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1

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

2

Suppression of fusarium wilts by fluorescent pseudomonads: Mechanisms and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent pseudomonads are involved in the natural suppressiveness of some soils to fusarium wilts. These bacteria have been applied successfully to suppress fusarium wilts of various plant species grown in conducive soils and growing substrates. Suppression of fusarium wilts by fluorescent pseudomonads can be ascribed to direct and indirect effects against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum. Direct effects are expressed by a

P. Lemanceau; C. Alabouvette

1993-01-01

3

Genetic variability of Fusarium wilt pathogen isolates of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) assessed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variability among 43 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, the chickpea wilt pathogen, collected from nine states of India including the four well-characterized races of the pathogen were assessed using the molecular markers, RAPDs and AFLP. Principal coordinate analysis of the similarity index data generated from the molecular marker studies mostly gave three different clusters: Of these two clusters represented race-1 and race-2, and the third cluster consisted of race-3 and race-4 pathogen isolates. In RAPDs a fourth cluster was seen which did not go with any of the four races of the pathogen. The molecular markers established the distinctness of race-1 and race-2 pathogen isolates and the close similarity of pathogen isolates of race-3 with that of race-4. AFLP was found to be more informative as it differentiated more number of the pathogen isolates with the known races with minimum of outliers. The high levels of DNA polymorphism observed with the molecular markers suggest the rapid evolution of new recombinants of the pathogen in the chickpea growing fields. PMID:12617504

Sivaramakrishnan, S; Kannan, Seetha; Singh, S D

2002-01-01

4

Role of fusaric acid in the virulence of cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid is a potent phytotoxin to cotton. It has also long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fusarium wilt for a number of plant species including cotton, tomato, watermelon, and flax. The Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) produce copious amount of ...

5

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

6

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR).  

PubMed

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10(-6) dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies. PMID:23961219

Mishra, Rupesh K; Pandey, Brajesh K; Muthukumar, M; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-11-10

7

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR)  

PubMed Central

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10?6 dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies.

Mishra, Rupesh K.; Pandey, Brajesh K.; Muthukumar, M.; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

8

Integrated management strategies for tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria ?PGPR? such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

9

SCREENING OF CHICKPEA GERMPLASM AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 414 varieties\\/germplasm accessions originating from Pulses Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, NIAB, Faisalabad, BARI, Chakwal, AZRI, Bhakkar, NARC, Islamabad and ICARDA, Syria were evaluated for fusarium wilt. These were planted in a wilt sick plot developed at Pulses Research Institute, Faisalabad during the year 2002-03 and 2003-04. Each entry was sown in a single 3 meter long and

Munir Ahmad Chaudhry; Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Afzal

10

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent

Sylvie Mazurier; Thérèse Corberand; Philippe Lemanceau; Jos M Raaijmakers

2009-01-01

11

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of spinach with compost amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different organic composts on the suppression of wilt disease of spinach caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae was evaluated in a continuous cropping system in both containers and in microplot field trials. Test soils infested with\\u000a the pathogen were amended with wheatbran, wheatbran and sawdust, coffee grounds, chicken manure, or mixture of different composts\\u000a with and

Gina M. Edurise Escuadra; Yoshimiki Amemiya

2008-01-01

12

Incidence of Fusarium wilt in Cucumis sativus  L. is promoted by cinnamic acid, an autotoxin in root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, the pathogen causing Fusarium wilt in cucumber and cinnamic acid, a principal autotoxic component in the root exudates of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), on plant growth, Photosynthesis and incidence of Fusarium wilt in cucumber were studied in order to elucidate the interaction of autotoxins and soil-borne pathogens in the soil sickness. F. oxysporum. f. sp. cucumerinum

S. F. Ye; J. Q. Yu; Y. H. Peng; J. H. Zheng; L. Y. Zou

2004-01-01

13

Bacillus subtilis SQR 9 can control Fusarium wilt in cucumber by colonizing plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is one of the major constraints on cucumber production worldwide. Several strategies have been used to control the causative\\u000a pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen, including soil solarization, fungicide seed treatment and biological control. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was successfully controlled by a newly isolated strain, Bacillus subtilis SQR 9, in

Yun Cao; Zhenhua Zhang; Ning Ling; Yujuan Yuan; Xinyan Zheng; Biao Shen; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

14

In Search of Markers Linked to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 Resistance in Watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt in watermelon, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), is responsible for severe economic losses and is one of the most important soilborne pathogens limiting watermelon production in many areas of the world. FON, which attacks the vasculature system of watermelon...

15

Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1995-01-01

16

Discovery of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] is a soil-inhabiting fungus that can survive for long periods in the absence of a host, making it impractical to eradicate from infested fields. This cotton host specific forms of the fungus is comprised of different genotyp...

17

Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , based on sequences of IGS, MAT1 , and pg1 , are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three evolutionary lineages of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found among a worldwide sample of isolates based on phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. Each lineage consisted of isolates mainly belonging to a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and a single mating type (MAT). The first lineage (A1) was

Masato Kawabe; Yumiko Kobayashi; Gen Okada; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tohru Teraoka; Tsutomu Arie

2005-01-01

18

Efficacy of azoxystrobin and other strobilurins against Fusarium wilts of carnation, cyclamen and Paris daisy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strobilurins, azoxystrobin, kresoxym-methyl and trifloxystrobin, were tested in experimental trials carried out in the growth chamber or glasshouse against Fusarium wilts of carnation (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi), cyclamen (F. oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis) and Paris daisy (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi), in comparison with benomyl and in some experiments prochloraz. The three strobilurins controlled Fusarium wilt on carnation

M. Lodovica Gullino; Andrea Minuto; Giovanna Gilardi; Angelo Garibaldi

2002-01-01

19

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana.

Huang, Y.H.; Wang, R.C.; Li, C. H.; Zuo, C.W.; Wei, Y. R.; Zhang, L.; Yi, G.J.

2012-01-01

20

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-06-22

21

Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 ?g ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 ?g ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

2011-07-21

22

A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foliar rating system was developed to assess the progress of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in seven banana cultivars differing in their resistance to race 1 of the pathogen. Plantlets were transplanted into unamended\\u000a soil naturally infested with the pathogen, soil amended with urea and soil amended with aged chicken manure. A corm

N. NasirA; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg; A. T. Lisle

2003-01-01

23

Combining Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Strains to Enhance Suppression of Fusarium Wilt of Radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by different mechanisms. Therefore, application of a mixture of these biocontrol strains, and thus of several suppressive mechanisms,

Marjan de Boer; Ientse van der Sluis; Leendert C. van Loon; Peter A. H. M. Bakker

1999-01-01

24

Commercial and improved germplasm evaluations for Fusarium wilt, FOV race 1 with root-knot nematodes and race 4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant resistance is the most economic and effective strategy for Fusarium wilt control. To implement steps to develop resistant germplasm to this pathogen, existing commercial Acala, non-Acala Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Pima (G. barbadense) cultivars, as well as improved germplasm were ...

25

Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5?×?10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:22729873

Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

2012-06-24

26

Elite-upland cotton germplasm-pool assessment of fusarium wilt (FOV) resistance in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance is currently the most economic and effective strategy for managing Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV)] disease. Over the past nine years, a new race of Fusarium (FOV race 4) has increasingly impacted cotton (Gossypium spp.) in production fields in the Sa...

27

BREEDING FOR FUSARIUM WILT (FOV) RACE 4 RESISTANCE IN COTTON.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans continues to threaten cotton production in the U.S. Several troubling developments with this pathogen (e.g., newly-recognized Australian FOV races) highlight the need for additional comprehensive research to protect our cotton industry aga...

28

Yield loss in susceptible cultivars of spring rapeseed due to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In 1999, reports of spring rapeseed plants (Brassica napus L.) exhibiting wilt symptoms were received by agricultural extension personnel from farmers near Fort Vermillion and Andrew, Alberta, Canada. Fungal colonies recovered from affected plants after surface disinfection were identified as Fusarium oxysporum by comparison of morphology on carnation leaf and potato dextrose agars with literature descriptions and reference cultures. Root-dip inoculation of young rapeseed plants with spore suspensions prepared from recovered F. oxysporum colonies resulted in rapid development of symptoms seen in the field. An initial estimate of yield loss in an affected field near Andrew was performed by removing all rapeseed plants from three 1 m2 quadrats. Each plant was evaluated according to a simple three point severity scale, and then the seed from each plant was individually threshed and weighed. Fully- and partially-wilted plants yielded 0.2 and 19.3% of asymptomatic plants, respectively. In 2000, wilt symptoms were observed at a plot research site near Ranfurly, Alberta. Disease symptoms were restricted to one B. napus cultivar, Nexera 705. A similar procedure to that used at Andrew in 1999 was applied at Ranfurly, except quadrat size was 2.5 m2, and replicated comparisons were made between Nexera 705 and an unaffected cultivar, Quantum. The average number of unaffected Quantum plants was 99.4%, while only 66.9% of Nexera 705 plants were asymptomatic. No Quantum plants were severely wilted, while 11.7% of Nexera 705 plants were wilted. Yield of Nexera 705 was 38.6% of Quantum. In 2004, the impact of fusarium wilt on yield of 6 susceptible and 9 resistant B. napus cultivars was determined at nine locations in western Canada. Cultivars were selected on the basis of survey results and agronomist's reports. Across all sites, yield of the most severely affected cultivar, 45A55, was 15.9% lower than the least severely affected cultivar 3455. At the most severely affected site, yield of the most severely affected cultivar, Bianca II, was 75.2% lower than the least severely affected cultivar, Option 501. Yield of wilt-susceptible (Canterra 1604) and resistant (Cougar CL) rapeseed was compared at a replicated large-plot (576 m2 per plot) experiment at Lavoy, Alberta in 2005. The susceptible variety was severely affected and yielded 44% of Cougar CL. PMID:18396801

Lange, R M; Gossmann, M; Büttner, C

2007-01-01

29

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases.

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

30

GENOMIC LOCATION OF THE FW GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM WILT RACE 1 IN PEAS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to fusarium wilt of peas (Pisum sativum L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 1 is conferred by a single dominant gene, Fw. The gene was located in the pea genome by analyzing progenies from crosses involving genetic markers in all pea linkage groups. Reaction of the progeni...

31

Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL, and sequencing composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance is highly effective in limiting yield loss in cotton (Gossypium spp.) from Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans]. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 1 resistance by applying molec...

32

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans)] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton bre...

33

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

34

Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

35

Sustainable Approaches for Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) is an important crop of Indian subcontinent and African countries, cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.\\u000a Fusarium wilt is one of the major yield and growth-limiting factors of pigeon pea. Along with nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, F. udum result in highly destructive wilt disease complex, which is a major constraint for the

Piyush Pandey; Abhinav Aeron; D. K. Maheshwari

36

Suppression of fusarium wilt of radish by co-inoculation of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and root-colonizing fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study, treatment of radish seed with the bacteriumPseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 suppressed fusarium wilt of radish (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) in a commercial greenhouse [Leemanet al., 1991b, 1995a]. In this greenhouse, the areas with fusarium wilt were localized or expanded very slowly, possibly due to disease suppressiveness of the soil. To study this phenomenon, fungi were isolated from

M. Leeman; F. M. Den Ouden; J. A. Van Pelt; C. Cornelissen; A. Matamala-Garros; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1996-01-01

37

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2007-06-28

38

Efficacy of bacterial antagonists and different commercial products against Fusarium wilt on rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven experimental trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the bacterial strains Achromobacter xylosoxydans AM1 and Serratia sp. DM1 obtained from suppressive soils and from soilless used rockwool substrates (Pseudomonas putida FC6B, Pseudomonas sp. FC7B, Pseudomonas putida FC8B, Pseudomonas sp. FC9B and Pseudomonas sp. FC24B) against Fusarium wilt on rocket caused by Fusarium oxysporum ff. spp. raphani and

K. Srinivasan; G. Gilardi; A. Garibaldi; M. L. Gullino

2009-01-01

39

Controlling fusarium wilt disease of cucumber plants via antagonistic microorganisms in free and immobilized states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of cucumber wilt was isolated from a diseased cucumber plant, grown under green house conditions and identified as Fusarium oxysporum.Forty isolates of exospore-forming actinomycetes and endospore-forming bacteria (twenty isolates each) were randomly isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a healthy cucumber plant. Among these isolates, 8 actinomycetes and 6 spore-forming bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic activities against Fusarium

A. M. M. Hammad; M. A. O. El-Mohandes

1999-01-01

40

Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt on Cotton by Use of Endophytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy bacterial strains isolated from internal tissues of cotton, 49 strains with known biological control activity against Rhizoctonia solani in cotton, and 25 strains known to induce systemic resistance to Collectotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, were screened for biological control potential against vascular wilt of cotton caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The strains were introduced as endophytes

C. Chen; E. M. Bauske; G. Musson; R. Rodriguezkabana; J. W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

41

Genetic and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] causes a vascular wilt disease that significantly reduces yield in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Host-plant resistance can be highly effective in limiting FOV-induced yield loss. We conducted genetic and QTL analyses of FOV race 1 resistance by ...

42

Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.  

PubMed

Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçã" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), ?-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçã." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the concentrations of H(2)O(2) on roots and pigments on leaves significantly increased. The concentrations of TSP and LTGA derivatives as well as the PALs, PPOs, POXs, GLUs, and CHIs activities significantly increased on roots of plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" from the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. Results of this study suggest that the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots of banana plants supplied with Si decreased due to an increase in the concentrations of H(2)O(2), TSP, and LTGA derivatives and greater activities of PALs, PPOs, POXs, GLUs, and CHIs. PMID:22784251

Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

2012-10-01

43

Predisposition of Broadleaf Tobacco to Fusarium Wilt by Early Infection with Globodera tabacum tabacum or Meloidogyne hapla.  

PubMed

In greenhouse experiments, broadleaf tobacco plants were inoculated with tobacco cyst (Globodera tabacum tabacum) or root-knot (Meloidogyne hapla) nematodes 3, 2, or 1 week before or at the same time as Fusarium oxysporum. Plants infected with nematodes prior to fungal inoculation had greater Fusarium wilt incidence and severity than those simultaneously inoculated. G. t. tabacum increased wilt incidence and severity more than did M. hapla. Mechanical root wounding within 1 week of F. oxysporum inoculation increased wilt severity. In field experiments, early-season G. t. tabacum control by preplant soil application of oxamyl indirectly limited the incidence and severity of wilt. Wilt incidence was 48%, 23%, and 8% in 1989 and 64%, 60%, and 19% in 1990 for 0.0, 2.2, and 6.7 kg oxamyl/ha, respectively. Early infection of tobacco by G. t. tabacum predisposed broadleaf tobacco to wilt by F. oxysporum. PMID:19283018

Lamondia, J A

1992-09-01

44

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of watermelon commonly occurs in locations where the crop has been grown for many seasons. Its occurrence results\\u000a in a severely decreased watermelon crop. The goal of this study was to assess the capability of a new product (bio-organic\\u000a fertilizer) to control the wilt in Fusarium-infested soil. Pot experiments were conducted under growth chamber and greenhouse\\u000a conditions. The

Hong-sheng Wu; Xin-ning Yang; Jia-qin Fan; Wei-guo Miao; Ning Ling; Yang-chun Xu; Qi-wei Huang; Qirong Shen

2009-01-01

45

Verticillium Wilt in Potato: Host-Pathogen Interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Verticillium wilt (VW) is a widespread disease that causes consistent yield losses in many potato growing regions worldwide. In the U.S., it is mainly caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Microsclerotia can survive in the soil for many years. When they germinate and infec...

46

Control of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici using leaf extract of Piper betle L.: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of crude chloroform extract of Piper betle L. (PbC) in controlling Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. It was observed that 1% (w\\/w) amendment of the PbC in soil was more efficient in reducing the Fusarium population in soil than carbendazim and

Irom Manoj Singha; Yelena Kakoty; Bala Gopalan Unni; Mohan Chandra Kalita; Jayshree Das; Ashok Naglot; Sawlang Borsingh Wann; Lokendra Singh

47

Assessment of Acala/Upland and Pima cottons response to Fusarium wilt disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease caused by the organism Fusarium oxysporum vas infectum (also called “FOV”) for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). This fungus is a soil-inhabiting organism. Certain forms of this pathog...

48

Effect of acetochlor treatment on Fusarium wilt and sugar content in melon seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of soil with the herbicide acetochlor at 0.1–1µg g-1 significantly decreased incidence of wilt due toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.melonis in melon seedlings. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increased in leaves of inoculated and uninoculated melon plants following acetochlor treatment. The increase in sugar levels in stems and roots was less pronounced. Light intensity affected sugar content and disease incidence. The

R. Cohen; B. Blaier; A. A. Schaffer; J. Katan

1996-01-01

49

Gene transfer via pollen-tube pathway for anti-fusarium wilt in watermelon.  

PubMed

In order to obtain transgenic fusarium wilt resistant watermelon plants, squash DNA was introduced into the ovaries of watermelon plants via the pollen-tube pathway. The introduction of foreign genes into ovaries was accomplished using co-transformation with the CaMV35S-GUS as a marker. Transformed watermelon plants contained integrated copies of the GUS activity and the seeds of transformed progeny produced a blue color when stained with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl glucuronide, whereas seeds from untransformed control plants did not. Of 200 transformed seedlings, ten were wilt resistant. The presence of the GUS activity in the genome of stable transgenic seedlings was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Furthermore, the generation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints using primers with embedded restriction sites showed amplification products unique to these transgenic plants. Primers OPA-1 and OPA-9 gave distinct band patterns of genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction. PMID:9891853

Chen, W S; Chiu, C C; Liu, H Y; Lee, T L; Cheng, J T; Lin, C C; Wu, Y J; Chang, H Y

1998-12-01

50

Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-07-18

51

Corn seedling disease, fusaric acid as the wilt toxin and the need for biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) was first discovered during the laboratory culture of Fusarium heterosporum, and was one of the first fungal metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of wilt symptoms of plants especially under adverse conditions. In addition to a primary role in plant pathoge...

52

Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic\\u000a sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length

X. Y. Zheng; D. W. Wolff; S. Baudracco-Arnas; M. Pitrat

1999-01-01

53

Mode of action of a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain against Verticillium dahliae using Real Time QPCR analysis and biomarker transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is a devastating disease of a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant hosts. It is incited by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. Management strategies are mainly focused on preventive measures. In a previous study, the efficacy of a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain, designated as F2, isolated from a suppressive compost amendment, has been reported to reduce Verticillium

Iakovos S. Pantelides; Sotirios E. Tjamos; Ioannis A. Striglis; Iordanis Chatzipavlidis; Epaminondas J. Paplomatas

2009-01-01

54

Pathogenic Fungi and Soil Conditions Causing Root Rot and Wilt Disease Complex during Acclimatization of Tissue Culture-Derived Banana Plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

hizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from banana plantlets produced via tissue culture technique showing root rot-wilt complex disease. Isolation from culture soil mixture under banana plantlets resulted in fungal isolates identical to those isolated from diseased plantlets. These isolates proved to be pathogenic to banana plants causing complex disease symptoms. In vitro test, Rizolex-T and Topsin-M at 200

M. M. Abdel-Kader; M. K. El-Bahr; Nehal S. El-Mougy

55

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-Enriched Bio-organic Fertilizer Suppressed Fusarium Wilt and Promoted the Growth of Banana Plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-10

56

PCR-RAPD profiling of Fusarium spp. causing guava wilt disease in India.  

PubMed

Wilt is a serious disease of the guava crop in India. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani have been reported as causative agents of this disease. In this study, 42 isolates each of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani, were isolated from guava cultivars and characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Thirty RAPD primers were tested in the genome of Fusarium spp. and the number of scorable bands for corresponding primer ranged from 1-8 with an average of 5 bands per individual. DNA band size ranged from 200 bp to 5090 bp. A 0.21 per cent polymorphism was found in individual isolates of F. solani indicating that the 42 isolates were similar. However, a 2.58 percent polymorphism among individual isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii showed a higher level of genetic diversity. Cluster analysis of the RAPD band patterns clearly separated the isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. psidii into three clusters. Two clusters were formed with F. solani isolates, showing a higher degree of similarity. Unique fingerprint profiles generated by the PCR-RAPD can be exploited for genetic characterization purposes. PMID:22428893

Gupta, V K

2012-01-01

57

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

2005-08-01

58

A simplified technique for grafting watermelon onto resistant cucurbit rootstocks for control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Nghe An Province, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistant cucurbit rootstocks provided an effective control measure for Fusarium wilt of watermelon caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in Nghe An province, Vietnam. The hybrid cultivar, Bulrojangsaeng (Lagenaria siceraria) was the most suitable rootstock on all criteria but the seed is expensive. Therefore, the local Bau trang cultivar (L. siceraria) was adopted by farmers as the preferred rootstock

V. T. DauA; N. V. Dang; D. H. Nguyen; L. T. Pham; T. T. M. Le; H. T. Phan; L. W. Burgess

2009-01-01

59

Verticillium wilt of potato – the pathogen, disease and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is a major disease of potato caused by either Verticillium dahliae or Verticillium albo-atrum. Both species are soilborne fungi that invade xylem elements, disrupt water transport in plants and cause vascular wilt in a variety of hosts. Despite the broad host range of V. dahliae, a degree of host adaptation occurs with some isolates exhibiting different levels of

Dennis A. Johnson; Jeremiah K. S. Dung

2010-01-01

60

Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were isolated from wilted chickpea plants obtained from different districts and ‘wilt sickplots’ of central Ethiopia to assess variability in pathogenecity of the populations. Each isolate was tested on 10 different chickpea lines and eight improved chickpea varieties. Isolates showed highly significant variation in wilt severity on the differential lines and improved

Meki Shehabu; Seid Ahmed; Parshotam K. Sakhuja

2008-01-01

61

The lateral organ boundaries domain transcription factor LBD20 functions in Fusarium wilt Susceptibility and jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling. PMID:22786889

Thatcher, Louise F; Powell, Jonathan J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-07-10

62

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.  

PubMed

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutum × G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense × G. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19 % of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

2013-03-08

63

Arabidopsis is susceptible to the cereal ear blight fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum cause ear blight disease on cereal crops worldwide. The disease lowers both grain quality and grain safety. Disease prevalence is increasing due to changes in cropping practices and the difficulties encountered by plant breeders when trying to introgress the polygene-based resistance. The molecular basis of resistance to Fusarium ear blight in cereal species is poorly understood. This is primarily due to the large size of cereal genomes and the expensive resources required to undertake gene function studies in cereals. We therefore explored the possibility of developing various model floral infection systems that would be more amenable to experimental manipulation and high-throughput gene function studies. The floral tissues of tobacco, tomato, soybean and Arabidopsis were inoculated with Fusarium conidia and this resulted in disease symptoms on anthers, anther filaments and petals in each plant species. However, only in Arabidopsis did this initial infection then spread into the developing siliques and seeds. A survey of 236 Arabidopsis ecotypes failed to identify a single genotype that was extremely resistant or susceptible to Fusarium floral infections. Three Arabidopsis floral mutants that failed to develop anthers and/or functional pollen (i.e. agamous-1, apetala1-3 and dad1) were significantly less susceptible to Fusarium floral infection than wild type. Deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin production was also detected in Fusarium-infected flowers at >1 ppm. This novel floral pathosystem for Arabidopsis appears to be highly representative of a serious cereal crop disease. PMID:12492838

Urban, Martin; Daniels, Steve; Mott, Ellie; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

2002-12-01

64

Verticillium Wilt in Potato: Host-Pathogen Interactions and Breeding for Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Verticillium wilt (VW) is a widespread disease that causes consistent yield losses in many potato growing regions worldwide. In the U.S., it is mainly caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Microsclerotia can survive in the soil for many years. When they germinate and infe...

65

Biosynthesis of fusaric acid by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genetically unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen was first recognized in wilted and dead Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings in Australia in 1993. Since that time, the disease has spread rapidly with losses greater than 90 percent in some Australian fields where it was first disc...

66

Characterization of fusarium wilt-resistant and fusarium wilt-susceptible somaclones of banana cultivar rastali ( Musa AAB) by random amplified polymorphic DNA and retrotransposon markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two DNA fingerprinting techniques, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism\\u000a (IRAP), were used to characterize somaclonal variants of banana. IRAP primers were designed on the basis of repetitive and\\u000a genome-wide dispersed long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon families for assessing the somaclonal variation in 2Musa clones resistant and susceptible toFusarium oxysporum f. sp.cubense race 4. RAPD markers successfully

Asif Javed Muhammad; Fofina Yasmin Othman

2005-01-01

67

Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal

Siddhesh B. Ghag; Upendra K. Singh Shekhawat; Thumballi R. Ganapathi

2012-01-01

68

Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

2011-05-06

69

Predominance and association of pathogenic fungi causing Fusarium ear blightin wheat in four European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of field sampling aimed to establish the predominance and association among the fungal pathogens causing Fusarium ear blight (FEB) in four European countries (Hungary, Ireland, Italy and the UK). A PCR-based method was used to detect four Fusarium species and two varieties of Microdochium nivale present in the samples. The prevalence of FEB pathogens differed significantly between countries.

X.-M. Xu; D. W. Parry; P. Nicholson; M. A. Thomsett; D. Simpson; S. G. Edwards; B. M. Cooke; F. M. Doohan; J. M. Brennan; A. Moretti; G. Tocco; G. Mule; L. Hornok; G. Giczey; J. Tatnell

2005-01-01

70

Laboratory Preparation of a New Antifungal Agent from Streptomyces olivaceus in Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis of Cucurbits in Greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In greenhouse cucurbits of Kerman Province, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyder and Hansen) causes root rot and fusarium wilt. To investigate for new biofungicides, antagonistic activity of soil Actinomycetes isolates were assayed against the pathogen from which Streptomyces olivaceus strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The active strain was grown in aqueous

G. H. Shahidi Bonjar; P. Rashid Farrokhi; Shafii Bafti; S. Aghighi; M. J. Mahdavi; A. Aghelizadeh

2006-01-01

71

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20–35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran.

Chehri, K.; Salleh, B.; Yli-Mattila, T.; Reddy, K.R.N.; Abbasi, S.

2011-01-01

72

Development and evaluation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae, causal agent of spinach Fusarium wilt, is an important soilborne pathogen in many areas of the world where spinach is grown. The pathogen is persistent in acid soils of maritime western Oregon and Washington, the only region of the USA suitable for commercial spi...

73

Occurrence, pathogenicity and distribution of Fusarium spp. in stored wheat seeds Kermanshah Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Fusarium is one of the most important pathogenic and toxigenic fungi widely distributed all over the world, including Iran. Fusarium species are found frequently in stored agriculture products especially wheat. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with stored wheat seeds and their pathogenicity on root and head of wheat in Kermanshah, the leading province in wheat production in Iran. In this survey 75 seed samples of stored wheat were collected from 10 different regions during 2006-2008 and tested for the presence of Fusarium. Fusarium spp. were found in 51 (68%) of 75 samples. A total of 580 Fusarium strains were isolated, identified and preserved. All these strains belong to 20 Fusarium spp. according to morphological characters. Each conidial suspension of selected strains representing all species was evaluated for their pathogenicity on roots and spikes of healthy wheat var. Fallat in the greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were the most pathogenic to wheat's head. Foot rot assessment revealed that F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum were the most damaging species. Of the Fusarium isolates, F. graminearum was the most prevalent followed by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. This is the first comprehensive report on identity and distribution of Fusarium spp. from stored wheat seeds in Iran while F. nelsonii was reported for the first time from wheat seeds in Iran. PMID:21313898

Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Soleimani, M J; Yousefi, A R

2010-12-15

74

Transposon-tagging identifies novel pathogenicity genes in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

With the increase of sequenced fungal genomes, high-throughput methods for functional analyses of genes are needed. We assessed the potential of a new transposon mutagenesis tool deploying a Fusarium oxysporum miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1, mobilized by the transposase of impala, a Tc1-like transposon, to obtain knock-out mutants in Fusarium graminearum. We localized 91 mimp1 insertions which showed good distribution over the entire genome. The main exception was a major hotspot on chromosome 2 where independent insertions occurred at exactly the same nucleotide position. Furthermore insertions in promoter regions were over-represented. Screening 331 mutants for sexual development, radial growth and pathogenicity on wheat resulted in 19 mutants (5.7%) with altered phenotypes. Complementation with the original gene restored the wild-type phenotype in two selected mutants demonstrating the high tagging efficiency. This is the first report of a MITE transposon tagging system as an efficient mutagenesis tool in F. graminearum. PMID:18926918

Dufresne, Marie; van der Lee, Theo; Ben M'barek, Sarrah; Xu, Xiude; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Taiguo; Waalwijk, Cees; Zhang, Wenwei; Kema, Gert H J; Daboussi, Marie-Josée

2008-09-23

75

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain Transcription Factor LBD20 Functions in Fusarium Wilt Susceptibility and Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling.

Thatcher, Louise F.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Aitken, Elizabeth A.B.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2012-01-01

76

Influence of Climatic Factors on Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of small-grain cereals, ear rot of maize, seedling blight and foot rot of cereals are important diseases throughout the world. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale (formerly known as F. nivale) predominantly cause Fusarium diseases of small-grain cereals. Maize is predominantly attacked by F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans.

F. M. Doohan; J. Brennan; B. M. Cooke

2003-01-01

77

Studies on in vitro Growth and Pathogenicity of European Fusarium Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature on the in vitro growth rates and pathogenicity of a European Fusarium collection consisting of isolates of Fusarium graminearum,F. culmorum,F. avenaceum, F. poae and Microdochium nivale was examined. Irrespective of geographic origin, the optimum temperature for the growth of F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. poae was 25 °C, while that for F. avenaceum and M.

