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1

Microsatellite marker-based detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt of Psidium guajava L., incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and Fusarium solani is a serious soil-borne disease of guava in India. Forty-two isolates each of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii (Fop) and F. solani (Fs) collected from different agro climatic zones of India showing pathogenicity were subjected to estimate the genetic and molecular characterisation in terms of

V. K. Gupta; A. K. Misra

2011-01-01

2

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

3

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeong-Dong

2008-12-01

4

Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

Kim, Jiyoung

2008-01-01

5

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR).  

PubMed

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10(-6) dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies. PMID:23961219

Mishra, Rupesh K; Pandey, Brajesh K; Muthukumar, M; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

6

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR)  

PubMed Central

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10?6 dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies.

Mishra, Rupesh K.; Pandey, Brajesh K.; Muthukumar, M.; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2012-01-01

7

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

8

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana.

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

9

Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.  

PubMed

Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

Afifi, A F

1977-01-01

10

2001 NATIONAL COTTON FUSARIUM WILT REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton cultivars and elite breeding lines submitted by 24 cooperators were evaluated for Fusarium wilt resistance under field conditions at the E. V. Smith Research Center, Plant Breeding Unit, Tallassee, Alabama. These entries were grown on an Independence loamy fine sand highly infested with the Fusarium wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) Schlect. f. vasinfectum (Atk.) (Snyd. & Hans.) and southern root-knot

Kathryn M. Glass; William S. Gazaway; Edzard van Santen

11

Differential Colonization of Tomato Roots by Nonpathogenic and Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains May Influence Fusarium Wilt Control.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Histochemical staining, beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, or placing roots on agar were methods used to characterize interactions between the pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and the nonpathogenic biocontrol F. oxysporum strain 70T01 with respect to colonization behaviors, interaction sites, and population densities on tomato roots. Mycelia of strain 70T01, a genetic transformant expressing stable GUS activity, hygromycin B resistance, and effective disease control, were localized in epidermal and cortex cell layers of tomato roots in a discontinuous and uneven pattern. In contrast, mycelia of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found in the vascular bundles. Thus, direct interactions between the two fungi likely happen in the root surface cell layers. Colonization density of strain 70T01 was related to the inoculation density but decreased with distance from the inoculation site. Host defense reactions, including increased cell wall thickness or papilla deposits, were adjacent to 70T01 hyphae. Experiments done in soil showed that strain 70T01 densities in roots were highest at inoculation zones and barely detectable for root segments more than 2 cm away from the inoculation sites. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici densities were lowest at 70T01 inoculation zones and highest (>10 times) where strain 70T01 was not directly applied. Newly elongating roots where strain 70T01 did not reach were available for infection by the pathogen. The higher strain 70T01 density was always found when the plants were simultaneously infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, suggesting that F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has as much influence in predisposing the plant to colonization by strain 70T01 as strain 70T01 has on providing disease protection against the pathogen. PMID:18943589

Bao, J R; Lazarovits, G

2001-05-01

12

Two xylanase genes of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum are differentially expressed during infection of tomato plants.  

PubMed

Two genes encoding putative family F xylanases from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici have been cloned and sequenced. The two genes, designated xyl2 and xyl3, encode proteins with calculated molecular masses of 33 and 39.3 kDa and isoelectric points of 8.9 and 6.7, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences show significant homology to other family F xylanases. XYL3 contains a cellulose-binding domain in its N-terminal region. Southern analysis suggested that xyl2 and xyl3 homologs are also present in other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Both genes were expressed during growth on oat spelt xylan and tomato vascular tissue in vitro. RT-PCR revealed that xyl3 is expressed in roots and in the lower stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici throughout the whole disease cycle, whereas xyl2 is only expressed during the final stages of disease. PMID:10323234

Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Di Pietro, A; Huertas-González, M D; Roncero, M I

1999-04-01

13

A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana fusarium wilt pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1? (TEF-1?) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races, comprising 20 vegetative compatibility groups (VCG). Based on two single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the IGS region, a

M. A. Dita Rodriguez; C. Waalwijk; I. W. Buddenhagen; M. T. Souza Jr; G. H. J. Kema

2010-01-01

14

Cloning, expression, and role in pathogenicity of pg1 encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

pg1 encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was cloned and sequenced. The deduced mature protein had a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kDa and a pI of 6.2, and showed significant similarity with other fungal endoPGs. pg1 mRNA was induced in vitro by citrus pectin, tomato vascular tissue, 0.1% D-galacturonic acid, and polygalacturonic acid, and repressed by 1% D-galacturonic acid and 1% glucose. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed pg1 expression in roots and lower stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Three naturally occurring F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates deficient in PG1 were transformed with the cloned gene. The PG1 enzyme secreted by the transformants had the same molecular mass, pI, and glycosylation pattern as those of the donor isolate. Polygalacturonase activity in cultures of transformants grown in vitro on citrus pectin and on melon plants, but not on glucose, increased 10- to 20-fold, compared with the PG1-deficient wild-type isolate, whereas mycelial dry weight increased two- to three-fold. Transformants exhibited the same degree of virulence toward susceptible muskmelon cultivars as the wild-type isolate and were avirulent on a resistant cultivar. PMID:9450333

Di Pietro, A; Roncero, M I

1998-02-01

15

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent

Sylvie Mazurier; Thérèse Corberand; Philippe Lemanceau; Jos M Raaijmakers

2009-01-01

16

A Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene in Gossypium barbadense and Its Effect on Root-Knot Nematode-Wilt Disease Complex.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt, caused by the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 1, is a vascular disease in cotton (Gossypium spp.), and is a component of a disease complex with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). Genetic analysis of two interspecific crosses (G. barbadense Pima S-7 x G. hirsutum Acala NemX and Pima S-7 x Acala SJ-2) showed that one major gene (designated Fov1) with allele dosage effect conferred resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 1 in Pima S-7. Two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were linked to Fov1 in Pima S-7, with genetic distance from the gene of 9.3 and 14.6 centimorgans. Less severe wilt symptoms in Acala NemX than Acala SJ-2 indicated that Acala NemX possesses one or more minor genes contributing to delay of wilt symptoms. Highly resistant plants in F(2) and F(3) (Pima S-7 x NemX) families indicated transgressive segregation effects of minor genes in Acala NemX combined with Fov1 from Pima S-7. The effects of wilt and nematode resistance on the nematode-wilt disease complex were assayed with two inoculation methods. In the presence of both pathogens, wilt damage measured as shoot and root weight reductions was greatest on wilt- and nematode-susceptible Acala SJ-2 and least in root-knot nematode-resistant and wilt-susceptible Acala NemX. Intermediate damage occurred in wilt-resistant and root-knot nematode-susceptible Pima S-7. The results indicated that nematode resistance was more effective than wilt resistance in suppressing wilt symptoms when either resistance was present alone. Nematode resistance combined with intermediate wilt resistance, as in the F(1) (Pima S-7 x NemX), was highly effective in protecting plants from root-knot nematodes and race 1 of Fusarium wilt as a disease complex. PMID:18943146

Wang, C; Roberts, P A

2006-07-01

17

Evaluation of Trichoderma species against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for integrated management of chickpea wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Padwick) Matuo and K. Sato) is one of the major yield limiting factors of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). For eco-friendly and sustainable management of the disease, 10 isolates belonging to three species of Trichoderma (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) were evaluated against four isolates of the pathogen representing four different races

Sunil C. Dubey; M. Suresh; Birendra Singh

2007-01-01

18

[Research wilt disease of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its pathogen].  

