causal agent of southern bacterial wilt of tomato, was found in Kent County in six fields of processing tomatoes set with trans - plants imported from Georgia, USA. Infection ranged from 1 to 470, and only limited secondary spread o ccurred in two of the six fields. T his is the first report of

R. E. C. Layne; C. D. McKeen

275

Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie, 1971). Under experimental conditions however, it is common practice to maintain the virus by mechanical inoculation onto susceptible host plants.Repeated passages of

Oliveira Resende de R

1993-01-01

276

Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.  

PubMed

The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, is a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia and was believed to have brought R. lauricola with it to the southeastern United States. Individual X. glabratus beetles from six populations in South Carolina and Georgia were individually macerated in glass tissue grinders and serially diluted to quantify the CFU of fungal symbionts. Six species of Raffaelea were isolated, with up to four species from an individual adult beetle. The Raffaelea spp. were apparently within the protected, paired, mandibular mycangia because they were as numerous in heads as in whole beetles, and surface-sterilized heads or whole bodies yielded as many or more CFU as did nonsterilized heads or whole beetles. R. lauricola was isolated from 40 of the 41 beetles sampled, and it was isolated in the highest numbers, up to 30,000 CFU/beetle. Depending on the population sampled, R. subalba or R. ellipticospora was the next most frequently isolated species. R. arxii, R. fusca, and R. subfusca were only occasionally isolated. The laurel wilt pathogen apparently grows in a yeast phase within the mycangia in competition with other Raffaelea spp. PMID:20839947

Harrington, T C; Fraedrich, S W

2010-10-01

277

Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed substantial gene expression differences (>1,200) indicating that great gene expression differences between different Italian ryegrass genotypes exist which potentially contribute to the observed phenotypic divergence in Xtg resistance between the two genotypes. In the resistant genotype, several genes differentially expressed after Xtg inoculation were identified which revealed similarities to transcriptional changes triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in other plant-pathogen interactions. These genes represent candidate genes of particular interest for the development of tools for marker assisted resistance breeding. PMID:20976589

Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco; Klliker, Roland

2011-02-01

278

Interaction between Mycotoxin Producing Fusarium Species in  

E-print Network

1 Interaction between Mycotoxin Producing Fusarium Species in Different Oat Cultivars Tania Tajrin Online publication : http://stud.epsilon.slu.se #12;2 Abstract Oat is the third most important cereal crop in Sweden and Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease makes the oat grain incompatible for animal

279

Identification of a gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of aurofusarin in the Fusarium graminearum species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red pigmentation of Fusarium graminearum and related species that cause stem and head blight of cereals is due to the deposition of aurofusarin in the cell walls. To determine the importance of this polyketide for fungal physiology and pathogenicity, aurofusarin deficient mutants were produced by random and targeted mutagenesis of F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum. We show that a

Sascha Malz; Morten N. Grell; Charlotte Thrane; Frank J. Maier; Pernille Rosager; Angelika Felk; Klaus S. Albertsen; Siegfried Salomon; Lisbeth Bohn; Wilhelm Schfer; Henriette Giese

2005-01-01

280

Expression of Baculovirus Anti-Apoptotic Genes p35 and op-iap in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Enhances Tolerance to Verticillium Wilt  

PubMed Central

Background Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T1T3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05) better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD). Conclusion/Significance Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants. PMID:21151969

Liang, Benguo; Li, Shanwei; Wu, Zhixia; Wang, Qianhua; Leng, Chunxu; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

2010-01-01

281

RNA silencing is required for Arabidopsis defence against Verticillium wilt disease  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in eukaryotes that plays an important role in various biological processes including regulation of gene expression. RNA silencing also plays a role in genome stability and protects plants against invading nucleic acids such as transgenes and viruses. Recently, RNA silencing has been found to play a role in defence against bacterial plant pathogens in Arabidopsis through modulating host defence responses. In this study, it is shown that gene silencing plays a role in plant defence against multicellular microbial pathogens; vascular fungi belonging to the Verticillium genus. Several components of RNA silencing pathways were tested, of which many were found to affect Verticillium defence. Remarkably, no altered defence towards other fungal pathogens that include Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, but also the vascular pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was recorded. Since the observed differences in Verticillium susceptibility cannot be explained by notable differences in root architecture, it is speculated that the gene silencing mechanisms affect regulation of Verticillium-specific defence responses. PMID:19098131

Ellendorff, Ursula; Fradin, Emilie F.; de Jonge, Ronnie; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2009-01-01

282

Evidence for an expanded host range of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of four isolates ofFusarium oxysporum obtained from infected cultivated rocket (Eruca vesicaria) and wild (sand) rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) was tested on the following cruciferous hosts: stock, radish, wild and cultivated rockets, and various species in the cabbage\\u000a tribe: cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.sabauda), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var.botrytis), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var.gemmifera), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica), turnip (Brassica rapa

Angelo Garibaldi; Giovanna Gilardi; Maria Lodovica Gullino

2006-01-01

283

A second polycaprolactone depolymerase from Fusarium , a lipase distinct from cutinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polyester with applications in biodegradable plastics, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms,\\u000a including fungal phytopathogens. These pathogens secrete cutinase, which hydrolyzes cutin, the polyester structural component\\u000a of plant cuticle, releasing ?-hydroxy fatty acids that induce cutinase synthesis. Our laboratory previously reported that\\u000a growth of Fusarium solani on PCL requires cutinase, which is active as a

C. A. Murphy; J. A. Cameron; S. J. Huang; R. T. Vinopal

1998-01-01

284

Molecular characterization of a pea ?-1,3-glucanase induced by Fusarium solani and chitosan challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

-glucanases are prominent proteins in pea endocarp tissue responding to fungal infection. We have cloned and sequenced a partial pea cDNA clone, pPIG312, corresponding to a -1,3-glucanase in pea pods challenged with the incompatible pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. The insert from the partial pea cDNA was used to probe a genomic library derived from pea leaves of the

Ming-Mei Chang; Lee A. Hadwiger; Daniel Horovitz

1992-01-01

285

Mycotoxigenic Fusarium and Deoxynivalenol Production Repress Chitinase Gene Expression in the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride P1  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxin contamination associated with head blight of wheat and other grains caused by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum is a chronic threat to crop, human, and animal health throughout the world. One of the most important toxins in terms of human exposure is deoxynivalenol (DON) (formerly called vomitoxin), an inhibitor of protein synthesis with a broad spectrum of toxigenicity against animals. Certain Fusarium toxins have additional antimicrobial activity, and the phytotoxin fusaric acid has recently been shown to modulate fungus-bacterium interactions that affect plant health (Duffy and Dfago, Phytopathology 87:1250-1257, 1997). The potential impact of DON on Fusarium competition with other microorganisms has not been described previously. Any competitive advantage conferred by DON would complicate efforts to control Fusarium during its saprophytic growth on crop residues that are left after harvest and constitute the primary inoculum reservoir for outbreaks in subsequent plantings. We examined the effect of the DON mycotoxin on ecological interactions between pathogenic Fusarium and Trichoderma atroviride strain P1, a competitor fungus with biocontrol activity against a wide range of plant diseases. Expression of the Trichoderma chitinase genes, ech42 and nag1, which contribute to biocontrol activity, was monitored in vitro and on crop residues of two maize cultivars by using goxA reporter gene fusions. We found that DON-producing F. culmorum and F. graminearum strains repressed expression of nag1-gox. DON-negative wild-type Fusarium strains and a DON-negative mutant with an insertional disruption in the tricothecene biosynthetic gene, tri5, had no effect on antagonist gene expression. The role of DON as the principal repressor above other pathogen factors was confirmed. Exposure of Trichoderma to synthetic DON or to a non-DON-producing Fusarium mutant resulted in the same level of nag1-gox repression as the level observed with DON-producing Fusarium. DON repression was specific for nag1-gox and had no effect, either positive or negative, on expression of another key chitinase gene, ech42. This is the first demonstration that a target pathogen down-regulates genes in a fungal biocontrol agent, and our results provide evidence that mycotoxins have a novel ecological function as factors in Fusarium competitiveness. PMID:12788701

Lutz, Matthias P.; Feichtinger, Georg; Defago, Genevieve; Duffy, Brion

2003-01-01

286

Relative resistance of potato cultivars to bacterial wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one potato cultivars were evaluated for reaction to infection byPseudomonas solanacearum Sm. under high disease pressure in a field plot near Tifton, Georgia during the spring of 1978 and 1979. Plots were infested\\u000a by clipping beds of thickly seeded tomato plants with a rotary mower contaminated with the wilt baterium in 1975, 1976, 1977\\u000a and 1978. The plants were incorporated

C. A. Jaworski; R. E. Webb; R. W. Goth; S. C. Phatak

1980-01-01

287

Sequencing of K60, Type Strain of the Major Plant Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

Ralstonia solanacearum is a widespread and destructive plant pathogen. We present the genome of the type strain, K60 (phylotype IIA, sequevar 7). Sequevar 7 strains cause ongoing tomato bacterial wilt outbreaks in the southeastern United States. K60 generally resembles R. solanacearum CFBP2957, a Caribbean tomato isolate, but has almost 360 unique genes. PMID:22535929

Remenant, Benot; Babujee, Lavanya; Lajus, Aurlie; Mdigue, Claudine; Prior, Philippe

2012-01-01

288

Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21) is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3?-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together, our data aid in the understanding of how FgV1-DK21 regulates the transcriptional reprogramming of F. graminearum. PMID:22559730

2012-01-01

289

Development of PCR assays to Tri7 and Tri13 trichothecene biosynthetic genes, and characterisation of chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium cerealis are major causal agents of Fusarium Head Blight (scab) which is a disease of global significance in all cereal growing areas. These fungi produce trichothecene mycotoxins, principally nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Genes Tri13 and Tri7 from the trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster convert DON to NIV (Tri13) and NIV to 4-acetyl-NIV (Tri7). We

Elizabeth A. Chandler; Duncan R. Simpson; Martha A. Thomsett; Paul Nicholson

2003-01-01

290

Hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid by Fusarium species.  