J. M. Brennan; B. Fagan; A. van Maanen; B. M. Cooke; F. M. Doohan

2003-01-01

78

Auxin signaling and transport promote susceptibility to the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Currently, very little is known about the molecular or physiological processes that are activated in the host during infection and the roles these processes play in resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression profiles of F. oxysporum-infected Arabidopsis plants. Genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis as well as jasmonate-dependent defense were coordinately induced by F. oxysporum. Similarly, tryptophan pathway genes, including those involved in both indole-glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis, were upregulated in both the leaves and the roots of inoculated plants. Analysis of plants expressing the DR5:GUS construct suggested that root auxin homeostasis was altered during F. oxysporum infection. However, Arabidopsis mutants with altered auxin and tryptophan-derived metabolites such as indole-glucosinolates and camalexin did not show an altered resistance to this pathogen. In contrast, several auxin-signaling mutants were more resistant to F. oxysporum. Chemical or genetic alteration of polar auxin transport also conferred increased pathogen resistance. Our results suggest that, similarly to many other pathogenic and nonpathogenic or beneficial soil organisms, F. oxysporum requires components of auxin signaling and transport to colonize the plant more effectively. Potential mechanisms of auxin signaling and transport-mediated F. oxysporum susceptibility are discussed. PMID:21281113

Kidd, Brendan N; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Dombrecht, Bruno; Tekeoglu, Mücella; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Schenk, Peer M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2011-06-01

79

Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium–mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

2012-01-01

80

Biological, physiological and pathogenic variation in a genetically homogenous population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana and is divided into three races and 21 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs).\\u000a Within a VCG, Foc proved to be genetically homogenous. Previous studies on phenotypic characteristics were performed with isolates that represented\\u000a different races and VCGs from different banana-producing countries. The aim of this study was

S. Groenewald; N. van den Berg; W. F. O. Marasas; A. Viljoen

2006-01-01

81

Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP,

Lihua Chen; Xingming Yang; Waseem Raza; Jia Luo; Fengge Zhang; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

82

Screening of Resistance Genes to Fusarium Root Rot and Fusarium wilt Diseases in F3 family Lines of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using RAPD and CAPs Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium diseases constitute most of the loss in tomato production worldwide, because it spread on all geographic fields that it is so hard to find a place without Fusarium infestation. Thus, the best way to produce tomato is developing resistant cultivars against Fusarium species. In cultivar developing, molecular marker assisted techniques replaced traditional breeding techniques which are high cost and

Cengiz Akkale; Bahattin Tanyolaç

83

Pathogenicity and real-time PCR detection of Fusarium spp. in wheat and barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of five Fusarium spp. frequently isolated from wheat and barley roots in southern Idaho was investigated during four growth-chamber experiments and two field studies. A real-time PCR assay for quantifying the presence of F. culmorum from infected root tissue was also developed based on nucleotide sequence for the tri5 gene. Fusarium culmorum, followed by F. acuminatum and F.

Carl A. Strausbaugh; Ken Overturf; Anita C. Koehn

2005-01-01

84

Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.  

PubMed

Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

2010-06-15

85

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

86

Pseudomonads: major antagonistic endophytic bacteria to suppress bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum in the eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria of eggplant, cucumber and groundnut were isolated from different locations of Goa, India. Based on in vitro\\u000a screening, 28 bacterial isolates which effectively inhibited Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial wilt pathogen of the eggplant were characterized and identified. More than 50% of these isolates were Pseudomonas fluorescens in which a vast degree of variability was found to exist when biochemical

R. Ramesh; A. A. Joshi; M. P. Ghanekar

2009-01-01

87

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

88

Chemotaxis Is Required for Virulence and Competitive Fitness of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

Ralstonia solanacearum, a soilborne plant pathogen of considerable economic importance, invades host plant roots from the soil. Qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays revealed that this bacterium is specifically attracted to diverse amino acids and organic acids, and especially to root exudates from the host plant tomato. Exudates from rice, a nonhost plant, were less attractive. Eight different strains from this heterogeneous species complex varied significantly in their attraction to a panel of carbohydrate stimuli, raising the possibility that chemotactic responses may be differentially selected traits that confer adaptation to various hosts or ecological conditions. Previous studies found that an aflagellate mutant lacking swimming motility is significantly reduced in virulence, but the role of directed motility mediated by the chemotaxis system was not known. Two site-directed R. solanacearum mutants lacking either CheA or CheW, which are core chemotaxis signal transduction proteins, were completely nonchemotactic but retained normal swimming motility. In biologically realistic soil soak virulence assays on tomato plants, both nonchemotactic mutants had significantly reduced virulence indistinguishable from that of a nonmotile mutant, demonstrating that directed motility, not simply random motion, is required for full virulence. In contrast, nontactic strains were as virulent as the wild-type strain was when bacteria were introduced directly into the plant stem through a cut petiole, indicating that taxis makes its contribution to virulence in the early stages of host invasion and colonization. When inoculated individually by soaking the soil, both nontactic mutants reached the same population sizes as the wild type did in the stems of tomato plants just beginning to wilt. However, when tomato plants were coinoculated with a 1:1 mixture of a nontactic mutant and its wild-type parent, the wild-type strain outcompeted both nontactic mutants by 100-fold. Together, these results indicate that chemotaxis is an important trait for virulence and pathogenic fitness in this plant pathogen.

Yao, Jian; Allen, Caitilyn

2006-01-01

89

Functional genomic studies of pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum is a disease of wheat and barley that occurs worldwide and that has great impact on U.S. agriculture and society. Infested cereals are often contaminated with trichothecene and estrogenic mycotoxins. To better understand fungal pathogenesis and deve...

90

BIOLOGICAL, PATHOGENIC, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM SOLANI F. SP. GLYCINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG). Over the last 5 years an internationsl collection of FSG isolates has been established and maintained at the National Soybean Pathogen Collection Center. FSG isolates grew slowly and appeared reddish light blue t...

91

GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION BETWEEN FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM AND WHEAT DURING EARLY STAGES OF DISEASE DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum strains responsible for causing the plant disease Fusarium head blight vary greatly in their ability to cause disease and produce mycotoxins on wheat. With the goal of understanding fungal gene expression related to pathogenicity, three cDNA libraries were created by suppression...

92

Genomic analysis of host-pathogen interaction between Fusarium graminearum and wheat during early stages of disease development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum strains responsible for causing the plant disease Fusarium head blight vary greatly in their ability to cause disease and produce mycotoxins on wheat. With the goal of understanding fungal gene expression related to pathogenicity, three cDNA libraries were created by suppression subtractive hybridization using wheat heads inoculated with a highly aggressive strain and either water or a less

Rubella S. Goswami; Jin-Rong Xu; Frances Trail; Karen Hilburn; H. Corby Kistler

2006-01-01

93

The Fusarium graminearum MAP1 gene is essential for pathogenicity and development of perithecia.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of ear blight disease of cereals. Infection occurs at anthesis when ascospores and/or conidia directly penetrate exposed anther and ovary tissue. The hemibiotrophic hyphae colonize floral tissues and developing grains to cause premature ear senescence. During infection, Fusarium hyphae can also produce hazardous trichothecene mycotoxins, thereby posing a threat to human and animal health and safety. The Fusarium MAP1 gene was identified using a PCR approach by its homology to a known pathogenicity gene of Magnaporthe grisea, the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene PMK1. Gene replacement F. graminearum map1 mutants were non-pathogenic on wheat flowers and roots, and also could not infect wounded wheat floral tissue or tomato fruits. Unlike the wild-type strain, map1 mutant inoculations did not compromise grain yield. Map1 mutants lost their ability to form perithecia in vitro, but their rate of asexual conidiation was unaffected. DON mycotoxin production in planta was still detected. Collectively, the observed phenotypes suggest that the Map1 signalling protein controls multiple events in disease establishment and propagation. Novel approaches to control Fusarium ear blight disease by blocking perithecial development are discussed. PMID:20569395

Urban, Martin; Mott, Ellie; Farley, Tom; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

2003-09-01

94

Hairpin Plasmids from the Plant Pathogenic Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the biology of the hairpin plasmids from the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. R. solani\\u000a linear plasmid is single-stranded with covalently closed hairpin loops at each end. F. oxysporum\\u000a plasmid, however, has a clothespin structure, which includes a terminal hairpin and noncovalently\\u000a linked ends at the other terminus. We present the nucleotide sequence of the hairpin

Teruyoshi Hashiba; Atsushi Nagasaka

95

Fusarium nygamai.A causal agent of root rot of Vicia faba L. in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Wilted and rotted plants of Vicia faba were received from different localities in the Sudan. Among several Fusarium spp., Fusarium nygamai was recovered. Conspicuous symptoms were among others black root rot, associated with rot and death of the lateral root system. Severely infected plants showed black neck canker at soil level. These symptoms were usually accompanied by loss of the leaves' turgor, these then turned brown and died. Death of intact leaves also occurred. Most of the strains proved to be pathogenic to Vicia faba. Disease intensity varied between 28-100%. This is the first report of Fusarium nygamai as a pathogen of Vicia faba. PMID:12701431

Kurmut, A M; Nirenberg, H I; Bochow, H; Büttner, C

2002-01-01

96

Somaclonal variant UCT3: the expression of Fusarium wilt resistance in progeny arrays of celery, Apium graveolens L  

Microsoft Academic Search

First generation (S1) progeny, second generation (S2) progeny, and backcross (BC) progeny of a celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) somaclonal variant, UC-T3, were evaluated for resistance to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. apii, race 2 (FOA2). Chisquare analysis of S1 progeny showed that the expression of resistance did not fit a single-locus model. S2 progeny means were similar

S. Heath-Pagliuso; L. Rappaport

1990-01-01

97

The grafting of triploid watermelon is an advantageous alternative to soil fumigation by methyl bromide for control of Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield and fruit characteristics of grafted plants of the ‘Reina de Corazones’ watermelon cultivar (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai), grown in Fusarium-infestated soils, were determined in a series of experiments performed in the 8-year period 1993–2000. The experiments were performed in the coastal area south Valencia, Spain, in soils with a clay content ranging from 16 to 38%. Plant

A. Miguel; J. V. Maroto; A. San Bautista; C. Baixauli; V. Cebolla; B. Pascual; S. López; J. L. Guardiola

2004-01-01

98

A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on populations from Kabuli x Desi crosses: location of genes for resistance to fusarium wilt race 0.  

PubMed

Two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from intraspecific crosses with a common parental line (JG62) were employed to develop a chickpea genetic map. Molecular markers, flower colour, double podding, seed coat thickness and resistance to fusarium wilt race 0 (FOC-0) were included in the study. Joint segregation analysis involved a total of 160 markers and 159 RILs. Ten linkage groups (LGs) were obtained that included morphological markers and 134 molecular markers (3 ISSRs, 13 STMSs and 118 RAPDs). Flower colour (B/b) and seed coat thickness (Tt/tt) appeared to be linked to STMS (GAA47). The single-/double-podding locus was located on LG9 jointly with two RAPD markers and STMS TA80. LG3 included a gene for resistance to FOC-0 (Foc0(1)/foc0(1)) flanked by RAPD marker OPJ20(600) and STMS marker TR59. The association of this LG with FOC-0 resistance was confirmed by QTL analysis in the CA2139 x JG62 RIL population where two genes were involved in the resistance reaction. The STMS markers enabled comparison of LGs with preceding maps. PMID:15806343

Cobos, M J; Fernández, M J; Rubio, J; Kharrat, M; Moreno, M T; Gil, J; Millán, T

2005-04-02

99

Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. Treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived 'Novaria' banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (10(8) cfu/ml), significantly (P < 0.05) reduced wilt severity when the plantlets were inoculated with 10(4) spores/ml Foc race 4. The final disease severity index for leaf symptom (LSI) and rhizome discoloration (RDI) was reduced about 47 and 53%, respectively, in strain g10-treated plantlets compared to untreated plantlets. Reduction in disease incidence was not significant (P < 0.05) when plantlets were inoculated with a higher concentration (10(6) spores/ml) of Foc race 4. Rhizosphere population of strain g10 showed significant (P = 0.05) increase of more than 2-fold at the end of the 3rd week compared to the 2nd week after soil amendment with the antagonist. Although the level dropped, the rhizosphere population at the end of the 6th week was still nearly 2-fold higher than the level detected after 2 weeks. In contrast, the root-free population declined significantly (P = 0.05), nearly 4-fold after 6 weeks when compared to the level detected after 2 weeks. Neither growth-inhibiting nor growth-stimulating effects were observed in plantlets grown in strain g10-amended soil. PMID:15650871

Getha, K; Vikineswary, S; Wong, W H; Seki, T; Ward, A; Goodfellow, M

2005-01-14

100

Impact of Transgenic Bt Maize Residues on the Mycotoxigenic Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. We assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin de- oxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Purified Cry1Ab protein caused no

Andreas Naef; Thierry Zesiger; Genevieve Defago

2006-01-01

101

The transcription factor FgStuAp influences spore development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is an important plant-pathogenic fungus and the major cause of cereal head blight. Here, we report the functional analysis of FgStuA, the gene for a transcription factor with homology to key developmental regulators in fungi. The deletion mutant was greatly reduced in pathogenic...

102

Night-time spore deposition of the fusarium head blight pathogen, Gibberella zeae, in rotational wheat fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fungal plant pathogens rely on atmospheric motion systems for transport. The movement of these pathogens in the atmosphere is characterized by processes of liberation, drift, and deposition. We observed temporal patterns of viable spore deposition of Gibberella zeae, causal agent of fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, over rotational wheat fields (with no visible residues of corn or wheat,

David G. Schmale III; Gary C. Bergstrom; Elson J. Shields

2006-01-01

103

Use of ELISA and GUS?transformed strains to study competition between pathogenic and non?pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum for root colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the ability of different strains of Fusarium oxysporum to colonize roots, and to analyze competition for root colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum, it was necessary to develop specific labelling techniques for quantification of root colonization. Two methods were selected: the production of polyclonal antibodies, and the use of GUS?transformed strains of F. oxysporum. The

A. Eparvier; C. Alabouvette

1994-01-01

104

Microbiological and Sybr® Green real-time PCR detection of major Fusarium head blight pathogens on wheat ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by several Fusarium species is one of the most serious diseases affecting wheat throughout the world. The efficiency of microbiological assays\\u000a and real-time PCR to quantify major FHB pathogens in wheat ears after inoculation with F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae under greenhouse and field conditions were evaluated. The frequency of infected

M. Moradi; E.-C. Oerke; U. Steiner; D. Tesfaye; K. Schellander; H.-W. Dehne

2010-01-01

105

Generation and characterization of reduced virulence Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici mutants through plasmid-vector insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity-impaired mutants, B02 and H15, of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycorpersici (FOL) were obtained using restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Disease severities of Fusarium wilt caused by these mutants were significantly reduced, and their disease development rates were correlated with their colonization rates in tomato vessels. Both B02 and H15 produced significantly smaller amounts of extracellular proteins as well as fusaric acid

Koji Morita; Soichiro Kimura; Masanori Saito; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Toshiyuki Usami; Yoshimiki Amemiya; Masahiro Shishido

2005-01-01

106

Fusarium Pathogenomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed compartmentalization of genomes into regions responsible for metabolism and reproduction (core genome) and p...

107

Use of molecular markers to compare Fusarium verticillioides pathogenic strains isolated from plants and humans.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of agriculturally important crops, especially maize. It is considered one of the most important pathogens responsible for fumonisin contamination of food products, which causes severe, chronic, and acute intoxication in humans and animals. Moreover, it is recognized as a cause of localized infections in immunocompetent patients and disseminated infections among severely immunosuppressed patients. Several molecular tools have been used to analyze the intraspecific variability of fungi. The objective of this study was to use molecular markers to compare pathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides and isolates of the same species obtained from clinical samples of patients with Fusarium mycoses. The molecular markers that we used were inter-simple sequence repeat markers (primers GTG5 and GACA4), intron splice site primer (primer EI1), random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (primer OPW-6), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from rDNA. From the data obtained, clusters were generated based on the UPGMA clustering method. The amplification products obtained using primers ITS4 and ITS5 and loci ITS1-5.8-ITS2 of the rDNA yielded fragments of approximately 600 bp for all the isolates. Digestion of the ITS region fragment using restriction enzymes such as EcoRI, DraI, BshI, AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, MspI, and PstI did not permit differentiation among pathogenic and clinical isolates. The inter-simple sequence repeat, intron splice site primer, and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers presented high genetic homogeneity among clinical isolates in contrast to the high variability found among the phytopathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides. PMID:24065642

Chang, S C; Macêdo, D P C; Souza-Motta, C M; Oliveira, N T

2013-08-12

108

Fusarium azukicola sp. nov., an exotic azuki bean root-rot pathogen in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

We report on the phenotypic, molecular phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel azuki bean (Vigna angularis) root-rot (BRR) pathogen from Hokkaido, Japan, which formally is described herein as Fusarium azukicola. This species can be distinguished phenotypically from the other Phaseolus/Vigna BRR and soybean sudden-death syndrome (SDS) pathogens by the production of wider and longer four-septate conidia cultured on SNA. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of four anonymous intergenic loci, a portion of the translation elongation factor (EF-1?) gene and the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) strongly support the genealogical exclusivity of F. azukicola with respect to the other soybean SDS and BRR pathogens within Clade 2 of the F. solani species complex (FSSC). Evolutionary relationships of F. azukicola to other members of the SDS-BRR clade, however, are unresolved by phylogenetic analyses of the individual and combined datasets, with the exception of the IGS rDNA partition, which strongly supports it as a sister of the soybean SDS pathogen F. brasiliense. A multilocus genotyping assay is updated to include primer probes that successfully distinguish F. azukicola from the other soybean SDS and BRR pathogens. Results of a pathogenicity experiment reveal that the F. azukicola isolates are able to induce root-rot symptoms on azuki bean, mung bean (Vigna radiata), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), as well as typical SDS foliar symptoms on soybean. Our hypothesis is that F. azukicola evolved in South America and was introduced to Hokkaido, Japan, on azuki bean but its possible route of introduction remains unknown. PMID:22492403

Aoki, Takayuki; Tanaka, Fumio; Suga, Haruhisa; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Scandiani, María Mercedes; O'Donnell, Kerry

2012-04-09

109

Gene expression profile of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum under the antagonistic effect of Pantoea agglomerans.  

PubMed

The pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is an ongoing threat to agriculture, causing losses in grain yield and quality in diverse crops. Substantial progress has been made in the identification of genes involved in the suppression of phytopathogens by antagonistic microorganisms; however, limited information regarding responses of plant pathogens to these biocontrol agents is available. Gene expression analysis was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts of the fungal plant pathogen F. graminearum under antagonistic effect of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. A macroarray was constructed, using 1014 transcripts from an F. graminearum cDNA library. Probes consisted of the cDNA of F. graminearum grown in the presence and in the absence of P. agglomerans. Twenty-nine genes were either up (19) or down (10) regulated during interaction with the antagonist bacterium. Genes encoding proteins associated with fungal defense and/or virulence or with nutritional and oxidative stress responses were induced. The repressed genes coded for a zinc finger protein associated with cell division, proteins containing cellular signaling domains, respiratory chain proteins, and chaperone-type proteins. These data give molecular and biochemical evidence of response of F. graminearum to an antagonist and could help develop effective biocontrol procedures for pathogenic plant fungi. PMID:20623455

Pandolfi, V; Jorge, E C; Melo, C M R; Albuquerque, A C S; Carrer, H

2010-07-06

110

Fungicides and some biological controller agents effects on the growth of fusarium oxysporum causing paprika wilt: Wirkung von fungiziden und einigen biologischen kontrollwirkstoffen auf das wachstum des paprikawelke verursachenden fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from both healthy and diseased paprika roots were tested to identify their mycoflora. Thirty-one species belonging to 16 genera were collected from rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples. The most frequently isolated fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium jensenii and Trichoderma harzianum. Fusarium oxysporum was the most common Fusarium species in the rhizoplane samples of

Youssuf Amh Gherbawy; Manal Yaser

2003-01-01

111

The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

SciTech Connect

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

2007-09-07

112

The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization.  

PubMed

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts. PMID:17823352

Cuomo, Christina A; Güldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin-Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, B Gillian; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D; Ma, Li-Jun; Baker, Scott E; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh-Long; Decaprio, David; Gale, Liane R; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harris, Linda J; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Münsterkötter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Thérèse; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M Isabel G; Seong, Kye-Yong; Tetko, Igor V; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W; Kistler, H Corby

2007-09-01

113

FGDB: a comprehensive fungal genome resource on the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

The MIPS Fusarium graminearum Genome Database (FGDB) is a comprehensive genome database on one of the most devastating fungal plant pathogens of wheat and barley. FGDB provides information on two gene sets independently derived by automated annotation of the F.graminearum genome sequence. A complete manually revised gene set will be completed within the near future. The initial results of systematic manual correction of gene calls are already part of the current gene set. The database can be accessed to retrieve information from bioinformatics analyses and functional classifications of the proteins. The data are also organized in the well established MIPS catalogs and novel query techniques are available to search the data. The comprehensive set of gene calls was also used for the design of an Affymetrix GeneChip. The resource is accessible on .

Guldener, Ulrich; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Munsterkotter, Martin; Haase, Dirk; Oesterheld, Matthias; Stumpflen, Volker; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Adam, Gerhard

2006-01-01

114

Characterization of Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from maize in Italy: fumonisin production, pathogenicity and genetic variability.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is the main fungal agent of ear and kernel rot of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, including Italy. F.verticillioides is a highly toxigenic species since it is able to produce the carcinogenic mycotoxins fumonisins. In this study, 25 F. verticillioides strains, isolated from maize in different regions of Italy were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisins, their pathogenicity and their genetic variability. A further referenced strain of G. moniliformis isolated from maize in USA was also used as outgroup. The fumonisins B?, B?, and B? were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by symptom observation and determination of growth parameters after inoculation of maize seeds, seedlings and wounded detached leaves. Total genomic DNA was used for Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. About 20% of the analyzed strains were unable to produce fumonisins in in vitro experiments on inoculated maize flour, while, among fumonisin producers, a great variability was observed, with values ranging from 1 to 115 mg kg?¹. The different analyzed strains showed a wide range of pathogenicity in terms of effect on seed germination, seedling development and of symptoms produced on detached leaves, which were not correlated with the different in vitro fumonisin production. AFLP analysis indicated the presence of genetic diversity not only between the Italian strains and the American reference but also among the Italian isolates. PMID:22475938

Covarelli, Lorenzo; Stifano, Simonetta; Beccari, Giovanni; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Albertini, Emidio

2012-02-13

115

Chemotaxis Is Required for Virulence and Competitive Fitness of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ralstonia solanacearum, a soilborne plant pathogen of considerable economic importance, invades host plant roots from the soil. Qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays revealed that this bacterium is specifically attracted to diverse amino acids and organic acids, and especially to root exudates from the host plant tomato. Exudates from rice, a nonhost plant, were less attractive. Eight different strains from this

Jian Yao; Caitilyn Allen

2006-01-01

116

Entomogenous Fusarium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are known for their abundance in nature and their diverse associations with both living and dead plants and animals. Among animals Fusarium is found primarily in relationship with insects. This literature review of the past 50 years includes both non-pathogenic and pathogenic relationships between Fusarium and insects. Special attention is given to the host range, particularly between plant-

Gertrud H. Teetor-Barsch; Donald W. Roberts

1983-01-01

117

The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g.

Philipp Wiemann; Sabine Albermann; Eva-Maria Niehaus; Lena Studt; Katharina W. von Bargen; Nelson L. Brock; Hans-Ulrich Humpf; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Bettina Tudzynski

2012-01-01

118

Genomic clustering and co-regulation of transcriptional networks in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Background Genes for the production of a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites are frequently colinear. The prevalence of such gene clusters was systematically examined across the genome of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The topological structure of transcriptional networks was also examined to investigate control mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis and other processes. Results The genes associated with transcriptional processes were identified, and the genomic location of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) analyzed in conjunction with the locations of genes exhibiting similar expression patterns. Highly conserved TAPs reside in regions of chromosomes with very low or no recombination, contrasting with putative regulator genes. Co-expression group profiles were used to define positionally clustered genes and a number of members of these clusters encode proteins participating in secondary metabolism. Gene expression profiles suggest there is an abundance of condition-specific transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the promoter regions of co-expressed genes showed enrichment for conserved DNA-sequence motifs. Potential global transcription factors recognising these motifs contain distinct sets of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from those present in local regulators. Conclusions Proteins associated with basal transcriptional functions are encoded by genes enriched in regions of the genome with low recombination. Systematic searches revealed dispersed and compact clusters of co-expressed genes, often containing a transcription factor, and typically containing genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. Transcriptional networks exhibit a layered structure in which the position in the hierarchy of a regulator is closely linked to the DBD structural class.

2013-01-01

119

Microbiological and SYBR green real-time PCR detection of major Fusarium head blight pathogens on wheat ears.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by several Fusarium species is one of the most serious diseases affecting wheat throughout the world. The efficiency of microbiological assays and real-time PCRto quantify major FHB pathogens in wheat ears after inoculation with F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae undergreenhouse and field conditions were evaluated. The frequency of infected kernel, content of fungal biomass, disease severity and kernel weight were determined. To measure the fungal biomass an improved DNA extraction method and a SYBR Green real-time PCR were developed. The SYBR Green real-time PCR proved to be highly specific for individual detection of the species in a matrix including fungal and plant DNA. The effect of Fusarium infection on visible FHB severity, frequency of infected kernels and thousand-kernel mass (TKM) significantly depended on the Fusarium species/isolate. F. graminearum resulted in highest disease level, frequency of infected kernels, content of fungal biomass, and TKM reduction followed by F. culmorum, EF avenaceum and F. poae, respectively. The comparison of frequency and intensity of kernel colonization proved differences in aggressiveness and development of the fungi in the kernels. Only for F. graminearum, the most aggressive isolate, application of microbiological and real-time PCR assays gave similar results. For the other species, the intensity of kernel colonization was lower than expected from the frequency of infection. PMID:21090507

Moradi, M; Oerke, E C; Steiner, U; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Dehne, H-W

120

THE ROLE OF FUSARIUM BIODIVERSITY IN PLANT PATHOGENICITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Fusarium disease complexes of maize, wheat, and other cereal grains are biologically highly diverse. This biodiversity is believed to have a major impact on the types and levels of mycotoxins in food grains. The first dimension of complexity is at the Fusarium species level. Identification an...

121

Wilted plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this muskmelon plant has wilted from a bacterial infection, plants can wilt for other reasons and look just like this one. Plants can be over-watered and under-watered. Plants have a range of tolerance in which they can grow. Plants also have an optimum amount of water they can receive and take up. They grow best in their optimum condition.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-31

122

Control biológico del marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli en fríjol Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante la acción combinada de Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp .y Pseudomonas fluorescens Biological control of Phaseolus vulgaris bean vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli with combined Entrophospora colombiana, Trichoderma sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrophospora colombiana, Trichodermasp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and a combination of these organisms were evaluated as antagonists in biologi- cal control of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.phaseoli on 'ICA Tundama' variety bean plants. The research was carried out in one of Corpoica's mesh-houses using a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, an absolute control treatment (no microorganisms present) and an infected control treatment (pathogen

Camila Avendaño; Germán Arbeláez

123

The Wor1-like Protein Fgp1 Regulates Pathogenicity, Toxin Synthesis and Reproduction in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein.

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Corby Kistler, H.

2012-01-01

124

The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein. PMID:22693448

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H Corby

2012-05-31

125

The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome annotation analysis was done in 2007, which predicted the secretome using TargetP, the F. graminearum gene call has changed considerably through the combined efforts of the BROAD and MIPS institutes. As a result of the modifications to the genome and the recent findings that suggested a role for secreted proteins in virulence, the F. graminearum secretome was revisited. In the current study, a refined F. graminearum secretome was predicted by combining several bioinformatic approaches. This strategy increased the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins. A secretome of 574 proteins was predicted of which 99% was supported by transcriptional evidence. The function of the annotated and unannotated secreted proteins was explored. The potential role(s) of the annotated proteins including, putative enzymes, phytotoxins and antifungals are discussed. Characterisation of the unannotated proteins included the analysis of Pfam domains and features associated with known fungal effectors, for example, small size, cysteine-rich and containing internal amino acid repeats. A comprehensive comparative genomic analysis involving 57 fungal and oomycete genomes revealed that only a small number of the predicted F. graminearum secreted proteins can be considered to be either species or sequenced strain specific.

Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

2012-01-01

126

Effect of azoxystrobin on activities of antioxidant enzymes and alternative oxidase in wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale have distinct sensitivities to strobilurin fungicides, which inhibit activity of complex III in the mitochondrial electron\\u000a transport chain. When mycelia were cultured in medium with the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ), F. graminearum increased its oxygen-consumption, but M. nivale, which is more sensitive than Fusarium species to strobilurins, did not. There was

Isao Kaneko; Hideo Ishii

2009-01-01

127

Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.  

PubMed

Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

2006-01-01

128

Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Ustilago maydis, and Zea mays: an endophyte, a pathogen, and their shared plant host.  

PubMed

Highly diverse communities of microbial symbionts occupy eukaryotic organisms, including plants. While many well-studied symbionts may be characterized as either parasites or as mutualists, the prevalent but cryptic endophytic fungi are less easily qualified because they do not cause observable symptoms of their presence within their host. Here, we investigate the interactions of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides with a pathogen, Ustilago maydis, as they occur within maize (Zea mays). We used experimental inoculations to evaluate metabolic mechanisms by which these three organisms might interact. We assessed the impacts of fungal-fungal interactions on endophyte and pathogen growth within the plant, and on plant growth. We find that F. verticillioides modulates the growth of U. maydis and thus decreases the pathogen's aggressiveness toward the plant. With co-inoculation of the endophyte with the pathogen, plant growth is similar to that which would be gained without the pathogen present. However, the endophyte may also break down plant compounds that limit U. maydis growth, and obtains a growth benefit from the presence of the pathogen. Thus, an endophyte such as F. verticillioides may function as both a defensive mutualist and a parasite, and express nutritional modes that depend on ecological context. PMID:22587948

Rodriguez Estrada, Alma E; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kistler, H Corby; May, Georgiana

2012-05-12

129

Influence of pH, nutrient solution disinfestation and antagonists application in a closed soilless system on severity of fusarium wilt of gerbera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials were carried out during the years 2002–2005 at the Agricultural Experimental Center of Albenga (northern Italy)\\u000a on gerbera plants grown in a closed soilless system. The efficacy of slow sand filtration and UV treatment in eliminatingFusarium oxysporum f.sp.chrysanthemi (Foc) propagules, naturally present or artificially added to the recirculating nutrient solution, was evaluated. These techniques\\u000a were tested alone and

A. Minuto; L. Gaggero; M. L. Gullino; A. Garibaldi

2008-01-01

130

Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. Treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived ‘Novaria’ banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (108 cfu\\/ml), significantly (P4 spores\\/ml Foc race 4. The final disease severity index for leaf symptom (LSI) and rhizome discoloration

K. Getha; S. Vikineswary; W. H. Wong; T. Seki; A. Ward; M. Goodfellow

2005-01-01

131

Introduction a potato cultivar "sprit" as relatively resistant to main fungal pathogens causal agents of early blight and wilting on potato in Iran.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tubersum L.) is one of the most human food production cultured in Iran especially Zanjan province as a temperate region. Some fungal pathogens caused severely infected on potato tubers or foliage in the majority grown areas and resulted yield losses in potato production. Recent years from 2002 to 2004 infected samples were collected from different potato grown regions in Zanjan province then cultured on PDA after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Isolated fungal pathogens were identified and study showed the main pathogens with high incidence and frequency were Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium sp. in studied areas. The regions which used convention varieties showed more diseases than other locations which used relatively resistant races. The rate of resistance for 10 international potato varieties was studied by inoculation of them by 10(5) spores suspension of three common fungal pathogens in the field. Study showed Sprit cultivar was more resistant than others to all three common pathogens and Lady-Claire was most susceptible. Yield production of Sprit per unit of land area was also exceeded that of other cultivars by factors of 1.10 to 2.25 respectively. The results of the study helped potato growers to culture Sprit cultivar and have good yield production in Zanjan and Hamedan provinces in this year. PMID:18396814

Saremi, H; Davoodvandy, M H; Amarlou, A

2007-01-01

132

Comparison of inoculation methods for characterizing relative aggressiveness of two soybean sudden-death syndrome pathogens, Fusarium virguliforme and F. tucumaniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina and the United States, respectively. Five isolates of F. tucumaniae and four of F. virguliforme were tested for pathogenicity to soybeans, by comparing a toothpick method...