PubMed

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a highly valued traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related disorders in china, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. The wilt disease is serious in the culture of S. miltiorrhiza. Wilt disease cause biomass of plant shoots and roots is lessened, active components are decreased. To solve these problems, we research the pathogen causing wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza. The suspected pathogen is identified by morphology and etiological test. The identification was further confirmed by alignment the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplified by PCR. Our result show the wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza mostly occurred in July and August, which is hot and wetter. The wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for one year in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 10%, but the wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for three years in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 60%-70%. The root rot of S. miltiorrhiz caused by the wilt disease, so the wilt disease was mistaken for the rot root in production. Morphological characteristics show the pathogen is Fusarium oxysporum. The sequence of ITS wes determined and found by BLAST shared 99% identity to that of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. So it comes to the conclusion that the causing agent of wilt disease on S. miltiorrhiza belongs to F. oxysporum. PMID:24791484

Yang, Li; Miao, Zuo-Qing; Yang, Guang; Shao, Ai-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Shen, Ye; Wang, Xue; Chen, Mei-Lan

2013-12-01

19

Production of Beauvericin by Different Races of Fusarium Oxysporum F. sp. Melonis , The Fusarium Wilt Agent of Muskmelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourty-four strains of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of melon with Fusarium wilt symptoms. Among these strains, thirty-nine were characterized for their pathogenicity on melon. Thirty-seven strains belonged to known races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while two strains were non-pathogenic. Four strains belonged to race 0, seven to race 1, four to race 2, and twenty-two to

A. Moretti; A. Belisario; A. Tafuri; A. Ritieni; L. Corazza; A. Logrieco

2002-01-01

20

Degradation of aromatic compounds through the ?-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. Some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases. Aromatic lignin breakdown products are further catabolized via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE), an enzyme of the ?-ketoadipate pathway, in the pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards its host, tomato. As expected, the cmle deletion mutant cannot catabolize phenolic compounds known to be degraded via the ?-ketoadipate pathway. In addition, the mutant is impaired in root invasion and is nonpathogenic, even though it shows normal superficial root colonization. We hypothesize that the ?-ketoadipate pathway in plant-pathogenic, soil-borne fungi is necessary to degrade phenolic compounds in root exudate and/or inside roots in order to establish disease. PMID:22827542

Michielse, Caroline B; Reijnen, Linda; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2012-12-01

21

PENGIMBASAN KETAHANAN PISANG TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM DENGAN Burkholderia cepacia Induce resistence of banana against fusarium wilt by using  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fakultas Pertanian UGM Yogyakarta F usarium wilt of banana or Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxyspsorum f.sp. cubense is widespread in the tropics and subtropics. The disease control is difficult because the pathogen form chlamidospores in soil and can still alive for a long time. Although some disease controls have been done, an efficient and effective methods of control is

Salim Widono; Christanti Sumardiyono; Bambang Hadisutrisno

2003-01-01

22

Purification and characterization of an exo-polygalacturonase from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

An exo-polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) was purified to apparent homogeneity from cultures of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on synthetic medium supplemented with citrus pectin, using preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme, denominated PG2, had an apparent M(r) of 74000 Da upon SDS-PAGE. The pI of the main PG2 isoform was 4.5, and pH and temperature optima were 5.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. PG2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by anaysis of degradation products. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, L-A-F-N-V-P-S-K-P-P, has no identify to other known polygalacturonases. PMID:8961570

Di Pietro, A; Roncero, M I

1996-12-01

23

Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Natural disease-suppressive soils provide an untapped resource for the discovery of novel beneficial microorganisms and traits. For most suppressive soils, however, the consortia of microorganisms and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. To date, soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease has been ascribed to carbon and iron competition between pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum and fluorescent pseudomonads. In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, that redox-active phenazines produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt disease and may act in synergy with carbon competition by resident non-pathogenic F. oxysporum. PMID:19369971

Mazurier, Sylvie; Corberand, Thérèse; Lemanceau, Philippe; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2009-08-01

24

A Review of Fusarium Wilt of Oil Palm Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Vascular wilt is the most destructive disease of oil palm in Africa and causes severe losses in some areas. Symptoms include initial wilting followed by desiccation of the fronds, which finally break and hang around the trunk. Internally, characteristic browning of the vascular elements is seen both in adult palms and in seedlings. Two disease syndromes are commonly seen in the field in adult palms-"acute wilt" where the palm dies within a few weeks and "chronic wilt" where the palm may remain alive for many months and even years but becomes progressively stunted. The pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis) is a soilborne fungus and the perennial nature of the crop ensured that, in the past, disease management was difficult. Over a period of 30 to 40 years, screening for resistance at the nursery stage was introduced in many plantations and research stations, and successful breeding programs in West Africa, notably in Ivory Coast, have resulted in more resistant oil palm material becoming available. The disease has not yet been detected in South East Asia (largest producer of palm oil) and rigorous quarantine measures have been imposed to prevent introduction of the pathogen into these highly productive areas. PMID:18943186

Flood, Julie

2006-06-01

25

Three evolutionary lineages of tomato wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , based on sequences of IGS, MAT1 , and pg1 , are each composed of isolates of a single mating type and a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three evolutionary lineages of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were found among a worldwide sample of isolates based on phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. Each lineage consisted of isolates mainly belonging to a single or closely related vegetative compatibility group (VCG) and a single mating type (MAT). The first lineage (A1) was

Masato Kawabe; Yumiko Kobayashi; Gen Okada; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tohru Teraoka; Tsutomu Arie

2005-01-01

26

Plant Colonization by the Vascular Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Requires FOW1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly pene- trating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxy- sporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1 ,

Iori Inoue; Fumio Namiki; Takashi Tsuge

2002-01-01

27

Control of Fusarium wilt in banana with Chinese leek.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of Chinese leek(Allium tuberosum) on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) and on Fusarium wilt incidence were studied in order to identify a potential efficient way to control the disease. Adopting the rotation system of Chinese leek-banana reduced the Fusarium wilt incidence and disease severity index by 88 %-97 % and 91 %-96 %, respectively, improved the crop value by 36 %-86 %, in an area heavily infested by Foc between 2007 and 2009. As a result of inoculation in the greenhouse, Chinese leek treatment reduced disease incidence and the disease severity index by 58 % and 62 %, respectively in the variety Baxi (AAA) and by 79 % and 81 %, respectively in the variety Guangfen NO.1 (ABB). Crude extracts of Chinese leek completely inhibited the growth of Foc race 4 on Petri dishes, suppressed the proliferation of the spores by 91 % and caused 87 % spore mortality. The findings of this study suggest that Chinese leek has the potential to inhibit Foc growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. This potential may be developed into an environmentally friendly treatment to control Fusarium wilt of banana. PMID:23144534

Huang, Y H; Wang, R C; Li, C H; Zuo, C W; Wei, Y R; Zhang, L; Yi, G J

2012-09-01

28

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae isolates from eggplant in Turkey by pathogenicity, VCG and RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivated in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Seventy-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from diseased eggplant displaying typical Fusarium wilt symptoms were screened for pathogenicity on the highly susceptible\\u000a cv. ‘Pala’. All the isolates tested were pathogenic to eggplant and designated as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.

H. Handan Alt?nok

2010-01-01

29

Effect of organic amendments and solarisation on Fusarium wilt in susceptible banana plantlets, transplanted into naturally infested soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research since pathogenicity was first established in 1919, no cultural or chemical control strategy has proven effective against Fusarium wilt of bananas. The efficacy of cultural control is attributed to the suppression of pathogen activity. Yet, amending naturally infested soil with aged chicken manure has been shown to enhance disease severity, without any change in the activity of

N. NasirA; K. G. Pegg

30

Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 ?g ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 ?g ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

2012-04-01

31

A foliar rating system for comparing the resistance of banana cultivars grown as tissue-cultured plantlets in the laboratory to Fusarium wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foliar rating system was developed to assess the progress of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in seven banana cultivars differing in their resistance to race 1 of the pathogen. Plantlets were transplanted into unamended\\u000a soil naturally infested with the pathogen, soil amended with urea and soil amended with aged chicken manure. A corm

N. NasirA; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg; A. T. Lisle

2003-01-01

32

Use of sewage sludge compost and Trichoderma asperellum isolates to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that plant growth media amended with composted bark suppress Fusarium wilts whereas media amended with composted municipal sludge aggravate this disease. However, in this study, a compost prepared from vegetable and animal market wastes, sewage sludge and yard wastes showed a high ability to suppress Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

L. Cotxarrera; M. I. Trillas-Gay; C. Steinberg; C. Alabouvette

2002-01-01

33

Characterization of antagonistic and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most widespread and predominant species in natural and cultivated soils among the fungal genus Fusarium. It includes saprophytes as well as plant pathogens involved in serious vascular wilts, caused by severalformae speciales and races or pathotypes (1). Morphological similarities among pathogenic and saprophytic strains of F. oxysporum hamper diagnosis and clear discrimination among formae

Q. Migheli; L. Cavallarin

1994-01-01

34

Rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens using a DNA array.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Verticillium wilt, caused by either Verticillium albo-atrum or V. dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) found worldwide. Monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. The lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. In this paper, we describe the development of a molecular detection system, based on DNA array technology, for rapid and efficient detection of these vascular wilt pathogens. We demonstrate that by using this array these pathogens can be detected within 24 h from complex substrates like soil, plant material, and samples as they are collected by tomato growers in their greenhouses. PMID:15151292

Lievens, B; Brouwer, M; Vanachter, A C R C; Cammue, B P A; Thomma, B P H J

2003-01-01

35

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

36

Fusarium Wilt Suppression and Agglutinability of Pseudomonas putida†  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Pseudomonas putida (Agg?) that lack the ability to agglutinate with components present in washes of bean and cucumber roots showed limited potential to protect cucumber plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. However, a higher level of protection was observed against Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants coinoculated with the parental bacterium (Agg+), which was agglutinable. The Agg? mutants did not colonize the roots of cucumber plants as extensively as the Agg+ parental isolate did. In competition experiments involving bean roots inoculated with a mixture of Agg+ and Agg? bacteria, the Agg+ strains colonized roots to a greater extent than the Agg? cells did. These data suggest that the Agg+ phenotype provides additional interactions that aid in the beneficial character of P. putida.