PubMed

A novel compound, 1 beta-hydroxydehydroabietic acid has been obtained by the microbial transformation of dehydroabietic acid, using cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and F. moniliforme. Its antibacterial activity was also tested. PMID:9276983

Tapia, A A; Vallejo, M D; Gouiric, S C; Feresin, G E; Rossomando, P C; Bustos, D A

1997-09-01

291

Control of Fusarium oxysporum by baking soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baking soda (NaHCO3) or KHCO3 was found capable of significantly reducing the mycelial growth of Fusarium species. In Czapek Dox broth with baking soda or KHCO3 at as low as 0.2g\\/100mL, for example, the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum 950 was inhibited by greater than 95%. The bicarbonate component of baking soda was responsible for the inhibitory effect.

Y. D. Hang; E. E. Woodams

2003-01-01

292

Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.  

PubMed

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae. PMID:24502207

Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

2014-08-01

293

Genetic variation in the coffee berry disease pathogen, Colletotrichum kahawae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variation among 25 isolates of Colletotrichum kahawae from widely distributed sources in Africa was studied. Pathogenicity tests on hypocotyls of Coffea arabic cv. Caturra, distinguished a moderately aggressive and a highly aggressive group of isolates. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) with a Fusarium oxysporum ribosomal DNA repeat from the plasmid pDG312 clearly distinguished C. kahawae from

S. M. Beynon; A. Coddington; B. G. Lewis; V. Varzea

1995-01-01

294

[Biodegradation of agricultural plant residues by Fusarium oxysporum strains].  

PubMed

The cellulolytic and endoglucanase activity of Fusarium oxysporum strains isolated from soil and plants in the media with plant waste as carbon source has been studied. It was established that the majority of studied strains were able to hydrolyze the filter paper, husk of sunflower seeds, wheat straw and corn stalks. Cellulolytic activity depended on the strain of microscopic fungi, type of substrate and duration of cultivation. The maximum cellulase activity 1 U/ml and the concentration of reducing sugars -0.875 mg/ml were found in soil strain F. oxysporum 420 in the medium with corn stalks. Endoglucanase activity of plant pathogenic strains was higher than that of soil ones. PMID:25199344

Chepchak, T P; Kurchenko, I N; Iur'eva, E M

2014-01-01

295

Effect of Trichothecenes Produced by Fusarium graminearum during Fusarium Head Blight Development in Six Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a complex cereal disease associated with trichothecene production; these mycotoxins are factors of aggressiveness in wheat. Six species (bread and durum wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oats) were submitted to point inoculations with two isogenic strains of Fusarium graminearum; a wild strain (Tri5 +) produced trichothecenes and the mutated strain (Tri5 -) did not. The

Franois Langevin; Franois Eudes; Andr Comeau

2004-01-01

296

Fatal breakthrough infection with Fusarium andiyazi: new multi-resistant aetiological agent cross-reacting with Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

Disseminated infections caused by members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) occur regularly in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present the first human case caused by FFSC-member Fusarium andiyazi. Fever, respiratory symptoms and abnormal computerised tomography findings developed in a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukaemia who was under posaconazole prophylaxis during his remission-induction chemotherapy. During the course of infection, two consecutive blood galactomannan values were found to be positive, and two blood cultures yielded strains resembling Fusarium species, according to morphological appearance. The aetiological agent proved to be F. andiyazi based on multilocus sequence typing. The sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region did not resolve the closely related members of the FFSC, but additional data on partial sequence of transcription elongation factor 1 alpha subunit did. A detailed morphological study confirmed the identification of F. andiyazi, which had previously only been reported as a plant pathogen affecting various food crops. PMID:24612042

Kebabc?, Nesrin; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Ener, Beyza; Ersal, Tuba; Meijer, Martin; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ursava?, Ahmet; Cetino?lu, Ezgi D; Akal?n, Halis

2014-04-01

297

Soil Compaction as the Possible Cause of Wilting and Premature Ripening of Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

VEVERKA K., K ?͎KOV I., PALICOV J. (2006): Soil compaction as the possible cause of wilting and premature ripening of sunflower. Plant Protect. Sci., 42: 112-117. Brown patches of the size from several square metres to hectares or individual dying plants appeared in other - wise green stands. Affected plants wilt and ripen sooner than healthy ones, causing them to

KAREL VEVERKA

2006-01-01

298

Recovery Plan for Laurel Wilt on Redbay and Other Forest Species  

E-print Network

Recovery System (NPDRS) called for in Homeland Security Presidential Directive Number 9 (HSPD-9 wilt is a destructive vascular disease of trees in the laurel family (Lauraceae). It is caused of water in the tree, induces a black discoloration in the outer sapwood and causes the leaves to wilt

Harrington, Thomas C.

299

Lack of Control by Early Pistillate Ethylene of the Accelerated Wilting of Petunia hybrida Flowers  

PubMed Central

Well before pollen tube penetration, ethylene has begun to disseminate from pollinated styles of Petunia hybrida flowers. Previous stigmatic application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) completely prevented this ethylene synthesis, indicating that the endogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in pollen is not readily converted on the stigma. Compared to other flower parts, the capacity of the ethylene forming enzyme was largest in the stigma. When applied to the stigma, ACC caused ethylene synthesis, but did not accelerate wilting, unless high concentrations (20 nanomols) were used. Upon pollination or stigma wounding, the early ethylene evolved exclusively from the gynoecium, much later followed by the synthesis of corolla ethylene. Employing wideneck Erlenmeyer flasks, the competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, norbornadiene, was applied to entire flowers in situ, with delaying effects on wound-induced wilting. In contrast, norbornadiene treatment of styles alone, using capillaries, could not postpone wilting. Pollination with foreign pollen species did not lead to accelerated corolla wilting, notwithstanding considerable synthesis of ethylene during the first 5 hours. In situ treatment of the stigma with AVG considerably delayed wound- and pollination-induced wilting. Removal of the entire AVG-treated style 6 hours after stigma wounding still allowed for the postponement of the accelerated wilting, even at very low concentrations of AVG. It is concluded that early stylar ethylene does not play a role in the acceleration of wilting but that, much later, corolla ethylene does, induced by a mobile wilting factor from the stigma, which is ACC. PMID:16664633

Hoekstra, Folkert A.; Weges, Roelf

1986-01-01

300

6 CLIPPINGS ~ FALL / WINTER 2010 Without a doubt, oak wilt is the most devastating disease of  

E-print Network

, and once infected, these trees can be killed in just a few weeks. Oak wilt is caused by a fungus and across root grafts to neighboring trees. In stands where susceptible oaks are prevalent, the fungus will continue to spread from root system to root system killing trees, resulting in an oak wilt disease center

Aukema, Brian

301

2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT  

E-print Network

dollars. Anoka County had nearly 3 million oak trees and 990 active infection centers in 2008. If oak wilt2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT IN ANOKA, or discontinued. Few analyses have attempted to carefully quantify those damages, especially for forest pests. Oak

Fried, Jeremy S.

302

New species of Fusarium associated with dieback of Spartina alterniflora in Atlantic salt marshes.  

PubMed

Sudden vegetation dieback (SVD) is the loss of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) along intertidal creeks in salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf states. The underlying cause of SVD remains unclear, but earlier work suggested a contributing role for Fusarium spp. in Louisiana. This report investigated whether these or other Fusarium species were associated with S. alterniflora dieback in mid- to north-Atlantic states. Isolations from seven SVD sites yielded 192 isolates of Fusarium spp., with more than 75% isolated from aboveground tissue. Most isolates (88%) fell into two undescribed morphospecies (MS) distinguished from each other by macroconidial shape, phialide ontogeny and growth rates. Pathogenicity tests on wound-inoculated S. alterniflora stems and seedling roots revealed that isolates in MS1 were more virulent than those in MS2 but no single isolate caused plant mortality. No matches to known species of Fusarium were revealed by DNA sequence queries of translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) sequences. A phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of three genes, ?-tubulin (?-tub), calmodulin (cal) and tef1, was conducted on representative isolates from MS1 (n = 20) and MS2 (n = 18); it provided strong evidence that the MS1 isolates form a clade that represents a heretofore undescribed species, which we designate Fusarium palustre sp. nov. Isolates from the more variable MS2 clustered with the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex as F. cf. incarnatum. Although a strong association exists between both species and declining S. alterniflora in SVD sites, neither appears to play a primary causal role in SVD. However, our findings suggest that F. palustre might play an important secondary role in the ecological disruption of the salt marshes. PMID:21471289

Elmer, Wade H; Marra, Robert E

2011-01-01

303

Fusarium Infections in Immunocompromised Patients  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections in humans, including superficial, locally invasive, and disseminated infections. The clinical form of fusariosis depends largely on the immune status of the host and the portal of entry, with superficial and localized disease occurring mostly in immunocompetent patients and invasive and disseminated disease affecting immunocompromised patients. Risk factors for severe fusariosis include prolonged neutropenia and T-cell immunodeficiency, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with severe graft-versus-host disease. The most frequent presentation of disseminated fusariosis is a combination of characteristic cutaneous lesions and positive blood cultures, with or without lung or sinus involvement. The prognosis is poor and is determined largely by degree of immunosuppression and extent of infection, with virtually a 100% death rate among persistently neutropenic patients with disseminated disease. These infections may be clinically suspected on the basis of a constellation of clinical and laboratory findings, which should lead to prompt therapy. Treatment options include the lipid formulations of amphotericin B, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Prevention of fusarial infection among high-risk patients should be considered. PMID:17934079

Nucci, Marcio; Anaissie, Elias

2007-01-01

304

Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.  

PubMed

In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates. PMID:23315087

Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gmez-Leyva, Juan F

2013-04-01

305

Molecular phylogenetic and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), the cause of dry rot on potato in Iran.  