133

Defense-related gene expression in susceptible and tolerant bananas ( Musa spp.) following inoculation with non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes and challenge with Radopholus similis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radopholus similis is a major pest of East African highland cooking bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda. Non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes, isolated from bananas in farmers’ fields, have shown potential to reduce R. similis numbers in tissue culture banana. The mechanism through which endophytes confer resistance to nematodes has previously been demonstrated to involve induced resistance. In this study, the expression

Pamela Paparu; Thomas Dubois; Danny Coyne; Altus Viljoen

2007-01-01

134

[Successful treatment of Fusarium-associated keratitis with multiresistant pathogen and multimorbid patient.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man (not a contact lens wearer) presented with Fusarium-associated hypopyon keratitis. After several weeks of empirical and subsequently targeted antimycotic treatment, no considerable improvement was observed. However, after sclerokeratoplasty (11.2?×?11.2 mm) combined with prolonged antimycotic therapy a good local result with relapse-free long-term follow-up was achieved. PMID:23774966

Alnawaiseh, M; Böhm, M R R; Idelevich, E A; Becker, K; Grewe, S; Grenzebach, U H; Eter, N

2013-06-19

135

Colonization of Tomato Root by Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains Inoculated Together and Separately into the Soil  

PubMed Central

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites.

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-01-01

136

Antagonistic interactions between fungal rice pathogen Fusarium Verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma harzianum has been found to be a competitor and mycoparasite ofFusarium verticillioides which causes foot rot disease on rice. The experiment was undertaken macroscopically and microscopically. In total 6 treatments\\u000a were performed combining three water activities (0.95, 0.98, 0.995) and two temperatures (15 and 25 °C). At all conditions\\u000a tested, except at 0.95a\\u000a w and 15 °C.Trichoderma harzianum acted

Francisca Sempere; María Pilar Santamarina

2009-01-01

137

Genome Sequences of Six Wheat-Infecting Fusarium Species Isolates  

PubMed Central

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported.

Moolhuijzen, Paula M.; Manners, John M.; Wilcox, Stephen A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.

2013-01-01

138

Genome sequences of six wheat-infecting fusarium species isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported. PMID:24009115

Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Manners, John M; Wilcox, Stephen A; Bellgard, Matthew I; Gardiner, Donald M

2013-09-05

139

Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University;); Mary L. Powelson (Oregon State University;)

2000-08-01

140

Potassium Selectivity in Transported Volcanic Soils (Sorribas) under Banana Cultivation in Relation to Banana-Wilt Expression Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases for the microbiological nature of certain soils to suppress plant diseases caused by soil pathogens are well established. However, the microbial origin of the suppressiveness does not exclude edaphic factors and soil-management strategies, which need to be studied under field conditions. With respect to abiotic factors, we investigated the importance of potassium (K) selectivity on soil conduciveness and

Julia D. Domínguez-Hernández; Miguel A. Negrín-Medina; Carmen M. Rodríguez-Hernández

2010-01-01

141

The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica protects barley roots from a loss of antioxidant capacity caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

Fusarium culmorum causes root rot in barley (Hordeum vulgare), resulting in severely reduced plant growth and yield. Pretreatment of roots with chlamydospores of the mutualistic root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica (subdivision Agaricomycotina) prevented necrotization of root tissues and plant growth retardation commonly associated with Fusarium root rot. Quantification of Fusarium infections with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed a correlation between root rot symptoms and the relative amount of fungal DNA. Fusarium-infected roots showed reduced levels of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), along with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, GSH reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase. Consistent with this, Fusarium-infected roots showed elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides and decreased ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and GSH. In clear contrast, roots treated with P. indica prior to inoculation with F. culmorum showed levels of ascorbate and GSH that were similar to controls. Likewise, lipid peroxidation and the overall reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities were largely attenuated by P. indica in roots challenged by F. culmorum. These results suggest that P. indica protects roots from necrotrophic pathogens, at least partly, through activating the plant's antioxidant capacity. PMID:23405867

Harrach, Borbála D; Baltruschat, Helmut; Barna, Balázs; Fodor, József; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2013-05-01

142

Shifts in banana root exudate profiles after colonization with the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162.  

PubMed

The non-pathogenic fungus Fusorium oxysporum strain Fo162 can efficiently colonize banana roots and reduce infecting by the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. It is assumed that the fungus triggers a systemic reaction in the plant, which is affecting the biochemical composition of the root exudates and is thus causing the reduction in nematode colonization. To characterize these shifts, a continuous flow experiment was set up to collect root metabolites on a matrix (XAD-4). Based on HPLC analysis, the extracts, collected from the XAD-4, showed no differences in the composition of the root exudates between plants colonized by the endophyte and the controls. However, the accumulation of several compounds differed significantly. When these extracts were used in a bioassay with Radopholus similis none of the sample-treatment combinations had a significant attracting or repelling effect on the nematodes. This experiment shows that non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 is able to upregulate the synthesis of at least some, so far unidentified compounds released by banana roots under hydroponic conditions. Further studies and optimization of the experimental setup are required to determine whether or not increase in metabolite concentration can affect nematode responses in vitro and ultimately in vivo. PMID:20222617

Kurtz, Andreas; Schouten, Alexander

2009-01-01

143

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of pathogen biology and genetic diversity is a cornerstone of effective disease management, and accurate identification of the pathogen is a foundation of pathogen biology. Species names provide an ideal framework for storage and retrieval of relevant information, a system that is contingent on a clear understanding of species boundaries and consistent species identification. Verticillium, a genus of ascomycete fungi, contains important plant pathogens whose species boundaries have been ill defined. Using phylogenetic analyses, morphological investigations and comparisons to herbarium material and the literature, we established a taxonomic framework for Verticillium comprising ten species, five of which are new to science. We used a collection of 74 isolates representing much of the diversity of Verticillium, and phylogenetic analyses based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial sequences of the protein coding genes actin (ACT), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and tryptophan synthase (TS). Combined analyses of the ACT, EF, GPD and TS datasets recognized two major groups within Verticillium, Clade Flavexudans and Clade Flavnonexudans, reflecting the respective production and absence of yellow hyphal pigments. Clade Flavexudans comprised V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus as well as the new species V. zaregamsianum, V. isaacii and V. klebahnii, of which the latter two were morphologically indistinguishable from V. tricorpus but may differ in pathogenicity. Clade Flavnonexudans comprised V. nubilum, V. dahliae and V. longisporum, as well as the two new species V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae, which resembled the distantly related V. albo-atrum in morphology. Apart from the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, each of the ten species corresponded to a single clade in the phylogenetic tree comprising just one ex-type strain, thereby establishing a direct link to a name tied to a herbarium specimen. A morphology-based key is provided for identification to species or species groups.

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Bostock, Richard M.; Davis, R. Michael; Usami, Toshiyuki; Platt, Harold W.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2011-01-01

144

The Sfp-type 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi controls development, secondary metabolism and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g. moniliformin. The key enzymes needed for their production belong to the family of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) that are generally known to be post-translationally modified by a Sfp-type 4'phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). In this study we provide evidence that the F. fujikuroi Sfp-type PPTase FfPpt1 is essentially involved in lysine biosynthesis and production of bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins, but not moniliformin as shown by analytical methods. Concomitantly, targeted Ffppt1 deletion mutants reveal an enhancement of terpene-derived metabolites like GAs and volatile substances such as ?-acorenol. Pathogenicity assays on rice roots using fluorescent labeled wild-type and Ffppt1 mutant strains indicate that lysine biosynthesis and iron acquisition but not PKS and NRPS metabolism is essential for establishment of primary infections of F. fujikuroi. Additionally, FfPpt1 is involved in conidiation and sexual mating recognition possibly by activating PKS- and/or NRPS-derived metabolites that could act as diffusible signals. Furthermore, the effect on iron acquisition of Ffppt1 mutants led us to identify a previously uncharacterized putative third reductive iron uptake system (FfFtr3/FfFet3) that is closely related to the FtrA/FetC system of A. fumigatus. Functional characterization provides evidence that both proteins are involved in iron acquisition and are liable to transcriptional repression of the homolog of the Aspergillus GATA-type transcription factor SreA under iron-replete conditions. Targeted deletion of the first Fusarium homolog of this GATA-type transcription factor-encoding gene, Ffsre1, strongly indicates its involvement in regulation of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance. PMID:22662164

Wiemann, Philipp; Albermann, Sabine; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Studt, Lena; von Bargen, Katharina W; Brock, Nelson L; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Tudzynski, Bettina

2012-05-25

145

Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature. PMID:24031710

Palmero, D; de Cara, M; Iglesias, C; Gálvez, L; Tello, J C

2011-09-01

146

Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections. PMID:23853581

Leal, Sixto M; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

2013-07-11

147

Heterochromatin influences the secondary metabolite profile in the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Chromatin modifications and heterochromatic marks have been shown to be involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism gene clusters in the fungal model system Aspergillus nidulans. We examine here the role of HEP1, the heterochromatin protein homolog of Fusarium graminearum, for the production of secondary metabolites. Deletion of Hep1 in a PH-1 background strongly influences expression of genes required for the production of aurofusarin and the main tricothecene metabolite DON. In the Hep1 deletion strains AUR genes are highly up-regulated and aurofusarin production is greatly enhanced suggesting a repressive role for heterochromatin on gene expression of this cluster. Unexpectedly, gene expression and metabolites are lower for the trichothecene cluster suggesting a positive function of Hep1 for DON biosynthesis. However, analysis of histone modifications in chromatin of AUR and DON gene promoters reveals that in both gene clusters the H3K9me3 heterochromatic mark is strongly reduced in the Hep1 deletion strain. This, and the finding that a DON-cluster flanking gene is up-regulated, suggests that the DON biosynthetic cluster is repressed by HEP1 directly and indirectly. Results from this study point to a conserved mode of secondary metabolite (SM) biosynthesis regulation in fungi by chromatin modifications and the formation of facultative heterochromatin.

Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Boedi, Stefan; Sulyok, Michael; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Stoppacher, Norbert; Krska, Rudolf; Strauss, Joseph

2012-01-01

148

The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum. PMID:22923110

Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

2012-08-25

149

The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.  

PubMed

The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen. PMID:23617416

Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

2013-08-01

150

Impact of transgenic Bt maize residues on the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride.  

PubMed

Transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. We assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Purified Cry1Ab protein caused no growth inhibition of these fungi on agar plates. Cry1Ab concentrations above levels common in Bt maize tissue stimulated the growth of F. graminearum. The fungi were also grown on gamma-radiation-sterilized leaf tissue of four Bt maize hybrids and their non transgenic isolines collected at maize maturity on a field trial in 2002 and 2003. Both fungi degraded the Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize tissue. Fungal biomass quantification with microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays revealed differential fungal growth on leaf tissue of different maize varieties but no consistent difference between corresponding Bt and non-Bt hybrids. Generally, year of maize tissue collection had a greater impact on biomass production than cultivar or Bt transformation. The mycotoxin DON levels observed in maize tissue experiments corresponded with patterns in F. graminearum biomass, indicating that Bt transformation has no impact on DON production. In addition to bioassays, maize leaf tissue was analyzed with a mass spectrometer-based electronic nose, generating fingerprints of volatile organic compounds. Chemical fingerprints of corresponding Bt and non-Bt leaf tissues differed only for those hybrid pairs that caused differential fungal biomass production in the bioassays. Our results suggest that Cry1Ab protein in maize residues has no direct effect on F. graminearum and T. atroviride but some corresponding Bt/non-Bt maize hybrids differ more in composition than Cry protein content alone, which can affect the saprophytic growth of fungi on crop residues. PMID:16738384

Naef, Andreas; Zesiger, Thierry; Défago, Geneviève

2006-05-31

151

Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

152

A combined ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis to understand the basal metabolism of plant-pathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Many ascomycete Fusarium spp. are plant pathogens that cause disease on both cereal and noncereal hosts. Infection of wheat ears by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum typically results in bleaching and a subsequent reduction in grain yield. Also, a large proportion of the harvested grain can be spoiled when the colonizing Fusarium mycelia produce trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, we have explored the intracellular polar metabolome of Fusarium spp. in both toxin-producing and nonproducing conditions in vitro. Four Fusarium spp., including nine well-characterized wild-type field isolates now used routinely in laboratory experimentation, were explored. A metabolic "triple-fingerprint" was recorded using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and direct-injection electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. These combined metabolomic analyses revealed that this technique is sufficient to resolve different wild-type isolates and different growth conditions. Principal components analysis was able to resolve the four species explored-F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, and F. venenatum-as well as individual isolate differences from the same species. The external nutritional environment was found to have a far greater influence on the metabolome than the genotype of the organism. Conserved responses to DON-inducing medium were evident and included increased abundance of key compatible solutes, such as glycerol and mannitol. In addition, the concentration of ?-aminobutyric acid was elevated, indicating that the cellular nitrogen status may be affected by growth on DON-inducing medium. PMID:20718668

Lowe, Rohan G T; Allwood, J William; Galster, Aimee M; Urban, Martin; Daudi, Arsalan; Canning, Gail; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

2010-12-01

153

Dry heat treatment of Fusarium-infected cotton seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

154

Fusarium Race 4: Commercial cultivar screening for resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt (FOV) of cotton in California has been considered a potentially serious fungal disease for many decades in areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the past, damage from Fusarium has been notable only in areas with the combination of: (a) moderate to high populations of one or more sp...

155

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief review of research on Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. race 4 in California is presented. Fusarium wilt has recently emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., G. barbadense L.) growers in California. An es...

156

Is fusaric acid a wilt toxin in maize?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid) was first discovered during the laboratory culture of Fusarium heterosporum, was one of the first fungal metabolites implicated in the pathogenesis of wilt symptoms of plants especially under adverse conditions. In addition to a primary role in plant pathogenesi...

157

Fot 1 Insertions in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis Genome Provide Diagnostic PCR Targets for Detection of the Date Palm Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar Fot 1 hybridization patterns. In order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several DNA clones containing a copy of the transposable element Fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. Regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences were used to design PCR primers that amplify the DNA regions at several Fot 1 insertion sites. When tested on a large sample of Fusarium isolates, including 286 F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates, 17 other special forms, nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates from palm grove soils, and 8 other Fusarium species, the primer pair TL3-FOA28 allowed amplification of a 400-bp fragment found only in F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. Sequence analysis showed that one of the Fot 1 copies was truncated, lacking 182 bp at its 3? terminus. The primer pair BI03-FOA1 amplified a 204-bp fragment which overlapped the Fot 1 truncated copy and its 3? site of insertion in the F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome and identified 95% of the isolates. The primer pairs BIO3-FOA1 and TL3-FOA28 used in PCR assays thus provide a useful diagnostic tool for F. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis isolates.

Fernandez, Diana; Ouinten, Mohamed; Tantaoui, Abdelaziz; Geiger, Jean-Paul; Daboussi, Marie-Josee; Langin, Thierry

1998-01-01

158

Entomogenous Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are known for their abundance in nature and their diverse associations with both living and dead plants and animals. Among animals Fusarium is found primarily in relationship with insects. This literature review of the past 50 years includes both non-pathogenic and pathogenic relationships between Fusarium and insects. Special attention is given to the host range, particularly between plant- and insect-hosts, and to the possible microbial potential of the fungus to control insect pests. Correct classification of this fungus has been difficult because of its diverse and non-uniform morphological features. However, by now a usable and reliable taxonomic system has been developed. The fungus can be easily cultured and mass produced. Among the non-pathogenic associations mutualism and allotrophy are found between Fusarium and wood-inhabiting and flour beetles, respectively, enhancing development and production of beetle larvae. Some insects contribute to the dispersal of the fungus in the environment by means of spore passage through their guts. Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species gain access to host tissue by plant-feeding insects. A large number of Fusarium spp. are entomopathogenic; some are weak, facultative pathogens, especially of the lepidopteran and coleopteran orders, and they will colonize their dead hosts as saprophytes. In a few cases pathogenicity to both plant and insect by one isolate was found. Strong pathogens were reported primarily from homopterans and dipterans from field observations of natural mortalities as well as from pathogenicity tests. Potential Fusarium isolates which cause high insect mortalities also show high host specificity and no damage to crop plants. The question of host invasion has been addressed by few investigators. Entrance of the fungus via the oral route, oviposition tubes, wounds, or ectoparasitic activity, were stated, but no claim for penetration of the insect cuticle. Mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes (T-2) and other secondary metabolites, contributed to mortalities of termites, mealworms, flour beetles, maize borers and blow flies, while zearalenone (F-2) exhibited a beneficial effect on egg production in flour beetles and a detrimental effect on fecundity in mammals. Studies on adverse effects of the fungus on beneficial organisms (including mammals and plants) revealed that both harmful as well as safe Fusarium isolates exist in nature. Highly host-specific and strongly entomopathogenic Fusarium isolates should be more extensively studied and tested for their possible use in biological control. PMID:6369143

Teetor-Barsch, G H; Roberts, D W

1983-12-01

159

Verticillium wilt of potato: Importance and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Verticillium wilt of potato and its control are discussed. Among the factors considered in controlling the\\u000a disease are the role of seed tubers in disseminating the pathogen, the interaction of nematodes and fungus, chemical eradication,\\u000a the use of tolerant or resistant cultivars, and integrated control measures.

J. Krikun; D. Orion

1979-01-01

160

AGROBACTERIUM CONCENTRATIONS AND SEVERITY OF BRONZE WILT SYMPTOMS IN COTTON CULTIVARS TREATED WITH FUNGAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS AT PLANTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungi, Trichoderma virens (Isolates GV4 and GV6), Trichoderma koningii x T. virens fusant #12, Gliocladium catenulatum, Gliocladium roseum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani were trested for their ability to colonize roots, to affect Agrobacterium tumefaciens colonization and bronze wilt s...

161

Identification of a cis-acting factor modulating the transcription of FUM1, a key fumonisin-biosynthetic gene in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger, have strong agro-economic and health impacts. The genes needed for their biosynthesis, named FUM, are clustered and co-expressed in fumonisin producers. In eukaryotes, coordination of transcription can be attained through shared transcription factors, whose specificity relies on the recognition of cis-regulatory elements on target promoters. A bioinformatic analysis on FUM promoters in the maize pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger identified a degenerated, over-represented motif potentially involved in the cis-regulation of FUM genes, and of fumonisin biosynthesis. The same motif was not found in various FUM homologues of fungi that do not produce fumonisins. Comparison of the transcriptional strength of the intact FUM1 promoter with a synthetic version, where the motif had been mutated, was carried out in vivo and in planta for F. verticillioides. The results showed that the motif is important for efficient transcription of the FUM1 gene. PMID:23219667

Montis, V; Pasquali, M; Visentin, I; Karlovsky, P; Cardinale, F

2012-12-03

162

Microbial community responses associated with the development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum after 24-epibrassinolide applications to shoots and roots in cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FO), is one of the major diseases in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production. Root and foliar applications of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL), an immobile phytohormone with antistress activity,\\u000a were evaluated for their effects on the incidence of Fusarium wilt and changes in the microbial population and community in\\u000a roots of cucumber plants. EBL pre-treatment

Ju Ding; Kai Shi; Yan Hong Zhou; Jing Quan Yu

2009-01-01

163

[Skin infections caused by Fusarium].  

PubMed

Under favorable conditions even molds can cause skin infections. Fusarium spp. belong to this group of agents. Onychomycoses due to Fusarium spp. are regularly encountered and cannot be clinically distinguished from nail infections triggered by dermatophytes. They can occur in otherwise healthy persons. Skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. may be necrotizing, ulcerating, pustular, vasculitis-like, panniculitis-like or granulomatous. Single lesions can develop after fungal inoculation into damaged tissue; multiple ones are often due to a septic dissemination of Fusarium in severely immunocompromised patients. An immediate verification of the agents can be life-saving in such cases. Pathogenic Fusarium spp. should be identified at the species level and need to be tested for their susceptibility to antimycotics. In case of multiple lesions, systemic therapy is required. Many strains of Fusarium spp. are susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole; itraconazole and terbinafine may be helpful in certain cases. PMID:22948296

Brasch, J

2012-11-01

164

Observations on the effect of lower-temperature dry heat treatments on Fusarium in cotton seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) race 4 has emerged as the dominant disease concern for cotton growers in California. Originally described from Asia, race 4 has spread into multiple counties in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) since its discovery in one California fiel...

165

New genotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum from the Southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were collected from cotton plants (Gossypium spp.) with symptoms of Fusarium wilt to determine the composition of races present in the southeastern U.S. Analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor gene revealed four n...

166

Deciphering the cryptic genome: genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites.  

PubMed

The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes "bakanae" disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen. PMID:23825955

Wiemann, Philipp; Sieber, Christian M K; von Bargen, Katharina W; Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J; Huß, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V; Connolly, Lanelle R; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M; Brown, Daren W; Proctor, Robert H; Münsterkötter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-06-27

167

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

168

Antagonistic bacteria of composted agro-industrial residues exhibit antibiosis against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and protection of tomato plants from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizospheric and root-associated\\/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from tomato plants grown in three suppressive compost-based\\u000a plant growth media derived from the olive mill, winery and Agaricus bisporus production agro-industries. Forty-four (35 rhizospheric and 9 RAE) out of 329 bacterial strains showed in vitro antagonistic\\u000a activity against at least one of the soil-borne fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), F.

Nektarios Kavroulakis; Spyridon Ntougias; Maria I. Besi; Pelagia Katsou; Athanasia Damaskinou; Constantinos Ehaliotis; Georgios I. Zervakis; Kalliope K. Papadopoulou

2010-01-01

169

Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations  

PubMed Central

A genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was constructed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between mutants of the sequenced strain (PH-1, NRRL 31084, originally isolated from Michigan) and a field strain from Minnesota (00-676, NRRL 34097). A total of 111 ascospore progeny were analyzed for segregation at 235 loci. Genetic markers consisted of sequence-tagged sites, primarily detected as dCAPS or CAPS (n = 131) and VNTRs (n = 31), in addition to AFLPs (n = 66) and 7 other markers. While most markers exhibited Mendelian inheritance, segregation distortion was observed for 25 predominantly clustered markers. A linkage map was generated using the Kosambi mapping function, using a LOD threshold value of 3.5. Nine linkage groups were detected, covering 1234 cM and anchoring 99.83% of the draft sequence assembly. The nine linkage groups and the 22 anchored scaffolds from the sequence assembly could be assembled into four chromosomes, leaving only five smaller scaffolds (59,630 bp total) of the nuclear DNA unanchored. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological karyotyping. Further analysis of the genetic map data identified variation in recombination rate in different genomic regions that often spanned several hundred kilobases.

Gale, L. R.; Bryant, J. D.; Calvo, S.; Giese, H.; Katan, T.; O'Donnell, K.; Suga, H.; Taga, M.; Usgaard, T. R.; Ward, T. J.; Kistler, H. C.

2005-01-01

170

Compost induces protection against Fusarium oxysporum in sweet basil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants suffer frequently from wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici (FOB). No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. Sweet basil transplants were grown in either sphagnum peat (Europlant, Germany) or in compost, made by mixing the coarse fraction of cattle manure, chicken manure and wheat straw. The C\\/N ratio of

Reuven Reuveni; Michael Raviv; Arkady Krasnovsky; Lilya Freiman; Shlomit Medina; Anat Bar; Daniel Orion

2002-01-01

171

Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

172

In vitro toxin production by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca f. sp. piperis), causal agent of root rot and stem blight on black pepper (Piper nigrum), produces secondary metabolites with toxigenic properties, capable of inducing vein discoloration in detached leaves and wilting in transpiring microcuttings. Production of F. solani f. sp. piperis (Fsp) toxic metabolites reached a peak after 25 days of

Maria de Lourdes R. Duarte; Simon A. Archer

2003-01-01

173

Plant Pathology & Nematology Reduction of Verticillium Wilt Symptoms in Cotton Following Seed Treatment with Trichoderma virens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a widespread disease that occurs in most cotton-producing areas. V. dahliae is a soil-borne pathogen that infects plants through the roots. Symptoms of infected cotton plants include stunting and wilting by some strains of V. dahliae and defoliation by other strains. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential of cotton

Linda E. Hanson

2000-01-01

174

TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

175

Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are among the most studied plant-pathogenic fungi, with several species causing diseases on maize, wheat, barley, and other food and feed grains. Decreased yield, as well as diminished quality and value of the grain, results in significant worldwide economic losses. Additionally, Fusarium species produce a chemically diverse array of mycotoxins such as diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone,

A. E. Glenn

2007-01-01

176

Fusarium oxysporum hijacks COI1-mediated jasmonate signaling to promote disease development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although defense responses mediated by the plant oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) are often necessary for resistance against pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles, in this report we demonstrate that jasmonate signaling mediated through COI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for susceptibility to wilt disease caused by the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Despite compromised JA-dependent defense responses, the JA perception mutant coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1), but not JA biosynthesis mutants, exhibited a high level of resistance to wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum. This response was independent from salicylic acid-dependent defenses, as coi1/NahG plants showed similar disease resistance to coi1 plants. Inoculation of reciprocal grafts made between coi1 and wild-type plants revealed that coi1-mediated resistance occurred primarily through the coi1 rootstock tissues. Furthermore, microscopy and quantification of fungal DNA during infection indicated that coi1-mediated resistance was not associated with reduced fungal penetration and colonization until a late stage of infection, when leaf necrosis was highly developed in wild-type plants. In contrast to wild-type leaves, coi1 leaves showed no necrosis following the application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate, and showed reduced expression of senescence-associated genes during disease development, suggesting that coi1 resistance is most likely achieved through the inhibition of F. oxysporum-incited lesion development and plant senescence. Together, our results indicate that F. oxysporum hijacks non-defensive aspects of the JA-signaling pathway to cause wilt-disease symptoms that lead to plant death in Arabidopsis. PMID:19220788

Thatcher, Louise F; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2009-02-10

177

Autophagy provides nutrients for nonassimilating fungal structures and is necessary for plant colonization but not for infection in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The role of autophagy in necrotrophic fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. We have studied autophagy in the necrotrophic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum in relation to development of nonassimilating structures and infection. We identified an ATG8 homolog F. graminearum ATG8 whose first 116 amino acids before the predicted ATG4 cleavage site are 100% identical to Podospora anserina ATG8. We generated a ?Fgatg8 mutant by gene replacement and showed that this cannot form autophagic compartments. The strain forms no perithecia, has reduced conidia production and the aerial mycelium collapses after a few days in culture. The collapsing aerial mycelium contains lipid droplets indicative of nitrogen starvation and/or an inability to use storage lipids. The capacity to use carbon/energy stored in lipid droplets after a shift from carbon rich conditions to carbon starvation is severely inhibited in the ?Fgatg8 strain demonstrating autophagy-dependent lipid utilization, lipophagy, in fungi. Radial growth rate of the ?Fgatg8 strain is reduced compared with the wild type and the mutant does not grow over inert plastic surfaces in contrast to the wild type. The ability to infect barley and wheat is normal but the mutant is unable to spread from spikelet to spikelet in wheat. Complementation by inserting the F. graminearum atg8 gene into a region adjacent to the actin gene in ?Fgatg8 fully restores the WT phenotype. The results showed that autophagy plays a pivotal role for supplying nutrients to nonassimilating structures necessary for growth and is important for plant colonization. This also indicates that autophagy is a central mechanism for fungal adaptation to nonoptimal C/N ratios. PMID:22240663

Josefsen, Lone; Droce, Aida; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Bormann, Jörg; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Giese, Henriette; Olsson, Stefan

2012-01-13

178

Transcription of Genes in the Biosynthetic Pathway for Fumonisin Mycotoxins Is Epigenetically and Differentially Regulated in the Fungal Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

When the fungal pathogen Gibberella moniliformis (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides) colonizes maize and maize-based products, it produces class B fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins, which are a significant threat to human and animal health. FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. FB accumulation correlates with the amount of transcripts from the key FUM genes, FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8. In fungi in general, gene expression is often partially controlled at the chromatin level in secondary metabolism; when this is the case, the deacetylation and acetylation (and other posttranslational modifications) of histones are usually crucial in the regulation of transcription. To assess whether epigenetic factors regulate the FB pathway, we monitored FB production and FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 expression in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation the relative degree of histone acetylation in the promoter regions of FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions. Moreover, we generated transgenic F. verticillioides strains expressing GFP under the control of the FUM1 promoter to determine whether its strength under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions was influenced by its location in the genome. Our results indicate a clear and differential role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of FUM genes. This epigenetic regulation can be attained through the modulation of histone acetylation at the level of the promoter regions of the key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM21, but less so for FUM8.

Visentin, I.; Montis, V.; Doll, K.; Alabouvette, C.; Tamietti, G.; Karlovsky, P.

2012-01-01

179

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-05-20

180

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.  

PubMed

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field. PMID:23610539

Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

2013-03-28

181

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field.

2013-01-01

182

WILT: Necessity, Feasibility, Affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite immense investment of resources, biomedical progress in postponing death from most cancers has fallen far short of\\u000a prior expert prediction. Having intercellular natural selection at its disposal, cancer is arguably the hardest part of aging\\u000a to combat biomedically. WILT (Whole-body Interdiction of Lengthening of Telomeres), first suggested in 2004, is a radical\\u000a proposal that seeks to address this feature

183

Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall ?-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

Lee, Hyeseung; Damsz, Barbara; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Bressan, Ray A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

2010-01-01

184

Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field  

PubMed Central

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed.

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-01-01

185

Antibody-mediated prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins in the field.  

PubMed

Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. PMID:19325726

Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Glinka, Elena; Liao, Yu-Cai

2008-10-09

186

THE ROLE OF MAP KINASE IN FUSARIUM ASSOCIATION WITH CONTACT LENSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani is a soil-borne pathogen devastating agricultural crops throughout the world. While most pathogens are host specific, the fusaria are able to infect both plants and animals. In 2004, an outbreak of Fusarium occurred in association with contact lens wear. Several species of Fusarium were involved but F. solani and F. oxysporum were most prominent. In this work, we

BROOK ALICIA DANBOISE

187

REMI MUTAGENESIS IN FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of small grains and maize in many areas of the world. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins harmful to humans and animals. To better understand the molecular mechanism of plant infection and virulence of F. graminearum, we used the REM...