Tari, P. H.; Anderson, A. J.

1988-01-01

37

Expression of rice thaumatin-like protein gene in transgenic banana plants enhances resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants. PMID:22183565

Mahdavi, F; Sariah, M; Maziah, M

2012-02-01

38

Comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation of plant vascular wilt pathogens.  

PubMed

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J; Subbarao, Krishna V; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E; Thomma, Bart P H J; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D; Barbara, Dez J; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J; Heiman, David I; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A; Dobinson, Katherine F; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-07-01

39

Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans.  

PubMed

Alcaligenes xylosoxydans protected pigeonpea from Fusarium wilt in a pot experiment and field trials. When seeds of pigeonpea (C. cajan) were treated with A. xylosoxydans and sown in soil infested with Fusarium, the incidence of wilt was reduced by 43.5% and resulted in 58% higher grain yield. The antifungal activity of A. xylosoxydans was based on chitinase production and was comparable in efficacy to commercial antifungal agents such as benlate, monitor WP, thiram and bavistin. PMID:15320506

Vaidya, R J; Macmil, S L A; Vyas, P R; Ghetiya, L V; Thakor, K J; Chhatpar, H S

2003-12-01

40

Design and development of a DNA array for rapid detection and identification of multiple tomato vascular wilt pathogens.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Verticillium wilt, caused by either Verticillium albo-atrum or Verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. Monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. The lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. In this paper, we describe the development of a molecular detection system, based on DNA array technology, for rapid and efficient detection of these vascular wilt pathogens. We show the utility of this array for the sensitive detection of these pathogens from complex substrates like soil, plant tissues and irrigation water, and samples that are collected by tomato growers in their greenhouses. PMID:12799009

Lievens, Bart; Brouwer, Margreet; Vanachter, Alfons C R C; Lévesque, C André; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thomma, Bart P H J

2003-06-01

41

The presence of a virulence locus discriminates Fusarium oxysporum isolates causing tomato wilt from other isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungus that inhabits soils throughout the world. As a species, F. oxysporum can infect a very broad range of plants and cause wilt or root rot disease. Single isolates of F. oxysporum, however, usually infect one or a few plant species only. They have therefore been grouped into formae speciales (f.sp.) based on host specificity. Isolates able to cause tomato wilt (f.sp. lycopersici) do not have a single common ancestor within the F. oxysporum species complex. Here we show that, despite their polyphyletic origin, isolates belonging to f.sp. lycopersici all contain an identical genomic region of at least 8 kb that is absent in other formae speciales and non-pathogenic isolates, and comprises the genes SIX1, SIX2 and SHH1. In addition, SIX3, which lies elsewhere on the same chromosome, is also unique for f.sp. lycopersici. SIX1 encodes a virulence factor towards tomato, and the Six1, Six2 and Six3 proteins are secreted in xylem during colonization of tomato plants. We speculate that these genes may be part of a larger, dispensable region of the genome that confers the ability to cause tomato wilt and has spread among clonal lines of F. oxysporum through horizontal gene transfer. Our findings also have practical implications for the detection and identification of f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:18312397

van der Does, H Charlotte; Lievens, Bart; Claes, Loes; Houterman, Petra M; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Rep, Martijn

2008-06-01

42

Biological Control Efficiency of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo-B2 in Different Environments.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Efficiency of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo-B2 for the biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato, caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici CU1, was examined in different environments: a growth chamber with sterile soil-less medium, a greenhouse with fumigated or nonfumigated soil, and nonfumigated field plots. Inoculation of Fo-B2 onto tomato roots significantly reduced the severity of disease, but the efficiency of disease suppression decreased as the experimental environment became less controlled. Relationships between the recovery of Fo-B2 from hypocotyls and the disease severity indicated that the biocontrol agent was most effective when it colonized vascular tissues intensively. Moreover, the degree of Fo-B2 colonization was greatly reduced when the seedlings were grown in nonfumigated soil. Dose-response models (negative exponential, hyperbolic saturation, and logistic) were fit to observed data collected over a range of inoculum densities of the pathogen and the antagonist; the logistic model provided the best fit in all environments. The ratios of an 50% effective dose parameter for Fo-B2 to that of CU1 increased as the environment became less controlled, suggesting that environmentally related efficiency reduction impacted the antagonist more than the pathogen. The results suggest that indigenous soil microbes were a primary factor negatively influencing the efficiency of Fo-B2. Therefore, early establishment of the antagonist in a noncompetitive environment prior to outplanting could improve the efficacy of biological control. PMID:18943305

Shishido, Masahiro; Miwa, Chika; Usami, Toshiyuki; Amemiya, Yoshimiki; Johnson, Kenneth B

2005-09-01

43

Induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of banana by exogenous applications of indoleacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is a soilborne systemic disease which occludes host vascular system. We report here two experiments on resistance induction with banana plants (cv. Dwarf Cavendish) carried out in glass greenhouse with different indoleacetic acid treatments, which are capable of inducing resis- tance to Panama disease. The results obtained in

Marino Fernández-Falcón; Andres A. Borges; Andres Borges-Pérez

2003-01-01

44

Stable integration and expression of a plant defensin in tomato confers resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides which belong to a group of pathogenasis related defense mechanism proteins. The proteins inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes and are highly stable under extreme environmental stresses. Tomato cultivation is affected by fungal disease such as Fusarium wilt. In order to overcome fungal damages, transgenic tomato plants expressing the Medicago sativa defensin gene MsDef1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter were developed. The Fusarium-susceptible tomato (Lycobersicum esculentum Mill) cultivar CastleRock was used for transformation to acquire fungal resistance. Hypocotyl with a part of cotyledon (hypocotyledonary) for young tomato seedlings were used as an explant material and transformation was performed using the biolistic delivery system. Bombarded shoots were selected on regeneration medium supplemented with hygromycin and suitable concentrations of BA, zeatin ripozide and AgNO(3). Putative transgenic plantlets of T(0) were confirmed by PCR analysis using primers specific for the transgene and the transformation frequency obtained was 52.3%. Transformation and transcription of transgenes were confirmed in T(1) by PCR, Southern hybridizations, and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The copy numbers of integrated transgene into tomato genome ranged between 1-3 copies. Greenhouse bioassay was performed on the transgenic T(1) and T(2) young seedlings and non-transgenic controls by challenging with a vigorous isolate of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. The level of fungal infectivity was determined using RT-PCR with tomatinase specific primers. Transgenic lines were more resistant to infection by fusarium than the control plants. These results indicated that overexpressing defensins in transgenic plants confer resistance to fungal pathogens. PMID:21844692

Abdallah, Naglaa A; Shah, Dilip; Abbas, Dina; Madkour, Magdy

2010-01-01

45

Antifungal potential of some higher plants against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of Cajanus cajan.  