PubMed

Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are common pathogens of potato, causing dry rot in the west of Iran which involved Hamedan, Kermanshah, Eilam and Kurdistan provinces. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing FSSC from infected potato tubers based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Forty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from potato tubers collected from the wet market in different regions of the west of Iran and identified as FSSC through morphological characters. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy potato tubers in the planthouse. The tubers rot symptoms were observed on the 21st day after inoculation of Fusarium isolates on the tubers tested. In the tubers inoculation tests, lesion sizes were quite variable; therefore, the measurement was done to compare the depth and width of lesion expansion among the isolates. Based on the sequence data from translation elongation factor (EF-l?) gene and internal transcript spacer (ITS) regions analysis, all of the selected FSSC isolates were divided into two major groups. This is the first report on molecular identification of FSSC strains isolated from potato tubers in Iran and Fusarium falciforme was reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:24530481

Chehri, Khosrow; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Karimi, Naser

2014-01-01

306

Identification and Characterization of Wilt and Salt Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Chickpea through High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5? RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress. PMID:25295754

Deokar, Amit Atmaram; Bhardwaj, Ankur R.; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Jain, Pradeep Kumar

2014-01-01

307

Colonization of Pythium oligandrum in the tomato rhizosphere for biological control of bacterial wilt disease analyzed by real-time PCR and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

It recently has been reported that the non-plant-pathogenic oomycete Pythium oligandrum suppresses bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato. As one approach to determine disease-suppressive mechanisms of action, we analyzed the colonization of P. oligandrum in rhizospheres of tomato using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The real-time PCR specifically quantified P. oligandrum in the tomato rhizosphere that is reliable over a range of 0.1 pg to 1 ng of P. oligandrum DNA from 25 mg dry weight of soil. Rhizosphere populations of P. oligandrum from tomato grown for 3 weeks in both unsterilized and sterilized field soils similarly increased with the initial application of at least 5 x 10(5) oospores per plant. Confocal microscopic observation also showed that hyphal development was frequent on the root surface and some hyphae penetrated into root epidermis. However, rhizosphere population dynamics after transplanting into sterilized soil showed that the P. oligandrum population decreased with time after transplanting, particularly at the root tips, indicating that this biocontrol fungus is rhizosphere competent but does not actively spread along roots. Protection over the long term from root-infecting pathogens does not seem to involve direct competition. However, sparse rhizosphere colonization of P. oligandrum reduced the bacterial wilt as well as more extensive colonization, which did not reduce the rhizosphere population of R. solanacearum. These results suggest that competition for infection sites and nutrients in rhizosphere is not the primary biocontrol mechanism of bacterial wilt by P. oligandrum. PMID:18943195

Takenaka, Shigehito; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Tojo, Motoaki; Masunaka, Akira; Takahashi, Hideki

2008-02-01

308

Silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromised cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cotton is an important cash crop worldwide and serves as a significant source of fiber, feed, foodstuff, oil and biofuel products. Considerable effort in genetics and genomics has been expended to increase sustainable yield and quality through molecular breeding and genetic engineering of new cotton cultivars. With the effort of whole genome sequencing of cotton, it is essential to develop molecular tools and resources for large-scale analysis of gene functions at the genome-wide level. We have successfully established an Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay in several cotton cultivars with different genetic backgrounds. The genes of interest were potently and readily silenced within 2 weeks after inoculation at the seedling stage. Importantly, we showed that silencing GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 compromised cotton resistance to the infection by Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing Verticillium wilt. Furthermore, we established a cotton protoplast system for transient gene expression to study gene functions by a gain-of-function approach. The viable protoplasts were isolated from green cotyledons, etiolated cotyledons, and true leaves, and responded to a wide range of pathogen elicitors and phytohormones. Remarkably, cotton plants possess conserved, but also distinct MAP kinase activation with Arabidopsis upon bacterial elicitor flagellin perception. Thus, we demonstrated that GhNDR1 and GhMKK2 are required for Verticillium resistance in cotton using gene silencing assays, and established the high throughput loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays for functional genomic studies in cotton. PMID:21219508

Gao, Xiquan; Wheeler, Terry; Li, Zhaohu; Kenerley, Charles M.; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

2011-01-01

309

The Ophiostomatoid fungi include five genera, including Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma, two genera which include several important tree pathogens. They  

E-print Network

and dieback of Acacia mearnsii trees in South Africa, C. fagacearum the cause of oak wilt in the USA which include several important tree pathogens. They are mostly vectored by insects, that either wound trees or visit wounds due to other causes, thus spreading the fungi between trees. Ceratocystis

310

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

2014-01-01

311

Short title: Sexual reproduction of Fusarium circinatum Influence of sexual reproduction on the FusariulII circillatulII population in South  

E-print Network

and Experimental Carcinogenesis (PROMEC), Medical Research Council (MRC), P. O. Box 19070, Tygerberg, South Africa.coutinho@fabi.up.ac.za. Medical Research Council (MRC), PROMEC, Tygerberg, South Africa. Summary Fusarium circinatum (=F. subglutillalls f. sp. pini) is an important pathogen in pme nurseries in South Africa. The initial outbreak

312

Identification of Fusarium species in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections by in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes.  

PubMed

Fusarium has recently emerged as an opportunistic pathogen of humans, but the histological differentiation of Fusarium from Aspergillus and Scedosporium is particularly difficult because these fungi may induce similar clinical features and exhibit filamentous development in host tissues. Thus, there is a need to establish rapid and reliable methods that are applicable to pathological diagnoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate and establish in situ hybridization (ISH) using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting the 28S rRNA to identify Fusarium species in tissue sections. This technique was validated using both formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pulmonary tissues from mice infected with seven different species of fungi and cell blocks from fungal cultures of 30 strains. As a result, strong positive signals were observed within fungal organisms present in tissues of the lung from mice infected with Fusarium solani. Furthermore, this probe reacted strongly with both F. solani and Fusarium oxysporum in sections from cell blocks. Although some cross-reactivity occurred with the Pseudallescheria boydii in sections from cell blocks, the signal intensity was low and most hyphae were not reactive. In conclusion, it was confirmed that ISH with PNA probes is accurate and is a valuable tool for identifying Fusarium spp. among organisms that have identical morphological features in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. PMID:21106796

Shinozaki, Minoru; Okubo, Yoichiro; Sasai, Daisuke; Nakayama, Haruo; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Ide, Tadashi; Wakayama, Megumi; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2011-03-01

313

Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS) data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat) and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum. PMID:22016614

Kulik, Tomasz; Pszczolkowska, Agnieszka; Lojko, Maciej

2011-01-01

314

Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ?TRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ?TRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to date. We show that trichothecene biosynthesis is specifically induced in infection structures, but is neither necessary for their development nor for formation of primary symptoms on wheat. PMID:21798058

2011-01-01

315

Production of trichothecene mycotoxins by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum on barley and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat cultivars (Stoa, MN87150, SuMai-3, YMI-6, Wheaton) and barley cultivars (Robust, Excel, Chevron, M69) were inoculated in the field with isolates ofFusarium graminearum andF. culmorum. The diseased (Fusarium head blight) kernels were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV).F. culmorum produced all three trichothecenes on all cultivars tested whereasF. graminearum only produced DON and 15-ADON. There was no

C. J. Mirocha; Weiping Xie; Yichun Xu; R. D. Wilcoxson; R. P. Woodward; R. H. Etebarian; G. Behele

1994-01-01

316

Development of a Fusarium graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip for profiling fungal gene expression in vitro and in planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi have become available, providing the opportunity for large-scale functional analysis including genome-wide expression analysis. We report the design and validation of the first Affymetrix GeneChip microarray based on the entire genome of a filamentous fungus, the ascomycetous plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To maximize the likelihood of representing all putative genes (?14,000) on

Ulrich Gldener; Kye-Yong Seong; Jayanand Boddu; Seungho Cho; Frances Trail; Jin-Rong Xu; Gerhard Adam; Hans-Werner Mewes; Gary J. Muehlbauer; H. Corby Kistler

2006-01-01

317

Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays.\\u000a In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4).

Veerubommu Shanmugam; Kamini Atri; Samriti Gupta; Nandina Kanoujia; Digvijay Singh Naruka

2011-01-01

318

Comparative analysis of 87,000 expressed sequence tags from the fumonisin-producing fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is a pathogen of maize worldwide and produces fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins that have been associated with several animal diseases as well as cancer in humans. In this study, we sought to identify fungal genes that affect fumonisin production and\\/or the plantfungal interaction. We generated over 87,000 expressed sequence tags from nine different cDNA

Daren W. Brown; Foo Cheung; Robert H. Proctor; Robert A. E. Butchko; Li Zheng; Yuandan Lee; Teresa Utterback; Shannon Smith; Tamara Feldblyum; Anthony E. Glenn; Ronald D. Plattner; David F. Kendra; Christopher D. Town; Catherine A. Whitelaw

2005-01-01

319

Molecular Inversion Probe: A New Tool for Highly Specific Detection of Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Highly specific detection methods, capable of reliably identifying plant pathogens are crucial in plant disease management strategies to reduce losses in agriculture by preventing the spread of diseases. We describe a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP) assay that can be potentially developed into a robust multiplex platform to detect and identify plant pathogens. A MIP has been designed for the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and the proof of concept for the efficiency of this technology is provided. We demonstrate that this methodology can detect as little as 2.5 ng of pathogen DNA and is highly specific, being able to accurately differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans from other fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and even pathogens of the same species such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The MIP assay was able to detect the presence of the pathogen in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants as soon as the tissues contained minimal amounts of pathogen. MIP methods are intrinsically highly multiplexable and future development of specific MIPs could lead to the establishment of a diagnostic method that could potentially screen infected plants for hundreds of pathogens in a single assay. PMID:25343255

Trau, Matt; Botella, Jose R.