188

Lipoxygenase Metabolites of ?-linolenic Acid in the Development of Resistance in Pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, Seedlings Against Fusarium udum Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was measured in germinating pigeonpea Cajanus cajan seedlings, resistant (ICP-8863) and susceptible (ICP-2376) to wilt fungus, before and after infection with Fusarium udum. LOX activity was significantly higher in the resistant than in the susceptible cultivars of pigeonpea and was enhanced further in response to infection with Fusarium udum. This increase in LOX activity in the resistant

P. Uma Maheswari Devi; P. Srinivas Reddy; N. R. Usha Rani; K. J. Reddy; M. Narsa Reddy; P. Reddanna

2000-01-01

189

Genetic Mapping of the Tsw Locus for Resistance to the Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus in Capsicum spp. and Its Relationship to the Sw5 Gene for Resistance to the Same Pathogen in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tsw gene conferring dominant resistance to the Tospo- virus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Capsicum spp. has been tagged with a random amplified polymorphic DNA marker and mapped to the distal portion of chromo- some 10. No mapped homologues of Sw-5, a phenotypically similar dominant TSWV resistance gene in tomato, map to this region in C. annuum, although

Molly Jahn; Ilan Paran; Katrin Hoffmann; Elaine R. Radwanski; Kevin D. Livingstone; Rebecca C. Grube; Ester Aftergoot; Moshe Lapidot; James Moyer

2000-01-01

190

Panama Disease: Cell Wall Reinforcement in Banana Roots in Response to Elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race Four.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. Tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. Goldfinger and susceptible cv. Williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for resistance in breeding programs. Similarly, defense responses were induced by treatment of the plants with an elicitor preparation from the mycelial cell walls of the pathogen. Differences in the induction of lignin and callose deposition, phenolics, and the enzymes involved in cell wall strengthening; phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were determined. Root tissue of the tolerant cv. Goldfinger responded to the fungal elicitor through the strong deposition of lignin, preceded by the induction or activation of the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and polymerization thereof, whereas only slight increases were observed for the susceptible cv. Williams. No increase in callose content was observed for either clone. These results indicate an important role for cell wall strengthening due to the deposition of lignin as an inducible defense mechanism of banana roots against F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four. PMID:18944483

De Ascensao, A R; Dubery, I A

2000-10-01

191

Deciphering the cryptic genome: Genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is agriculturally important because it produces the phytohormones gibberellic acids (GAs) and causes bakanae (“foolish seedling”) disease of rice. The fungus also produces multiple other secondary metabolites, including pigments and mycotoxins. Here, we present a high-q...

192

Germination of Fusarium oxysporum in root exudates from tomato plants challenged with different Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microconidia from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum to root exudates from tomato plants inoculated with different pathogenic and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains was studied. Root exudates from non-inoculated tomatoes highly stimulated the microconidial germination of the two\\u000a tomato pathogens, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici strain Fol 007 and F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici strain Forl 101587. In root exudates

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2008-01-01

193

Fusarium infections of the skin.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are ubiquitous and may be found in the soil, air and on plants. Fusarium species can cause mycotoxicosis in humans following ingestion of food that has been colonized by the fungal organism. In humans, Fusarium species can also cause disease that is localized, focally invasive or disseminated. The pathogen generally affects immunocompromised individuals with infection of immunocompetent persons being rarely reported. Localized infection includes septic arthritis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, cystitis and brain abscess. In these situations relatively good response may be expected following appropriate surgery and oral antifungal therapy. Disseminated infection occurs when two or more noncontiguous sites are involved. Over eighty cases have been reported, many of which had a hematologic malignancy including neutropenia. The species most commonly involved include Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium moniliforme (also termed F. verticillioides). The diagnosis of Fusarium infection may be made on histopathology, gram stain, mycology, blood culture, or serology. Portals of entry of disseminated infection include the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and cutaneous sites.The skin can be an important and an early clue to diagnosis since cutaneous lesions may be observed at an early stage of the disease and in about seventy-five cases of disseminated Fusarium infection. Typical skin lesions may be painful red or violaceous nodules, the center of which often becomes ulcerated and covered by a black eschar. The multiple necrotizing lesions are often observed on the trunk and the extremities. Onychomycosis most commonly due to F. oxysporum or F. solani has been reported. The onychomycosis may be of several types: distal and lateral subungual (DLSO), white superficial (WSO), and proximal subungual (PSO). In proximal subungual onychomycosis there may be associated leukonychia and/or periungual inflammation. Patients with Fusarium onychomycosis have been cured following therapy with itraconazole, terbinafine, ciclopirox olamine lacquer, or topical antifungal agent. In other instances nail avulsion plus antifungal therapy has been successful. In patients with hematologic malignancy or bone marrow transplant, who may experience prolonged or severe neutropenia during the course of therapy, the skin and nails should be carefully examined and consideration given to treating potential infection sites that may serve as portals for systemic dissemination. When disseminated Fusarium infection is present therapy with antifungal agents has generally been disappointing with the chances of a successful resolution being enhanced if the neutropenia can be corrected in a timely manner. PMID:11964778

Gupta, Aditya K.; Baran, Robert; Summerbell, Richard C.

2000-04-01

194

MOLECULAR MAPPING OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F. SP. CICERIS RACE 3 RESISTANCE GENE IN CHICKPEA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) and sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers linked closely to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea were identified and linkage between three wilt resistance genes was elucidated. The resistance to race 3 in chickpea germplasm acce...

195

Hyperkeratotic Warty Skin Lesion of Foot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation.

Kaur, Ravinder; Maheshwari, Megha

2013-01-01

196

Hyperkeratotic Warty Skin Lesion of Foot Caused by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation. PMID:23716829

Kaur, Ravinder; Maheshwari, Megha

2013-03-01

197

Other Fusarium - Associated Problems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, other species of Fusarium can infect sugar beet and cause foliar yellowing, root rot, or other symptoms. The importance of many of these problems is not well understood. This chapter discusses some of what is know...

198

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

199

Molecular Tools to Study Epidemiology and Toxicology of Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is a disease complex. Fusarium graminearum is the major pathogen worldwide, while F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae are also associated with this disease. In addition to the true Fusarium species, Microdochium nivale may also cause head blight and is particularly prevalent where cooler, wetter conditions prevail. Other species such as F. sporotrichioides,

Paul Nicholson; E. Chandler; R. C. Draeger; N. E. Gosman; D. R. Simpson; M. Thomsett; A. H. Wilson

2003-01-01

200

Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian Prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium pathogens cause important diseases, such as root\\/crown rot and Fusarium head blight (FHB), in cereal crops. These diseases can be caused by similar Fusarium spp. Common root rot (CRR) is widespread in the western Canadian Prairies, whereas FHB has potential of becoming an important disease in this region. There are no commercially available cereal cultivars with good resistance to

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; P. Basnyat; D. Gehl; F. Selles; D. Huber

2009-01-01

201

Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

202

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

203

The I2C Family from the Wilt Disease Resistance Locus I2 Belongs to the Nucleotide Binding, Leucine-Rich Repeat Superfamily of Plant Resistance Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. fusarium oxysporum f sp 1ycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex 12C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the 12 F.

Naomi Ori; Yuval Eshed; Gernot Presting; Dani Zamir; Robert Fluhra

1997-01-01

204

Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results confirmed the good suppressive activity of the compost under study against soil-borne pathogens. The selection of antagonists from compost is a promising strategy for the development of new biological control agents against soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21534476

Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2010-01-01

205

The role of saprophytic microflora in the development of Fusarium ear blight of winter wheat caused by Fusarium culmorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saprophytic microflora may interact with ear blight pathogens of wheat and contribute to the poor performance of fungicides against this disease in vivo. A glasshouse experiment and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between saprophytic microflora and Fusarium culmorum and to determine fungicide effects on Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium culmorum. Inoculation of winter

J. Liggitt; P. Jenkinson; D. W. Parry

1997-01-01

206

Search for sources of wide-spectrum resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici isolates in accessions of Ocimum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important plant genus, with many species used for food flavorings and for essential oils. Fusarium wilt\\u000a (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici, FOB) is the most important disease of basil (O. basilicum L.). Twenty-five accessions of O. basilicum, five of O. americanum and two of O. campechianum were initially evaluated for resistance to one FOB isolate (named

A. Reis; L. S. Boiteux; R. F. Vieira

2008-01-01

207

Differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Phoenix canadensis (Canary Island Date Palm) by vegetative compatibility grouping and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island Date Palm) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc). The disease occurs worldwide, including Australia where hundreds of palms have been killed. Isolates of Foc were collected from fronds of diseased palms at sites around Sydney and different parts (non-frond) of individual palms within\\u000a a site. Three techniques were used to

L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

2002-01-01

208

Pathogenicity of Aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

2012-01-01

209

VARIACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DE ALGUNOS AISLAMIENTOS MEXICANOS DEL VIRUS DE LA MARCHITEZ MANCHADA DEL TOMATE (TSWV) PHENOTYPIC VARIATION OF SOME MEXICAN ISOLATES OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS (TSWV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV.Tospovirus) was detected in tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa) plants, with symptoms of leaf spots, wilting, and generalized necrosis, grown in the states of México, Puebla and Morelos. Symptoms' expression in susceptible hosts indicated the possible presence of strains of this virus. The isolates of TSWV were identified as belonging to the group of localized lesion pathogens (TSWV-PL),

Rodolfo De La Torre-Almaráz; Hobbs A. Houston; Rodrigo Valverde

210

Laurel wilt: Understanding an unusual and exotic vascular wilt disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family (Laurales, Magnoliid complex). These include significant components of Coastal Plain forest communities in the southeastern USA, most importantly redbay, as well as the commercial crop avocado. The disease has decimated redbay, swamp ...

211

Rainfall Effects on Wilting Forages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the uncertainty of the weather and inherent differences between forage crops, specific recommendations for managing potential rain damage to wilting forages are difficult. However, there are a number of principles that can be applied to best manage the potential for rain damage. These science-...

212

Genetic mapping of the Tsw locus for resistance to the Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus in Capsicum spp. and its relationship to the Sw-5 gene for resistance to the same pathogen in tomato.  

PubMed

The Tsw gene conferring dominant resistance to the Tospovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Capsicum spp. has been tagged with a random amplified polymorphic DNA marker and mapped to the distal portion of chromosome 10. No mapped homologues of Sw-5, a phenotypically similar dominant TSWV resistance gene in tomato, map to this region in C. annuum, although a number of Sw-5 homologues are found at corresponding positions in pepper and tomato. The relationship between Tsw and Sw-5 was also examined through genetic studies of TSWV. The capacity of TSWV-A to overcome the Tsw gene in pepper and the Sw-5 gene in tomato maps to different TSWV genome segments. Therefore, despite phenotypic and genetic similarities of resistance in tomato and pepper, we infer that distinct viral gene products control the outcome of infection in plants carrying Sw-5 and Tsw, and that these loci do not appear to share a recent common evolutionary ancestor. PMID:10830267

Jahn, M; Paran, I; Hoffmann, K; Radwanski, E R; Livingstone, K D; Grube, R C; Aftergoot, E; Lapidot, M; Moyer, J

2000-06-01

213

Effects of root-dip treatment with certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-dip application of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum resulted in significant decline in the rhizosphere population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. A significant decrease in the severity of wilt occurred with A. awamori (37.1%) and P. digitatum (21.3%) compared to the control. Root-dip treatment with the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms tested resulted in significant

Mujeebur Rahman Khan; Shahana Majid Khan

2002-01-01

214

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum isolates recovered from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bell et al. recovered 17 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for cattle feed in 2003. These isolates and four isolates obtained from wilted plants in Australia by Kochman in 1994 are distinct from American Fov isolates in that...

215

HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

216

Fusarium Race 4: Management Recommendations for Growers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past five to seven years, race 4 of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum spp. vasinfectum (race 4 FOV) has been widely studied and has increasingly impacted cotton fields in California’s San Joaquin Valley. Findings from field and greenhouse research and observations can be summarized as:...

217

FUSARIUM BULB ROT OF ONION AND GARLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium proliferatum is a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen with a wide host range, including onion and garlic. In garlic, invasion by the fungus results in water-soaked lesions, then a progressive tan-brown rot of the cloves. In onion, the fungus may be confined to the outer layers of the bulb, wher...

218

SPORE KILLER POLYMORPHISM IN FUSARIUM MONILIFORME  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Spore killer trait, which exhibits genetic and cytological properties analo- gous to those previously found in Neurospora, exists in natural populations of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme. The genogeography of the polymorphism in F. moniliforme differs from the situation in Neurospora intermedia. It is more akin to the situation in N. sitophila, although more extreme with respect to

SOPHIA KATHARIOU; PHILIP T. SPIETH

1982-01-01

219

FUMONISIN MYCOTOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonsins are mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. These toxins are of concern because of their association with cancer in experimental rodents and the epidemiological correlation between consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize and human esophageal cancer. We hav...

220

Spatial and temporal dynamics of the colonization of Pinus radiata by Fusarium circinatum, of conidiophora development in the pith and of traumatic resin duct formation.  

PubMed

· Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease in a wide range of pine trees, including Pinus radiata, with devastating economic consequences. · To assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of growth of this pathogen in radiata pine, we examined the process of infection using both real-time PCR to quantify fungal biomass inside the plant host, and confocal microscopy using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of F. circinatum. · Pathogen growth exhibited three distinct phases: an initial exponential increase in fungal biomass, concomitant with pathogen colonization of the cortex and phloem; a slowdown in fungal growth coincident with sporulating hyphae deep within the host; and stabilization of the fungal biomass when the first wilting symptoms appeared. The number of resin ducts in the xylem was found to increase in response to infection and the fungus grew inside both constitutive and traumatic resin ducts. · These results indicate that conidiation may contribute to the spatial or temporal dissemination of the pathogen. Moreover, the present findings raise the intriguing possibility that the generation of traumatic resin ducts may be of more benefit to the fungus than to the plant. PMID:23496340

Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Espinel, Santiago; Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Ortíz, Amaia; González-Murua, Carmen; Duñabeitia, Miren K

2013-03-18

221

Expression of Baculovirus Anti-Apoptotic Genes p35 and op-iap in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Enhances Tolerance to Verticillium Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProgrammed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored.Methodology\\/Principal

Juan Tian; Xueyan Zhang; Benguo Liang; Shanwei Li; Zhixia Wu; Qianhua Wang; Chunxu Leng; Jiangli Dong; Tao Wang

2010-01-01

222

New outbreaks of verticillium wilt on Hop in Oregon caused by nonlethal verticillium albo-atrum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006 and 2007, new outbreaks of Verticillium wilt on hop were detected on two farms in Oregon. Verticillium pathogens vary in their virulence to hop; some strains cause minor damage but others can kill susceptible cultivars. Studies were conducted to determine the identity of the Verticillium sp...

223

A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secreted-in-xylem (SIX) proteins of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are secreted during infection of tomato and function in virulence or avirulence. F. oxysporum formae speciales have specific host ranges but the roles of SIX proteins in diverse hosts are unknown. We identified homologs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici SIX1, SIX4, SIX8, and SIX9 in the genome of Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176. A SIX4 homolog (termed Fo5176-SIX4) differed from that of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol-SIX4) by only two amino acids, and its expression was induced during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing Fo5176-SIX4 had increased disease symptoms with Fo5176. Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (?six4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. Full virulence was restored by complementation of ?six4 mutants with either Fo5176-SIX4 or Fol-SIX4. Thus, Fo5176-SIX4 contributes quantitatively to virulence on Arabidopsis whereas, in tomato, Fol-SIX4 acts in host specificity as both an avirulence protein and a suppressor of other race-specific resistances. The strong sequence conservation for SIX4 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Fo5176 suggests a recent common origin. PMID:21942452

Thatcher, Louise F; Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-02-01

224

Identification of virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by large-scale transposon tagging.  

PubMed

Forward genetic screens are efficient tools for the dissection of complex biological processes, such as fungal pathogenicity. A transposon tagging system was developed in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by inserting the novel modified impala element imp160::gfp upstream of the Aspergillus nidulans niaD gene, followed by transactivation with a constitutively expressed transposase. A collection of 2072 Nia(+) revertants was obtained from reporter strain T12 and screened for alterations in virulence, using a rapid assay for invasive growth on apple slices. Seven strains exhibited reduced virulence on both apple slices and intact tomato plants. Five of these were true revertants showing the re-insertion of imp160::gfp within or upstream of predicted coding regions, whereas the other two showed either excision without re-insertion or no excision. Linkage between imp160::gfp insertion and virulence phenotype was determined in four transposon-tagged loci using targeted deletion in the wild-type strain. Knockout mutants in one of the genes, FOXG_00016, displayed significantly reduced virulence, and complementation of the original revertant with the wild-type FOXG_00016 allele fully restored virulence. FOXG_00016 has homology to the velvet gene family of A. nidulans. The high rate of untagged virulence mutations in the T12 reporter strain appears to be associated with increased genetic instability, possibly as a result of the transactivation of endogenous transposable elements by the constitutively expressed transposase. PMID:19161356

López-Berges, Manuel Sánchez; DI Pietro, Antonio; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Wahab, Hala Abdel; Vasnier, Christelle; Roncero, M Isabel G; Dufresne, Marie; Hera, Concepción

2009-01-01

225

Role of the transcriptional activator xlnR of Fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.  

PubMed

Fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. The role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. Here, we have studied XlnR, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in Aspergillus spp. Transcription of the xlnR gene was activated by inducing carbon sources such as oat spelt xylan (OSX) and repressed by glucose. Targeted knockout of xlnR in F. oxysporum resulted in lack of transcriptional activation of structural xylanase genes, both in culture and during infection of tomato plants, as well as in dramatically reduced extracellular xylanase activity. By contrast, overexpression of xlnR under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter did not significantly increase xylanase activity, suggesting that XlnR is regulated not only at the transcriptional but also at the post-translational level. The deltaxlnR mutants were still fully virulent on tomato plants. Thus, XlnR, the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes, is not an essential virulence determinant in F. oxysporum. PMID:17722701

Calero-Nieto, Fernando; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hera, Concepcion

2007-08-01

226

Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment should ideally be based on the Fusarium isolate, susceptibility testing, and host-specific factors. Prognosis of fusariosis in the immunocompromised is directly related to a patient’s immune status. Prevention of Fusarium infection is recommended with aerosolized amphotericin B deoxycholate, which also has activity against other important fungi.

Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2013-01-01

227

Immunohistochemical analysis of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins in the roots of resistant and susceptible wax gourd cultivars in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Benincasae infection and fusaric acid treatment.  

PubMed

Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) play a defensive role in host-pathogen interactions. However, specific roles of individual HRGPs in plant defense against pathogen are poorly understood. Changes in extracellular distribution and abundance of individual cell wall HRGPs were investigated on root sections of two wax gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) cultivars (Fusarium wilt resistant and susceptible, respectively), which were analyzed by immunolabelling with 20 monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) after being inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Benincasae or treated with fusaric acid (FA). These analyses revealed the following: (1) The levels of JIM11 and JIM20 interacting extensins were higher in the resistant cultivar. Either treatment caused a dramatic decrease in signal in both cultivars, but some new signal appeared in the rhizodermis. (2) The AGPs or rhamnogalacturonan containing CCRCM7-epitope were enhanced in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible one by either treatment. (3) Either treatment caused a slight increase in the levels of the AGPs recognized by LM2 and JIM16, but there were no differences between two cultivars. (4) The MAC204 signal nearly disappeared after FA treatment, but this was not the case with pathogen attack. (5) The LM14 signal slightly decreased after both treatments in both cultivars, but a less decrease was observed with the resistant cultivar. These results indicate that the CCRCM7 epitope likely contributed to the resistance of wax gourd to this pathogen, and JIM11 and JIM20 interacting extensins as well as LM2, LM14, MAC204 and JIM16 interacting AGPs were involved in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:21505833

Xie, Dasen; Ma, Li; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

2011-04-20

228

Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11). Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth

Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

2006-01-01

229

Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

230

Biological control of alligatorweed ( Alternanthera philoxeroides ) with a Fusarium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroidesG.) has become a serious weed in different crops in China. A fungal pathogen was found in Chongqing and Sichuan Provinces and was identified as a species in the Fusarium genus. The fungus produced macroconidia and chlamydospores abundantly on potato sucrose agar (PSA) plates. The bestconidial production and germination and colonygrowth of Fusarium sp. were at 23–31°C and

W. Z. Tan; Q. J. Li; L. Qing

2002-01-01

231

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM COMPLEX INFERRED FROM GENE GENALOGIES & AFLP ANALYSES: EVIDENCE FOR THE RECENT DISPERSION OF A GEOGRAPHICALLY WIDESPREAD CLONAL LINEAGE & NOSOCOMIAL ORIG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi responsible for localized and systemic life-threatening opportunistic infections, respectively, in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients. Although members of this complex were isolate...

232

A Case of Primary Localized Cutaneous Infection Due to Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium is a ubiquitous hyalohyphomycete isolated from food, widespread in the environment (plants, soil) and present at all latitudes.\\u000a Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani are the most frequent pathogenic species, followed by F. moniliforme and F. chlamydosporum. Infections due to this mold may be disseminated or localized. Localized forms include cutaneous and subcutaneous infection,\\u000a onychomycosis, endophtalmitis, otitis, sinusitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis,

C. Romano; P. Caposciutti; A. Ghilardi; C. Miracco; M. Fimiani

2010-01-01

233

Pollution of Irrigation Reuse Water by Plant Pathogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systematic sampling of irrigation runoff and reuse systems in Nebraska demonstrated contamination of the water with plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. In designed reuse systems, nearly 60% of corn fields showing symptoms of Goss's bacterial wilt (Coryne...

J. R. Steadman

1979-01-01

234

Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.  

PubMed

Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite. PMID:23334041

Sever, Zdravka; Ivi?, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Mili?evi?, Tihomir

2012-12-01

235

Fusarium Solani: A Causative Agent of Skin and Nail Infections  

PubMed Central

Fusarium spp are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds found as saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are probably a result of various precipitating predisposing factors of impaired immune status. Immunocompetent individuals of late are also vulnerable to various unassuming saprophytic and plant pathogens. To stress the need to identify correctly and institute appropriate antifungal therapy in newly emerging human fungal infectious agents. Repeated mycological sampling of the skin and nails of the suspected fungal infection were processed as per the standard format including direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The fungus was isolated as Fusarium solani. Fusarium is an important plant pathogen and soil saprophyte. Infection is acquired by direct inoculation or inhalation of spores. It is associated with a variety of diseases like keratitis, onychomycosis, eumycetoma, skin lesions and disseminated diseases.

Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Dias, Meena

2012-01-01

236

Composition of the Fusarium graminearum species complex populations in wheat cropping environments in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises several toxigenic species that cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. In this study, high number (n=671 isolates) of pathogenic isolates (isolated from infected spikes) was obtained from a 3-year large-scale survey (2009-2011) conducted o...

237

Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use m...

238

Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.  

PubMed

Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. PMID:24055868

Mati?, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

2013-08-07

239

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri Race 1 Induced Redox State Alterations Are Coupled to Downstream Defense Signaling in Root Tissues of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea-Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes. PMID:24058463

Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

2013-09-13

240

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri Race 1 Induced Redox State Alterations Are Coupled to Downstream Defense Signaling in Root Tissues of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea–Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes.

Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

2013-01-01

241

Salmonella enterica strains belonging to O serogroup 1,3,19 induce chlorosis and wilting of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.  

PubMed

The number of outbreaks and illness linked to the consumption of contaminated salad leaves have increased dramatically in the last decade. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are the most common food-borne pathogens linked to consumption of fresh produce. Different serovars of S. enterica subspecies enterica have been shown to bind the surface of salad leaves, to exhibit tropism towards the stomata and to invade leaves and reach the underlying mesophyll. However the consequences of leaf invasion are not known. Here we show that following infiltration, serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg and Agona, as well as strains of S. enterica subspecies arizonae and diarizonae, survive in the mesophyll of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves but induce neither leaf chlorosis nor wilting. In contrast, S. Senftenberg induced strong leaf wilting 4 days post infiltration in A. thaliana accession Col-0 but not in accession Ws-0. Dead S. Senftenberg and bacterial lysates also induced leaf wilting. We found that mutations in the Arabidopsis pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition receptors (PRRs) FLS2, which recognizes flagellin, and EFR, which recognizes the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu, had no effect on the wilting response of A. thaliana to S. Senftenberg. Infiltration of A. thaliana leaves with serovars Cannstatt, Krefeld and Liverpool, which like Senftenberg belong to Salmonella serogroup E(4) (O:1,3,19), also resulted in rapid leaf wilting, while all tested rough S. Senftenberg strains (lacking the O antigen) failed to elicit leaf wilting. These results suggest that the Salmonella O antigen 1,3,19 specifically triggers leaf chlorosis and wilting in A. thaliana. PMID:21349136

Berger, Cedric N; Brown, Derek J; Shaw, Robert K; Minuzzi, Florencia; Feys, Bart; Frankel, Gad

2011-02-23

242

Fumonisin-nonproducing mutants exhibit differential expression of putative polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters in Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides produces a group of polyketide derived secondary metabolites called fumonisins. Fumonisins can cause diseases in animals, and have been correlated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. The fumonisin biosynthetic gene clust...

243

Identification of early fumonisin biosynthetic intermediates by inactivation of the FUM6 gene in Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and are associated with multiple human and animal diseases. A fumonisin biosynthetic pathway has been proposed, but structures of early pathway intermediates have not been demonstrated. The F. verticillioide...

244

Is California bay laurel a suitable host for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle, vector of laurel wilt disease?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt is a deadly vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae that kills healthy redbay (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other related hosts. The fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) and it vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) are native to Asia and ha...

245

Resistance gene analogues of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.): isolation, genetic mapping and association with a Fusarium resistance gene cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance gene analogues (RGAs) of Cicer were isolated by different PCR approaches and mapped in an inter-specific cross segregating for fusarium wilt by RFLP and CAPS analysis. Initially, two pairs of degenerate primers targeting sequences encoded at nucleotide-binding sites (NBS), which are conserved in plant disease resistance genes such as RPS2, L6 and N, were selected for amplification. Cloning and

B. Huettel; D. Santra; F. Muehlbauer; G. Kahl

2002-01-01

246

ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS FROM GIBBERELLA ZEAE (ANAMORPH FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is a broad host range pathogen that infects many crop plants, including wheat and barley, and causes head blight or rot diseases throughout the world. To better understand fungal development and pathogenicity in this important pathogen, we have now generated over 12,000 ESTs in...

247

Field performance of maize grown from Fusarium verticillioides -inoculated seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungus occupying dual roles in the maize plant. The fungus functions as an endophyte, a fungal\\/host interaction beneficial to the growth of some plants. At other times, the fungus may function as a mycotoxin producing pathogen. The advantages and\\/or disadvantages of the endophytic relationship must be established in order to target appropriate sites for controlling

I. E. Yates; N. W. Widstrom; C. W. Bacon; A. Glenn; D. M. Hinton; D. Sparks; A. J. Jaworski

2005-01-01

248

Update on Fusarium Race 4 Varietal Evaluations in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, differences have been noted in field situations with the fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vas infectum (FOV), in Acala and Pima cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Typically, earlier-recognized races of FOV only caused significant crop damage and yield impacts ...

249

CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES ALTERNATIVELY SPLICED AND OTHER ESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize worldwide and produces fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins that have been associated with several animal diseases and cancer in humans. The fumonisin biosynthetic genes are located in a co-regulated 15-member gene cluster spanning 43 kb of genomic sequ...

250

Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

251

Distribución Espacio Temporal de la Marchitez del Chile (Capsicum annuum L.) en Chihuahua e Identificación del Agente Causal Phytophthora capsici Leo. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Pepper Wilt in Chihuahua and Identification of the Causal Agent Phytophthora capsici Leo. (Capsicum annuum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora capsici is the oomycete that causes root rot and wilting of jalapeño pepper in the South Central region of Chihuahua State. The zoosporangia release zoospores which can spread by water surface movement, resulting in pathogen dispersion in places where it was not present yet. Therefore, the spatio-temporal distribution of wilting on jalapeño pepper was studied in 2002 and 2003

Hilda Victoria Silva-Rojas; Edo de México; Sylvia Patricia; Bertha Catalina Macías-López; Graciela Dolores Ávila-Quezada

252

A Phenome-Based Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in the Cereal Head Blight Fungus, Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen that causes head blight of major cereal crops. The fungus produces mycotoxins that are harmful to animal and human. In this study, a systematic analysis of 17 phenotypes of the mutants in 657 Fusarium graminearum genes encoding putative transcription factors (TFs) resulted in a database of over 11,000 phenotypes (phenome). This database provides

Hokyoung Son; Young-Su Seo; Kyunghun Min; Ae Ran Park; Jungkwan Lee; Jian-Ming Jin; Yang Lin; Peijian Cao; Sae-Yeon Hong; Eun-Kyung Kim; Seung-Ho Lee; Aram Cho; Seunghoon Lee; Myung-Gu Kim; Yongsoo Kim; Jung-Eun Kim; Jin-Cheol Kim; Gyung Ja Choi; Sung-Hwan Yun; Jae Yun Lim; Minkyun Kim; Yong-Hwan Lee; Yang-Do Choi; Yin-Won Lee

2011-01-01

253

Fusarium ear rot and how to screen for resistance in open pollinated maize in the Andean regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ears infected with ear rot were collected from five provinces in Ecuador. Of the 44 samples analysed 26 carried Fusarium verticillioides, 11 F. subglutinans, two F.\\u000a graminearum and five carried fungi different from Fusarium. The pathogenicity of ten isolates, seven of F. verticillioides and three of F. subglutinans, were tested. Per isolate 30 ears of the susceptible cultivar Mishca were

E. Silva; E. A. Mora; A. Medina; J. Vasquez; D. Valdez; D. L. Danial; J. E. Parlevliet

2007-01-01

254

Cell wilting and blossoming for energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider the adoption of sleep modes for the base stations of a cellular access network, focusing on the design of base station sleep and wake-up transients.. We discuss the main issues arising with this approach, and we focus on the design of base station sleep and wake-up transients, also known as cell wilting and blossoming. The

Alberto Conte; Afef Feki; Luca Chiaraviglio; Delia Ciullo; Michela Meo; MARCO AJMONE MARSAN

2011-01-01

255

Spore Killer Polymorphism in FUSARIUM MONILIFORME.  

PubMed

A Spore killer trait, which exhibits genetic and cytological properties analogous to those previously found in Neurospora, exists in natural populations of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme. The genogeography of the polymorphism in F. moniliforme differs from the situation in Neurospora intermedia. It is more akin to the situation in N. sitophila, although more extreme with respect to the prevalence of killer alleles: more than 80% of tested isolates of F. moniliforme carry the killer allele. Nevertheless, sensitive alleles are widely distributed and have been found in California, Italy, Greece and Central America. PMID:17246093

Kathariou, S; Spieth, P T

1982-09-01

256

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Evaluation of Fusarium Roseum 'Culmorum' as a Biological Control Agent for Hydrilla verticillata.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An isolate of Fusarium roseum 'Culmorum' was isolated in 1974 from diseased stratiotes aloides (Hydrocharitaceae) plants found new Wageningen, The Netherlands. In laboratory tests conducted in Gainesville, it was found to be pathogenic to a relative of S....