PubMed

The fungitoxic effects of different plant extracts on Fusarium udum, which causes wilt disease of Cajanus cajan in vitro and in vivo, were examined. The complete arrest of the radial growth of the pathogen occurred at a 10% concentration of leaf extract from Adenocallyma alliaceum. A leaf extract of Citrus medica, a root extract of Asparagus adscendens, rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, and a bulb extract of Allium sativum inhibited up to 100% growth at higher concentrations. A. alliaceum controlled the disease up to 100% by amending its 4% powder in unsterilized soil and 2% in sterilized soil. The population of F. udum was found to be markedly reduced following treatments with plant powders. PMID:10955831

Singh, R; Rai, B

2000-01-01

46

Development of PCR Primers for a New Fusarium oxysporum Pathogenic on Paris Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse PCR technique was applied to clone genomic DNA flanking insertion sites of sequences homologous to the transposable element Fot1 in the genome of a new pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum obtained from wilted Argyranthemum frutescens (Paris daisy). Based on the genomic flanking regions, a primer was designed which when paired to a second primer matching the Fot1 sequence

Matias Pasquali; Alberto Acquadro; Virgilio Balmas; Quirico Migheli; Maria Lodovica Gullino; Angelo Garibaldi

2004-01-01

47

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

48

Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on Fusarium Wilt of Tomato at or below the Minimum Temperature for Wilt Development.  

PubMed

'Bonny Best' tomato plants were grown at 16, 21, or 24 C for 28 d in soil infested with either of two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and Meloidogyne incognita. Significant levels of fusarium wilt occurred at all temperatures including 16 C, which has not been reported previously. One Fusarium isolate resulted in the highest levels of disease incidence at 21 and 24 C in the presence of root-knot nematodes, and at 24 C when the nematodes were not present. At 16 C there was no significant difference in the number of plants infected by the second Fusarium isolate alone or in combination with root knot nematodes, although the presence of nematodes resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of disease occurrence and vessel infection at 21 C. PMID:19300723

Morrell, J J; Bloom, J R

1981-01-01

49

Induction of systemic resistance of benzothiadiazole and humic Acid in soybean plants against fusarium wilt disease.  

PubMed

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy; Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-12-01

50

Sustainable Approaches for Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Pigeon Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea) is an important crop of Indian subcontinent and African countries, cultivated in the tropics and subtropics.\\u000a Fusarium wilt is one of the major yield and growth-limiting factors of pigeon pea. Along with nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera cajani, F. udum result in highly destructive wilt disease complex, which is a major constraint for the

Piyush Pandey; Abhinav Aeron; D. K. Maheshwari

51

The tomato xylem sap protein XSP10 is required for full susceptibility to Fusarium wilt disease  

PubMed Central

XSP10 is an abundant 10?kDa protein found in the xylem sap of tomato. The protein displays structural similarity to plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). LTPs are involved in various physiological processes, including disease resistance, and some are able to bind and transfer diverse lipid molecules. XSP10 abundance in xylem sap declines upon infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), implying involvement of XSP10 in the plant–pathogen interaction. Here, the biochemical characterization of XSP10 with respect to fatty acid-binding properties is reported; a weak but significant binding to saturated fatty acids was found. Furthermore, XSP10-silenced tomato plants were engineered and it was found that these plants exhibited reduced disease symptom development upon infection with a virulent strain of Fol. Interestingly, the reduced symptoms observed did not correlate with an altered expression profile for known reporter genes of plant defence (PR-1 and WIPI). This work demonstrates that XSP10 has lipid-binding properties and is required for full susceptibility of tomato to Fusarium wilt.

Krasikov, Vladimir; Dekker, Henk L.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

2011-01-01

52

Influence of mineral amendment on disease suppressive activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Fusarium wilt of chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri causes considerable yield loss of chickpea. Pseudomonas fluorescens4-92 (Pf4-92) strain can suppress the disease. Amendment of zinc EDTA and copper EDTA could not suppress the disease significantly when used alone; however, they significantly suppressed the disease in presence of Pf4-92. In vitro observation showed that at 40, 30 and 20microgml(-1) concentrations of these minerals, i.e. Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu, respectively, completely repressed the production of the phytotoxin, fusaric acid (FA). FA concentration (0.5microgml(-1)) has been shown to suppress the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pf4-92, and DAPG, salicylic acid, pyochelin and pyoluteorin production was enhanced by these mineral amendments. In rockwool bioassays, Zn, Cu and Zn plus Cu amendments reduced FA production and enhanced DAPG production. This study demonstrates that Zn and Cu enhance biocontrol activity by reducing FA produced by the pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. PMID:17604612

Saikia, Ratul; Varghese, Saju; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Arora, Dilip K

2009-01-01

53

Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL and sequencing composition.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the inheritance of disease resistance and genomic regions housing resistance (R) genes is essential to prevent expanding pathogen threats such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] in cotton (Gossypium spp.). We conducted a comprehensive study combining conventional inheritance, genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, QTL marker-sequence composition, and genome sequencing to examine the distribution, structure and organization of disease R genes to race 1 of FOV in the cotton genome. Molecular markers were applied to F(2) and recombinant inbred line (RIL) interspecific mapping populations from the crosses Pima-S7 (G. barbadense L.) × 'Acala NemX' (G. hirsutum L.) and Upland TM-1 (G. hirsutum) × Pima 3-79 (G. barbadense), respectively. Three greenhouse tests and one field test were used to obtain sequential estimates of severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS). A single resistance gene model was observed for the F(2) population based on inheritance of phenotypes. However, additional inheritance analyses and QTL mapping indicated gene interactions and inheritance from nine cotton chromosomes, with major QTLs detected on five chromosomes [Fov1-C06, Fov1-C08, (Fov1-C11 ( 1 ) and Fov1-C11 ( 2)) , Fov1-C16 and Fov1-C19 loci], explaining 8-31% of the DSI or VRS variation. The Fov1-C16 QTL locus identified in the F(2) and in the RIL populations had a significant role in conferring FOV race 1 resistance in different cotton backgrounds. Identified molecular markers may have important potential for breeding effective FOV race 1 resistance into elite cultivars by marker-assisted selection. Reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from marker-DNA and new DNA sequences of BAC clones tagged with the resistance-associated QTLs revealed defenses genes induced upon pathogen infection and gene regions rich in disease-response elements, respectively. These offer candidate gene targets for Fusarium wilt resistance response in cotton and other host plants. PMID:21533837

Ulloa, Mauricio; Wang, Congli; Hutmacher, Robert B; Wright, Steven D; Davis, R Michael; Saski, Christopher A; Roberts, Philip A

2011-07-01

54

Mechanisms of Action and Dose-Response Relationships Governing Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Three isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium spp. (CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47), previously shown to reduce the incidence of Fusarium wilt diseases of multiple crops, were evaluated to determine their mechanisms of action and antagonist-pathogen inoculum density relationships. Competition for nutrients, as represented by a reduction in pathogen saprophytic growth in the presence of the biocontrol isolates, was observed to be an important mechanism of action for isolate Fo47, but not for isolates CS-1 and CS-20. All three biocontrol isolates demonstrated some degree of induced systemic resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plants, as determined by split-root tests, but varied in their relative abilities to reduce disease. Isolate CS-20 provided the most effective control (39 to 53% disease reduction), while Fo47 provided the least effective control (23 to 25% reduction) in split-root tests. Dose-response relationships also differed considerably among the three biocon-trol isolates, with CS-20 significantly reducing disease incidence at antagonist doses as low as 100 chlamydospores per g of soil (cgs) and at pathogen densities up to 10(5) cgs. Isolate CS-1 also was generally effective at antagonist densities of 100 to 5,000 cgs, but only when pathogen densities were below 10(4) cgs. Isolate Fo47 was effective only at antagonist densities of 10(4) to 10(5) cgs, regardless of pathogen density. Epidemiological dose-response models (described by linear, negative exponential, hyperbolic saturation [HS], and logistic [LG] functions) fit to the observed data were used to quantify differences among the biocontrol isolates and establish biocontrol characteristics. Each isolate required a different model to best describe its dose-response characteristics, with the HS/HS, LG/HS, and LG/LG models (pathogen/biocontrol components) providing the best fit for isolates CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47, respectively. Model parameters (defining effective biocontrol dose (ED(50)) indicated an ED(50) of 2.6, 36.3, and 2.1 x 10(6) cgs and estimates of biocontrol efficiency of 0.229, 0.539, and 0.774 for isolates CS-1, CS-20, and Fo47, respectively. Differences in dose-response relationships among the biocontrol isolates were attributed to differences in their mechanisms of action, with CS-20 and CS-1 functioning primarily by induced resistance and Fo47 functioning primarily by competition for nutrients. PMID:18944639

Larkin, R P; Fravel, D R

1999-12-01

55

Plant Colonization by the Vascular Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Requires FOW1, a Gene Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein  

PubMed Central

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme–mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. Although the FOW1 insertional mutant and gene-targeted mutants showed normal growth and conidiation in culture, they showed markedly reduced virulence as a result of a defect in the ability to colonize the plant tissue. Mitochondrial import of Fow1 was verified using strains expressing the Fow1–green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. The FOW1-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also showed reduced virulence. These data strongly suggest that FOW1 encodes a mitochondrial carrier protein that is required specifically for colonization in the plant tissue by F. oxysporum.

Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Tsuge, Takashi

2002-01-01

56

Plant colonization by the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum requires FOW1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial protein.  

PubMed

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. The pathogenicity mutant B60 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated DNA integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of B60 identified the affected gene, designated FOW1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. Although the FOW1 insertional mutant and gene-targeted mutants showed normal growth and conidiation in culture, they showed markedly reduced virulence as a result of a defect in the ability to colonize the plant tissue. Mitochondrial import of Fow1 was verified using strains expressing the Fow1-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. The FOW1-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also showed reduced virulence. These data strongly suggest that FOW1 encodes a mitochondrial carrier protein that is required specifically for colonization in the plant tissue by F. oxysporum. PMID:12172028

Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Tsuge, Takashi

2002-08-01

57

Impaired purine biosynthesis affects pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis causes worldwide yield losses of muskmelon. In this study, we characterized a UV-induced non-pathogenic mutant (strain 4\\/4) of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, previously identified as a potential biological control agent. During comparative analysis of vegetative growth parameters using different carbon sources, mutant strain 4\\/4 showed a delay in development and

Youlia Denisov; Oded Yarden; Stanley Freeman

2005-01-01

58

Cloning of the pathogenicity-related gene FPD1 in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selected a reduced-pathogenicity mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a tomato wilt pathogen, from the transformants generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. The gene tagged with the plasmid in the mutant was predicted to encode a protein of 321 amino acids and was designated FPD1. Homology search showed its partial similarity to a chloride conductance regulatory protein

Masato Kawabe; Kohei Mizutani; Takanobu Yoshida; Tohru Teraoka; Katsuyoshi Yoneyama; Isamu Yamaguchi; Tsutomu Arie

2004-01-01

59

Co-inoculation of an antibiotic-producing bacterium and a lytic enzyme-producing bacterium for the biocontrol of tomato wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1, inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and controls Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. On the other hand, Serratia marcescens strain B2, which produces cell wall-degrading enzyme chitinases, did not inhibit fungal growth and the suppressive effect of strain B2 against tomato Fusarium wilt was less than that of strain LRB3W1. Combined inoculation of strain LRB3W1 with strain B2 was more effective than treatment with strain LRB3W1 alone. When 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and the chitinolytic enzymes were applied in combination, a synergistic inhibitory effect against the pathogen was observed. It was possible that bacteria which produce cell wall-degrading enzymes enhanced the biocontrol effect of the antibiotic-producing bacterium against tomato Fusarium wilt. PMID:17408002

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Akutsu, Katsumi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2007-03-01

60

Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of watermelon commonly occurs in locations where the crop has been grown for many seasons. Its occurrence results\\u000a in a severely decreased watermelon crop. The goal of this study was to assess the capability of a new product (bio-organic\\u000a fertilizer) to control the wilt in Fusarium-infested soil. Pot experiments were conducted under growth chamber and greenhouse\\u000a conditions. The

Hong-sheng Wu; Xin-ning Yang; Jia-qin Fan; Wei-guo Miao; Ning Ling; Yang-chun Xu; Qi-wei Huang; Qirong Shen

2009-01-01

61

Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 ?g/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 ?g/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl. PMID:21314121

Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

2011-03-01

62

Influence of plant root exudates, germ tube orientation and passive conidia transport on biological control of fusarium wilt by strains of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced resistance by nonpathogenic biocontrol agents strains to Fusarium wilt of cucumber and pea were further investigated. In pre-penetration assays, pathogenic formae specials exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spore germination in 4-day-old root exudates of cucumber and pea than nonpathogens. Also, strain C5 exhibited the lowest significant reduction in spore germination in contrast to strain C14 or control. One-day-old cucumber roots injected with strain C14 resulted in significant reduction in germ tube orientation towards the root surface, 48-96 h after inoculation with F. o. cucumerinum spores, whereas strain C5 induced significantly lower spore orientation of the pathogen and only at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. In post-penetration tests, passive transport of microconidia of pathogenic and nonpathogens in stems from base to apex were examined when severed plant roots were immersed in spore suspension. In repeated trials, strain C5, F. o. cucumerinum and F. o. pisi were consistently isolated from stem tissues of both cucumber and pea at increasing heights over a 17 days incubation period. Strain C14 however, was recovered at a maximum translocation distance of 4.6 cm at day 6 and later height of isolation significantly declined thereafter to 1.2 cm at day 17. In pea stem, the decline was even less. Significant induction of resistance to challenge inoculation by the pathogen in cucumber occurred 72 and 96 h after pre-inoculation with biocontrol agents. Nonetheless, strain C14 induced protection as early as 48 h and the maximum resistance was reached at 96 h. The presented data confirm the previous findings that attributes important for nonpathogenic fusaria to induce resistant are: rapid spore germination and orientation in response to root exudate; active root penetration and passive conidia transport in stem to initiate defence reaction without pathogenicity and enough lag period between induction and challenge inoculation. Strain C14 possesses all these qualifications and hence its ability to enhance host resistance is superior than strain C5. PMID:16482390

Mandeel, Qaher A

2006-03-01

63

Influence of Plant Root Exudates, Germ Tube Orientation and Passive Conidia Transport on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt by Strains of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required\\u000a wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced

Qaher A. Mandeel

2006-01-01

64

Fow2, a Zn(II)2Cys6-type transcription regulator, controls plant infection of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne parasite that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of crops by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. In previous work, we generated the non-pathogenic mutant B137 of the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis by using restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis. Molecular characterization of B137 revealed that this mutant has a single-copy plasmid insertion in a gene, designated FOW2, which encodes a putative transcription regulator belonging to the Zn(II)2Cys6 family. The REMI mutant B137 and other FOW2-targeted mutants completely lost pathogenicity, but were not impaired in vegetative growth and conidiation in cultures. Microscopic observation of infection behaviours of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked wild-type and mutant strains revealed that the mutants were defective in their abilities to invade roots and colonize plant tissues. FOW2 is conserved in F. oxysporum pathogens that infect different plants. The FOW2-targeted mutants of the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici also lost pathogenicity. Nuclear localization of Fow2 was verified using strains expressing Fow2-GFP and GFP-Fow2 fusion proteins. These data strongly suggest that FOW2 encodes a transcription regulator controlling the plant infection capability of F. oxysporum pathogens. PMID:17302801

Imazaki, Iori; Kurahashi, Makoto; Iida, Yuichiro; Tsuge, Takashi

2007-02-01

65

Suppression of Bacterial Wilt and Fusarium Wilt by a Burkholderia nodosa Strain Isolated from Kalimantan Soils, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to suppress bacterial wilt of tomato (BWT) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum using biocontrol agents (BCAs) isolated from soils in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Five isolates were selected from 270 isolates as better performing BCAs through screening four times using a pumice medium. The isolates selected were identified as Burkholderia nodosa, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia terricola according to 16S rDNA sequences, fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization patterns. Among them, B. nodosa G5.2.rif1 had significant suppressive effects on Fusarium wilt of tomato (FWT) and spinach (FWS) as well as BWT. When B. nodosa G5.2rif1 was inoculated into a pumice medium in combination with sucrose, it showed even more stable disease suppression for BWT, but not for FWS. This suppression was considered to mainly occur through competition for nutrients. In two times greenhouse experiments for BWT using pots comparable in size to those used commercially, B. nodosa G5.2rif1 significantly suppressed the disease index by 33-79%, with no inhibitory effects on the growth, yield and quality of tomatoes. PMID:21558699

Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

2008-01-01

66

Cloning and expression of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from wild banana resistant to banana Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Wild banana species are essential natural gene pools for banana improvement. In this study, six RGAs about 500 bp were obtained from leaves of Musa acuminata, a wild banana shown to be resistant to banana Fusarium wilt race 4, by PCR amplification with degenerate primers designed according to the conserved NBS motif and serine/threonine kinase domain of plant resistance (R) genes. Among these RGAs, the deduced amino acids of WNB1 and WNB2 contain NB-ARC domain and WNB1 can be translated into polypeptide uninterrupted by stop codons. The deduced amino acids of other four RGAs (WST1, WST2, WST3 and WST4) all contain the serine/threonine kinase domain and WST3 encodes a polypeptide homologous to that of bacterial blight resistance gene Xa21 of rice. At different time after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) race 4, the transcript patterns of WNB1 and WST3 was enhanced, which implied that the expression of WNB1 and WST3 may be related to the resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt. PMID:18349511

Chen, Ya-Ping; Chen, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin

2007-12-01

67

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt  

PubMed Central

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent.

Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-01-01

68

Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The research work was performed to investigate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 to induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Roots of two-week-old seedlings of tomato plants were primed with bacterial strain. After 10 days of transplantation, some pots of tomato seedlings were provided with inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici according to experimental design to induce disease. After 15 days of incubation period, plants challenged with F. oxysporum lycopersici alone were having obvious symptoms of Fusarium wilt. Plants that were treated with B. thuringiensis 199 + F. oxysporum lycopersici were having significant reduction of disease severity. Quantity of total phenolics increased 1.7-fold in bacterial-treated plants as compared to nontreated. Likewise, in case of defense-related enzymes, a significant increase of 1.3-, 1.8-, and 1.4-fold in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (PO) was observed in comparison with untreated control. These results, hence, prove the potential of this bacterial strain for use as plant protection agent. PMID:24294498

Akram, Waheed; Mahboob, Asrar; Javed, Asmat Ali

2013-12-01

69

Characterization of the formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by DNA fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive DNA sequences.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive DNA sequences FOLR1 to FOLR4. The four FOLR clones were chosen from a genomic library made from F. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. Total DNAs from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to other plants were digested with EcoRV and hybridized with 32P-labeled FOLR probes. The strains were clearly distinguishable at the formae specialis level on the basis of FOLR DNA fingerprints. Fifty-two fingerprint types were detected among the 56 strains by using all FOLR probes. These probes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among the DNA fingerprint types by the unweighted pair group method using averages and parsimony analysis. The fingerprint types detected in each of the formae speciales cucumerinum, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae were grouped into a single cluster. However, two different genetic groups occurred in the formae specialis melonis. The two groups also differed in pathogenicity: one group caused wilts of muskmelon and oriental melon, while the second was pathogenic only to muskmelon. The fingerprint types of different formae speciales pathogenic to plants other than cucurbits were distinguishable from one another and from the fingerprints of the cucurbit-infecting strains. These results suggest that the cucurbit-infecting formae speciales are intraspecific variants distinguishable at the DNA level and in their host range. Images

Namiki, F; Shiomi, T; Kayamura, T; Tsuge, T

1994-01-01

70

A MAP kinase of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. We have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of F. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily. Targeted mutants of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants but show normal vegetative growth and conidiation in culture. Colonies of the fmk1 mutants are easily wettable, and hyphae are impaired in breaching the liquid-air interface, suggesting defects in surface hydrophobicity. Fmk1 mutants also show reduced invasive growth on tomato fruit tissue and drastically reduced transcript levels of pl1 encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme pectate lyase. Conidia of the mutants germinating in the tomato rhizosphere fail to differentiate penetration hyphae, resulting in greatly impaired root attachment. The orthologous MAPK gene Pmk1 from the rice leaf pathogen Magnaporthe grisea complements invasive growth and partially restores surface hydrophobicity, root attachment and pathogenicity in an fmk1 mutant. These results demonstrate that FMK1 controls several key steps in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum and suggest a fundamentally conserved role for the corresponding MAPK pathway in soil-borne and foliar plant pathogens. PMID:11251832

Di Pietro, A; García-MacEira, F I; Méglecz, E; Roncero, M I

2001-03-01

71

Suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and induced resistance of plants involved in the biocontrol of Cucumber Fusarium Wilt by Streptomyces bikiniensis HD-087.  

PubMed

Cucumber Fusarium Wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, which usually leads to severe economic damage, is a common destructive disease worldwide. To date, no effective method has yet been found to counteract this disease. A fungal isolate, designated HD-087, which was identified as Streptomyces bikiniensis using physiological-biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, is shown to possess distinctive inhibitory activity against F. oxysporum. The fermentation broth of HD-087 leads to certain abnormalities in pathogen hyphae. It peroxidizes cell membrane lipids, which leads to membrane destruction along with cytoplasm leakage. This broth also restrains germination of the conidia. The activities of the enzymes peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and ?-1,3-glucanase in cucumber leaves were dramatically increased after treated with fermentation broth of HD-087. The levels of chlorophyll and soluble sugars were also found to be increased, with the relative conductivity of leaves being reduced. In short, the metabolites of strain HD-087 can effectively suppress F. oxysporum and trigger induced resistance in cucumber. PMID:22806732

Zhao, Shuai; Du, Chun-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yan

2012-09-01

72

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum.

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

73

Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

2013-10-01

74

A Network Approach to Predict Pathogenic Genes for Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is the pathogenic agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is a destructive disease on wheat and barley, thereby causing huge economic loss and health problems to human by contaminating foods. Identifying pathogenic genes can shed light on pathogenesis underlying the interaction between F. graminearum and its plant host. However, it is difficult to detect pathogenic genes for

Xiaoping Liu; Wei-Hua Tang; Xing-Ming Zhao; Luonan Chen

2010-01-01

75

Chlamydospore germination and Fusarium wilt of banana plantlets in suppressive and conducive soils are affected by physical and chemical factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the factors affecting the germination, early germ-tube growth (collectively called ‘germination’) of chlamydospores of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and the severity of Fusarium wilt in banana plantlets, we varied chemical and physical factors in a suppressive and conducive soil. Soil temperature (4–40°C), water content (40–80% field capacity), and pH (4–10) were varied, and various amounts of CaCO3,

H. X. Peng; K. Sivasithamparam; D. W. Turner

1999-01-01

76

Pathogenic cellulase assay of pine wilt disease and immunological localization.  

PubMed

The pine wilt disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (BX), also known as the pine wood nematode (PWN), is the most devastating disease of pine trees. In this work, a high molecular weight B. xylophilus cellulase antigen (BXCa) was purified from total homogenates of nematodes. BXCa was found to be able to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) efficiently (155.65 U/mg) and to have an approximate molecular mass of 58.9 kDa. We harvested anti-BXCa antibodies and performed immunocytochemical assays, which revealed the localization of cellulase pools in the esophageal gland cells of the PWN. It was also discovered that cellulase was secreted from the stylet and was used to hydrolyze cellulose to facilitate the PWN entering host cells. These results are consistent with other plant parasitical nematodes. Interestingly, strong fluorescence signals from cellulase staining were observed in tracheid cells in naturally infected pine wood, in addition to ray cells and the resin canal zone. These results strongly suggest that the cellulase released by the PWN is one of the pathogenic substances of pine wilt disease and is responsible for the development of the early symptoms of the disease. PMID:17090937

Zhang, Qi; Bai, Gang; Yang, Wenbo; Li, Haiyan; Xiong, Huilong

2006-11-01

77

Toxic substances produced by Fusarium . VII. Control of fusarial wilt of safflower by root exudates and extractives of Ruellia tuberosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exudates and extractives of roots ofRuellia tuberosa, containing 2,6-dimethoxyquinone, acacetin and a C16-quinone, have been shown to produce significant protective and curative actions againstFusarium oxysporum-incited wilt of safflower. The potentiality of the root extractives as a foliar fungicide is appraised.

S. Ghosal; S. Banerjee; B. K. Chattopadhyay; R. S. Srivastava; D. K. Chakrabarti

1978-01-01

78

Identification and pathogenic characterization of endophytic Fusarium species from cowpea seeds.  

PubMed

Isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified from seeds of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., by means of blotter tests and slide cultures. Species were differentiated according to the morphology of the macroconidia, microconidia and their arrangement in chains or false heads, the size and type of conidiophore, and the presence or absence of chlamydospores. The species were identified as F. semitectum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. anthophilum, F. sporotrichioides, F. moniliforme, and Fusarium sp. Among the species, F. semitectum was the most frequently detected. None of these species were pathogenic when inoculated in susceptible cowpea cultivar (BR 17-Gurgueia). But, an isolate of F. oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum used as a standard of comparison for pathogenicity (control) induced symptoms of yellowing, vascular wilting, and death of a susceptible cowpea cultivar under the same environmental conditions. PMID:15750735

Rodrigues, A A C; Menezes, Maria

2005-01-01

79

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josee; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

2011-01-01

80

Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.  