2014-01-01

320

Production of Fumonisin Analogs by Fusarium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fumonisins, a family of food-borne carcinogenic myco- toxins, were first isolated in 1988 (21) from cultures of Fusar- ium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (previously known as Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon). During the same year, the structures of the fumonisins were elucidated (6) and fumonisin B1 was shown to cause equine leukoencephalomalacia (34). There have been numerous publications dealing with this group

John P. Rheeder; Walter F. O. Marasas; Hester F. Vismer

2002-01-01

321

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

PubMed

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Nia" in the El Nio-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

322

Visualization of Ralstonia solanacearum cells during biocontrol of bacterial wilt disease in tomato with Pythium oligandrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum (PO) can suppress bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) in tomato. To understand the primary biocontrol mechanisms of bacterial wilt by PO, we pretreated tomato plants with\\u000a sterile distilled water or preinoculated them with PO, followed by inoculation with RS, then observed PO and RS in fixed sections\\u000a of tomato tissues using a confocal

Akira Masunaka; Kazuhiro Nakaho; Masao Sakai; Hideki Takahashi; Shigehito Takenaka

2009-01-01

323

Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Fungal infestation on wheat is an increasingly grave nutritional problem in many countries worldwide. Fusarium species are especially harmful pathogens due to their toxic metabolites. In this work we studied volatile compounds released by F. cerealis, F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. redolens using SPME-GC/MS. By using an electronic nose we were able to differentiate between infected and non-infected wheat grains in the post-harvest chain. Our electronic nose was capable of distinguishing between four wheat Fusaria species with an accuracy higher than 80%. PMID:21695232

Eifler, Jakob; Martinelli, Eugenio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Schild, Detlev; Di Natale, Corrado

2011-01-01

324

Exploring the interaction between small RNAs and R genes during Brachypodium response to Fusarium culmorum infection.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate small RNA interactions with putative disease response genes in the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. The fungal pathogen Fusarium culmorum (Fusarium herein) and phytohormone salicylic acid treatment were used to induce the disease response in Brachypodium. Initially, 121 different putative disease response genes were identified using bioinformatic and homology based approaches. Computational prediction was used to identify 33 candidate new miRNA coding sequences, of which 9 were verified by analysis of small RNA sequence libraries. Putative Brachypodium miRNA target sites were identified in the disease response genes, and a subset of which were screened for expression and possible miRNA interactions in 5 different Brachypodium lines infected with Fusarium. An NBS-LRR family gene, 1g34430, was polymorphic among the lines, forming two major genotypes, one of which has its miRNA target sites deleted, resulting in altered gene expression during infection. There were siRNAs putatively involved in regulation of this gene, indicating a role of small RNAs in the B. distachyon disease response. PMID:24368332

Lucas, Stuart James; Ba?ta?, Kubilay; Budak, Hikmet

2014-02-25

325

Infection of Tubercles of the Parasitic Weed Orobanche aegyptiaca by Mycoherbicidal Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

Progression of the infection by host?specific strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium arthrosporioides of Orobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) tubercles attached to tomato roots was tracked using light, confocal and electron microscopy. Mycelia transformed with the gene for green fluorescent protein were viewed using a confocal microscope. Fungal penetration was preceded by a rapid loss of starch, with approx. 10% remaining at 9h and no measurable starch at 24h. Penetration into the Orobanche tubercles began by 12h after inoculation. Hyphae penetrated the outer six cell layers by 24h, reaching the centre of the tubercles by 48h and infecting nearly all cells by 72h. Most of the infected tubercles were dead by 96h. Breakdown of cell walls and the disintegration of cytoplasm in and around the infected cells occurred between 48 and 96h. Lignin?like material increased in tubercle cells of infected tissues over time, but did not appear to be effective in limiting fungal penetration or spread. Callose, suberin, constitutive toxins and phytoalexins were not detected in infected tubercles, suggesting that there are no obvious defence mechanisms to overcome. Both Fusarium spp. pathogenic on Orobanche produced fumonisin?like ceramide synthase inhibitors, while fusaric acid was produced only by F. oxysporum in liquid culture. The organisms do not have sufficient virulence for field use (based on glasshouse testing), suggesting that virulence should be transgenically enhanced or additional isolates sought. PMID:12466097

COHEN, BARRY A.; AMSELLEM, ZIVA; LEV?YADUN, SIMCHA; GRESSEL, JONATHAN

2002-01-01

326

Enniatin Production by Fusarium Strains and Its Effect on Potato Tuber Tissue  

PubMed Central

Several Fusarium strains produce the cyclohexadepsipeptide enniatin, a host-nonspecific phytotoxin. Enniatins are synthesized by the 347-kDa multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase. In the present study, 36 Fusarium strains derived from a wide range of host plants were characterized with respect to enniatin production in different media. Thirteen of these strains produced enniatins on one or more of these media. To determine whether enniatin production affected virulence, an assay on potato tuber tissue was performed. Seven enniatin-producing and 16 nonproducing strains induced necrosis of potato tuber tissue, so that enniatin synthesis is not essential for the infection of potato tuber tissue. The application of a mixture of enniatins to slices of potato tuber, however, caused necrosis of the tissue. Therefore, enniatin production by the enniatin-synthesizing strains may affect their pathogenicity. The enniatin synthetase gene (esyn1) of Fusarium scirpi ETH 1536 was used as a probe to determine if similar sequences were present in the strains examined. In Southern blot analyses, DNA sequences hybridizing with the esyn1 probe were present in all but two of the strains examined. In some cases, enniatin-nonproducing strains had the same hybridization pattern as enniatin producers. PMID:16535227

Herrmann, M.; Zocher, R.; Haese, A.

1996-01-01

327

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato by Bioorganic Fertilizer Made from the Antibacterial Compound Producing Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HR62.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is an important soil-borne pathogen worldwide. We investigated the effects of a new bioorganic fertilizer, BIO62, which was made from organic fertilizer and antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HR62, on the control of bacterial wilt of tomato in greenhouse condition. The results showed that the application of BIO62 significantly decreased disease incidence by 65% and strongly reduced R. solanacearum populations both in the rhizosphere soil (8.04 log cfu g(-1) dry soil) and crown sections (5.63 log cfu g(-1) fresh plant section) at 28 days after pathogen challenge. Antibacterial compounds produced by HR62 were purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and HPLC and then identified using HPLC/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Macrolactin A and 7-O-malonyl macrolactin A (molecular weights of 402 and 488 Da, respectively), along with surfactin B (molecular weights of 994, 1008, 1022, and 1036 Da), were observed to inhibit the growth of R. solanacearum. PMID:25322261

Huang, Jianfeng; Wei, Zhong; Tan, Shiyong; Mei, Xinlan; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun

2014-11-01

328

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

329

Contamination of barley seeds with Fusarium species and their toxins in Spain: an integrated approach.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a globally distributed fungal genus that includes different species pathogenic to cereals among others crops. Some of these Fusarium species can also produce toxic compounds towards animals and humans. In this work, the presence of the most important Fusarium toxins was determined in barley seeds from Spain, sampled according to European Union requirements. The results obtained were compared with the presence of mycotoxigenic species considered responsible for their synthesis by using species-specific polymerase chain reaction protocols. Fumonisins B(1) and B(2), zearalenone, trichothecenes type A (T-2 and HT-2) and trichothecenes type B (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) were analysed by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were detected in 72% and 38% of the barley samples, respectively, at levels below European Union limits in all cases. However, the co-occurrence of both toxins in 34% of the samples suggested that synergistic activity of these two mycotoxins should be evaluated. Nivalenol and HT-2/T-2 were detected at low levels in 17% and 10% of the samples, respectively. Fumonisins occurred in 34% of the samples at levels up to 300 g/kg. This suggested that they might represent a risk in Spanish barley, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of fumonisins in barley in this country. The species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays to detect mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species showed a very consistent correlation between F. verticillioides detection and fumonisin contamination as well as F. graminearum presence and zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol contamination in barley samples. The approach used in this study provided information of mycotoxin contamination of barley together with the identification of the fungal species responsible for their production. Detection of the species with the current polymerase chain reaction assay strategy may be considered predictive of the potential mycotoxin risk in this matrix. PMID:23157597

Gil-Serna, J; Mateo, E M; Gonzlez-Jan, M T; Jimnez, M; Vzquez, C; Patio, B

2013-01-01

330

Does biopolymers composition in seeds contribute to the flax resistance against the Fusarium infection?  

PubMed

Over the last decades, the cultivation of fibrous flax declined heavily. There are number of reasons for that fact; one of them is flax susceptibility to the pathogen infection. Damages caused mainly by fungi from genus Fusarium lead to the significant losses when cultivating flax, which in turn discourage farmers to grow flax. Therefore, to launch the new products from flax with attractive properties there is a need to obtain new flax varieties with increased resistance to pathogens. In order to obtain the better quality of flax fiber, we previously generated flax with reduced pectin or lignin level (cell wall polymers). The modifications altered also plants' resistance to the Fusarium infection. Undoubtedly, the plant defense system is complex, however, in this article we aimed to investigate the composition of modified flax seeds and to correlate it with the observed changes in the flax resistance to the pathogen attack. In particular, we evaluated the content and composition of carbohydrates (cell wall polymers: pectin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and mucilage), and phenylpropanoid compounds (lignin, lignans, phenolics). From the obtained results we concluded that the observed changes in the vulnerability to pathogens putatively correlate with the antioxidant potential of phenylpropanoids accumulated in seeds, seco-isolariciresinol and coumaric acid diglycosides in particular, and with pectin level as a carbon source for pathogens. Surprisingly, relatively less important for the resistance was the physical barrier, including lignin and cellulose amount and cellulose structure. Certainly, the hypothesis should be verified on a larger number of genotypes. 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:992-1004, 2014. PMID:25080398

Zeitoun, Ahmed M; Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Dymi?ska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

2014-09-01

331

Fusarium keratitis and endophthalmitis associated with lens contact wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a Fusarium keratitis is a severe corneal infection that is usually seen in tropical and subtropical countries after a corneal trauma.\\u000a In 20052006, an epidemic of Fusarium keratitis, occurring predominantly among contact lens wearers, was observed in several countries. Case report We describe the clinical course of a Fusarium keratitis which failed to respond to systemic and local voriconazole treatment,

Julia Proena-Pina; Isabelle Ssi Yan Kai; Tristan Bourcier; Monique Fabre; Herv Offret; Marc Labetoulle

2010-01-01

332

The I2C family from the wilt disease resistance locus I2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.  