R. Charudattan T. E. Freeman R. E. Cullen F. M. Hofmeister

1984-01-01

257

Moniliformin, a Fusarium mycotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moniliformin (MON), mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium proliferatum and F. subglutinans, is a natural contaminant of maize and other cereals with levels up to 530 mg\\/kg. MON is a potent cardiotoxic and immunosuppressive compound, but it does not appear to be carcinogenic With the exception of fish, MON causes heart failure and acute death at high doses (110-200 mg MON\\/kg

Carmen Eugenia; Peralta Sanhueza; María Claudia Degrossi

2004-01-01

258

Biological Control Of Fusarium Head Blight Of Wheat And Deoxynivalenol Levels In Grain Via Use Of Microbial Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Efforts to reduce mycotoxin contamination in food logically start with minimizing plant infection by mycotoxin producing pathogens.Fusarium graminearum(perfect state,Gibberella zeae)infects wheat heads at flowering, causing the disease Fusarium head blight (FHB) and losses of over 2.6 billion dollars in\\u000a the U.S. during the last 10 years. The pathogen often produces deoxynivalenol (DON) resulting in grain size and quality reduction.\\u000a Highly

David A. Schisler; Naseem I. Khan; Michael J. Boehm

259

Bacillus mojavensis Intensified the Accumulation of Fungitoxic APO in the Presence of Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benzoxazolinones, specifically benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), are important transformation products of cyclic hydroxamic acids that can serve as allelochemicals providing resistance to maize from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and insects. However, maize pathogens such as Fusarium verticillioides a...

260

Bacillus mojavensis transforms BOA into fungitoxic APO in the presence of fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) is an important transformation product of cyclic hydroxamic acids of maize. This natural product has the potential of providing resistance to maize from Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize. However, it has been demonstrated that this maize pathogen and ...

261

Identification of up-regulated genes during zearalenone biosynthesis in Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusarium genus includes devastating plant pathogenic fungi that cause diseases in cereals around the world. They produce several mycotoxins,\\u000a including the estrogenic compound zearalenone. To better understand the molecular mechanisms determining zearalenone production,\\u000a we performed differential display RT-PCR under conditions where Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum produced high amounts of zearalenone. We found 133 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and

Erik Lysøe; Karen R. Bone; Sonja S. Klemsdal

2008-01-01

262

Analysis of chitinase isoenzymes in sorghum seedlings inoculated with Fusarium thapsinum or F. proliferatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted on the chitinase isoenzymes in various tissues of 1-week-old sorghum seedlings that had been inoculated with the fungal pathogens Fusarium thapsinum and Fusarium proliferatum. Electrophoresis of non-denatured extracts on SDS-PAGE gels revealed at least 11 bands of activity. Using native PAGE gels, seven acidic isoenzymes and four basic isoenzymes were identified. Two acidic chitinases were expressed

Lian-Dong Huang; David Backhouse

2006-01-01

263

The composition of root exudates from two different resistant peanut cultivars and their effects on the growth of soil-borne pathogen.  

PubMed

The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China. PMID:23412138

Li, Xiao-gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; Zhao, Ling; Han, Zheng-min

2013-02-01

264

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to Fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are amongst the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease resulting in yield loss and head blight disease also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of the barley cultivar (cv.) Lux reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86 % and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28% and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the barley cvs. Lux and Akashinriki, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine if growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post-F. culmorum inoculation, there were a total of 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48 h time point (n = 118). Real-time RT-PCR analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defence genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodelling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis and pathogenesis related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin; Kumar, Sunil; Doohan, Fiona; Khan, Mojibur

2013-06-18

265

Influence of Maize Root Colonization by the Rhizosphere Actinomycetes and Yeast Fungi on Plant Growth and on the Biological Control of Late Wilt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of 85 actinomycetes and 40 yeast fungi were obtained from the rhizosphere of maize plant (Zea mays L.) and were screened for in vitro antagonism to Cephalosporium maydis, a causal agent of late wilt disease of maize. Of these, six actinomycetes and five yeast fungi isolates were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro. The isolates

ADEL A. EL-MEHALAWY; NAZIHA M. HASSANEIN; HEND M. KHATER; EL-ZAHRAA A. KARAM EL-DIN; YOUSSEF A. YOUSSEF

266

A new wilt and die-back disease of Acacia mangium associated with Ceratocystis manginecans and C. acaciivora sp. nov. in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to identify these Ceratocystis isolates and to investigate their ability to cause disease on two plantation-grown Acacia spp. using greenhouse and field inoculation

M. Tarigan; J. Roux; M. Van Wyk; B. Tjahjono; M. J. Wingfield

2011-01-01

267

Making headway in understanding pine wilt disease: what do we perceive in the postgenomic era?  

PubMed

The advent of next generation sequencing has revolutionized research approaches to biology by making entire genome sequences available and marking a new age in biology that has the potential to open innovative research avenues in various fields. Genome sequencing is now being applied in the fields of forest ecology and forest pathology, which previously had limited access to molecular techniques. One of the most advanced areas of progress is the study of "pine wilt disease", which is caused by the parasitic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The entire genome sequence of B. xylophilus was determined in 2011, and since then, proteomic studies have been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the parasitism and pathogenicity of B. xylophilus. These postgenomic studies have provided numerous molecular insights and greatly changed our understanding of the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease. Here, we review the recent advances in genomic and proteomic approaches that address some of the longstanding questions behind the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease and have identified future questions and directions in this regard. PMID:23474098

Shinya, Ryoji; Morisaka, Hironobu; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2013-03-07

268

DIVERSITY IN FUSARIUM FROM SUGAR BEET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium yellows of sugar beet can cause reductions in root yield in addition to reducing sucrose percentage and purity in the root. The primary causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), although F. acuminatum can cause Fusarium yellows symptoms. Fusarium species also can cause root r...

269

Ralstonia solanacearum Extracellular Polysaccharide Is a Specific Elicitor of Defense Responses in Wilt-Resistant Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of diverse plants, produces copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. The function of EPS in wilt disease is uncertain. Leading hypotheses are that EPS physically obstructs plant water transport, or that EPS cloaks the bacterium from host plant recognition and subsequent defense. Tomato plants infected with R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 upregulated genes in both the ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) defense signal transduction pathways. The horizontally wilt-resistant tomato line Hawaii7996 activated expression of these defense genes faster and to a greater degree in response to R. solanacearum infection than did susceptible cultivar Bonny Best. However, EPS played different roles in resistant and susceptible host responses to R. solanacearum. In susceptible plants the wild-type and eps? mutant strains induced generally similar defense responses. But in resistant Hawaii7996 tomato plants, the wild-type pathogens induced significantly greater defense responses than the eps? mutants, suggesting that the resistant host recognizes R. solanacearum EPS. Consistent with this idea, purified EPS triggered significant SA pathway defense gene expression in resistant, but not in susceptible, tomato plants. In addition, the eps? mutant triggered noticeably less production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species in resistant tomato stems and leaves, despite attaining similar cell densities in planta. Collectively, these data suggest that bacterial wilt-resistant plants can specifically recognize EPS from R. solanacearum.

Milling, Annett; Babujee, Lavanya; Allen, Caitilyn

2011-01-01

270

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4  

PubMed Central

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar ‘Brazilian’ in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar ‘Yueyoukang 1’. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of ‘Yueyoukang 1’ and ‘Brazilian’ and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, especially at the first three time points, which suggested that ‘Yueyoukang 1’ had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than ‘Brazilian’. Expression patterns of genes involved in ‘Plant-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Plant hormone signal transduction’ pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in ‘Yueyoukang 1’ than ‘Brazilian’, indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in ‘Brazilian’ but down-regulated in ‘Yueyoukang 1’, which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang 1’ was found to differ from that in middle resistant ‘Nongke No 1’ banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4.

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-01-01

271

Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Roots Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4.  

PubMed

Banana wilt disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (Foc4), is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. Cavendish cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1' was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar 'Brazilian' in greenhouse and field trials. De novo sequencing technology was previously performed to investigate defense mechanism in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana, but not in highly resistant cultivar 'Yueyoukang 1'. To gain more insights into the resistance mechanism in banana against Foc4, Illumina Solexa sequencing technology was utilized to perform transcriptome sequencing of 'Yueyoukang 1' and 'Brazilian' and characterize gene expression profile changes in the both two cultivars at days 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 after infection with Foc4. The results showed that more massive transcriptional reprogramming occurs due to Foc4 treatment in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', especially at the first three time points, which suggested that 'Yueyoukang 1' had much faster defense response against Foc4 infection than 'Brazilian'. Expression patterns of genes involved in 'Plant-pathogen interaction' and 'Plant hormone signal transduction' pathways were analyzed and compared between the two cultivars. Defense genes associated with CEBiP, BAK1, NB-LRR proteins, PR proteins, transcription factor and cell wall lignification were expressed stronger in 'Yueyoukang 1' than 'Brazilian', indicating that these genes play important roles in banana against Foc4 infection. However, genes related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) and senescence were up-regulated in 'Brazilian' but down-regulated in 'Yueyoukang 1', which suggested that HR and senescence may contribute to Foc4 infection. In addition, the resistance mechanism in highly resistant 'Yueyoukang 1' was found to differ from that in middle resistant 'Nongke No 1' banana. These results explain the resistance in the highly resistant cultivar and provide more insights in understanding the compatible and incompatible interactions between banana and Foc4. PMID:24086302

Bai, Ting-Ting; Xie, Wan-Bin; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Wu, Zi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Jie; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Hua-Ping

2013-09-23

272

Proteomic analysis of fungal host factors differentially expressed by Fusarium graminearum infected with Fusarium graminearum virus-DK21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum virus–DK21 (FgV-DK21), which infects the plant pathogenic F. graminearum, perturbs host developmental processes such as sporulation, morphology, pigmentation, and attenuates the virulence (hypovirulence) of the host. To identify the differentially expressed F. graminearum proteins by FgV-DK21 infection, we have used two-dimensional electrophoresis with mass spectrometry using proteins extracted from virus-free and FgV-DK21-infected strains. A total of 148 spots

Sun-Jung Kwon; Sang-Yun Cho; Kyung-Mi Lee; Jisuk Yu; Moonil Son; Kook-Hyung Kim

2009-01-01

273

Genome regions' putative association with Fusarium wilt or root-knot nematode resistance in cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Around 1,300 microsatellite or SSR markers [named MUSB001 – MUSB1316 (600 informative)] were developed at the USDA-ARS, WICSRU Shafter, CA with the support of cooperators and Cotton Incorporated. These MUSB markers were developed from BAC-end DNA sequence information from a previously developed BAC ...

274

An easy and efficient protocol in the production of pflp transgenic banana against Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two subgroups of genotype AAA bananas (Musa acuminata cv. Pei Chiao and Musa acuminata cv. Gros Michel). Instead of using suspension cells, cauliflower-like bud clumps, also known as multiple bud clumps (MBC),\\u000a were induced from sucker buds on MS medium containing N\\u000a 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), and Paclobutrazol (PP333).

Mei-Kuen Yip; Sin-Wan Lee; Kuei-Ching Su; Yi-Hsien Lin; Tai-Yang Chen; Teng-Yung Feng

2011-01-01

275

Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens. PMID:22416119

de Jonge, Ronnie; van Esse, H Peter; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Bolton, Melvin D; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Zhang, Zhao; Usami, Toshiyuki; Lievens, Bart; Subbarao, Krishna V; Thomma, Bart P H J

2012-03-13

276

Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens.

de Jonge, Ronnie; Peter van Esse, H.; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Bolton, Melvin D.; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Zhang, Zhao; Usami, Toshiyuki; Lievens, Bart; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2012-01-01

277

Naphthoquinone Antibiotics from 'Fusarium solani'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to new naphthoquinone derivatives which exhibit antibiotic activity. Three naphthoquinones isolated from cultures of Fusarium solani were found to be effective antibiotics against gram-positive bacteria. Controlling the dissolved oxy...

R. A. Baker J. H. Tatum

1988-01-01

278

Mycoses of wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) larvae by Fusarium spp. isolates.  

PubMed

A complex of Fusarium spp., including F. pseudograminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. acuminatum, was isolated from field-collected larval cadavers of wheat stem sawfly at two locations for 2 yr. The Fusarium spp. isolates caused mortality in both diapausing larvae in a topical bioassay and in developing larvae feeding in infected stems in a greenhouse experiment. Larval mortality was >90% in both experiments at the highest dose. The pattern of correlation between integument discoloration, hyphal growth, and larval mortality showed that the Fusarium spp. isolates actively infect larvae and kill them, rather than colonizing larval tissue as secondary postmortem invaders. The versatility of Fusarium spp. as plant and insect pathogens enables colonization that results in disease in wheat plants and subsequent mortality of the wheat stem sawfly larvae developing within the same tissue. PMID:19389287

Wenda-Piesik, Anna; Sun, Zhitan; Grey, William E; Weaver, David K; Morrill, Wendell L

2009-04-01

279

MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM SOLANI SPECIES COMPLEX CAUSING INFECTIONS IN BOTH HUMANS AND PLANTS ARE THOSE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are increasingly implicated as the causative agents of human mycoses, particularly in the expanding immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patient populations. Best known as ubiquitous plant pathogens and saprotrophs, members of FSSC comprise ov...

280

Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

2006-06-01

281

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

282

Molecular Phylogenetic Diversity, Multilocus Haplotype Nomenclature, and In Vitro Antifungal Resistance within the Fusarium solani Species Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the species-rich Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are responsible for approximately two- thirds all fusarioses of humans and other animals. In addition, many economically important phytopathogenic species are nested within this complex. Due to their increasing clinical relevance and because most of the human pathogenic and plant pathogenic FSSC lack Latin binomials, we have extended the multilocus haplotype

Kerry O'Donnell; Deanna A. Sutton; Annette Fothergill; Dora McCarthy; Michael G. Rinaldi

2008-01-01

283

The In Planta Transcriptome of Ralstonia solanacearum: Conserved Physiological and Virulence Strategies during Bacterial Wilt of Tomato  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Plant xylem fluid is considered a nutrient-poor environment, but the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to 108 to 109 CFU/g tomato stem. To better understand how R. solanacearum succeeds in this habitat, we analyzed the transcriptomes of two phylogenetically distinct R. solanacearum strains that both wilt tomato, strains UW551 (phylotype II) and GMI1000 (phylotype I). We profiled bacterial gene expression at ~6 × 108 CFU/ml in culture or in plant xylem during early tomato bacterial wilt pathogenesis. Despite phylogenetic differences, these two strains expressed their 3,477 common orthologous genes in generally similar patterns, with about 12% of their transcriptomes significantly altered in planta versus in rich medium. Several primary metabolic pathways were highly expressed during pathogenesis. These pathways included sucrose uptake and catabolism, and components of these pathways were encoded by genes in the scrABY cluster. A UW551 scrA mutant was significantly reduced in virulence on resistant and susceptible tomato as well as on potato and the epidemiologically important weed host Solanum dulcamara. Functional scrA contributed to pathogen competitive fitness during colonization of tomato xylem, which contained ~300 µM sucrose. scrA expression was induced by sucrose, but to a much greater degree by growth in planta. Unexpectedly, 45% of the genes directly regulated by HrpB, the transcriptional activator of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were upregulated in planta at high cell densities. This result modifies a regulatory model based on bacterial behavior in culture, where this key virulence factor is repressed at high cell densities. The active transcription of these genes in wilting plants suggests that T3SS has a biological role throughout the disease cycle.

Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Babujee, Lavanya; Meng, Fanhong; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2012-01-01

284

Transcriptional Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana during Wilt Disease Caused by the Soil-Borne Phytopathogenic Bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt is a common disease that causes severe yield and quality losses in many plants. In the present study, we used the model Ralstonia solanacearum-Arabidopsis thaliana pathosystem to study transcriptional changes associated with wilt disease development. Susceptible Col-5 plants and RRS1-R-containing resistant Nd-1 plants were root-inoculated with R. solanacearum strains harbouring or lacking the matching PopP2 avirulence gene. Gene expression was marginally affected in leaves during the early stages of infection. Major changes in transcript levels took place between 4 and 5 days after pathogen inoculation, at the onset of appearance of wilt symptoms. Up-regulated genes in diseased plants included ABA-, senescence- and basal resistance-associated genes. The influence of the plant genetic background on disease-associated gene expression is weak although some genes appeared to be specifically up-regulated in Nd-1 plants. Inactivation of some disease-associated genes led to alterations in the plant responses to a virulent strain of the pathogen. In contrast to other pathosystems, very little overlap in gene expression was detected between the early phases of the resistance response and the late stages of disease development. This observation may be explained by the fact that above-ground tissues were sampled for profiling whereas the bacteria were applied to root tissues. This exhaustive analysis of Arabidopsis genes whose expression is modulated during bacterial wilt development paves the way for dissecting plant networks activated by recognition of R. solanacearum effectors in susceptible plants.

Deslandes, Laurent; Hirsch, Judith; Feng, Dong Xin; Somssich, Imre; Marco, Yves

2008-01-01

285

Expression Analysis of Defense-Related Genes in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) after Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Infection and Following Chemical Elicitation using a Salicylic Acid Analog and Methyl Jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is considered as a major threat for commercial cotton production worldwide. Relative expression ratios of two key pathogenesis-related\\u000a (PR) genes (PR-3 and PR-10) and a detoxification gene (GST18) were compared between a fully susceptible (“LACTA”) and a partially field-resistant (“EMERALD”) cultivar after challenging\\u000a with an Australian Fov isolate,

Antonios G. Zambounis; Mairi S. Kalamaki; Eleni E. Tani; Epameinondas J. Paplomatas; Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

286

FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS: CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, AND BIOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This comprehensive book examines the chemistry, genetics and biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. Five chapters review the toxicity, natural occurrence, and genetics of agriculturally significant mycotoxins. Forty-two reports update the taxonomy, occurrence, and mycotoxicology of Fusarium species. Thi...

287

Early activation of wheat polyamine biosynthesis during Fusarium head blight implicates putrescine as an inducer of trichothecene mycotoxin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease on wheat which can lead to trichothecene mycotoxin (e.g. deoxynivalenol, DON) contamination of grain, harmful to mammalian health. DON is produced at low levels under standard culture conditions when compared to plant infection but specific polyamines (e.g. putrescine and agmatine) and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine) are

Donald M Gardiner; Kemal Kazan; Sebastien Praud; Francois J Torney; Anca Rusu; John M Manners

2010-01-01

288

Phytophthora cinnamomi and other fine root pathogens in north temperate pine forests.  

PubMed

A number of fine root pathogens, including Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, Pythium undulatum, Pythium violae, Fusarium sp., and two incompletely identified Verticillium species, were isolated from soils taken from under Scots pine trees at five sites in north Scotland, including semi-natural forests and plantations. At least two root pathogens were recovered from each forest. Morphological and molecular data supported the identification of Phytophthora cinnamomi from three of the sites investigated. Isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum and an incompletely identified Fusarium sp. caused growth reductions of Scots pine seedlings, as determined by dry weight; the most virulent species were Phytophthora cinnamomi and Fusarium sp. The most severe disease symptoms were caused by a mixed inoculum containing Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum and Fusarium sp., or by the Fusarium isolate alone. These nonspecific pathogens may persist on the roots of understorey and herbaceous plants in the pine forests. PMID:17937665

Chavarriaga, Didier; Bodles, William J A; Leifert, Carlo; Belbahri, Lassaad; Woodward, Steve

2007-11-01

289

Selection of bacterial wilt-resistant tomato through tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt-resistant plants were obtained using a tomato tissue culture system. A virulent strain ofPseudomonas solanacearum secreted some toxic substances into the culture medium. Leaf explant-derived callus tissues which were resistant to these toxic substances in the culture filtrate were selectedin vitro and regenerated into plants. These plants expressed bacterial wilt resistance at the early infection stage to suppress or

Hideyoshi Toyoda; Kunihiko Shimizu; Kazuyuki Chatani; Nobuhiro Kita; Yoshinori Matsuda; Seiji Ouchi

1989-01-01

290

On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

291

Altered expression of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters in fumonisin-deficient mutants of Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and produces fumonisins, a group of polyketide derived secondary metabolites. Fumonisins cause diseases in animals, and they have been correlated epidemiologically with esophageal cancer and birth defects in humans. Fumonisin biosynthetic genes are c...

292

Functional Analysis of the Kinome of the Wheat Scab Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of many plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 protein kinases (PK) genes. Although twenty of them appeared to be essential, we generated deletion mutants for the other

Chenfang Wang; Shijie Zhang; Rui Hou; Zhongtao Zhao; Qian Zheng; Qijun Xu; Dawei Zheng; Guanghui Wang; Huiquan Liu; Xuli Gao; Ji-Wen Ma; H. Corby Kistler; Zhensheng Kang; Jin-Rong Xu

2011-01-01

293

EARLY INFECTION OF SOYBEAN ROOTS BY FUSARIUM SOLANI F. SP. GLYCINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, the causal organism of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), is a major pathogen of soybean in the United States. SDS is known as a late season disease although it is known that the fungus infects soybean early in the season; however, it is not known how early infecti...

294

How does VeA effect secondary metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium fujikuroi is best known as a pathogen of rice that causes hyper elongation of seedling stalks and leaves due to the production of gibberellic acids (GAs). Besides GAs, F. fujikuroi may also synthesize other toxins like fumonisins, fusarin C, and bikaverin as well as carotenoids. Although ...

295

Improved Colonization of East African Highland Musa Tissue Culture Plants by Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum inoculated into banana (Musa spp.) tissue culture plants can provide protection against banana weevils (Cosmopolites sordidus) and nematodes (Radopholus similis). The degree of control probably depends, in part, upon the level of endophyte establishment following inoculation. In this study, we compared three methods of inoculating endophytic fungi into eight week-old tissue culture plants: (1) Dipping the

P. Paparu; T. Dubois; C. S. Gold; B. Niere; E. Adipala; D. L. Coyne

2006-01-01

296

Fusarium culmorum is a single phylogenetic species based on multilocus sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium culmorum is a major pathogen of wheat and barley causing head blight and crown rot in cooler temperate climates of Australia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To better understand its evolutionary history we partially sequenced single copy nuclear genes encoding translation elongation factor 1-? (TEF), reductase (RED) and phosphate permease (PHO) in 100 F. culmorum isolates with 11

Friday Obanor; G. Erginbas-Orakci; B. Tunali; J. M. Nicol; S. Chakraborty

2010-01-01

297

Molecular relationships of fungi within the Fusarium redolens - F. hostae clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary relationships of fungi in the Fusarium redolens - F. hostae clade were investigated by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies for 37 isolates representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity of this lineage, together with 15 isolates from putative sister groups that include the Gibberella fujikuroi and F. oxysporum species complexes and related species. Included in the analyses

Robert P. Baayen; Kerry O'Donnell; Suzanne Breeuwsma; David M. Geiser; Cees Waalwijk

2001-01-01

298

Differentiation of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini by Histone Gene Sequence Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini (5 F. circinatum) is a pathogen of pine and is one of eight mating populations (i.e., biological species) in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. This species complex includes F. thapsinum, F. moniliforme (5 F. verticillioides), F. nygamai, and F. proliferatum, as well as F. subglutinans associated with sugarcane, maize, mango, and pineapple. Differentiating these forms

E. T. STEENKAMP; B. D. WINGFIELD; T. A. COUTINHO; M. J. WINGFIELD; W. F. O. MARASAS

1999-01-01

299

Use of RT-PCR to detect fusarium verticilloides during endophytic colonization of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important world wide pathogens of maize, causing yield loss as well as health problems for livestock and humans through the ingestion of fumonisin contaminated grain. Of particular concern is the ability of F. verticillioides to establish an asymptomatic ...

300

A Genetic Mechanism for Emergence of Races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: Inactivation of Avirulence Gene AVR1 by Transposon Insertion  

PubMed Central

Compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and tomato Solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (AVR1–3) in FOL and the corresponding resistance genes (I–I3) in tomato. The three known races (1, 2 and 3) of FOL carry AVR genes in different combinations. The current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in AVR genes is: i) FOL race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the AVR1 and thus avoiding host resistance mediated by I (the resistance gene corresponding to AVR1), and ii) race 3 emerged when race 2 sustained a point mutation in AVR2, allowing it to evade I2-mediated resistance of the host. Here, an alternative mechanism of mutation of AVR genes was determined by analyses of a race 3 isolate, KoChi-1, that we recovered from a Japanese tomato field in 2008. Although KoChi-1 is race 3, it has an AVR1 gene that is truncated by the transposon Hormin, which belongs to the hAT family. This provides evidence that mobile genetic elements may be one of the driving forces underlying race evolution. KoChi-1 transformants carrying a wild type AVR1 gene from race 1 lost pathogenicity to cultivars carrying I, showing that the truncated KoChi-1 avr1 is not functional. These results imply that KoChi-1 is a new race 3 biotype and propose an additional path for emergence of FOL races: Race 2 emerged from race 1 by transposon-insertion into AVR1, not by deletion of the AVR1 locus; then a point mutation in race 2 AVR2 resulted in emergence of race 3.

Inami, Keigo; Yoshioka-Akiyama, Chizu; Morita, Yasuaki; Yamasaki, Mutsuko; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

301

Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype

Benoît Remenant; Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland; Alice Guidot; Gilles Cellier; Emmanuel Wicker; Caitilyn Allen; Mark Fegan; Olivier Pruvost; Mounira Elbaz; Alexandra Calteau; Gregory Salvignol; Damien Mornico; Sophie Mangenot; Valérie Barbe; Claudine Médigue; Philippe Prior

2010-01-01

302

Antifungal properties of essential oils from Thai medical plants against rice pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study was aimed to evaluate the mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition properties of essential oils. Two Thai medicinal plants; Frankincense oil (Boswellia carteri Bird.) and Cassia oil (Acacia farnesiana Linn) were applied against 7 species of economically important rice pathogenic fungi; Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, Pyricularia arisea and Rhizoctonia solani.

Apinya Piyo; Pitipong Thobunluepop

303

Development of a novel multiplex DNA microarray for Fusarium graminearum and analysis of azole fungicide responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The toxigenic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum compromises wheat production worldwide. Azole fungicides play a prominent role in controlling this pathogen. Sequencing of its genome stimulated the development of high-throughput technologies to study mechanisms of coping with fungicide stress and adaptation to fungicides at a previously unprecedented precision. DNA-microarrays have been used to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns and

Rayko Becher; Fabian Weihmann; Holger B Deising; Stefan GR Wirsel

2011-01-01

304

Loss of function of the Fusarium oxysporum SNF1 gene reduces virulence on cabbage and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. Production of these enzymes in fungi is subject to carbon catabolite repression, a process that in yeast is mostly controlled by the SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1) gene. To elucidate the role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity, we cloned and disrupted its SNF1 homologue ( FoSNF1).

Manuel D. Ospina-Giraldo; Ewen Mullins; Seogchan Kang

2003-01-01

305

Heading for disaster: Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The rapid global re-emergence of Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley in the last decade along with contamination of grains with mycotoxins attributable to the disease have spurred basic research on the fungal causal agent. As a result, Fusarium graminearum quickly has become one of the most intensively studied fungal plant pathogens. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the pathogenicity, population genetics, evolution and genomics of Fusarium graminearum. Taxonomy: Based on the sexual state Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch: Superkingdom Eukaryota; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Subphylum Pezizomycotina; Class Sordariomycetidae; Subclass Hypocreomycetidae; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Gibberella. Host range: The pathogen is capable of causing head blight or 'scab' on wheat (Triticum), barley (Hordeum), rice (Oryza), oats (Avena) and Gibberella stalk and ear rot disease on maize (Zea). The fungus also may infect other plant species without causing disease symptoms. Other host genera cited for Gibberella zeae or F. graminearum sensu lato (see below) are Agropyron, Agrostis, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Cenchrus, Cortaderia, Cucumis, Echinochloa, Glycine, Hierochloe, Lolium, Lycopersicon, Medicago, Phleum, Poa, Schizachyrium, Secale, Setaria, Sorghum, Spartina and Trifolium. Disease symptoms and signs: For wheat, brown, dark purple to black necrotic lesions form on the exterior surface of the florets and glume (Fig. 1). Although these lesion symptoms sometimes are referred to as scab, they are not formally related to the hyperplasia and hypertrophic epidermal growth associated with other scab diseases such as apple scab. Peduncles immediately below the inflorescence may become discoloured brown/purple. With time, tissue of the inflorescence often becomes blighted, appearing bleached and tan, while the grain within atrophies. Awns often become deformed, twisted and curved downward. In barley, infections are not always readily apparent in the field. Infected spikelets may show a browning or water-soaked appearance. Infected barley kernels show a tan to dark brown discolouration that can be similar to that caused by other kernel blighting organisms. During prolonged wet periods, pink to salmon-orange spore masses of the fungus are often seen on infected spikelets, glumes and kernels in both wheat and barley. For maize ear rot, infection occurs by way of colonizing silk and thus symptoms first appear at the ear apex. White mycelium, turning pink to red with time, colonizes kernels and may progress basipetally, covering the entire ear. Useful websites: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annotation/fungi/fusarium/mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/fusarium/ http://www.cdl.umn.edu/scab/gz-consort.html http://www.scabusa.org/ PMID:20565626

Goswami, Rubella S; Kistler, H Corby

2004-11-01

306

ROOT DEFENSE RESPONSES TO PATHOGENS AND PARASITES: A MOLECULAR PERSPECTIVE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review will focus on the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying defense responses of roots to fungal pathogens. Soil-borne pathogens, including Phytophthora, Pythium, Fusarium, and Bipolaris, represent major sources of biotic stress in the rhizosphere and roots of plants. Molecular recog...

307

Disease Interactions in a Shared Host Plant: Effects of Pre-Existing Viral Infection on Cucurbit Plant Defense Responses and Resistance to Bacterial Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and hence pathogen acquisition by) cucumber beetles.

Mauck, Kerry E.; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.

2013-01-01

308

Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.  

PubMed

Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and hence pathogen acquisition by) cucumber beetles. PMID:24155951

Shapiro, Lori R; Salvaudon, Lucie; Mauck, Kerry E; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C

2013-10-14

309

Impact of formulation procedures on the effect of the biocontrol agent Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 on Verticillium wilt in oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verticillium wilt is an important disease in oilseed rape with an increasing importance worldwide. Currently, there are no\\u000a methods available to suppress the pathogen. A biological protection strategy on the basis of the plant-beneficial bacterium\\u000a Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 to control Verticillium\\u000a dahliae in oilseed rape was developed. Three different techniques to apply the biocontrol agent to seeds, namely pelleting, film

Henry Müller; Gabriele Berg

2008-01-01

310

Fusarium polycaprolactone depolymerase is cutinase.  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polyester, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms, including some phytopathogens. Many phytopathogens secrete cutinase, a serine hydrolase that degrades cutin, the structural polymer of the plant cuticle. We compared wild-type strains and a cutinase-negative gene replacement mutant strain of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (D. J. Stahl and W. Schäfer, Plant Cell 4:621-629, 1992) and a wild-type strain of Fusarium moniliforme to show that Fusarium cutinase is a PCL depolymerase. The wild-type strains, but not the mutant strain, (i) degraded PCL and used it as a source of carbon and energy, (ii) showed induction of secreted PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of cutin, and (iii) showed induction of PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of a hydrolysate of PCL, which contains PCL oligomers that are structurally similar to the natural inducers of cutinase. These results together with other details of regulation and conditions for optimal enzyme activity indicate that the Fusarium PCL depolymerase, required for degradation and utilization of PCL, is cutinase.