PubMed

Chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse N-acetylglucosamine polymerization. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The chsV gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. ChsV has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain characteristic of class V chitin synthases. The chsV insertional mutant and a gene replacement mutant of F. oxysporum display morphological abnormalities such as hyphal swellings that are indicative of alterations in cell wall structure and can be partially restored by osmotic stabilizer. The mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or to grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. They are also hypersensitive to plant antimicrobial defence compounds such as the tomato phytoanticipin alpha-tomatine or H2O2. Reintroduction of a functional chsV copy into the mutant restored the growth phenotype of the wild-type strain. These data suggest that F. oxysporum requires a specific class V chitin synthase for pathogenesis, most probably to protect itself against plant defence mechanisms. PMID:12492869

Madrid, Martan P; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

2003-01-01

81

Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

2012-11-01

82

Induction of Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi ) resistance in garden pea using induced mutagenesis and in vitro selection techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is a serious production constraint for peas worldwide. An attempt was made to isolate wilt-resistant mutants in two susceptible\\u000a pea genotypes, Arkel and Azad P-1, employing induced mutagenesis and in vitro selection techniques. Two thousand seeds of\\u000a each genotype were mutagenized either with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS, 0.2% and 0.3%) or gamma rays (5-22.5 kR)

Akhilesh Sharma; Rajeev Rathour; P. Plaha; Viveka Katoch; G. S. Khalsa; Vandana Patial; Yudhvir Singh; N. K. Pathania

2010-01-01

83

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

2013-07-01

84

Antagonistic Effect of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and Pseudobactin 358 upon Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi  

PubMed Central

Pseudobactin production by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 significantly improves biological control of fusarium wilt caused by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47b10 (P. Lemanceau, P. A. H. M. Bakker, W. J. de Kogel, C. Alabouvette, and B. Schippers, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:2978-2982, 1992). The antagonistic effect of Fo47b10 and purified pseudobactin 358 was studied by using an in vitro bioassay. This bioassay allows studies on interactions among nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10, pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi WCS816, and purified pseudobactin 358, the fluorescent siderophore produced by P. putida WCS358. Both nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum reduced each other's growth when grown together. However, in these coinoculation experiments, pathogenic F. oxysporum WCS816 was relatively more inhibited in its growth than nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10. The antagonism of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum against pathogenic F. oxysporum strongly depends on the ratio of nonpathogenic to pathogenic F. oxysporum densities: the higher this ratio, the stronger the antagonism. This fungal antagonism appears to be mainly associated with the competition for glucose. Pseudobactin 358 reduced the growth of both F. oxysporum strains, whereas ferric pseudobactin 358 did not; antagonism by pseudobactin 358 was then related to competition for iron. However, the pathogenic F. oxysporum strain was more sensitive to this antagonism than the nonpathogenic strain. Pseudobactin 358 reduced the efficiency of glucose metabolism by the fungi. These results suggest that pseudobactin 358 increases the intensity of the antagonism of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Fo47b10 against pathogenic F. oxysporum WCS816 by making WCS816 more sensitive to the glucose competition by Fo47b10.

Lemanceau, Philippe; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; De Kogel, Willem Jan; Alabouvette, Claude; Schippers, Bob

1993-01-01

85

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

86

Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.  

PubMed

Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. PMID:23103050

Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2012-12-01

87

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

88

Potentiality of different isolates of wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum collected from rhizosphere of tomato against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of culture filtrates of different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and egg hatching. It was observed that different concentrations including standard extract (S.E), 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of all fungal filtrates inhibited egg hatch when compared with control. Minimum mortality and maximum hatching was observed in BRT (showing least mortality) isolate of F. oxysporum, while maximum mortality and minimum egg hatching was recorded in BGT (showing maximum mortality) isolate. Larval mortality was decreased with a decrease in concentration and the least mortality was observed in 1:100 when compared with SE and 1:10. The potentiality of both the isolates (BRT and BGT) against root-knot nematode M. incognita was confirmed by the pathogenicity test on tomato. These observations confirmed that F. oxysporumisolates possesses variability in pathogenicity ranging from pathogenic to bio-control agent. The plants inoculated with BRT isolate failed to show wilt symptoms while plants inoculated with BGT isolate showed wilt indices. PMID:18941992

Jain, Anju; Mohan, Jitendra; Singh, Mahendra; Goswami, B K

2008-11-01

89

Virulence Analysis and Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting to Detect Diversity Among Indian Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Causing Chickpea Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulence analysis of 64 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing chickpea wilt collected from major chickpea growing states of India on 14 varieties, including 10 international differentials\\u000a revealed that the isolates from each state were highly variable. Based on the reactions on international differentials, more\\u000a than one race was found to be prevalent in every state. Majority of

S. C. Dubey; Shio Raj Singh

2008-01-01

90

The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens  

PubMed Central

Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate and obstruct the transportation of water and minerals. As a consequence, leaves wilt and die, which may lead to impairment of the whole plant and eventually to death of the plant. Cultural, chemical, and biological measures to control this group of plant pathogens are generally ineffective, and the most effective control strategy is the use of genetic resistance. Owing to the fact that vascular wilt pathogens live deep in the interior of their host plants, studies into the biology of vascular pathogens are complicated. However, to design novel strategies to combat vascular wilt diseases, understanding the (molecular) biology of vascular pathogens and the molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense against these pathogens is crucial. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on interactions of vascular wilt pathogens with their host plants, with emphasis on host defense responses against this group of pathogens.

Yadeta, Koste A.; J. Thomma, Bart P. H.

2013-01-01

91

Aggregate water-stability, particle-size and soil solution properties in conducive and suppressive soils to Fusarium wilt of banana from Canary Islands (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of several soil properties on soil conduciveness or suppressiveness to disease caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied in seven field plots of banana plantations, situated in Tenerife and Gran Canaria islands (Canary Islands, Spain). In each plot, soil samples were taken in conducive and suppressive areas to Fusarium wilt. Water-stable aggregates (WSA:

J Dom??nguez; M. A Negr??n; C. M Rodr??guez

2001-01-01

92

Effects of conventional and organic nitrogen fertilizers on soil microbial activity, mycorrhizal colonization, leaf antioxidant content, and Fusarium wilt in highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in the greenhouse to determine the effects of conventional and organic nitrogen (N) fertilizer on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium solani, in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Legacy’). Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, soil microbial activity, and leaf antioxidants content was also measured the treatments. Plants grown with organic N fertilizer exhibited a lower incidence

René Montalba; Cesar Arriagada; Marysol Alvear; Gustavo E. Zúñiga

2010-01-01

93

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis-lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radiciscucumerinum V03-2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well-known non-pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non-compatible pathogen Forc V03-2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3-week-old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox. PMID:21255375

Validov, Shamil Z; Kamilova, Faina D; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

2011-01-01

94

Monitoring of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains during tomato plant infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis?lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radicis?cucumerinum V03?2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well?known non?pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non?compatible pathogen Forc V03?2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3?week?old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non?pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox.