PubMed Central

Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex I2C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the I2 F. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. The genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolated resistance genes that contain a nucleotide binding motif and leucine-rich repeats. Importantly, the presence of I2C antisense transgenes abrogated race 2 but not race 1 resistance in otherwise normal plants. Expression of the complete sense I2C-1 transgene conferred significant but partial resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. All members of the I2C gene family have been mapped genetically and are dispersed on three different chromosomes. Some of the I2C members cosegregate with other tomato resistance loci. Comparison within the leucine-rich repeat region of I2C gene family members shows that they differ from each other mainly by insertions or deletions. PMID:9144960

Ori, N; Eshed, Y; Paran, I; Presting, G; Aviv, D; Tanksley, S; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

1997-01-01

333

Effect of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines on soybean.  

E-print Network

??Fusarium virguliforme, the soilborne fungus which causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, and Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), are two economically important (more)

Brzostowski, Lillian Frances

2010-01-01

334

Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

2013-01-01

335

Dominance relationships of bean pathogens at Lake Balaton.  

PubMed

Dominance relationships of different bean pathogens were examined during 1999-2000 in small plot trials at Lake Balaton in Hungary. In 1999 the dominant pathogen species were Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. The main cause of the stock decay was due to the infection of Fusarium spp. Bean plants were infected also by Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Macrophomina and Sclerotinia, species part from viruses. Among of thirty-eight examined bean cultivars and genotypes the variety "Dszbab" and the genotype 513 were the most resistant. In 2000 Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium spp. caused epidemics. Most of the observed plants died early. The most healthy species and branches were the SC-34-1 and cv. Dszbab. PMID:12425043

Balzs, A; Budai, P; Kadlicsk, S; Kovcs, J

2001-01-01

336

Survey of fumonisin production by Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), two structurally related mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity, were recently isolated from corn cultures of Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826. These toxins have been reported to be produced also by isolates of F. proliferatum. Contamination of foods and feeds by F. moniliforme has been associated with human esophageal cancer risk, and FB1 has been shown to be the causative agent of the neurotoxic disease leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Because of the toxicological importance of the fumonisins, the potential to produce FB1 and FB2 was determined in a study of 40 toxic Fusarium isolates representing 27 taxa in 9 of the 12 sections of Fusarium, as well as two recently described species not yet classified into sections. With the exception of one isolate of F. nygamai, fumonisin production was restricted to isolates of F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum, in the section Liseola. The F. nygamai isolate produced 605 micrograms of FB1 g-1 and 530 micrograms of FB2 g-1, and the identity of the toxins was confirmed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the production of the fumonisins by F. nygamai. PMID:2059033

Thiel, P G; Marasas, W F; Sydenham, E W; Shephard, G S; Gelderblom, W C; Nieuwenhuis, J J

1991-01-01

337

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r = 0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r = 0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r = 0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous detection of many Fusarium mycotoxins in each sample. In combination with real-time PCR analysis of seven toxigenic Fusarium spp., the results gave an overall picture of the presence of Fusarium and their toxins in Swedish oats and revealed significant annual and regional differences. This is the first study of the so-called emerging mycotoxins (e.g., ENNs, MON and BEA) in oats grown in Sweden. PMID:23962918

Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Brjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

2013-10-15

338

Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in F. avenaceum. Seven monosaccharides (arabinose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, glucose), five disaccharides (cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and three polysaccharides (dextrin, inulin and xylan) were used as substrates. Three F. avenaceum strains were used in the experiments. These were all able to grow and produce aurofusarin on the tested carbon sources. Moniliformin and enniatins were produced on all carbon types, except on lactose, which suggest a common conserved regulation mechanism. Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:24064720

S?rensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

2013-01-01

339

Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

2014-08-01

340

Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium. PMID:23580752

Xu, Chunxiang

2013-01-01

341

Cytological aspects of compost-mediated induced resistance against fusarium crown and root rot in tomato.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential of a pulp and paper mill residues compost for the control of crown and root rot of greenhouse-grown tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was ultrastructurally investigated. Peat moss amended with compost substantially reduced disease-associated symptoms. Addition of Pythium oligandrum to either peat moss alone or peat moss amended with compost resulted in a considerable reduction in disease incidence compared with controls grown in peat moss alone. Histological and cytological observations of root samples from Fusarium-inoculated plants revealed that the beneficial effect of compost in reducing disease symptoms is associated with increased plant resistance to fungal colonization. One of the most prominent facets of compost-mediated induced resistance concerned the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures, likely laid down to prevent pathogen ingress toward the vascular elements, included callose-enriched wall appositions and osmiophilic deposits around the sites of potential pathogen ingress. Invading hyphae, coated by the osmiophilic material, showed marked cellular disorganization. The use of the wheat germ agglutinin-ovomucoid-gold complex provided evidence that the wall-bound chitin was altered in severely damaged hyphae. A substantial increase in the extent and magnitude of the cellular changes induced by compost was observed when P. oligandrum was supplied to the potting substrate. This finding corroborates the current concept that amendment of composts with specific antagonists may be a valuable option for amplifying their beneficial properties in terms of plant disease suppression. PMID:18942956

Pharand, Benot; Carisse, Odile; Benhamou, Nicole

2002-04-01

342

Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P=0.010 and P=0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe(3+) ions in porphyrin complexes (g=2.3, g=2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn(2+) concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum. PMID:21957331

Dobosz, Bernadeta; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Waskiewicz, Agnieszka; Irzykowska, Lidia; Bocianowski, Jan; Karolewski, Zbigniew; Kostecki, Marian; Kruczynski, Zdzislaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Weber, Zbigniew; Golinski, Piotr

2011-09-01

343

Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incognita had a greater effect alone than did either of the other pathogens. The length of split roots was reduced by the infection of M. incognita and A. tumefaciens or F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The number of galls induced by nematodes on roots was higher where the bacterium was applied and lower where the fungus was applied to the opposite split root. PMID:19283119

El-Sherif, A G; Elwakil, M A

1991-04-01

344

Evaluation of pathogenicity and aggressiveness of F. langsethiae on oat and wheat seedlings relative to known seedling blight pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium and Microdochium species are causal agents of seedling blight of small-grain cereal crops where they may contribute to a significant reduction\\u000a in crop establishment and final yield. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the potential pathogenicity and aggressiveness\\u000a of F. langsethiae, a recently identified fungus linked with the contamination of cereals with high levels of the trichothecene mycotoxins,

Samuel M. Imathiu; Martin C. Hare; Rumiana V. Ray; Matthew Back; Simon G. Edwards

2010-01-01

345

Genotypic Identification of Fusarium Species from Ocular Sources: Comparison to Morphologic Classification and Antifungal Sensitivity Testing (An AOS Thesis)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Ocular infections caused by fungal organisms can cause significant ocular morbidity, particularly when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Rapid and accurate identification of Fusarium species at the subgenus level using current diagnostic standards is timely and insensitive. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) in detecting and differentiating Fusarium species from isolates of ocular infections, and to assess the correlation between the genotypic and morphologic classification. Methods Fifty-eight isolates from 52 patients diagnosed with Fusarium ocular infections were retrieved from storage at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institutes ocular microbiology laboratory. Morphologic classification was determined at both a general and a reference microbiology laboratory. DNA was extracted and purified, and the ITS region was amplified and sequenced. Following DNA sequences, alignment and phylogenetic analysis were done. Susceptibility to antifungal drugs was measured according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method. Results Sequence analysis demonstrated 15 unique sequences among the 58 isolates. The grouping showed that the 58 isolates were distributed among 4 main species complexes. At the species level, morphologic classification correlated with genotypic classification in 25% and 97% of the isolates in a general microbiology and a reference mycology laboratory, respectively. Conclusions The sequence variation within the ITS provides a sufficient quantitative basis for the development of a molecular diagnostic approach to the Fusarium pathogens isolated from ocular infections. Morphology based on microscopic and macroscopic observations yields inconsistent results, particularly at nonreference laboratories, emphasizing the need for a more reproducible test with less user-dependent variability. Fusarium solani tends to be more resistant to certain antifungals (azoles). PMID:19277239

Alfonso, Eduardo C.

2008-01-01

346

Biopesticidal value of selected essential oils against pathogenic fungus, termites, and nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biopesticidal potential of six plant-derived essential oils (mint [Mentha arvensis], ajwain [Carum capticum], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citrates], clove [Eugenia caryophyllata], cedarwood [Cedrus deodara], and eucalyptus [Eucalyptus globulas]) was evaluated against Odontotermes obesus (termites), Fusarium oxysporum (plant pathogenic fungi), and Meloidogyne incognita (nematodes). In the case of termites, a no-choice bioassay revealed that the mint oil gave the best results (100%

Aditi Gupta; Satyawati Sharma; S. N. Naik

2011-01-01

347

Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2?) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC) was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.

Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kang, Su Ran; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Dong June; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Sung, Chang Hyun; Kang, Han Sol; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

2013-01-01

348

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog Microplate Assay  

PubMed Central

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 L of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of GN2 microtitre plates. On the basis of average well colour development and number of positive wells, the pathogens were divided into two groups, (i) PA and FORL and (ii) PC, PCP and FS. Group (i) was characterised by a short lag-phase, a rapid exponential phase involving almost all carbon sources offered and a long stationary phase, while group (ii) had a more extended lag-phase and a slower utilisation rate of the carbon sources offered. The three isolates in group (ii) differed significantly during their exponential phase. The lowest utilisation rate of carbon sources and number of sources utilised was found for PCP. Of the major group of carbon sources, six carbohydrates, three carboxylic acids and four amino acids were rapidly used by all isolates tested at an early stage. The carbon sources gentibiose, ?-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline persisted to the end of the exponential phase.Moreover, similarities between the metabolic profiles of the tested pathogen and the those of the resident microflora could also be found. These findings are of great importance as regards the role of the resident microflora in the biocontrol. PMID:19294012

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W

2009-01-01

349

The Plant Cell, Vol. 10, 371382, March 1998 1998 American Society of Plant Physiologists Ethylene Regulates the Susceptible Response to Pathogen  

E-print Network

) and fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. Bacterial spot disease symptoms were also reduced, there are only a limited number of cases in which phytotoxins have been demonstrated to directly control dis, bacterial and fungal pathogens generally do not evolve enough ethylene to be necrogenic in plant tissues

Klee, Harry J.