Murphy, C A; Cameron, J A; Huang, S J; Vinopal, R T

1996-01-01

311

Actual situation in Fusarium taxonomy.  

PubMed

The importance of choosing the proper systematic system in Fusarium taxonomy is stated and a comparative listing of synonyms of the sections Sporotrichiella, Roseum, Liseola, Discolor, Gibbosum, Martiella, as used by various authors in three monographs, is given (2, 4, 9). PMID:23605006

Nirenberg, H I

1987-03-01

312

Invasive Infection with Fusarium chlamydosporum in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of invasive disease caused by Fusarium chlamydosporum. The patient had aplastic anemia with prolonged neutropenia and was treated with immunosuppressive therapy. While she was receiving empirical amphotericin B, a dark crusted lesion developed on her nasal turbinate. Histologic analysis revealed invasive hyaline hyphae and some darkly pigmented structures that resembled conidia of dematiaceous molds. Only after the mold was grown in culture were characteristic colonial morphology, phialides, conidia, and chlamydospores evident, thus permitting the identification of F. chlamydosporum. This case illustrates the ever-increasing spectrum of pathogenic Fusarium spp. in immunocompromised patients and emphasizes the potential pitfalls in histologic diagnosis, which may have important treatment implications.

Segal, Brahm H.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Liu, Johnson M.; Wilson, Jon D.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

1998-01-01

313

[Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].  

PubMed

Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. The results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. Allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum in continuous cropping soybean was distinctly larger than that in rotation soybean, and the difference reached significant level under their low concentration. Allelopathic promotion of high concentration of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum was smaller than that of low concentration of root exudates, and the difference reached significant level in continuous cropping soybean. Allelopathic inhibition of high concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid (L5 and B5) on the growth of Fusarium semitectum. Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level compared with the control. However, allelopathic promotion of low concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum partly reached significant level. PMID:12216402

Ju, Huiyan; Han, Limei; Wang, Shuqi; Cong, Dengli

2002-06-01

314

On the trail of a cereal killer: recent advances in Fusarium graminearum pathogenomics and host resistance.  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage: Gibberella zeae) causes the devastating head blight or scab disease on wheat and barley, and cob or ear rot disease on maize. Fusarium graminearum infection causes significant crop and quality losses. In addition to roles as virulence factors during pathogenesis, trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g. deoxynivalenol) produced by this pathogen constitute a significant threat to human and animal health if consumed in respective food or feed products. In the last few years, significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the processes involved in F. graminearum pathogenesis, toxin biosynthesis and host resistance mechanisms through the use of high-throughput genomic and phenomic technologies. In this article, we briefly review these new advances and also discuss how future research can contribute to the development of sustainable plant protection strategies against this important plant pathogen. PMID:22098555

Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M

2011-11-20

315

Fungal Pathogens Associated with Banana Fruit in Sri Lanka, and their Treatment with Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collectedfrom 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated wereable to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F.

Sulali Anthony; Krishanthi Abeywickrama; Ranjith Dayananda; Shanthi WilsonWijeratnam; Luxshmi Arambewela

2004-01-01

316

Ice Nucleation Activity in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum†  

PubMed Central

Twenty fungal genera, including 14 Fusarium species, were examined for ice nucleation activity at ?5.0°C, and this activity was found only in Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium avenaceum. This characteristic is unique to these two species. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was compared with ice nucleation activity of a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Cumulative nucleus spectra are similar for both microorganisms, while the maximum temperatures of ice nucleation were ?2.5°C for F. avenaceum and ?1.0°C for the bacteria. Ice nucleation activity of F. avenaceum was stable at pH levels from 1 to 13 and tolerated temperature treatments up to 60°C, suggesting that these ice nuclei are more similar to lichen ice nuclei than to bacterial ones. Ice nuclei of F. avenaceum, unlike bacterial ice nuclei, pass through a 0.22-?m-pore-size filter. Fusarial nuclei share some characteristics with the so-called leaf-derived nuclei with which they might be identified: they are cell free and stable up to 60°C, and they are found in the same kinds of environment. Highly stable ice nuclei produced by fast-growing microorganisms have potential applications in biotechnology. This is the first report of ice nucleation activity in free-living fungi.

Pouleur, Stephan; Richard, Claude; Martin, Jean-Guy; Antoun, Hani

1992-01-01

317

Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM 2 Implicates Tyrosine-Sulfated Peptide Signaling in Susceptibility and Resistance to Root Infection  

PubMed Central

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

318

Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to fusarium oxysporum 2 implicates tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling in susceptibility and resistance to root infection.  

PubMed

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0) and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0) to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP) genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits. PMID:23717215

Shen, Yunping; Diener, Andrew C

2013-05-23

319

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) WITH ANTIFUNGAL PROTEINS OR PEPTIDES TO CONFER ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO FUNGAL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton crop is affected by several fungal and bacterial pathogens, and the average annual cotton production loss due to diseases in the United States is about 12 percent. The seedling disease complex, fungal wilt pathogens, and boll rots are the major cotton diseases worldwide. Cottonseed is also ...

320

Fusarium culmorum is a single phylogenetic species based on multilocus sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Fusarium culmorum is a major pathogen of wheat and barley causing head blight and crown rot in cooler temperate climates of Australia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To better understand its evolutionary history we partially sequenced single copy nuclear genes encoding translation elongation factor 1-? (TEF), reductase (RED) and phosphate permease (PHO) in 100 F. culmorum isolates with 11 isolates of Fusarium crookwellense, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium pseudograminearum. Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence (MLS) data using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony analysis showed that F. culmorum from wheat is a single phylogenetic species with no significant linkage disequilibrium and little or no lineage development along geographic origin. Both MLS and TEF and RED gene sequence analysis separated the four Fusarium species used and delineated three to four groups within the F. culmorum clade. But the PHO gene could not completely resolve isolates into their respective species. Fixation index and gene flow suggest significant genetic exchange between the isolates from distant geographic regions. A lack of strong lineage structure despite the geographic separation of the three collections indicates a frequently recombining species and/or widespread distribution of genotypes due to international trade, tourism and long-range dispersal of macroconidia. Moreover, the two mating type genes were present in equal proportion among the F. culmorum collection used in this study, leaving open the possibility of sexual reproduction. PMID:20943185

Obanor, Friday; Erginbas-Orakci, G; Tunali, B; Nicol, J M; Chakraborty, S

2010-07-15

321

Sexual compatibility in Fusarium pseudograminearum (Gibberella coronicola).  

PubMed

Numerous pathogenic Fusarium species have well-characterized sexual cycles, whereas others, including the crown rot fungus F. pseudograminearum, do not. We conducted studies to elucidate the potential frequency and nature of sexual reproduction in field populations of F. pseudograminearum and developed tester strains for controlled crossings under laboratory conditions. Studies on the role of sexual recombination in the life cycle of F. pseudograminearum revealed apparently low levels of female fertility under controlled laboratory conditions, despite the observation of naturally occurring perithecia of the teleomorph Gibberella coronicola at two field sites. Female fertility levels were experimentally increased to produce female fertile tester strains using four generations of single and multi-stage crossings between sibling progeny derived from fertile laboratory crosses between field isolates collected in northeastern Australia. The production of reliable female fertile tester strains has potential applications for the construction of biological species boundaries, elucidation of the physical characters of reproductive structures, and the generation of genetic diversity via sexual recombination in F. pseudograminearum. As such, the current study is a significant advancement in the understanding of G. coronicola, allowing for future characterisation of various biological, epidemiological, and genetic parameters. PMID:18694636

Bentley, Alison R; Summerell, Brett A; Burgess, Lester W

2008-05-11

322

[Trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium poae from different habitats].  

PubMed

Comparative study of the ability of three strains of Fusarium poae for the synthesis of trichothecen mycotoxins has been carried out. Studied strains were isolated from different habitats: forest soil, wheat (plant pathogen) and cranberry root (endophytic strain). All three strains were able to synthesize T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol but they were in various amounts. The soil strain 50660 was characterized by high level of synthesis of both HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol; plant pathogenic 50674 and endophytic 50685 strains were characterized by high level of T-2 tetraol synthesis and lower level of HT-2 toxin synthesis. The main trichothecene mycotoxin of this group - T-2 toxin - was detected in trace amounts for all three strains of F. poae. PMID:24006781

Kurchenko, I N; Tsyganenko, E S

323

Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie, 1971). Under experimental conditions however, it is common practice to maintain the virus by mechanical inoculation onto susceptible host plants.Repeated passages of

Oliveira Resende de R

1993-01-01

324

Peanut genotype and seeding rate effect on tomato spotted wilt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted at Tifton, Georgia in 2008-2009 in which seven peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes were combined in factorial arrangement with two seeding rates, 9.8 and 19.7 seed/m of row, to determine the effect of seeding rate and genotype on incidence of tomato spotted wilt, ...

325

Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

326

Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado. The disease has invaded much of the southeastern USA, and threatens avocado commerce and homeowner production in Florida, valuable germplasm in Miami (USDA-ARS), and major production and germplasm in California and MesoAmer...

327

Aggressiveness of Fusarium species and impact of root infection on growth and yield of soybeans.  

PubMed

Fusarium spp. are commonly isolated from soybean roots but the pathogenic activity of most species is poorly documented. Aggressiveness and yield impact of nine species of Fusarium were determined on soybean in greenhouse (50 isolates) and field microplot (19 isolates) experiments. Root rot severity and shoot and root dry weights were compared at growth stages V3 or R1. Root systems were scanned and digital image analysis was conducted; yield was measured in microplots. Disease severity and root morphology impacts varied among and within species. Fusarium graminearum was highly aggressive (root rot severity >90%), followed by F. proliferatum and F. virguliforme. Significant variation in damping-off (20 to 75%) and root rot severity (<20 to >60%) was observed among F. oxysporum isolates. In artificially-infested microplots, root rot severity was low (<25%) and mean yield was not significantly reduced. However, there were significant linear relationships between yield and root symptoms for some isolates. Root morphological characteristics were more consistent indicators of yield loss than root rot severity. This study provides the first characterization of aggressiveness and yield impact of Fusarium root rot species on soybean at different plant stages and introduces root image analysis to assess the impact of root pathogens on soybean. PMID:23514263

Arias, María M Díaz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

2013-08-01

328

Diversity of polyketide synthases in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium can produce a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities, including pigmentation, plant growth regulation, and toxicity to humans and other animals. Contamination of grain-based food and feed with toxic SMs produced by Fusarium is associa...

329

Draft Genome Sequence of Fusarium fujikuroi B14, the Causal Agent of the Bakanae Disease of Rice  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the genome sequence of a Korean strain (B14) of Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungal rice pathogen. The final assembly consists of 455 contigs with 43,810,516 bp and 14,017 predicted genes. Comparison with the F. verticillioides 7600 genome revealed a reference coverage of 83% (66.3% of reads mapped).

Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Seunghoon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Lee, Theresa

2013-01-01

330

Potential of fungal antagonists for biocontrol of Fusarium spp. in wheat and maize through competition in crop debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic Fusarium spp. cause head blight in wheat or ear rot in maize leading to yield losses and also a reduction in quality due to mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Infected crop residues are the main inoculum source for epidemics. Saprophytic fungi, obtained from cereal tissues or necrotic tissues of other crops, were screened for their ability to colonise wheat

Laura Luongo; Massimo Galli; Luciana Corazza; Ellis Meekes; Lia De Haas; Carin Lombaers Van Der Plas; Jürgen Köhl

2005-01-01

331

The novel maize 9-lipoxygenase, ZmLOX12, is required to mount an effective defense against Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a major limiting factor for maize production due to ear and stalk rot and the contamination of seed with the carcinogenic mycotoxin, fumonisin. While lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins have been implicated in defense against diverse pathogens, their function in maize re...

332

Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

333

The AMT1 Arginine Methyltransferase Gene Is Important for Plant Infection and Normal Hyphal Growth in Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arginine methylation of non-histone proteins by protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) has been shown to be important for various biological processes from yeast to human. Although PRMT genes are well conserved in fungi, none of them have been functionally characterized in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. In this study, we identified and characterized all of the four predicted PRMT genes in Fusarium graminearum,

Guanghui Wang; Chenfang Wang; Rui Hou; Xiaoying Zhou; Guotian Li; Shijie Zhang; Jin-Rong Xu

2012-01-01

334

Selective media for Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective media without pentachloronitrobenzene were developed for quantitative assays of Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum in soils. Media Fo-G1 and Fo-G2 were effective for naturally infested soils, Fo-W1 and Fo-W2 for wild-type isolates in soils\\u000a containing a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant, and Fo-N1 and Fo-N2 for nit mutants. Selective media were made using ammonium citrate dibasic, l-sorbose, econazole nitrate, 25% iminoctadine triacetate solution and

Norio Nishimura

2007-01-01

335

A second polycaprolactone depolymerase from Fusarium , a lipase distinct from cutinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polyester with applications in biodegradable plastics, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms,\\u000a including fungal phytopathogens. These pathogens secrete cutinase, which hydrolyzes cutin, the polyester structural component\\u000a of plant cuticle, releasing ?-hydroxy fatty acids that induce cutinase synthesis. Our laboratory previously reported that\\u000a growth of Fusarium solani on PCL requires cutinase, which is active as a

C. A. Murphy; J. A. Cameron; S. J. Huang; R. T. Vinopal

1998-01-01

336

Responses of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum to exogenously added sinapic acid in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the influence of phenolic acids from plant root exudates on soil pathogens, we studied the effect of sinapic acid\\u000a added to chemically defined media on the growth and virulence factors of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Sinapic acid inhibited the growth and conidial formation and germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum by 6.7–8.8% and 11.2–37.3%, respectively. Mycotoxin

Hong-sheng Wu; Yang Wang; Wei Bao; Dong-yang Liu; Waseem Raza; Qi-wei Huang; Ze-sheng Mao; Qi-rong Shen

2009-01-01

337

Isoflavonoid accumulation in soybean hairy roots upon treatment with Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots were initiated from two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes with different susceptibility (susceptible ‘Spencer’ and partially resistant ‘PI567.374’) to the disease sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG) to study the role of isoflavonoids in the plant response to FSG infection. Hairy root cultures obtained by transformation with

Vera V. Lozovaya; Anatoliy V. Lygin; Olga V. Zernova; Shuxian Li; Glen L. Hartman; Jack M. Widholm

2004-01-01

338

Fusarium solani endo-polygalacturonase from decayed muskmelon fruit: purification and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani is one of the more important fungal pathogens involved in pre- and post-harvest decay of muskmelon fruit. Production of polygalacturonase (PG), by F. solani was studied in vitro and in vivo . The fungus produced at least 14 PG isozymes with pIs of 4.5 to 9.5 in shake culture using pectin as the sole carbon source. When glucose

Jiuxu Zhang; Benny D. Bruton; Charles L. Biles

1999-01-01

339

What makes pathogens pathogenic  

PubMed Central

Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

Ehrlich, Garth D; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

2008-01-01

340

Mycotoxigenic Fusarium and Deoxynivalenol Production Repress Chitinase Gene Expression in the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride P1  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxin contamination associated with head blight of wheat and other grains caused by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum is a chronic threat to crop, human, and animal health throughout the world. One of the most important toxins in terms of human exposure is deoxynivalenol (DON) (formerly called vomitoxin), an inhibitor of protein synthesis with a broad spectrum of toxigenicity against animals. Certain Fusarium toxins have additional antimicrobial activity, and the phytotoxin fusaric acid has recently been shown to modulate fungus-bacterium interactions that affect plant health (Duffy and Défago, Phytopathology 87:1250-1257, 1997). The potential impact of DON on Fusarium competition with other microorganisms has not been described previously. Any competitive advantage conferred by DON would complicate efforts to control Fusarium during its saprophytic growth on crop residues that are left after harvest and constitute the primary inoculum reservoir for outbreaks in subsequent plantings. We examined the effect of the DON mycotoxin on ecological interactions between pathogenic Fusarium and Trichoderma atroviride strain P1, a competitor fungus with biocontrol activity against a wide range of plant diseases. Expression of the Trichoderma chitinase genes, ech42 and nag1, which contribute to biocontrol activity, was monitored in vitro and on crop residues of two maize cultivars by using goxA reporter gene fusions. We found that DON-producing F. culmorum and F. graminearum strains repressed expression of nag1-gox. DON-negative wild-type Fusarium strains and a DON-negative mutant with an insertional disruption in the tricothecene biosynthetic gene, tri5, had no effect on antagonist gene expression. The role of DON as the principal repressor above other pathogen factors was confirmed. Exposure of Trichoderma to synthetic DON or to a non-DON-producing Fusarium mutant resulted in the same level of nag1-gox repression as the level observed with DON-producing Fusarium. DON repression was specific for nag1-gox and had no effect, either positive or negative, on expression of another key chitinase gene, ech42. This is the first demonstration that a target pathogen down-regulates genes in a fungal biocontrol agent, and our results provide evidence that mycotoxins have a novel ecological function as factors in Fusarium competitiveness.

Lutz, Matthias P.; Feichtinger, Georg; Defago, Genevieve; Duffy, Brion

2003-01-01

341

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism.

Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

342

Pathogen effects on vegetative and floral odours mediate vector attraction and host exposure in a complex pathosystem.  

PubMed

Pathogens can alter host phenotypes in ways that influence interactions between hosts and other organisms, including insect disease vectors. Such effects have implications for pathogen transmission, as well as host exposure to secondary pathogens, but are not well studied in natural systems, particularly for plant pathogens. Here, we report that the beetle-transmitted bacterial pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila - which causes a fatal wilt disease - alters the foliar and floral volatile emissions of its host (wild gourd, Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) in ways that enhance both vector recruitment to infected plants and subsequent dispersal to healthy plants. Moreover, infection by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), which also occurs at our study sites, reduces floral volatile emissions in a manner that discourages beetle recruitment and therefore likely reduces the exposure of virus-infected plants to the lethal bacterial pathogen - a finding consistent with our previous observation of dramatically reduced wilt disease incidence in ZYMV-infected plants. PMID:22988893

Shapiro, Lori; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; van der Putten, Wim

2012-09-19

343

A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

344

The role of wood-inhabiting bacteria in pine wilt disease.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus together with the bacteria isolated from black pine (Pinus thunbergii) bark inoculated to axenic black pine seedlings, significantly exceeded that of the axenic PWNs alone, demonstrating that the bacteria play an important role in pine wilt disease. Inoculation of seedlings with bacteria-free culture filtrates of the seven isolates from the dead seedlings from the above experiment showed that all isolate filtrates killed the seedlings within 8 days. Identification of the bacteria using 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to strains By253Ydz-fq, S209, 210-50 and 210-50 in Bacillus and the DN1.1 strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. Completing Koch's postulates using the seven bacterial isolates to inoculate pine seedlings showed that all the seedlings that received aseptic PWNs mixed with the seven bacterial isolates died within 18 days post inoculation, while those inoculated with 'wild' PWNs died 16 days post inoculation. No disease symptoms developed on seedlings that received sterile water or aseptic PWNs. The horizontal transfer of the pathogenic bacteria may explain differences in bacterial species carried by PWN in different geographic areas. PMID:23430766

Zhao, Bo Guang; Tao, Jian; Ju, Yun Wei; Wang, Peng Kai; Ye, Jian Ling

2011-09-01

345

Brachypodium distachyon : a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene\\u000a mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic

Antoine Peraldi; Giovanni Beccari; Andrew Steed; Paul Nicholson

2011-01-01

346

Field Evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus Resistance in Transgenic Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang, H., Ozias-Akins, P., Culbreath, A. K., Gorbet, D. W., Weeks, J. R., Mandal, B., and Pappu, H. R. 2004. Field evaluation of Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance in transgenic peanut (Ara- chis hypogaea). Plant Dis. 88:259-264. Spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), is a devastating disease of many crops including peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Because the virus

H. Yang; P. Ozias-Akins; A. K. Culbreath; D. W. Gorbet; B. Mandal; H. R. Pappu

2004-01-01

347

Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish oats - Occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in Northern Europe. To investigate the presence of toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of Sweden (east, west, south). The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the specific infection level of seven Fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium avenaceum) and with a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) for the detection of many fungal metabolites, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Most samples contained at least four of the seven Fusarium species analysed and F. poae, F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum were present in approximately 90-100% of all samples. The most common toxins detected were DON, NIV, BEA and ENNs, which were present in more than 90% of samples. Most Fusarium species and their toxins occurred in higher concentrations in 2010 than in 2011, with the exception of DON and its main producer F. graminearum. Significant regional differences were detected for some moulds and mycotoxins, with higher levels of F. graminearum, DON and ZEA in western Sweden than in the east (P<0.05) and higher levels of F. tricinctum and MON in the south (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between many Fusarium species and toxin levels. For example, F. tricinctum was significantly correlated to F. avenaceum (r=0.72, P<0.001), DON to ZEA (r=0.52, P<0.001), DON to F. graminearum (r=0.77, P<0.001) and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 to F. langsethiae (r=0.77, P<0.001). The multi-toxin approach employed allowed simultaneous detection of many Fusarium mycotoxins in each sample. In combination with real-time PCR analysis of seven toxigenic Fusarium spp., the results gave an overall picture of the presence of Fusarium and their toxins in Swedish oats and revealed significant annual and regional differences. This is the first study of the so-called emerging mycotoxins (e.g., ENNs, MON and BEA) in oats grown in Sweden. PMID:23962918

Fredlund, Elisabeth; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Lindblad, Mats

2013-07-02

348

Visualizing and quantifying Fusarium oxysporum in the plant host.  

PubMed

Host-specific forms of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of numerous plant species. I present a novel application of familiar methodology to visualize and quantify F. oxysporum in roots. Infection in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and cotton was detected with colorimetric reagents that are substrates for Fusarium spp.-derived arabinofuranosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities and without the need for genetic modification of either plant host or fungal pathogen. Similar patterns of blue precipitation were produced by treatment with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranoside, and these patterns were consistent with prior histological descriptions of F. oxysporum in roots. Infection was quantified in roots of wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis using 4-nitrophenyl-?-l-arabinofuranoside. In keeping with an expectation that disease severity above ground is correlated with F. oxysporum infection below ground, elevated levels of arabinofuranosidase activity were measured in the roots of susceptible agb1 and rfo1 while a reduced level was detected in the resistant eir1. In contrast, disease severity and F. oxysporum infection were uncoupled in tir3. The distribution of staining patterns in roots suggests that AGB1 and RFO1 restrict colonization of the vascular cylinder by F. oxysporum whereas EIR1 promotes colonization of root apices. PMID:22894177

Diener, Andrew

2012-12-01

349

Genomic Cross Comparison of Soybean Pathogens and the Symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants are under constant attack from a variety of pathogens and respond with dramatic changes in gene expression. Some well-studied diseases of soybean include those induced by the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae, Fusarium virguliforme, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. To assist in the identification ...

350

Brachypodium distachyon: a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic studies in grass species. This study aims to assess the interaction between the most prevalent FHB-causing Fusarium species and Bd in order to develop and exploit Bd as a genetic model for FHB and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. Results The ability of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum to infect a range of Bd tissues was examined in various bioassays which showed that both species can infect all Bd tissues examined, including intact foliar tissues. DON accumulated in infected spike tissues at levels similar to those of infected wheat spikes. Histological studies revealed details of infection, colonisation and host response and indicate that hair cells are important sites of infection. Susceptibility to Fusarium and DON was assessed in two Bd ecotypes and revealed variation in resistance between ecotypes. Conclusions Bd exhibits characteristics of susceptibility highly similar to those of wheat, including susceptibility to spread of disease in the spikelets. Bd is the first reported plant species to allow successful infection on intact foliar tissues by FHB-causing Fusarium species. DON appears to function as a virulence factor in Bd as it does in wheat. Bd is proposed as a valuable model for undertaking studies of Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat.

2011-01-01

351

Characterization of Fusarium species section Liseola by restriction analysis of the IGS region.  

PubMed

Fusarium species section Liseola namely F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. andiyazi, F. verticillioides, and F. sacchari are well-known plant pathogens on rice, sugarcane and maize. In the present study, restriction analysis of the intergenic spacer regions (IGS) was used to characterize the five Fusarium species isolated from rice, sugarcane and maize collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia. From the analysis, and based on restriction patterns generated by the six restriction enzymes, Bsu151, BsuRI, EcoRI, Hin6I, HinfI, and MspI, 53 haplotypes were recorded among 74 isolates. HinfI showed the most variable restriction patterns (with 11 patterns), while EcoRI showed only three patterns. Although a high level of variation was observed, it was possible to characterize closely related species and isolates from different species. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the isolates of Fusarium from the same species were grouped together regardless of the hosts. We conclude that restriction analysis of the IGS regions can be used to characterize Fusarium species section Liseola and to discriminate closely related species as well as to clarify their taxonomic position. PMID:22370941

Heng, M H; Baharuddin, S; Latiffah, Z

2012-02-16

352

Transcriptome analyses during fruiting body formation in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides reflect species life history and ecology.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides are devastating cereal pathogens with very different life history and ecological characteristics. F. graminearum is homothallic, and sexual spores are an important component of its life cycle, responsible for disease initiation. F. verticilloides is heterothallic, and produces only modest numbers of fruiting bodies, which are not a significant source of inoculum. To identify corresponding differences in the transcriptional program underlying fruiting body development in the two species, comparative expression was performed, analyzing six developmental stages. To accompany the transcriptional analysis, detailed morphological characterization of F. verticillioides development was performed and compared to a previous morphological analysis of F. graminearum. Morphological development was similar between the two species, except for the observation of possible trichogynes in F. verticillioides ascogonia, which have not been previously reported for any Fusarium species. Expression of over 9000 orthologous genes were measured for the two species. Functional assignments of highly expressed orthologous genes at each time-point revealed the majority of highly expressed genes fell into the "unclassified proteins" category, reflecting the lack of characterization of genes for sexual development in both species. Simultaneous examination of morphological development and stage-specific gene expression suggests that degeneration of the paraphyses during sexual development is an apoptotic process. Expression of mating type genes in the two species differed, possibly reflecting the divergent roles they play in sexual development. Overall, the differences in gene expression reflect the greater role of fruiting bodies in the life cycle and ecology of F. graminearum versus F. verticillioides. PMID:22705880

Sikhakolli, Usha Rani; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Li, Ning; Common, Ralph; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Trail, Frances

2012-06-15

353

A Novel Antifungal Furanone from Pseudomonas aureofaciens, a Biocontrol Agent of Fungal Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aureofaciens (= P. chlororaphis) strain 63-28 is a biocontrol agent active against many soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and shows antifungal activity in culture assays. 3-(1-Hexenyl)-5-methyl-2-(5H)furanone was isolated from culture filtrates of this bacterium. The purified furanone showed antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Thielaviopsis basicola. The ED50S for spore germination of these fungi were 45,

Timothy Paulitz; Brian Nowak-Thompson; Pascale Gamard; Evelyn Tsang; Joyce Loper

2000-01-01

354

Surface plasmon resonance genosensor for the detection of Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based DNA biosensors have been shown to be rapid, label-free, and selective tools for the detection of PCR products. Here, we describe an SPR sensor based on DNA hybridization for the detection of Fusarium culmorum, a fungal pathogen of wheat. A 0.57 kb DNA fragment of F. culmorum was amplified by specific primers, and a 25-mer oligonucleotide probe was selected within the sequence of the PCR amplicon. The biotin-labeled probe was immobilized on a streptavidin sensor chip and tested for biospecific interaction with PCR products of F. culmorum. The SPR biosensor was applied to the detection of F. culmorum in fungal cultures and in naturally infected wheat samples. PMID:23296893

Pascale, Michelangelo; Zezza, Francesco; Perrone, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

355

Effect of Trichothecenes Produced by Fusarium graminearum during Fusarium Head Blight Development in Six Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a complex cereal disease associated with trichothecene production; these mycotoxins are factors of aggressiveness in wheat. Six species (bread and durum wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oats) were submitted to point inoculations with two isogenic strains of Fusarium graminearum; a wild strain (Tri5 +) produced trichothecenes and the mutated strain (Tri5 -) did not. The

François Langevin; François Eudes; André Comeau

2004-01-01

356

Identification and characterization of a novel etiological agent of mango malformation disease in Mexico, Fusarium mexicanum sp. nov.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to characterize Fusarium spp. associated with the economically devastating mango malformation disease (MMD) in Mexico. In all, 142 Fusarium strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues in eight geographically diverse Mexican states from 2002 through 2007. Initially, all the Mexican isolates were screened for genetic diversity using appolymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and were grouped into seven distinct genotypes. Based on results of these analyses, evolutionary relationships and species limits of the genetically diverse MMD-associated Fusarium spp. were investigated using multilocus DNA sequence data and phylogenetic species recognition. Maximum parsimony analyses of a five-locus data set comprising 5.8 kb of aligned DNA sequence data indicated that at least nine phylogenetically distinct Fusarium spp. within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex are associated with MMD, including one species within the African clade (Fusarium pseudocircinatum), two species within the Asian clade (F. mangiferae and F. proliferatum), and at least six species within the American clade (F. sterilihyphosum and five undescribed Fusarium spp.). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that a novel genealogically exclusive lineage within the American clade was the predominant MMD associate in Mexico. This new Fusarium sp. caused MMD and could be distinguished from all other known species morphologically by the production of mostly sterile, coiled hyphae which are typically associated with sporodochial conidiophores together with unbranched or sparsely branched aerial conidiophores. Koch's postulates were completed for isolates of the new species on nucellar seedlings of mango cv. Ataulfo. This pathogen is formally described herein as F. mexicanum. PMID:20932166

Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Rodríguez-Alvarado, Gerardo; Fernández-Pavía, Sylvia; Maymon, Marcel; Ploetz, Randy C; Aoki, Takayuki; O'Donnell, Kerry; Freeman, Stanley

2010-11-01

357

[Allelopathy of root exudates from two genotypes soybeans on root pathogenic fungi].  