350

Local origin of two vegetative compatibility groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Australia  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum from geographically widespread native Gossypium populations, including a cotton growing area believed to be the center of origin of VCG 01111 and VCG 01112 of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) in Australia, was determined using glasshouse bioassays and AFLPs. Five lineages (AE) were identified among 856 isolates. Of these, 12% were strongly pathogenic on cotton, 10% were weakly pathogenic and designated wild Fov, while 78% were nonpathogenic. In contrast to the occurrence of pathogenic isolates in all five lineages in soils associated with wild Gossypium, in cotton growing areas only three lineages (A, B, E) occurred and all pathogenic isolates belonged to two subgroups in lineage A. One of these contained VCG 01111 isolates while the other contained VCG 01112 isolates. Sequence analyses of translation elongation factor-1?, mitochondrial small subunit rDNA, nitrate reductase and phosphate permease confirmed that Australian Fov isolates were more closely related to lineage A isolates of native F. oxysporum than to Fov races 18 found overseas. These results strongly support a local evolutionary origin for Fov in Australian cotton growing regions.

Wang, Bo; Brubaker, Curt L; Summerell, Brett A; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

2010-01-01

351

Mass spectrometry based metabolomics to identify potential biomarkers for resistance in barley against fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum).  

PubMed

Resistance in Triticeae to fusarium head blight (FHB) is quantitatively inherited. Metabolomics as a tool was used to better understand the mechanisms of resistance and to identify potential FHB resistance biomarker metabolites in barley. Five FHB-resistant two-row barley genotypes (CIho 4196, Zhedar-1, Zhedar-2, Fredrickson, and Harbin-2r) and one FHB-susceptible genotype (CH 9520-30) were each inoculated with either pathogen-suspension or mock-solution. Disease severity, quantified as the proportion of spikelets diseased, varied among genotypes, being the greatest in CH 9520-30. Spikelets were sampled, metabolites extracted with aqueous methanol, and analyzed using an LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap system. A pair wise, resistant vs. susceptible, t-test identified 1774 significant treatment peaks. Canonical discriminant analysis of peak abundance allowed the genotypes to be sorted into three clusters: (i) CH9520-30, (ii) Harbin-2r, (iii) the remaining four genotypes. The t-test was further used to identify resistance-related (RR) and pathogenesis-related (PR) metabolites. The pathogen-produced virulence factor deoxynivalenol (DON), and its detoxification product, DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G) were designated as resistance indicator (RI) metabolites. Metabolites (RR, PR, or RI) occurring in at least two resistant genotypes, showing a two-fold or greater abundance in resistant vs. susceptible lines, and also known to have plant defense functions were selected as potential FHB resistance biomarker metabolites. These included phenylalanine, p-coumaric acid, jasmonate, linolenic acid, total DON produced (TDP), and the proportion of DON converted to D3G (PDC). Total DON was the lowest in CIho 4196, while PDC was the highest in Zhedar-2. The application of RR, PR, and RI metabolites as potential biomarkers to enhance resistance is discussed. PMID:21701847

Kumaraswamy, Kenchappa G; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C; Choo, Thin M; Dion, Yves; Rioux, Sylvie

2011-08-01

352

Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.  

PubMed

Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum. PMID:23945000

Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

2013-12-01

353

Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-01-01

354

Diversity of fusarium species from highland areas in malaysia.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2012-12-01

355

Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

Mohanty, N K; Sahu, S

2014-09-01

356

Fusarium solani infection in a kidney transplant recipient  

PubMed Central

Hyalo hypho mycosis due to Fusarium species mainly occurs in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation varies from localized to disseminated involvement. A case of localized cutaneous fusariosis caused by Fusarium solani in a renal transplant patient is described and the skin manifestations of the disease are discussed. PMID:25249722

Mohanty, N. K.; Sahu, S.

2014-01-01

357

Disseminated Fusarium originating from toenail paronychia in a neutropenic patient  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a saprophytic organism that is found widely distributed in soil, subterranean and aerial plants, plant debris and other organic substrates. The organism can cause local tissue infections in immunocompetent patients such as onychomycosis, bone and joint infections, or sinusitis. Since the first case of disseminated Fusarium was described, the incidence of disseminated disease has increased significantly, particularly affecting those immunocompromised with hematological malignancies. We report here a 38 year-old hospitalized male with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed disseminated Fusarium infection, originating from a toenail paronychia, in the setting of neutropenia. Pathological diagnosis of Fusarium is difficult because the septate hyphae of Fusarium are difficult to distinguish from Aspergillus, which has a more favorable outcome. Cultures of potential sources of infection, as well as tissue cultures, are essential in identifying the organism and initiating early aggressive therapy. PMID:20486458

Bourgeois, Greg P.; Cafardi, Jennifer A.; Sellheyer, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A.

2010-01-01

358

[Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].  

PubMed

One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ? 1?g/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99?g/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5?g/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:24721273

Martinez, Mauro; Castaares, Eliana; Dinolfo, Mara I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, Mara V; Stenglein, Sebastin A

2014-01-01

359

Fatal Fusarium solani infections in baby sharks.  

PubMed

The occurrence of fatal fusariosis in baby bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) born at the National Aquarium, Baltimore, Maryland, is reported. An atypical strain of Fusarium solani was cultured from the tissues of two of the infected sharks following postmortem examination. Histopathology revealed an apparent predilection of the fungus for hyaline cartilage. Invasion of the cartilage resulted in hyphae with a distorted morphology. In slide culture the fungus displayed the unusual characteristic of terminal chlamydoconidium generation on macroconidia; this may be of some taxonomic significance. PMID:2746438

Smith, A G; Muhvich, A G; Muhvich, K H; Wood, C

1989-01-01

360

Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.  

PubMed

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates collected from wheat in Uruguay were determined via multilocus genotyping. Although F. graminearum with the 15ADON trichothecene type accounted for 86% of the isolates examined, five different FGSC species and all three trichothecene types were identified in this collection. This is the first report of Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae, and Fusarium austroamericanum from Uruguay. In addition, we observed significant (P<0.001) regional differences in the composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay. Isolates of F. graminearum with the 15ADON type were the most prevalent in western provinces (95%), while F. asiaticum (43%) and the NIV type (61%) predominated in the new wheat production zone in Cerro Largo along Uruguay's eastern border with Brazil. F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.005) more aggressive on wheat than were isolates from the other species examined (NIV or 3ADON types). However, F. graminearum isolates (15ADON type) were significantly (P<0.05) more sensitive to tebuconazole than isolates from other species (NIV type). These results document substantial heterogeneity among the pathogens responsible for FHB in Uruguay. In addition, the regional predominance of the NIV trichothecene type is of significant concern to food safety and indicates that additional monitoring of nivalenol levels in grain may be required. PMID:23856007

Umpirrez-Failache, M; Garmendia, G; Pereyra, S; Rodrguez-Haralambides, A; Ward, T J; Vero, S

2013-08-16

361

Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P.exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F.nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F.camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P.exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R.solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R.solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P.exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F.nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F.camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. PMID:21839160

Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

2011-11-01

362

EBR1 genomic expansion and its role in virulence of Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Genome sequencing of Fusarium oxysporum revealed that pathogenic forms of this fungus harbour supernumerary chromosomes with a wide variety of genes, many of which likely encode traits required for pathogenicity or niche specialization. Specific transcription factor gene families are expanded on these chromosomes including the EBR1 family (Enhanced Branching). The significance of the EBR1 family expansion on supernumerary chromosomes and whether EBR1 paralogues are functional is currently unknown. EBR1 is found as a single copy in F.graminearum and other fungi but as multiple paralogues in pathogenic F.oxysporum strains. These paralogues exhibit sequence and copy number variation among different host-specific strains and even between more closely related strains. Relative expression of the EBR1 paralogues depends on growth conditions and on the presence of the single EBR1 gene in the core genome. Deletion of EBR1 in the core genome in different F.oxysporum strains resulted in impaired growth, reduced pathogenicity and slightly reduced biocontrol capacities. To identify genes regulated by EBR1, the transcriptomes of wild-type and ?ebr1 strains were compared for both F.oxysporum and F.graminearum. These studies showed that in both species, EBR1 regulates genes involved in general metabolism as well as virulence. PMID:24237614

Jonkers, Wilfried; Xayamongkhon, Henry; Haas, Matthew; Olivain, Chantal; van der Does, H Charlotte; Broz, Karen; Rep, Martijn; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Kistler, H Corby

2014-07-01

363

The Homologue of het-c of Neurospora crassa Lacks Vegetative Compatibility Function in Fusarium proliferatum  

PubMed Central

For two fungal strains to be vegetatively compatible and capable of forming a stable vegetative heterokaryon they must carry matching alleles at a series of loci variously termed het or vic genes. Cloned het/vic genes from Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina have no obvious functional similarity and have various cellular functions. Our objective was to identify the homologue of the Neurospora het-c gene in Fusarium proliferatum and to determine if this gene has a vegetative compatibility function in this economically important and widely dispersed fungal pathogen. In F. proliferatum and five other closely related Fusarium species we found a few differences in the DNA sequence, but the changes were silent and did not alter the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein. Deleting the gene altered sexual fertility as the female parent, but it did not alter male fertility or existing vegetative compatibility interactions. Replacement of the allele-specific portion of the coding sequence with the sequence of an alternate allele in N. crassa did not result in a vegetative incompatibility response in transformed strains of F. proliferatum. Thus, the fphch gene in Fusarium appears unlikely to have the vegetative compatibility function associated with its homologue in N. crassa. These results suggest that the vegetative compatibility phenotype may result from convergent evolution. Thus, the genes involved in this process may need to be identified at the species level or at the level of a group of species and could prove to be attractive targets for the development of antifungal agents. PMID:17021201

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Olah, Brigitta; Jeney, Apor; Hornok, Laszlo; Leslie, John F.

2006-01-01

364

Global Distribution of Two Fungal Pathogens Threatening Endangered Sea Turtles  

PubMed Central

Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e.g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e.g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide. PMID:24465748

Sarmiento-Ramirez, Jullie M.; Abella-Perez, Elena; Phillott, Andrea D.; Sim, Jolene; van West, Pieter; Martin, Maria P.; Marco, Adolfo; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2014-01-01

365

Pathogenicity of Fungi to Eggs of Heterodera glycines.  

PubMed

Twenty-one isolates of 18 fungal species were tested on water agar for their pathogenicity to eggs of Heterodera glycines. An egg-parasitic index (EPI) for each of these fungi was recorded on a scale from 0 to 10, and hatch of nematode eggs was determined after exposure to the fungi on water agar for 3 weeks at 24 C. The EPI for Verticillium chlamydosporium was 7.6, and the fungus reduced hatch 74%. Pyrenochaeta terrestris and two sterile fungi also showed a high EPI and reduced hatch 42-73%. Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Fusarium solani, and Exophiala pisciphila were moderately pathogenic to eggs (EPI was 2.0-4.5, and hatch was reduced 21-56%). Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Hirsutella thompsonii, Dictyochaeta heteroderae, Dictyochaeta coffeae, Gliocladium catenulatum, and Cladosporium sp. showed little parasitism of nematode eggs but reduced hatch. A negative correlation was observed between hatch and fungal parasitism of eggs. Fusarium oxysporum, H. rhossiliensis, P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, V. chlamydosporium, and sterile fungus 1 also were tested in soil in a greenhouse test. After 3 months, the nematode densities were lower in soil treated with H. rhossiliensis and V. chlamydosporium than in untreated soil. The nematode population densities were correlated negatively with the EPI, but not with the percentage of cysts colonized by the fungi. Plant weights and heights generally increased in the soil treated with the fungi. PMID:19277130

Chen, S Y; Dickson, D W; Mitchell, D J

1996-06-01

366

Pathogenicity of Fungi to Eggs of Heterodera glycines  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one isolates of 18 fungal species were tested on water agar for their pathogenicity to eggs of Heterodera glycines. An egg-parasitic index (EPI) for each of these fungi was recorded on a scale from 0 to 10, and hatch of nematode eggs was determined after exposure to the fungi on water agar for 3 weeks at 24 C. The EPI for Verticillium chlamydosporium was 7.6, and the fungus reduced hatch 74%. Pyrenochaeta terrestris and two sterile fungi also showed a high EPI and reduced hatch 42-73%. Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Fusarium solani, and Exophiala pisciphila were moderately pathogenic to eggs (EPI was 2.0-4.5, and hatch was reduced 21-56%). Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Hirsutella thompsonii, Dictyochaeta heteroderae, Dictyochaeta coffeae, Gliocladium catenulatum, and Cladosporium sp. showed little parasitism of nematode eggs but reduced hatch. A negative correlation was observed between hatch and fungal parasitism of eggs. Fusarium oxysporum, H. rhossiliensis, P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, V. chlamydosporium, and sterile fungus 1 also were tested in soil in a greenhouse test. After 3 months, the nematode densities were lower in soil treated with H. rhossiliensis and V. chlamydosporium than in untreated soil. The nematode population densities were correlated negatively with the EPI, but not with the percentage of cysts colonized by the fungi. Plant weights and heights generally increased in the soil treated with the fungi. PMID:19277130

Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

1996-01-01

367

Cereal crop volatile organic compound induction after mechanical injury, beetle herbivory (Oulema spp.), or fungal infection (Fusarium spp.).  

PubMed

Herbivory, mechanical injury or pathogen infestation to vegetative tissues can induce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production, which can provide defensive functions to injured and uninjured plants. In our studies with 'McNeal' wheat, 'Otana' oat, and 'Harrington' barley, plants that were mechanically injured, attacked by either of two Oulema spp. (melanopus or cyanella) beetles, or infected by one of the three Fusarium spp. (graminearum, avenaceum, or culmorum), had significant VOC induction compared to undamaged plants. Mechanical injury to the main stem or one leaf caused the induction of one green leaf volatile (GLV) - (Z)-3-hexenol, and three terpenes (?-linalool, ?-caryophyllene, and ?-pinene) with all three grasses; wheat and barley also showed ?-linalool oxide induction. The blend of induced VOCs after Fusarium spp. infestation or Oulema spp. herbivory was dominated by GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 1-hexenyl acetate) and ?-linalool and ?-caryophyllene; beetle herbivory also induced (E)-?-farnesene. Different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the two Oulema spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each beetle species. Also, different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the three Fusarium spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each fungal pathogen species. Our results are preliminary since we could not simultaneously measure VOC induction from controls with each of the ten different injury treatments for each of the three cereals. However, the comparison of mechanical injury, insect herbivory, and fungal infection has not been previously examined with VOC responses from three different plant species within the same family. Also, our work suggests large qualitative and quantitative overlap of VOC induction from plants of all three cereals having beetle herbivory injury when compared to infection injury from necrotrophic fungal pathogens. PMID:21208684

Piesik, Dariusz; Pa?ka, Dariusz; Delaney, Kevin J; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Weaver, David K

2011-06-15

368

AFLP and SCAR Markers Linked to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Resistance in Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a serious disease in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The breeding line 'Polalta' contains a single domi- nant gene conferring resistance to TSWV that was introgressed from N. alata Link & Otto. The resistance is tightly associated with an abnor- mal plant type, however, and traditional back- crossing has been ineffective in producing normal plants

H. Moon; J. S. Nicholson

369

Laurel Wilt Disease in Pinellas County Theresa Badurek, Urban Horticulture Extension Agent  

E-print Network

. Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus): sometimes up to a year after the tree has died. Sawdust are susceptible to laurel wilt. This is caused by an insect/disease complex and spread by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). See photos below of the beetle. This tiny little insect bores

Jawitz, James W.

370

First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearumon eucalypts in South Africa  

E-print Network

(GC) hybrid in Zululand, KwaZulu/Natal, showed signs of wilting. The vascular tissue of infected treesLog bacterial identi¢cation system. Inoculation trials were conducted on three E. grandis ? E. camaldulensis There are over 1.5 million ha of exotic forest plantations in South Africa (DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS

371

Incidence of weed reservoirs and vectors of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus on southern Tasmanian lettuce farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrips species and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) alternate weed hosts were surveyed on two lettuce farms in southern Tasmania during 1994 and 1995. Only one known vector species, Thrips tabaci, was found at either site, comprising on average 368% of the total monthly catch. A major peak of thrips activity in the summer corresponded with an increase of disease

C. R. Wilson

1998-01-01

372

Antibacterial activity of Lansiumamide B to tobacco bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum).  

PubMed

Tobacco bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most serious diseases of tobacco in the area of tobacco cultivation. As there is no effective control method for tobacco bacterial wilt diseases, developing new antibacterial agents in tobacco will make great practical sense. The antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum of Lansiumamide B which is isolated from the seeds of Clausena lansium is reported in this paper for the first time. The bioassay results indicate that Lansiumamide B could completely inhibit the growth of R. solanacearum at the concentration of 125 mg/L in vitro, the EC50 and EC90 are 48.82 mg/L and 86.26 mg/L, respectively. The result of pot experiments indicates that the control efficiency of the Lansiumamide B on tobacco bacterial wilt are 95.84%, 91.67% and 86.38% at 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after treatment at the concentration of 100mg/kg, respectively, nearly 40 times higher than Streptomycin, a special fungicide to the disease, at 21 days after treatment with root irrigation method. These results suggest that Lansiumamide B has the potential of developing as a new type of plant-type fungicide on controlling the diseases of tobacco bacterial wilt. PMID:24512921

Li, Lichun; Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Ming; Hao, Wenbo; Han, Yun; Zhang, Guobin; Wan, Shuqing

2014-01-01

373

Real vs. acted emotional speech Janneke Wilting, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts  

E-print Network

are instructed to display specific emotions. The seminal work of Darwin (1872) and Ekman (1972), for instanceReal vs. acted emotional speech Janneke Wilting, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts Communication of actors is a popular method for researching the expression of emotion, little is known about the relation

Hirschberg, Julia

374

Draft genome sequence of Brevibacillus brevis strain X23, a biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum. PMID:23144389

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming; Zhou, Qingming

2012-12-01

375

Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 ?g/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

Castaares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, Mara Ins; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastin Alberto

2014-06-01

376

Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

Corneal ulcera in patients treated at the University Hospital Cali, Colombia have been attributed to the fungus Fusarium solani, which was isolated from patients' eyes by deep scraping. The fungus, which was characterized by culture and morphology, was found to grow well at 37 degrees C in Sabouraud and potato dextrose agars and in liquid asparagine medium, in which it produced very few spores; at 40 degrees C, it survived for 3 weeks. Different levels of pathogenicity were shown by the fungus when 3-week-old bean, corn, and tomato plants were inoculated. Controlled experiments in which an inoculum of F. solani was instilled in rabbit eyes were also carried out; it evoked a clinical reaction producing irritation and erythema. The F. solani isolated from eyes was the same species as that isolated by an agar plate method with Fusarium-selective medium from sugar cane, bean, tomato, or corn fields throughout December 1976 to November 1977. Nonfarming areas and urban sites were also air sampled, but only a few (less than 1%) colonies of F. solani were isolated at one of four sites. A preliminary attempt to identify the physiologically active substance of the fungus was carried out through chemical extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and ultraviolet and infrared spectra analysis. PMID:7217337

Cuero, R G

1980-09-01

377

Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. PMID:24485311

Pagnussatt, Fernanda Arnhold; Del Ponte, Emerson Medeiros; Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

2014-01-01

378

The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

Wong, Philip; Munsterkotter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Guldener, Ulrich