PubMed

With biological simulation experiment and chemical analysis, this paper studied the allelopathy of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates from two genotypes soybeans (9536 and Jilin 30) on the pathogenic fungi of root rot. The results showed that the water soluble carbohydrates in the root exudates from test soybeans significantly promoted the growth of Fusarium oxysporium and Fusarium semitectum at low concentrations and inhibited their growth at high concentrations, but had no evident influence on Gliocladium roseum. The water soluble amino acids from the root exudates demonstrated different actions, i. e., at middle and high concentrations, those from 9536 significantly inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum, while those from Jilin 30 mostly promoted their growth. The organic acids from the root exudates of 9536 and Jilin 30 significantly inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum. It's suggested that there existed interactions between the root exudates of the two genotypes soybeans and the pathogenic fungi of root rot. Different genotypes of soybean may have different allelopathy on pathogenic fungi of root rot. PMID:15852974

Han, Limei; Ju, Huiyan; Yang, Zhenming

2005-01-01

358

Utility of the phylotoxigenic relationships among trichothecene-producing Fusarium species for predicting their mycotoxin-producing potential.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Fusarium are well-known plant pathogens and mycotoxigenic fusaria are associated with health hazards to humans and animals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of mycotoxin production by Fusarium species and to predict which produce mycotoxins. In this study, the Fusarium phylogenetic tree was first inferred among trichothecene producers and related species. We reconstructed the maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on the combined data from nucleotide sequences of rDNA cluster regions, the ?-tubulin gene (?-tub) and the elongation factor 1? gene (EF-1?). Second, based on this tree topology, the ancestral states of the producing potential of type A and B trichothecenes (TriA and TriB), zearalenone (ZEN), moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENN) were reconstructed using the maximum parsimony (MP) method based on the observed production by extant species as reported in the literature. Finally, the species having the potential to produce each of these six mycotoxins was predicted on the basis of the parsimonious analysis. The ML tree indicated that the Fusarium species analysed in this study could be divided into two major clades. Clade I was divided into four distinct subclades: I-a, I-b, I-c and I-d. Furthermore, the parsimony reconstruction suggested that the potential for producing MON and ZEN was gained or lost only once, and that the producing potential for TriA and TriB, BEA and ENN was repeatedly gained and lost during the evolutionary history of the Fusarium species analysed in this study. Interestingly, the results showed the possibility that several species, about which reports were scarce with regard to mycotoxin production, have the potential to produce one or more of the six evaluated in this study. The phylogenetic information therefore helps one to predict the mycotoxin-producing potential by Fusarium species, and these "phylotoxigenic relationships" may be useful for predicting the pathogenicity of fungi. PMID:23731171

Watanabe, M; Yonezawa, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kamata, Y

2013-06-03

359

The effect of wilting on proline metabolism in excised bean leaves in the dark.  

PubMed

The effects of wilting on the fate of proline and on the rates of nonprotein proline formation and utilization have been determined in excised bean leaves. Wilting did not alter the fate of exogenously added (14)C-l-proline (2 mm) in either non-starved leaves (from plants previously in the light) or starved leaves (from plants previously in the dark). The fate of proline in nonstarved leaves was protein synthesis and in starved leaves was protein synthesis and oxidation to other compounds.Wilting caused an increase in non-protein proline formation, possibly including release by proteolysis and synthesis from precursors in both starved and nonstarved leaves. Wilting caused a decrease in proline utilization in nonstarved leaves by decreasing protein synthesis. In starved leaves, wilting caused an increase in the rate of proline utilization but this is due to the higher content of proline in wilted leaves compared to the turgid leaves which causes more proline utilization by oxidation. Thus, the primary effects of wilting which lead to the accumulation of proline were to decrease protein synthesis and to increase proline formation. The source of the proline is not known but the increased formation due to wilting is not affected by the carbohydrate content of the leaf. The role of carbohydrates is to prevent the loss of accumulating proline by oxidation. PMID:16658361

Stewart, C R

1973-03-01

360

The role of savings and wealth in reducing ‘wilt’ between expectations and college attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt’ occurs when a young person in high school expects to attend college but does not do so shortly after graduating. In this study we find that youth with no savings account in their own name are more likely to experience wilt than any other group examined. In multivariate analysis, young people who expect to graduate from a four-year college

William Elliott III; Sondra G. Beverly

2011-01-01

361

Should Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Be Considered as a Possible Member of the Family Bunyaviridae?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary From a comparison of published data on the properties of tomato spotted wilt virus and viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, it is concluded that tomato spotted wilt virus should be considered as a possible member of the family.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel

Robert G. Milne; Richard I. B. Francki

1984-01-01

362

COMPARISON OF CROP ROTATION FOR VERTICILLIUM WILT MANAGEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND ORGANIC STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a major disease in non-fumigated and organic strawberry production systems in California. A comparative study of the effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on strawberry growth, Verticillium wilt, and yield were evaluated in conventional and organic producti...

363

Physiological traits contributing to differential canopy wilting in soybean under drought  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed wilting is observed in a few unusual soybean genotypes, but the underlying physiological control mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that soybean genotypes with delayed wilting conserve soil moisture by restricting transpiration and that this would be reflected in decreased ra...

364

The relative abundance of viable spores of Gibberella zeae in the planetary boundary layer suggests the role of long-distance transport in regional epidemics of Fusarium head blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-distance transport of plant pathogens takes place primarily in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) of the atmosphere. The PBL extends from about 50m to nearly 1km above the surface of the earth. We used remote-piloted vehicles (RPVs) to measure the relative abundance of viable spores of Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum), causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat,

Sandra Lee Maldonado-Ramirez; David G. Schmale; Elson J. Shields; Gary C. Bergstrom

2005-01-01

365

Does function follow form? Principal QTLs for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance are coincident with QTLs for inflorescence traits and plant height in a doubled-haploid population of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB), an important disease of barley in many areas of the world, causes losses in grain yield and quality. Deoxynivalenol\\u000a (DON) mycotoxin residues, produced by the primary pathogen Fusarium graminearum, pose potential health risks. Barley producers may not be able to profitably market FHB-infected barley, even though it has\\u000a a low DON level. Three types of FHB

H. Zhu; L. Gilchrist; P. Hayes; A. Kleinhofs; D. Kudrna; Z. Liu; L. Prom; B. Steffenson; T. Toojinda; H. Vivar

1999-01-01

366

New species of Fusarium associated with dieback of Spartina alterniflora in Atlantic salt marshes.  

PubMed

Sudden vegetation dieback (SVD) is the loss of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) along intertidal creeks in salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf states. The underlying cause of SVD remains unclear, but earlier work suggested a contributing role for Fusarium spp. in Louisiana. This report investigated whether these or other Fusarium species were associated with S. alterniflora dieback in mid- to north-Atlantic states. Isolations from seven SVD sites yielded 192 isolates of Fusarium spp., with more than 75% isolated from aboveground tissue. Most isolates (88%) fell into two undescribed morphospecies (MS) distinguished from each other by macroconidial shape, phialide ontogeny and growth rates. Pathogenicity tests on wound-inoculated S. alterniflora stems and seedling roots revealed that isolates in MS1 were more virulent than those in MS2 but no single isolate caused plant mortality. No matches to known species of Fusarium were revealed by DNA sequence queries of translation elongation factor 1-? (tef1) sequences. A phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of three genes, ?-tubulin (?-tub), calmodulin (cal) and tef1, was conducted on representative isolates from MS1 (n = 20) and MS2 (n = 18); it provided strong evidence that the MS1 isolates form a clade that represents a heretofore undescribed species, which we designate Fusarium palustre sp. nov. Isolates from the more variable MS2 clustered with the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex as F. cf. incarnatum. Although a strong association exists between both species and declining S. alterniflora in SVD sites, neither appears to play a primary causal role in SVD. However, our findings suggest that F. palustre might play an important secondary role in the ecological disruption of the salt marshes. PMID:21471289

Elmer, Wade H; Marra, Robert E

2011-04-06

367

Sequence composition and mapping of BACs of cotton homoeologous chromosomes 11 and 21  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in cotton chromosome 11 and its homoeologous chromosome 21 derives from the discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R genes underlying QTLs involved in root-knot nematode, reniform nematode, Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, and black root rot resistance. Genetic and QTL mapping eff...

368

Molecular variability among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot disease of Agave tequilana.  

PubMed

In this study, 115 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from roots of Agave tequilana Weber cv azul plants and soil in commercial plantations in western Mexico were characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Genetic analyses of monosporic isolates included restriction enzyme analysis of rDNA (ARDRA) using HaeIII and HinfI, and genetic diversity was determined using Box-PCR molecular markers. Box-PCR analysis generated 14 groups. The groups correlated highly with the geographic location of the isolate and sample type. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ARDRA and Box-PCR techniques in the molecular characterization of the Fusarium genus for the discrimination of pathogenic isolates. PMID:23315087

Vega-Ramos, Karla L; Uvalle-Bueno, J Xavier; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F

2013-01-12

369

Fusarium strain development and selection for enhancement of ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that selected Fusarium strains isolated from natural habitats are potential decomposers and parameters of biomass. The amount of ethanol produced is comparable to that yielded by other potential microorganisms and, moreover, Fusarium strains can ferment zylose (pentoses) while other microbes cannot. Preliminary mutagenesis studies on Fusarium isolates indicates that potential mutants can

A. A. Antonopoulos; E. G. Wene

1987-01-01

370

Recovery of Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 Mutants Affected in Their Biocontrol Activity After Transposition of the Fot1 Element.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the biocontrol mechanisms by which the antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is active against Fusarium wilt, a Fot1 transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis approach was adopted to generate mutants affected in their antagonistic activity. Ninety strains in which an active Fot1 copy had transposed were identified with a phenotypic assay for excision and tested for their biocontrol activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. lini on flax in greenhouse experiments. Sixteen strains were affected in their capacity to protect flax plants, either positively (more antagonistic than Fo47) or negatively (less antagonistic). The molecular characterization of these mutants confirms the excision of Fot1 and its reinsertion in most of the cases. Moreover, we demonstrate that other transposable elements such as Fot2, impala, and Hop have no transposition activity in the mutant genomes. The phenotypic characterization of these mutants shows that they are affected neither in their in vitro growth habit nor in their competitiveness in soil compared with wild-type strain Fo47. These results show that mutants are not impaired in their saprophytic phase and suggest that the altered biocontrol phenotype should likely be expressed during the interaction with the host plant. PMID:18944018

Trouvelot, Sophie; Olivain, Chantal; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Migheli, Quirico; Alabouvette, Claude

2002-09-01

371

Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

372

FVABC1, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES GENE ENCODING AN ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEIN, MAY BE REQUIRED FOR TOLERANCE OF PHYTOANTICIPINS PRODUCED BY CORN (ZEA MAYS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides, a common pathogen of corn (Zea mays) throughout the world, often causes significant concern due to production of mycotoxins such as fumonisins. Corn produces the phytoanticipins 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) as a general chemi...

373

DETERMINING THE BIOSYNTHETIC SEQUENCE IN THE EARLY STEPS OF THE FUMONISIN PATHWAY BY USE OF THREE GENE-DISRUPTION MUTANTS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are polyketide-derived mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of corn plants. Although a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of fumonisins has been cloned, the biosynthetic pathway is still not clear. We have used three gene-disrupted mutants, designated delta-...

374

Nonribosomal peptide synthetase ( NPS ) genes in Fusarium graminearum , F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearium and identification of NPS2 as the producer of ferricrocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi have the potential to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including polyketides and small peptides produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NPS). Fusarium graminearum is a mycotoxin producing pathogen of cereals and knowledge of the infection process is essential for the development of disease control. Bioinformatics provide a means to identify genes encoding NPSs, the products of which may

Carsten Tobiasen; Johan Aahman; Kristine Slot Ravnholt; Morten Jannik Bjerrum; Morten Nedergaard Grell; Henriette Giese

2007-01-01

375

Peroxidase-induced wilting in transgenic tobacco plants  

SciTech Connect

Peroxidases are a family of isoenzymes found in all higher plants. However, little is known concerning their role in growth, development or response to stress. Plant peroxidases are heme-containing monomeric glycoproteins that utilize either H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or O{sub 2} to oxidize a wide variety of molecules. To obtain more information on possible in planta functions of peroxidases, the authors have used a cDNA clone for the primary isoenzyme form of peroxidase to synthesize high levels of this enzyme in transgenic plants. They were able to obtain Nicotiana tabacum and N. sylvestris transformed plants with peroxidase activity that is 10-fold higher than in wild-type plants by introducing a chimeric gene composed of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the tobacco anionic peroxidase cDNA. The elevated peroxidase activity was a result of increased levels of two anionic peroxidases in N. tabacum, which apparently differ in post-translational modification. Transformed plants of both species have the unique phenotype of chronic severe wilting through loss of turgor in leaves, which was initiated a the time of flowering. The peroxidase-induced wilting was shown not to be an effect of diminished water uptake through the roots, decreased conductance of water through the xylem, or increased water loss through the leaf surface of stomata. Possible explanations for the loss of turgor, and the significance of these types of experiments in studying isoenzyme families, are discussed.

Lagrimini, L.M.; Bradford, S. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Rothstein, S. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01

376

[Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].  

PubMed

The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

Wang, Fei

2012-06-01

377

Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt.

Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

2009-01-01

378

Fusarium skin infection: a case report.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man presented with an irregular ulcer with a black eschar on his forehead associated with severe headache. A subcutaneous nodule with a necrotic center was present on the left knee. The diagnosis of Fusarium infection was made and confirmed by biopsy and culture. The patient had a history of bronchial asthma for which he was on inhalational steroids for 5 years. It is unclear if this treatment was related to the disseminated Fusarium infection. The patient received oral itraconazole for 3 months with good improvement but met with an unexpected sudden death. PMID:22559021

Singhal, Kritika Vishwanath; Saoji, Vikrant; Saoji, Sandhya V

2012-04-15

379

Cross-infection potential of crown rot pathogen ( Lasiodiplodia theobromae ) isolates and their management using potential native bioagents in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown rot infected banana samples collected from different regions of India revealed that the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the major pathogen responsible for crown rot and Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium spp. were the minor pathogens. The cross-inoculation experiment, conducted using five different virulent isolates of L. theobromae on five different commercial cultivars of banana, demonstrated that generally the isolates were

R. Thangavelu; G. Sangeetha; M. M. Mustaffa

2007-01-01

380

Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS) data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat) and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum.

Kulik, Tomasz; Pszczolkowska, Agnieszka; Lojko, Maciej

2011-01-01

381

An outbreak of Fusarium head blight of durum wheat on the Liverpool Plains in northern New South Wales in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, a serious outbreak of Fusarium head blight occurred in durum wheat crops on the Liverpool Plains of northern New\\u000a South Wales. Disease incidence in individual crops ranged from 2 to 100%. Gibberella zeae was the predominant pathogen. Analysis of weather records showed that in 1999, wheat flowered in an unusually wet and warm\\u000a spring thus suggesting weather as

R. J. Southwell; K. J. Moore; W. Maiming; P. T. Hayman

2003-01-01

382

A Conserved Homeobox Transcription Factor Htf1 Is Required for Phialide Development and Conidiogenesis in Fusarium Species  

PubMed Central

Conidia are primary means of asexual reproduction and dispersal in a variety of pathogenic fungi, and it is widely recognized that they play a critical role in animal and plant disease epidemics. However, genetic mechanisms associated with conidiogenesis are complex and remain largely undefined in numerous pathogenic fungi. We previously showed that Htf1, a homeobox transcription factor, is required for conidiogenesis in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, our aim was to characterize how Htf1 homolog regulates common and also distinctive conidiogenesis in three key Fusarium pathogens: F. graminearm, F. verticillioides, and F. oxysporum. When compared to wild-type progenitors, the gene-deletion mutants in Fusarium species failed to form conventional phialides. Rather, they formed clusters of aberrant phialides that resembled elongated hyphae segments, and it is conceivable that this led to the obstruction of conidiation in phialides. We also observed that mutants, as well as wild-type Fusaria, can initiate alternative macroconidia production directly from hyphae through budding-like mechanism albeit at low frequencies. Microscopic observations led us to conclude that proper basal cell division and subsequent foot cell development of macroconidia were negatively impacted in the mutants. In F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum, mutants exhibited a 2- to 5- microconidia complex at the apex of monophialides resulting in a floral petal-like shape. Also, prototypical microconidia chains were absent in F. verticillioides mutants. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides mutants were complemented by introducing its native HTF1 gene or homologs from other Fusarium species. These results suggest that Fusarium Htf1 is functionally conserved homeobox transcription factor that regulates phialide development and conidiogenesis via distinct signaling pathways yet to be characterized in fungi.

Zheng, Wenhui; Zhao, Xu; Xie, Qiurong; Huang, Qingping; Zhang, Chengkang; Zhai, Huanchen; Xu, Liping; Lu, Guodong; Shim, Won-Bo; Wang, Zonghua

2012-01-01

383

Contribution of the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa to the degradation of deoxynivalenol and Fusarium biomass in wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arable fields managed by conservation tillage combined with crop residue mulching, plant pathogen repression is an important\\u000a ecosystem service to prevent cultivated plants from fungal diseases and mycotoxin contamination. A laboratory microcosm study\\u000a was conducted to investigate the contribution of the endogeic, geophagous earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa as a secondary decomposer to the reduction of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium

Friederike Wolfarth; Stefan Schrader; Elisabeth Oldenburg; Joachim Weinert

384

Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat  

PubMed Central

Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ?TRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ?TRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more complex than postulated to date. We show that trichothecene biosynthesis is specifically induced in infection structures, but is neither necessary for their development nor for formation of primary symptoms on wheat.

2011-01-01

385

Endophytic Fusarium verticillioides reduces disease severity caused by Ustilago maydis on maize.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. We used endophytic isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis DC (Corda). Endophytic F. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto maize seedlings before, simultaneously, or after inoculation with U. maydis, and the effects on smut disease severity and on plant growth were assessed. When F. verticillioides is simultaneously coinoculated with U. maydis, smut disease severity is significantly decreased and plant growth is increased, compared with other treatments. Controls show that F. verticillioides by itself does not have measurable effects on plant growth. Together, our results suggest that a commonly occurring fungal endophyte on maize, F. verticillioides, ameliorates the effects of a host-specific pathogen, U. maydis, by interfering with the early infection process and limiting disease development, resulting in increased plant growth. PMID:19694816

Lee, Keunsub; Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

2009-07-10

386

The Genome Sequence of the Tomato-Pathogenic Actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 Reveals a Large Island Involved in Pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high GC content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three

Karl-Heinz Gartemann; Birte Abt; Thomas Bekel; Annette Burger; Jutta Engemann; Monika Flugel; Lars Gaigalat; Alexander Goesmann; Ines Grafen; J. Kalinowski; O. Kaup; O. Kirchner; L. Krause; B. Linke; A. McHardy; F. Meyer; S. Pohle; C. Ruckert; S. Schneiker; E.-M. Zellermann; A. Puhler; R. Eichenlaub; O. Kaiser; D. Bartels

2008-01-01

387

Overexpression of NRPS4 leads to increased surface hydrophobicity in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the infamous cause of Fusarium head blight worldwide resulting in significant losses of yield and reduced grain feed quality. It also has the potential to produce a range of small bioactive peptides produced by the non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Most of these are unknown as F. graminearum contains 19 NRPS encoding genes, but only three have been assigned products. For the first time, we use deletion and overexpression mutants to investigate the functions and product of NRPS4 in F. graminearum. Deletion of NRPS4 homologues in Alternaria brassicicola and Cochloibolus heterostrophus has been shown to result in mutants unable to repel water. In a time study of surface hydrophobicity we observed that water droplets could penetrate 7 d old colonies of the NRPS4 deletion mutants. Loss in ability to repel water was first observed on 13 d old cultures of the wild type strain, whereas the overexpression strain remained water repellant throughout the 38 d time study. The conidia of both mutants were examined and those of the overexpression mutant showed distinct morphological differences in form of collapsed cells. These observations might suggest that the peptide product of NRPS4 could be an architectural factor in the cell walls of Fusarium or an indirect regulator of hydrophobicity. PMID:22862913

Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt; Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Fojan, Peter; Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

2012-05-03

388

The Homologue of het-c of Neurospora crassa Lacks Vegetative Compatibility Function in Fusarium proliferatum†  

PubMed Central

For two fungal strains to be vegetatively compatible and capable of forming a stable vegetative heterokaryon they must carry matching alleles at a series of loci variously termed het or vic genes. Cloned het/vic genes from Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina have no obvious functional similarity and have various cellular functions. Our objective was to identify the homologue of the Neurospora het-c gene in Fusarium proliferatum and to determine if this gene has a vegetative compatibility function in this economically important and widely dispersed fungal pathogen. In F. proliferatum and five other closely related Fusarium species we found a few differences in the DNA sequence, but the changes were silent and did not alter the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein. Deleting the gene altered sexual fertility as the female parent, but it did not alter male fertility or existing vegetative compatibility interactions. Replacement of the allele-specific portion of the coding sequence with the sequence of an alternate allele in N. crassa did not result in a vegetative incompatibility response in transformed strains of F. proliferatum. Thus, the fphch gene in Fusarium appears unlikely to have the vegetative compatibility function associated with its homologue in N. crassa. These results suggest that the vegetative compatibility phenotype may result from convergent evolution. Thus, the genes involved in this process may need to be identified at the species level or at the level of a group of species and could prove to be attractive targets for the development of antifungal agents.

Kerenyi, Zoltan; Olah, Brigitta; Jeney, Apor; Hornok, Laszlo; Leslie, John F.

2006-01-01

389

Functional identification of high-affinity iron permeases from Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ScFTR1 gene encodes an iron permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its homologues, FgFtr1 and FgFtr2, were identified from filamentous pathogenic plant fungus, Fusarium graminearum. Homologies between the deduced amino acid sequences of ScFtr1p and FgFtr1 and FgFtr2 were 56 and 54%, respectively, and both had REXXE sequences, which form the conserved amino acid sequence of ScFtr1p. FgFtr1 expression increased under

Yong-Sung Park; Il-Dong Choi; Chang-Min Kang; Mun-Sik Ham; Ji-Hyun Kim; Tae-Hyoung Kim; Sung-Hwan Yun; Yin-Won Lee; Hyo-Ihl Chang; Ha-Chin Sung; Cheol-Won Yun

2006-01-01

390

Differential Detection of Potentially Hazardous Fusarium Species in Wheat Grains by an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Fungal infestation on wheat is an increasingly grave nutritional problem in many countries worldwide. Fusarium species are especially harmful pathogens due to their toxic metabolites. In this work we studied volatile compounds released by F. cerealis, F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. redolens using SPME-GC/MS. By using an electronic nose we were able to differentiate between infected and non-infected wheat grains in the post-harvest chain. Our electronic nose was capable of distinguishing between four wheat Fusaria species with an accuracy higher than 80%.

Eifler, Jakob; Martinelli, Eugenio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Schild, Detlev; Di Natale, Corrado

2011-01-01

391

Fertility and management practices to control verticillium wilt of the russet burbank potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices for the suppression of Verticillium wilt of Russet Burbank potato include sanitation, use of optimum\\u000a sprinkler-irrigation practices, soil solarization, and an adequate soil fertility program. Among all cultural factors considered,\\u000a nitrogen (N) deficiency in potato tissue was most commonly associated with the severity of Verticiilium wilt in Russet Burbank\\u000a potato. Field studies have shown that increased N availability

J. R. Davis; L. H. Sorensen; J. C. Stark; D. T. Westermann

1990-01-01

392

Ecological Relationships of Verticillium Wilt Suppression of Potato by Green Manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that once a suppressive effect has been established, a green manure treatment for a single season is sufficient\\u000a to either maintain or to re-establish the control of Verticillium wilt of potato. Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., was controlled on the first years of Russet Burbank potato cropping following 2–3 successive years of green manure\\u000a treatments. Following

James R. Davis; Oen C. Huisman; Dale O. Everson; Philip Nolte; Leland H. Sorensen; Ann T. Schneider

2010-01-01

393

Aggressiveness of Cephalosporium maydis causing late wilt of maize in Spain.  

PubMed

Late wilt of maize, caused by the vascular and soilborne pathogen Cephalosporium maydis, was identified in the Iberian Peninsula in 2008. During the last years the incidence and economical impact of the disease has importantly increased both in Portugal and Spain. Varieties of maize displaying tolerance to the pathogen are available, but the effectiveness can be dependent on the virulence of the fungus (i.e. ability to cause disease on a specific genotype). On the other hand, strains of crop pathogens from different geographic origins can differ with regard to the degree of disease caused on a specific genotype (i.e. aggressiveness). Our working hypothesis was that isolates of C. maydis from different maize growing areas may differ in aggressiveness towards maize plants. Seven fungal strains were isolated in 2009 from diseased plants collected in the most important maize growing regions of Spain and used to inoculate two susceptible maize varieties grown in shadehouse from March to July 2010. The experimental unit consisted of two 4-day-old seedlings planted in an 8-liter pot filled with sand/silt previously infested with 200 g of wheat grains colonized by the fungi. Non colonized wheat grains were used for the control treatments. Six replications (pots) were established for each variety/isolate combination according to a complete randomized 2 x 8 factorial design. The percentage of necrotic and dry aboveground tissues was recorded 14 weeks after inoculation and thereafter weekly until physiological senescence of the control plants. At the end of the experiment, weights of roots and aboveground parts of the plants were recorded. Initial occurrence of symptoms in the plants was significantly dependent on the isolate of C. maydis and on the maize variety. However, final severity of aboveground symptoms (leaf necroses and drying up) was only dependent on the fungal isolate. All the isolates significantly reduced the root weight of both varieties of maize. The highest root weight reductions were also associated to a significant low weight of above-ground parts. Considering all the symptoms analysed and their progression in the maize plants, our results reveal that a diversity of aggressiveness exists among isolates of C. maydis. The need for a characterization of maize genotypes by their reaction against highly aggressive isolates of the fungus in the Iberian Peninsula is suggested. This study is a first step towards a recommendation of crop varieties that are tolerant to C. maydis in different areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Future research aims at studying the relationship between aggressiveness levels, molecular characteristics and geographical origin whithin C. maydis. PMID:23878971

García-Carneros, A B; Girón, I; Molinero-Ruiz, L

2012-01-01

394

Characterization of Fusarium Keratitis Outbreak Isolates: Contribution of Biofilms to Antimicrobial Resistance and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Fusarium is a major cause of microbial keratitis, and its ability to form biofilms was suggested as a contributing factor in recent outbreaks. We investigated the ability of outbreak Fusarium isolates (F. solani species complex [FSSC] and F. oxysporum species complex [FOSC]) to form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated their antifungal susceptibilities. Methods. Biofilm formation was assessed using our in vitro contact lens model and in vivo murine model. Biofilm architecture was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Susceptibility against amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VCZ), and natamycin (NAT) was determined using the CLSI-M38-A2 method and XTT metabolic assay. Results. FSSC strains formed more biofilms than FOSC, in a strain- and clade-dependent manner. CLSM analyses revealed that “high biofilm forming” (HBF) strains had denser and thicker biofilms than “low biofilm forming” (LBF) strains of both species (thickness 51 vs. 41 ?m for FSSC and 61 vs. 45 ?m for FOSC strains, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Fusarium biofilms exhibited species-dependent antifungal susceptibilities (e.g., FSSC biofilms AmB minimal inhibitory concentrations [MIC] ?16 ?g/mL, while NAT or VCZ MICs were 2–8 ?g/mL). FSSC-infected mice had severe corneal opacification independent of biofilm thickness, while FOSC infection resulted in moderate corneal opacification. Corneal fungal burden of mice infected with HBF strains was higher than those of the LBF strains. In contrast, the reference ATCC isolate was unable to cause infection. Conclusions. The ability to form biofilms is a key pathogenicity determinant of Fusarium, irrespective of the thickness of these biofilms. Further studies are warranted to explore this association in greater detail.

Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Sun, Yan; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2012-01-01

395

Effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of fusarium head blight in wheat.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the key signal molecules in regulating plant resistance to diverse pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is predominantly associated with resistance against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and triggering systemic acquired resistance. In contrast, the effect of SA on the defence efficiency of wheat against fusarium head blight (FHB) and its causal agent, Fusarium graminearum, is still poorly understood. Here we show that the F. graminearum mycelial growth and conidia germination were significantly inhibited, and eventually halted in the presence of increasing concentration of SA in both liquid and solid media. Addition of SA also significantly reduced the production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). However the inhibitory effect of SA required acidic growth conditions to be observed while basic conditions allowed F. graminearum to use SA as a carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the capacity of F. graminearum to metabolize SA. To better understand the effect of SA on F. graminearum mycelial growth, we have compared the expression profiles of SA-treated and untreated F. graminearum liquid cultures after 8 and 24 h of treatment, using an F. graminearum custom-commercial microarray. The microarray analysis suggested that F. graminearum can metabolize SA through either the catechol or gentisate pathways that are present in some fungal species. Inoculation of F. graminearum conidia in a SA-containing solution has led to reduced FHB symptoms in the very susceptible Triticum aestivum cv. Roblin. In contrast, no inhibition was observed when SA and conidia were inoculated sequentially. The expression patterns for the wheat PR1, NPR1, Pdf1.2, and PR4 genes, a group of indicator genes for the defence response, suggested that SA-induced resistance contributed little to the reduction of symptoms in our assay conditions. Our results demonstrate that, although F. graminearum has the capacity to metabolize SA, SA has a significant and direct impact on F. graminearum through a reduction in efficiency of germination and growth at higher concentrations. PMID:22385623

Qi, Peng-Fei; Johnston, Anne; Balcerzak, Margaret; Rocheleau, Hélène; Harris, Linda J; Long, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang; Ouellet, Thérèse

2012-01-16

396

Fusarium keratitis and endophthalmitis associated with lens contact wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a Fusarium keratitis is a severe corneal infection that is usually seen in tropical and subtropical countries after a corneal trauma.\\u000a In 2005–2006, an epidemic of Fusarium keratitis, occurring predominantly among contact lens wearers, was observed in several countries. Case report We describe the clinical course of a Fusarium keratitis which failed to respond to systemic and local voriconazole treatment,

Julia Proença-Pina; Isabelle Ssi Yan Kai; Tristan Bourcier; Monique Fabre; Hervé Offret; Marc Labetoulle

2010-01-01

397

In Vitro Activity of Thimerosal against Ocular Pathogenic Fungi?  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of thimerosal versus those of amphotericin B and natamycin was assessed against 244 ocular fungal isolates. The activity of thimerosal against Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Alternaria alternata was 256 times, 512 times, and 128 times, respectively, greater than that of natamycin and 64 times, 32 times, and 32 times, respectively, greater than that of amphotericin B. Thimerosal's antifungal activity was significantly superior to those of amphotericin B and natamycin against ocular pathogenic fungi in vitro.