2014-01-01

379

Antagonistic Bacillus species as a biological control of ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to develop a biocontrol system for ginseng root rot caused by Fusarium cf. incarnatum. Methods In total, 392 bacteria isolated from ginseng roots and various soils were screened for their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen, and a bacterial isolate (B2-5) was selected as a promising candidate for the biocontrol because of the strong antagonistic activity of the bacterial cell suspension and culture filtrate against pathogen. Results The bacterial isolate B2-5 displayed an enhanced inhibitory activity against the pathogen mycelial growth with a temperature increase to 25C, produced no pectinase (related to root rotting) and no critical rot symptoms at low [106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] and high (108CFU/mL) inoculum concentrations. In pot experiments, pretreatment with the bacterial isolate in the presumed optimal time for disease control reduced disease severity significantly with a higher control efficacy at an inoculum concentration of 106 CFU/mL than at 108CFU/mL. The establishment and colonization ability of the bacterial isolates on the ginseng rhizosphere appeared to be higher when both the bacterial isolate and the pathogen were coinoculated than when the bacterial isolate was inoculated alone, suggesting its target-oriented biocontrol activity against the pathogen. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the pathogen hyphae were twisted and shriveled by the bacterial treatment, which may be a symptom of direct damage by antifungal substances. Conclusion All of these results suggest that the bacterial isolate has good potential as a microbial agent for the biocontrol of the ginseng root rot caused by F. cf. incarnatum. PMID:24748838

Song, Minjae; Yun, Hye Young; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

380

MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this pathogenicity chromosome confers virulence to a previously non-pathogenic recipient strain. We hypothesize that expression and evolution of effector genes is influenced by their genomic context. Results To gain a better understanding of the genomic context of the effector genes, we manually curated the annotated genes on the pathogenicity chromosome and identified and classified transposable elements. Both retro- and DNA transposons are present with no particular overrepresented class. Retrotransposons appear evenly distributed over the chromosome, while DNA transposons tend to concentrate in large chromosomal subregions. In general, genes on the pathogenicity chromosome are dispersed within the repeat landscape. Effector genes are present within subregions enriched for DNA transposons. A miniature Impala (mimp) is always present in their promoters. Although promoter deletion studies of two effector gene loci did not reveal a direct function of the mimp for gene expression, we were able to use proximity to a mimp as a criterion to identify new effector gene candidates. Through xylem sap proteomics we confirmed that several of these candidates encode proteins secreted during plant infection. Conclusions Effector genes in Fol reside in characteristic subregions on a pathogenicity chromosome. Their genomic context allowed us to develop a method for the successful identification of novel effector genes. Since our approach is not based on effector gene similarity, but on unique genomic features, it can easily be extended to identify effector genes in Fo strains with different host specificities. PMID:23432788

2013-01-01

381

Fusarium Laboratory Workshop Kansas State University, Manhatten, Kansas State, USA  

E-print Network

year, KSU hosts the Fusarium Laboratory Workshop organized by Prof John Leslie and various of his of the prairie. Another social event highlight was the pool party at the Leslie home, where lemonade and beer

382

Production of neosolaniol by Fusarium tumidum.  

PubMed

Extracts from autoclaved maize culture of Fusarium tumidum strain R-5823 were toxic towards Artemia salina. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract led to the isolation of the toxic compound that was identified as the trichothecene toxin neosolaniol (NEOS) by 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and low-resolution electronic impact mass spectrometry. The amount of NEOS produced by the strain R-5823 was 300 mg/kg maize culture. NEOS was also detected by HPLC in cultures of four out of seven additional strains of F. tumidum and Gibberella tumida with different origin, in amounts ranging from 1 to 311 mg/kg. This is the first report on the production of a trichothecene toxin by F. tumidum. PMID:7566071

Altomare, C; Ritieni, A; Perrone, G; Fogliano, V; Mannina, L; Logrieco, A

1995-06-01

383

Bioactive Dihydronaphthoquinone Derivatives from Fusarium solani.  

PubMed

New dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives, karuquinone A (1), karuquinone B (2), and karuquinone C (3), were isolated from a fungal culture broth of Fusarium solani. The structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS, and IR). Three known compounds, javanicin (4), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2,4-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-6,9-dione (5), and 5-hydroxydihydrofusarubin C (6), were also isolated. The six isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Of these, karuquinone A exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity. Karuquinone B did not affect the proliferation of the cancer cell lines but did inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC. Additionally, we demonstrated that karuquinone A induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25163667

Takemoto, Kenji; Kamisuki, Shinji; Chia, Pei Thing; Kuriyama, Isoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Fumio

2014-09-26

384

First report of diseases of Ixodia achillaeoides in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilting, yellowing, and dying plants of Ixodia achillaeoides have been observed in commercial plantings in South Australia since 1990. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that Meloidogyne sp., Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, E tabacinum, Phytophthora cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Oidium sp. and Botrytis sp. are pathogens of Ixodia. Pratylenchus sp. have been found in both the roots of stunted plants and in surrounding soil,

B. H. Hall; M. K. Jones; T. J. Wicks; G. Walker; G. Barth

1996-01-01

385

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Wheat is often infected by Fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important Fusarium toxin in Swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. However, less is known about the co-occurrence of DON and F. graminearum with other toxins and Fusarium species in Sweden. This study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in winter wheat (2009 and 2011) and spring wheat (2010 and 2011). DNA from seven species was quantified with qPCR and the toxin levels were quantified with a multitoxin analysis method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The method enabled detection of many fungal metabolites, including DON, zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), and enniatins (ENNs). It was found that Fusarium poae and Fusarium avenaceum were present in almost all samples. Other common Fusarium species were F. graminearum and F. culmorum, present in more than 70% of samples. Several species occurred at lower DNA levels in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse was true for F. graminearum and Fusarium langsethiae. The most prevalent toxins were ENNs, present in 100% of samples. DON was also common, especially in spring wheat, whereas ZEA and NIV were common in 2009 and in winter wheat, but less common in 2011 and in spring wheat. Only three samples of spring wheat contained T-2 or HT-2 above LOQ. Annual mean levels of several mycotoxins were significantly lower in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse applied for DON. The strongest correlations between mycotoxin and Fusarium DNA levels were found between F. avenaceum and ENNs (r(2) = 0.67) and MON (r(2) = 0.62), and F. graminearum and DON (r(2) = 0.74). These results show that several Fusarium species and toxins co-occur in wheat. The highest toxin levels were detected in spring wheat and DON and ENNs, the latter belonging to the group of so called "emerging toxins", which were the most prevalent toxins and those occurring at the highest levels. PMID:23962919

Lindblad, Mats; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Brjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Fredlund, Elisabeth

2013-10-15

386

Spatialtemporal patterns of Ceratocystis wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil By M. A. Ferreira1,7  

E-print Network

of resistant clones may be the only management option. 1 Introduction Ceratocystis wilt is arguably the most of South America with a broad, but highly variable, host range (Baker et al. 2003; Thorpe et al. 2005

Harrington, Thomas C.

387

The effects of fungicides and cultivar resistance on associations among Fusarium head blight, deoxynivalenol, and fungal colonization of wheat grain.  

E-print Network

??Fusarium head blight (FHB), or head scab, incited predominantly by Fusarium graminearum, causes premature senescence of wheat spikes, kernel damage, and mycotoxin (especially deoxynivalenol, [DON]) (more)

Li, Cunyu

2009-01-01

388

Transcriptional Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana during Wilt Disease Caused by the Soil-Borne Phytopathogenic Bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is a common disease that causes severe yield and quality losses in many plants. In the present study, we used the model Ralstonia solanacearum-Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem to study transcriptional changes associated with wilt disease development. Susceptible Col-5 plants and RRS1-R-containing resistant Nd-1 plants were root-inoculated with R. solanacearum strains harbouring or lacking the matching PopP2 avirulence gene. Gene

Jian Hu; Xavier Barlet; Laurent Deslandes; Judith Hirsch; Dong Xin Feng; Imre Somssich; Yves Marco

2008-01-01

389

Development of a system for quantifying the rate of spread of oak wilt using remote sensing and geographic information systems  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR QUANTIFYING THE RATE OF SPREAD OF OAR WILT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Thesis by CHARLES WILLIAM WARE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Forestry DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR QUANTIFYING THE RATE OF SPREAD OF OAK WILT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPE1C INFORMATION SYSTEMS A Thesis...

Ware, Charles William

2012-06-07

390

Identification and characterization of a highly variable region in mitochondrial genomes of fusarium species and analysis of power generation from microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) project, power generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was analyzed looking for a novel system for both energy generation and sustainability. The results suggest the possibility of generating electricity from different organic substances, which include agricultural and industrial by-products. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates usable electrons at 30C using both submerged and solid state cultures. In the MFC biocathode experiment, most of the CO2 generated at the anodic chamber was converted into bicarbonate due the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the Gluconobacter sp.33 strain. These findings demonstrate the possibility of generation of electricity while at the same time allowing the biomimetic sequestration of CO2 using bacterial CA. In the mitochondrial genomes project, the filamentous fungal species Fusarium oxysporum was used as a model. This species causes wilt of several important agricultural crops. A previous study revealed that a highly variable region (HVR) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three species of Fusarium contained a large, variable unidentified open reading frame (LV-uORF). Using specific primers for two regions of the LV-uORF, six strains were found to contain the ORF by PCR and database searches identified 18 other strains outside of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The LV-uORF was also identified in three isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex. Interestingly, several F. oxysporum isolates lack the LV-uORF and instead contain 13 ORFs in the HVR, nine of which are unidentified. The high GC content and codon usage of the LV-uORF indicate that it did not co-evolve with other mt genes and was horizontally acquired and was introduced to the Fusarium lineage prior to speciation. The nonsynonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) ratio of the LV-uORFs (0.43) suggests it is under purifying selection and the putative polypeptide is predicted to be located in the mitochondrial membrane. Growth assays indicate that F. oxysporum strains containing the LV-uORF are able to tolerate high concentrations of zinc chloride, whereas those having the alternative HVR configuration are inhibited. This work suggests that fungal mitochondria can acquire additional genes and possibly novel functions and will guide studies that aim to assess the functional roles of hypothetical mitochondrial ORFs in filamentous fungi.

Hamzah, Haider Mousa

391

Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheat.  

PubMed

Crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases affecting wheat in many areas of the world, including Australia, USA, and Iran. Until now, there had been no report of this pathogen in Iraq. Plants displaying crown rot symptoms were observed in Shaat Alarab (Basra, Iraq); we investigated the causal agent of the disease. Samples were surface-sterilized in bleach (1% available chlorine) and cultured on quarter-strength potato dextrose agar plates. DNA was extracted from fungal mycelia, using a modified CTAB protocol. The ITS/5.8S regions were amplified using primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products