Xu, Yan; Pang, Guangren; Zhao, Dongqing; Gao, Chuanwen; Zhou, Lutan; Sun, Shengtao; Wang, Bingliang

2010-01-01

398

In vitro activity of thimerosal against ocular pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of thimerosal versus those of amphotericin B and natamycin was assessed against 244 ocular fungal isolates. The activity of thimerosal against Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Alternaria alternata was 256 times, 512 times, and 128 times, respectively, greater than that of natamycin and 64 times, 32 times, and 32 times, respectively, greater than that of amphotericin B. Thimerosal's antifungal activity was significantly superior to those of amphotericin B and natamycin against ocular pathogenic fungi in vitro. PMID:19841144

Xu, Yan; Pang, Guangren; Zhao, Dongqing; Gao, Chuanwen; Zhou, Lutan; Sun, Shengtao; Wang, Bingliang

2009-10-19

399

In vitro antifungal activity of posaconazole against various pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of posaconazole (SCH56592), a new triazole antifungal, against stock cultures and fresh clinical isolates of a wide range of pathogenic fungi was compared with that of itraconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B. Posaconazole inhibited growth of all the fungal species tested except Fusarium spp. at 1 mg\\/l or lower concentrations, showing a broad-spectrum antifungal activity. The activities of

Katsuhisa Uchida; Nobuko Yokota; Hideyo Yamaguchi

2001-01-01

400

Survey of fumonisin production by Fusarium species.  

PubMed Central

Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), two structurally related mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity, were recently isolated from corn cultures of Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826. These toxins have been reported to be produced also by isolates of F. proliferatum. Contamination of foods and feeds by F. moniliforme has been associated with human esophageal cancer risk, and FB1 has been shown to be the causative agent of the neurotoxic disease leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Because of the toxicological importance of the fumonisins, the potential to produce FB1 and FB2 was determined in a study of 40 toxic Fusarium isolates representing 27 taxa in 9 of the 12 sections of Fusarium, as well as two recently described species not yet classified into sections. With the exception of one isolate of F. nygamai, fumonisin production was restricted to isolates of F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum, in the section Liseola. The F. nygamai isolate produced 605 micrograms of FB1 g-1 and 530 micrograms of FB2 g-1, and the identity of the toxins was confirmed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the production of the fumonisins by F. nygamai.

Thiel, P G; Marasas, W F; Sydenham, E W; Shephard, G S; Gelderblom, W C; Nieuwenhuis, J J

1991-01-01

401

Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600?µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-? were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide. PMID:22916825

Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

2012-08-23

402

Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.  

PubMed

Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no effect. Assessment of total culturable microbes in the composts showed a positive relationship between disease suppressive ability and total population levels of pseudomonads. In vitro antagonism assays between compost-isolated bacterial strains and the pathogen showed that strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the greatest antagonism. In growth room trials, strains of P. aeruginosa and nonantagonistic Pseudomonas maculicola, plus 2 biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, were tested for their ability to reduce (i) survival of F. oxysporum, (ii) colonization of plants by the pathogen, and (iii) disease severity. Cucumber seedlings grown in compost receiving P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens had reduced disease severity index scores after 8 weeks compared with control plants without bacteria. Internal stem colonization by F. oxysporum was significantly reduced by P. aeruginosa. The bacteria colonized plant roots at 1.9 × 10(6) ± 0.73 × 10(6) CFU·(g root tissue)-1 and survival was >107 CFU·(g compost)-1 after 6 weeks. The locus for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol production was detected by Southern blot analysis and confirmed by PCR. The production of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in liquid culture by P. aeruginosa was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. These results demonstrate that composts containing antibiotic-producing P. aeruginosa have the potential to suppress diseases caused by Fusarium species. PMID:21076480

Bradley, Geoffrey G; Punja, Zamir K

2010-11-01

403

A ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE PATHOGENIC TO COCK'S COMB, CELOSIA ARGENTEA L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was assessed on roots and rhizosphere soil of cock's comb (Celosia argentea L.) planted in 5 lawns located at the campus of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The infected plants were stunted with galled and rotted roots. Four fungal pathogens including Fusarium, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotia were isolated from nematode-fungal complex infected roots. Plant

S. A. ANWAR; A. ZIA; Q. SHAKEEL

404

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus irregulare, controls the mycotoxin production of Fusarium sambucinum in the pathogenesis of potato.  

PubMed

Trichothecenes are an important family of mycotoxins produced by several species of the genus Fusarium. These fungi cause serious disease on infected plants and postharvest storage of crops, and the toxins can cause health problems for humans and animals. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens, and most rely on chemicals, creating therefore subsequent problems of chemical resistance. We tested the impact of the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus irregulare on a trichothecene-producing strain of Fusarium sambucinum isolated from naturally infected potato plants. Using dual in vitro cultures, we showed that G. irregulare inhibited the growth of F. sambucinum and significantly reduced the production of the trichothecene 4, 15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). Furthermore, using G. irregulare-colonized potato plants infected with F. sambucinum, we found that the G. irregulare treatment inhibited the production of DAS in roots and tubers. Thus, in addition to the known beneficial effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant growth, we found that G. irregulare controlled the growth of a virulent fungal pathogen and reduced production of a mycotoxin. This previously undescribed, biological control of Fusarium mycotoxin production by G. irregulare has potential implications for improved potato crop production and food safety. PMID:23964970

Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed

2013-09-10

405

Changes in the bacterial community and composition of fermentation products during ensiling of wilted Italian ryegrass and wilted guinea grass silages.  

PubMed

To gain further insights into temperate and tropical grass ensiling, fermentation products and bacterial communities were examined at both the initial and late stages of ensiling of wilted Italian ryegrass and wilted guinea grass silages. 2,3-Butanediol and ethanol fermentation were observed in wilted Italian ryegrass silage. Enterobacteria such as Rahnella sp. and Enterobacter sp. may have been involved in fermentation; however, alcohol production was intensified after the silage enterobacterial community overwhelmed the pre-ensiled enterobacterial community. Pediococcus spp. appeared in silage stored for 4 months, when a significant increase in lactic acid content was seen compared with that at 2 months. Prolonged storage enhanced acetic acid fermentation in wilted guinea grass silage. The disappearance of Enterococcus sulfureus and appearance of Lactobacillus plantarum may have been associated with the increased acetic acid content. Although many species of enterobacteria were found in common between the pre-ensiled crop and silages of Italian ryegrass and guinea grass, marked differences were seen in the type of fermentation from the initial stages. These results indicate that the bacterial community of pre-ensiled crops may be immediately replaced by one that is adapted to ensiling environments, although metabolic changes may continue over the course of ensiling. PMID:23607694

Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

2013-03-24

406

Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in F. avenaceum. Seven monosaccharides (arabinose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, glucose), five disaccharides (cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and three polysaccharides (dextrin, inulin and xylan) were used as substrates. Three F. avenaceum strains were used in the experiments. These were all able to grow and produce aurofusarin on the tested carbon sources. Moniliformin and enniatins were produced on all carbon types, except on lactose, which suggest a common conserved regulation mechanism. Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis.

S?rensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

2013-01-01

407

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Paprika in Korea  

PubMed Central

In the present study we first report in Korea the identification and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from rotten stems and roots of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) at Masan, Kyungsangnamdo in 2006. The fungal species produced white aerial mycelia accompanying with dark violet pigment on PDA. The optimal temperature and pH for the growth of the species was 25? and pH 7, respectively. Microscopic observation of one of isolates of the species shows that its conidiophores are unbranched and monophialides, its microconidia have oval-ellipsoidal shape with no septate and are of 3.0~11 × 1.5~3.5 µm sizes, its macroconidia are of 15~20 × 2.0~3.5 µm sizes and have slightly curved or slender shape with 2~3 septate. The results of molecular analysis show that the ITS rDNA of F. oxysporum from paprika shares 100% sequence identity with that of known F. oxysporum isolates. The identified species proved it's pathogenicity by causing rotting symptom when it was inoculated on paprika fruits. The growth of F. oxysporum from paprika was suppressed on PDA by agrochemicals such as benomyl, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin. The identified species has the ability of producing extracelluar enzymes that degrade cellobiose and pectin.

Cha, Sang-Do; Jeon, Young-Jae; Ahn, Geum-Ran; Han, Jae In; Han, Kap-Hoon

2007-01-01

408

Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum.  

PubMed

Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in F. avenaceum. Seven monosaccharides (arabinose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, glucose), five disaccharides (cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and three polysaccharides (dextrin, inulin and xylan) were used as substrates. Three F. avenaceum strains were used in the experiments. These were all able to grow and produce aurofusarin on the tested carbon sources. Moniliformin and enniatins were produced on all carbon types, except on lactose, which suggest a common conserved regulation mechanism. Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:24064720

Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

2013-09-24

409

Interactions of Bacillus mojavensis and Fusarium verticillioides with a benzoxazolinone (BOA) and its transformation product, APO.  

PubMed

The benzoxazolinones, specifically benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), are important transformation products of the benzoxazinones that can serve as allelochemicals providing resistance to maize from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and insects. However, maize pathogens such as Fusarium verticillioides are capable of detoxifying the benzoxazolinones to 2-aminophenol (AP), which is converted to the less toxic N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) malonamic acid (HPMA) and 2-acetamidophenol (HPAA). As biocontrol strategies that utilize a species of endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, are considered efficacious as a control of this Fusarium species, the in vitro transformation and effects of BOA on growth of this bacterium was examined relative to its interaction with strains of F. verticillioides. The results showed that a red pigment was produced and accumulated only on BOA-amended media when wild type and the progeny of genetic crosses of F. verticillioides are cultured in the presence of the bacterium. The pigment was identified as 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (APO), which is a stable product. The results indicate that the bacterium interacts with the fungus preventing the usual transformation of AP to the nontoxic HPMA, resulting in the accumulation of higher amounts of APO than when the fungus is cultured alone. APO is highly toxic to F. verticillioides and other organisms. Thus, an enhanced biocontrol is suggested by this in vitro study. PMID:17896139

Bacon, Charles W; Hinton, Dorothy M; Glenn, Anthony E; Macías, Francisco A; Marin, David

2007-09-25

410

Differential Expression of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs in Infected Commercial and Experimental Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Background Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) in the infected host can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates, self-complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action of host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. The vsiRNA abundance and profile as well as the endogenous small RNA population can vary between different hosts infected by the same virus influencing viral pathogenicity and host response. There are no reports on the analysis of vsiRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a segmented negative stranded RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae, with two of its gene segments showing ambisense gene arrangement. The virus causes significant economic losses to numerous field and horticultural crops worldwide. Principal Findings Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-specific vsiRNAs were characterized by deep sequencing in virus-infected experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana and a commercial, susceptible host tomato. The total small (s) RNA reads in TSWV-infected tomato sample showed relatively equal distribution of 21, 22 and 24 nt, whereas N. benthamiana sample was dominated by 24 nt total sRNAs. The number of vsiRNA reads detected in tomato was many a magnitude (~350:1) higher than those found in N. benthamiana, however the profile of vsiRNAs in terms of relative abundance 21, 22 and 24 nt class size was similar in both the hosts. Maximum vsiRNA reads were obtained for the M RNA segment of TSWV while the largest L RNA segment had the least number of vsiRNAs in both tomato and N. benthamiana. Only the silencing suppressor, NSs, of TSWV recorded higher antisense vsiRNA with respect to the coding frame among all the genes of TSWV. Significance Details of the origin, distribution and abundance of TSWV vsiRNAs could be useful in designing efficient targets for exploiting RNA interference for virus resistance. It also has major implications toward our understanding of the differential processing of vsiRNAs in antiviral defense and viral pathogenicity.

Mitter, Neena; Koundal, Vikas; Williams, Sarah; Pappu, Hanu

2013-01-01

411

Control of crown rot-causing fungal pathogens of banana by inorganic salts and a surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown rot, a disease complex caused by various fungi, is an economically significant postharvest disease in bananas. Control of banana crown rot-causing fungal pathogens, such as Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, and Fusarium verticillioides by inorganic salts, as well as a surfactant, was evaluated. The conidial germination of pathogens was totally inhibited for 2d at 4gl?1 of Na2CO3, 5gl?1

Dionisio G. Alvindia; Keiko T. Natsuaki

2007-01-01

412

In vitro screening of some tropical ash samples against seedborne pathogens of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven ash samples obtained from nine tropical plants were screened in vitro for their potential to reduce the mycelial growth of the seedborne pathogens Helminthosporium sativum, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium graminearum. All ash samples inhibited the mycelial growth of these pathogens. Delonix regia wood ash induced up to 77.8, 80.7 and 88.8% reduction in the mycelial growth of H. sativum,

O. A. Enikuomehin; I. A. Kehinde

2007-01-01

413

Emerging and less common fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Less common and emerging fungal pathogens are often resistant to conventional antifungal therapy and may cause severe morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Some Scedosporium species may be completely resistant to antifungal therapy. Hyaline septated filamentous fungi, such as Fusarium species, Acremonium species, Paecilomyces species, and Trichoderma species, are increasingly reported as causing invasive mycoses refractory to amphotericin B therapy. Dematiaceous septated filamentous fungi, such as Bipolaris species may cause pneumonia, sinusitis, and CNS infections that are unresponsive to current medical interventions. Trichosporon spp are resistant to the fungicidal effects of amphotericin B. An increasing number of different members of the class Zygomycetes are reported as causing lethal infections, despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions. Infections due to these and other less common and emergent fungal pathogens will likely continue to develop in the settings of selective anti-fungal pressure, permissive environmental conditions, and an expanding population of immunocompromised hosts. PMID:12512187

Fleming, Rhonda V; Walsh, Thomas J; Anaissie, Elias J

2002-12-01

414

GENOMICS OF THE MYCOTOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS, FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM (GIBBERELLA ZEAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum (sexual state: Gibberella zeae) causes head blight (also known as scab) of wheat, barley, and oats, as well as foot and crown rot of corn. A genomics approach to the study of F. graminearum is critical because for head blight, like many Fusarium diseases, effective fungicides an...

415

Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii in Lilium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil-born fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, causes bulb rot in lilies, which endangers its bulb production worldwide. The resistance of 44 species against Fusarium was scored under standardized test conditions. The Asiatic cultivars 'Orlito' and 'Connecticut King' were highly resistant, while 'Pirate' was highly susceptible. The resistance level of the Oriental hybrids such as 'Acapulco' and 'Stargazer' and

J. H. Lim; H. K. Rhee; Y. J. Kim; K. B. Lim; J. M. van Tuyl

416

Fusarium Mycotoxins: Biosynthetic Pathways and Role in Virulence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley is a devastating disease that has reached global proportions. Not only does this disease result in lower yields, but the mycotoxins produced by the fungus affect the quality of the grain. Fusarium sp. can produce a number of mycotoxins, including tric...

417

Quantitative Trait Loci in Sweet Corn Associated with Partial Resistance to Stewart's Wilt, Northern Corn Leaf Blight, and Common Rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown, A. F., Juvik, J. A., and Pataky, J. K. 2001. Quan titative trait loci in sweet corn associated with partial resistance to Stewart's wilt, northern corn leaf blight, and common rust. Phytopathology 91:293-300. Partial resistance to Stewart's wilt ( Erwina stewartii, syn. Pantoea stewartii), northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) ( Exserohilum turcicum), and common rust (Puccinia sorghi) was observed

A. F. Brown; J. A. Juvik; J. K. Pataky

2001-01-01

418

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Impact on tomato spotted wilt intensity in peanut and the implication on yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on weather patterns could have cascading effects on several diseases of important crops in the southeastern United States. One such disease is spotted wilt of peanut caused by the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Significant economic losses have been recorded by peanut growers in the southeastern United States since the disease

R. O. Olatinwo; J. O. Paz; R. C. Kemerait Jr.; A. K. Culbreath; G. Hoogenboom

2010-01-01

419

Disseminated Fusarium originating from toenail paronychia in a neutropenic patient  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is a saprophytic organism that is found widely distributed in soil, subterranean and aerial plants, plant debris and other organic substrates. The organism can cause local tissue infections in immunocompetent patients such as onychomycosis, bone and joint infections, or sinusitis. Since the first case of disseminated Fusarium was described, the incidence of disseminated disease has increased significantly, particularly affecting those immunocompromised with hematological malignancies. We report here a 38 year-old hospitalized male with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who developed disseminated Fusarium infection, originating from a toenail paronychia, in the setting of neutropenia. Pathological diagnosis of Fusarium is difficult because the septate hyphae of Fusarium are difficult to distinguish from Aspergillus, which has a more favorable outcome. Cultures of potential sources of infection, as well as tissue cultures, are essential in identifying the organism and initiating early aggressive therapy.

Bourgeois, Greg P.; Cafardi, Jennifer A.; Sellheyer, Klaus; Andea, Aleodor A.

2010-01-01

420

Cytotoxicity of Fusarium mycotoxins to mammalian cell cultures as determined by the MTT bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium mycotoxins occur worldwide in cereal grains and animal feeds and cause outbreaks of Fusarium mycotoxicoses in humans and animals. In this study mammalian cell cultures were used to screen the cytotoxicity of the most common Fusarium mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and moniliformin (MON). The most sensitive cell line for each Fusarium mycotoxin was determined for

Y. Cetin; L. B. Bullerman

2005-01-01

421

Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. PMID:21839160

Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

2011-08-03

422

Evaluation of genetic diversity of Fusarium head blight resistance in European winter wheat.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity in relation to Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was investigated among 295 European winter wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines using 47 wheat SSR markers. Twelve additional wheat lines with known FHB resistance were included as reference material. At least one SSR marker per chromosome arm, including SSR markers reported in the literature with putative associations with QTLs for FHB resistance, were assayed to give an even distribution of SSR markers across the wheat genome. A total of 404 SSR alleles were detected. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 21, with an average of 8.6 alleles. The polymorphism information content of the SSR markers ranged from 0.13 (Xwmc483) to 0.87 (Xwmc607), with an average of 0.54. Cluster analysis was performed by both genetic distance-based and model-based methods. In general, the dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages showed similar groupings to the model-based analysis. Seven clusters were identified by the model-based method, which did not strictly correspond to geographical origin. The FHB resistance level of the wheat lines was evaluated in field trials conducted over multiple years or locations by assessing the following traits: % FHB severity, % FHB incidence, % diseased kernels, in spray inoculation trials, and % FHB spread and % wilted tips, in point inoculation trials. Association analysis between SSR markers and the FHB disease traits detected markers significantly associated with FHB resistance, including some that have not been previously reported. The percentage of variance explained by each individual marker was, however, rather low. Haplotype analysis revealed that the FHB-resistant European wheat lines do not contain the 3BS locus derived from Sumai 3. The information generated in this study will assist in the selection of parental lines in order to increase the efficiency of breeding efforts for FHB resistance. PMID:18587558

Zwart, Rebecca S; Muylle, Hilde; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

2008-06-28

423

Salicylic Acid Induced Insensitivity to Culture Filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi in the Calli of Zingiber officinale Roscoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) was used to induce insensitivity in the callus cultures of Zingiber officinale against culture filtrate (CF) of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi. The treatment of callus cultures with SA (104µM) prior to selection with CF of the pathogen-increased callus survival. Exogenous application of SA resulted in increased activity of peroxidase and ß-1,3-glucanase enzymes in the callus cultures. No

Prachi; Tilak R. Sharma; Brij M. Singh

2002-01-01

424

Soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in Musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in Musa acuminata roots exposed to cell wall-derived elicitor from the pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. cubense, race four, was investigated. The root tissue from the banana cultivar ‘Goldfinger’ was found to respond strongly and rapidly towards the elicitor through the increased synthesis of phenolic compounds. Following elicitation, the conjugated and

Ana R. F. D. C de Ascensao; Ian A Dubery

2003-01-01

425

Utilization of chemical inducers of resistance and Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 to reduce Fusarium head blight under greenhouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four chemicals [salicylic acid (SA), sodium salt of salicylic acid (NaSA), isonicotinic acid (INA), and DL-?-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA)] and the yeast antagonist Cryptococcus flavescens (=C. nodaensis nomen nudum) OH 182.9 were evaluated separately or together for the ability to reduce Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat in the greenhouse. When sprayed onto wheat heads at 3days prior to pathogen challenge

Shouan Zhang; David A. Schisler; Michael J. Boehm; Patricia J. Slininger

2007-01-01

426

Metabolic fingerprinting reveals a new genetic linkage between ambient pH and metabolites associated with desiccation tolerance in Fusarium verticillioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides, a kernel-rotting pathogen of maize, produces fumonisin mycotoxins that are detrimental to both human and animal health.\\u000a Current knowledge about the environmental regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis is centered on the influence of pH and carbohydrate\\u000a availability. In this study, we report metabolic changes in F. verticillioides associated with conditions that are conducive (pH 3) or repressive (pH 8)

Jonathon E. Smith; Jackson O. Lay; Burt H. Bluhm

427

Fusarium Species from Nepalese Rice and Production of Mycotoxins and Gibberellic Acid by Selected Species  

PubMed Central

Infection of cereal grains with Fusarium species can cause contamination with mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. To determine the potential for mycotoxin contamination, we isolated Fusarium species from samples of rice seeds that were collected in 1997 on farms in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. The predominant Fusarium species in surface-disinfested seeds with husks were species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex, including G. fujikuroi mating population A (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides), G. fujikuroi mating population C (anamorph, Fusarium fujikuroi), and G. fujikuroi mating population D (anamorph, Fusarium proliferatum). The widespread occurrence of mating population D suggests that its role in the complex symptoms of bakanae disease of rice may be significant. Other common species were Gibberella zeae (anamorph, Fusarium graminearum) and Fusarium semitectum, with Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium anguioides, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium equiseti, and Fusarium oxysporum occasionally present. Strains of mating population C produced beauvericin, moniliformin, and gibberellic acid, but little or no fumonisin, whereas strains of mating population D produced beauvericin, fumonisin, and, usually, moniliformin, but no gibberellic acid. Some strains of G. zeae produced the 8-ketotrichothecene nivalenol, whereas others produced deoxynivalenol. Despite the occurrence of fumonisin-producing strains of mating population D, and of 8-ketotrichothecene-producing strains of G. zeae, Nepalese rice showed no detectable contamination with these mycotoxins. Effective traditional practices for grain drying and storage may prevent contamination of Nepalese rice with Fusarium mycotoxins.

Desjardins, A. E.; Manandhar, H. K.; Plattner, R. D.; Manandhar, G. G.; Poling, S. M.; Maragos, C. M.

2000-01-01

428

Fusarium strain development and selection for enhancement of ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Research data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that selected Fusarium strains isolated from natural habitats are potential decomposers and parameters of biomass. The amount of ethanol produced is comparable to that yielded by other potential microorganisms and, moreover, Fusarium strains can ferment zylose (pentoses) while other microbes cannot. Preliminary mutagenesis studies on Fusarium isolates indicates that potential mutants can be developed which are capable of hydrolyzing more cellulosics in a shorter time as well as fermenting monosugars to ethanol at higher rates than their parental wild strains. Therefore, new studies were initiated to further enhance the ethanol production via Fusarium genetic manipulation. In particular, the aim of this task is to develop superior Fusarium strains capable of fermenting monosaccharides (specifically xylose) to ethanol, and able to tolerate higher ethanol concentrations than selected wild strains. Experimental work on hyphal fusions of selected Fusarium strains with the purpose of exploiting heterokaryosis and parasexuality for the development of new superior strains has been initiated. Bibliographic information related to Fusarium genetics and ethanol fermentation has been studied and a summary is presented. 63 refs.

Antonopoulos, A.A.; Wene, E.G.

1987-01-01

429

Isolation of pathogenicity- and gregatin-deficient mutants of Phialophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola through Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phialophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola, a causal agent of brown stem rot in adzuki beans, produces phytotoxic compounds: gregatins A, B, C, D, and E. Gregatins\\u000a A, C, and D cause wilting and vascular browning in adzuki beans, which resemble the disease symptoms. Thus, gregatins are\\u000a considered to be involved in pathogenicity. However, molecular analyses have not been conducted, and

Soichi Tanaka; Norio Kondo; Shigeo Naito

2007-01-01

430

Detection of Extracellular enzymes Activities in Various Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Thirty seven species of Fusarium were evaluated for their ability of producing extracellular enzymes using chromogenic medium containing substrates such as starch, cellobiose, CM-cellulose, xylan, and pectin. Among the tested species Fusarium mesoamericanum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. acuminatum showed high ?-glucosidase acitivity. Xylanase activity was strongly detected in F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Strong pectinase activity was also found in F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Amylase activity was apparent in F. oxysporum. No clear activity in cellulase was found from all the Fusarium species tested. PMID:24015090

Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yoon, Ji Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Cheon, Youngah; Ko, Seung Ju

2007-09-30

431

Post-operative endophthalmitis due to Fusarium dimerum.  

PubMed

Fungal endophthalmitis is a destructive intraocular infection resulting in poor visual prognosis. Endophthalmitis due to Fusarium spp has the worst visual prognosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female patient who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in the right eye and presented two months after the surgery with fungal endophthalmitis. The aqueous humor culture grew Fusarium dimerum. The patient was treated with intravitreal and oral voriconazole and topical prednisolone. The patient experienced one episode of recurrence following by remarkable improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fusarium dimerum endophthalmitis. PMID:23413713

Khan, Sadia; Pillai, Gopal S; Vivek, V; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, P M Shamsul

2012-11-01

432

Calcium uptake and resistance to bacterial wilt of mutually grafted tomato seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum Smith is a serious disease in Japan. We previously reported that calcium (Ca) nutrition in tomato significantly affected the resistance to the disease, and that highly resistant cultivars were characterized by a high Ca uptake. We examined the relationship between the Ca uptake and resistance using mutually grafted seedlings

Hiromichi Yamazaki; Sunao Kikuchi; Tsuguo Hoshina; Takeshi Kimura

2000-01-01

433

Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus brevis Strain X23, a Biocontrol Agent against Bacterial Wilt  

PubMed Central

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum.

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming

2012-01-01

434

Draft genome sequence of Brevibacillus brevis strain X23, a biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Brevibacillus brevis X23 is an appropriate biocontrol agent against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We report herein the draft genome sequence (6,566,879 bp) and a circular plasmid (6,600 bp) of B. brevis X23, data which may be helpful for mining the antagonistic activity against R. solanacearum. PMID:23144389

Chen, Wu; Wang, Yunsheng; Li, Dingjun; Li, Lin; Xiao, Qiming; Zhou, Qingming

2012-12-01

435

10. Development of component technologies for control of bacterial wilt in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research strategies to control potato bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) were conducted in Pangalengan subdistrict in West Java from January to December 2001. Activities were done to determine the following: 1) status of Ralstonia solanacearum in farmers' and experimental fields, 2) effects of control components including seed selection during storage, crop rotation, field sanitation, mulching, and manuring with beneficial organisms added,

Oni Setiani Gunawan; Z. Abidin; R. S. Basuki; A. Dimyati; A. Asgar; Elske van de Fliert

436

Regeneration of Different Plant Functional Types in a Masson Pine Forest Following Pine Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

2012-01-01

437

OPTIMIZATION AND USE OF THE CARPOPHILUS SAYI (COLEOPTERA: NITIDULIDAE) PHEROMONE IN OAK WILT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ceratocystis fagacearum, (Bretz) Hunt, the causal agent of oak wilt, is transmitted overland from diseased to healthy oaks by sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Carpophilus sayi (Parsons) has been implicated as one of the principal sap beetle vectors in Minnesota. Field studies were conducted ...

438

Comparing Farmer Field Schools, Community Workshops, and Radio: Teaching Bolivian Farmers about Bacterial Wilt of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious disease of potato. It can be managed with cultural practices, but only if farmers understand the technologies, and the reasons behind them. Face-to-face extension methods, like farmer field school (FFS), can teach these messages to smallholders, but other methods may also be useful. This paper compares FFS with two less- costly methods: \\

Jeffery W. Bentley; Oscar Barea; Sylvie Priou; Graham Thiele

439

EVALUATION OF FRANKLINIELLA BISPINOSA (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) AS A VECTOR OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS IN PEPPER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frankliniella occidentalis is the key vector responsible for the emergence of Tomato spotted wilt virus as a global threat to agriculture. Frankliniella bispinosa is a common thrips in Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda, but the role of F. bispinosa in the epidemiology of the virus is not known. The ...

440

Measuring Hydraulic Conductivity to Wilting Point Using Polymer Tensiometers in an Evaporation Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymer tensiometer is a novel instrument to measure soil water pressure heads from saturation to permanent wilting conditions. We used tensiometers of this type in an experiment to determine the hydraulic properties of evaporating soil samples in the laboratory. Relative errors in the hydraulic conductivity function in the wet part were high due to the relatively low accuracy of

A. Durigon; H. P. A. Gooren; Lier van Q. D; K. Metselaar

2011-01-01

441

The S RNA segment of tomato spotted wilt virus has an ambisense character  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the S RNA of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was determined. The RNA is 2916 nucleotides long and has an ambisense coding strategy. The sequence contains two open reading frames (ORFs), one in the viral sense which encodes a protein with a predicted Mr of 52\\

Peter de Haan; C. A. M. Wagemakers; Dick Peters; Rob Goldbach

1990-01-01

442

Multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in primary cell cultures derived from two thrips species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cell cultures prepared from embryos of the thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci were tested for their potential to support replication of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Using polyclonal antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) and indirect immunofluorescent staining, discrete spots with strong signals were observed in the cytoplasm at 48 h post-inoculation in the cell cultures

Tatsuya Nagata; Marc M. H Storms; Rob Goldbach; Dick Peters

1997-01-01

443

Polygenic Inheritance of Canopy Wilting in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As water demand for agriculture exceeds water availability, cropping systems need to become more efficient in water usage, such as deployment of cultivars that sustain yield under drought conditions. Soybean cultivars differ in how quickly they wilt during water-deficit stress, and this trait may l...

444

Inheritance of a resistance specific to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus in Capsicum chinense ‘PI 159236’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance studies were conducted to determine the genetic basis of resistance in pepper against one Tospovirus isolate classified as tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). F1, backcrosses and F2 populations were developed using the resistant parent Capsicum chinense ‘PI 159236’ (CNPH 679) and the susceptible parent C. annuum ‘Magda’ (CNPH 192). Segregation ratios strongly indicated that the resistant response (a localization,

L. S. Boiteux; A. C. Ávila

1994-01-01

445

Allelic relationships between genes for resistance to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus in Capsicum chinense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) has been reported to be an important reservoir of resistance genes to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The genes for TSWV resistance present in three C. chinense lines (‘PI 152225’, ‘PI 159236’ and ‘Panca’) were investigated for allelism. All resistant lines were crossed with each other. Parents, F1, backcrosses and F2 populations (including reciprocals) developed from

L. S. Boiteux

1995-01-01

446

Sources of resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in cultivated and wild species of Capsicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germplasm collection of 70 cultivars and wild species of Capsicum was evaluated for resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) under field (natural inoculum) conditions. Different levels of resistance to the disease caused by this virus were observed among the tested lines. High degree of field resistance was detected in two Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, two C. chinense, and

L. S. Boiteux; T. Nagata; W. P. Dutra; M. E. N. Fonseca

1993-01-01

447

Evaluation of thrips resistance in pepper to control Tomato spotted wilt virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of thrips ( F. occidentalis ) resistance in pepper ( Capsicum ) on the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Results demonstrate that the rate of primary TSWV-infection is effectively limited in a thrips-resistant (TR) pepper crop compared to a thrips-susceptible (TS) crop, and that this i