Validov, Shamil Z.; Kamilova, Faina D.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

2011-01-01

95

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects]. PMID:19536588

Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

2010-01-01

96

Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants. PMID:24476152

Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

2014-06-01

97

Foliar spray of validamycin a or validoxylamine a controls tomato fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Tomato wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is effectively controlled by a foliar spray of validamycin A (VMA) or validoxylamine A (VAA) (>/=10 mug/ml); however, neither VMA nor VAA is antifungal in vitro. In pot tests, the effect of a foliar application of VMA or VAA at 100 mug/ml lasted for 64 days. Plants sprayed with VMA or VAA accumulated salicylic acid and had elevated expression of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) marker genes P4 (PR-1), Tag (PR-2), and NP24 (PR-5). Foliar spray of VMA also controlled late blight and powdery mildew of tomato. The disease control by VMA and VAA lasted up to 64 days after treatment, was broad spectrum, and induced the expression of PR genes, all essential indicators of SAR, suggesting that VMA and VAA are plant activators. The foliar application of plant activators is a novel control method for soilborne diseases and may provide an economically feasible alternative to soil fumigants such as methyl bromide. PMID:18943474

Ishikawa, Ryo; Shirouzu, Kentaro; Nakashita, Hideo; Lee, Han-Young; Motoyama, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Teraoka, Tohru; Arie, Tsutomu

2005-10-01

98

Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were isolated from wilted chickpea plants obtained from different districts and ‘wilt sickplots’ of central Ethiopia to assess variability in pathogenecity of the populations. Each isolate was tested on 10 different chickpea lines and eight improved chickpea varieties. Isolates showed highly significant variation in wilt severity on the differential lines and improved

Meki Shehabu; Seid Ahmed; Parshotam K. Sakhuja

2008-01-01

99

Proteomic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4-inoculated response to Fusarium wilts in the banana root cells  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt of banana is one of the most destructive diseases in the world. This disease has caused heavy losses in major banana production areas. Except for molecular breeding methods based on plant defense mechanisms, effective methods to control the disease are still lacking. Dynamic changes in defense mechanisms between susceptible, moderately resistant, and highly resistant banana and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4) at the protein level remain unknown. This research reports the proteomic profile of three banana cultivars in response to Foc4 and transcriptional levels correlated with their sequences for the design of disease control strategies by molecular breeding. Results Thirty-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified to function in cell metabolism. Most of these proteins were positively regulated after Foc4 inoculation. These differentially regulated proteins were found to have important functions in banana defense response. Functional categories implicated that these proteins were associated with pathogenesis-related (PR) response; isoflavonoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin syntheses; cell wall strengthening; cell polarization; reactive oxygen species production and scavenging; jasmonic acid-, abscisic acid-, and auxin-mediated signaling conduction; molecular chaperones; energy; and primary metabolism. By comparing the protein profiles of resistant and susceptible banana cultivars, many proteins showed obvious distinction in their defense mechanism functions. PR proteins in susceptible ‘Brazil’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening and antifungal compound synthesis in moderately resistant ‘Nongke No.1’ were mainly involved in defense. The proteins related to PR response, cell wall strengthening, and antifungal compound synthesis in highly resistant ‘Yueyoukang I’ were mainly involved in defense. 12 differentially regulated genes were selected to validate through quantitative real time PCR method. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of these selected genes corroborate with their respective protein abundance after pathogen infection. Conclusions This report is the first to use proteomic profiling to study the molecular mechanism of banana roots infected with Foc4. The differentially regulated proteins involved in different defense pathways are likely associated with different resistant levels of the three banana cultivars.

2013-01-01

100

The lateral organ boundaries domain transcription factor LBD20 functions in Fusarium wilt Susceptibility and jasmonate signaling in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling. PMID:22786889

Thatcher, Louise F; Powell, Jonathan J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-09-01

101

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

102

The Brassicaceae-Specific EWR1 Gene Provides Resistance to Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Soil-borne vascular wilt diseases caused by Verticillium spp. are among the most destructive diseases worldwide in a wide range of plant species. The most effective means of controlling Verticillium wilt diseases is the use of genetic resistance. We have previously reported the identification of four activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutants which showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. Among these, one mutant also showed enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial vascular wilt pathogen. Cloning of the activation tag revealed an insertion upstream of gene At3g13437, which we designated as EWR1 (for Enhancer of vascular Wilt Resistance 1) that encodes a putatively secreted protein of unknown function. The search for homologs of Arabidopsis EWR1 (AtEWR1) in public databases only identified homologs within the Brassicaceae family. We subsequently cloned the EWR1 homolog from Brassica oleracea (BoEWR1) and show that over-expression in Arabidopsis results in V. dahliae resistance. Moreover, over-expression of AtEWR1 and BoEWR1 in N. benthamiana, a member of the Solanaceae family, results in V. dahliae resistance, suggesting that EWR1 homologs can be used to engineer Verticillium wilt resistance in non-Brassicaceae crops as well.

Yadeta, Koste A.; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Hanemian, Mathieu; Marco, Yves; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

2014-01-01

103

Physiologic races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in the southeastern anatolia region of turkey and varietal reactions to races of the pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four isolates ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis (F.o.m.) obtained from 205 fields in melon-producing areas in the southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey were identified on the basis\\u000a of colony morphology and pathogenicity by the root dip method. In this region the mean prevalence of wilt disease was 88.1%\\u000a and the mean incidence of disease was 47.5%. Physiologic races 0, 1, 2, and

Sener Kurt; B. Baran; N. Sar?; H. Yetisir

2002-01-01

104

Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.  

PubMed

A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1? (EF-1?) and ?-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

2004-01-01

105

Effect of organic amendments and solarisation on Fusarium wilt in susceptible banana plantlets transplanted into naturally infested soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Despite extensive research since pathogenicity was first established in 1919, no cultural or chemical control strategy has proven effective against Fusarium wiltof bananas. The efficacy of cultural control is attributed to the suppression of pathogen activity. Yet, amending naturally infested soil with aged chicken manure has been shown to enhance disease severity, without any change in the activity of

N. Nasir; P. A. Pittaway; K. G. Pegg

106

Tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt is associated with early up-regulation of cell wall-strengthening genes in the roots.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of bananas. In the tropics and subtropics, Cavendish banana varieties are highly susceptible to Foc race 4 (VCG 0120). Cavendish selection GCTCV-218 was shown to have significantly lower disease severity and incidence compared with susceptible cultivar Williams in replicated greenhouse and field trials. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was previously carried out to identify genes induced in roots of GCTCV-218, but not in Williams, after infection with Foc'subtropical' race 4. Seventy-nine SSH clones were sequenced and revealed 13 non-redundant gene fragments, several of which showed homology to defence-associated genes, including cell wall-strengthening genes. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to confirm up-regulation and differential expression of a number of genes throughout a time-course, following Foc infection in the tolerant GCTCV-218 when compared with susceptible cv. Williams. Tolerance of GCTCV-218 was linked to significantly increased induction of cell wall-associated phenolic compounds. PMID:20507503

VAN DEN Berg, Noëlani; Berger, Dave K; Hein, Ingo; Birch, Paul R J; Wingfield, Michael J; Viljoen, Altus

2007-05-01

107

Assessing the Cost of an Invasive Forest Pathogen: A Case Study with Oak Wilt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant disease of oaks ( Quercus spp.) in the central United States. We focus on Anoka County, Minnesota, a 1,156 km2 mostly urban county in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan region. We develop a landscape-level model of oak wilt spread that accounts for underground and overland pathogen transmission. We predict the economic damage of tree mortality from oak wilt spread in the absence of management during the period 2007-2016. Our metric of economic damage is removal cost, which is one component of the total economic loss from tree mortality. We estimate that Anoka County has 5.92 million oak trees and 885 active oak wilt pockets covering 5.47 km2 in 2007. The likelihood that landowners remove infected oaks varies by land use and ranges from 86% on developed land to 57% on forest land. Over the next decade, depending on the rates of oak wilt pocket establishment and expansion, 76-266 thousand trees will be infected with discounted removal cost of 18-60 million. Although our predictions of removal costs are substantial, they are lower bounds on the total economic loss from tree mortality because we do not estimate economic losses from reduced services and increased hazards. Our predictions suggest that there are significant economic benefits, in terms of damage reduction, from preventing new pocket establishment or slowing the radial growth of existing pockets.

Haight, Robert G.; Homans, Frances R.; Horie, Tetsuya; Mehta, Shefali V.; Smith, David J.; Venette, Robert C.

2011-03-01

108

Lipopolysaccharide-Defective Mutants of the Wilt Pathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-defective mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum were used to test the hypothesis that differences in LPS structure are associated with the ability or inability of different strains to induce a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. To obtain these mutants, LPS-specific bacteriophage of P. solanacearum were isolated and used to select phage-resistant mutants of the virulent, non-HR-inducing strain K60. The LPS of 24 of these mutants was purified and compared with that of K60 and its HR-inducing variant, B1. Upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, LPS from K60 and other smooth strains separated into many evenly spaced bands that migrated slowly, whereas LPS from B1 and most phage-resistant strains separated into one to three bands that migrated rapidly. Carbohydrate analysis showed that the LPS of the phage-resistant strains lacked O-antigen sugars (rhamnose, xylose, and N-acetylglucosamine) and could be grouped into (i) those that had all core sugars (rhamnose, glucose, heptose, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate), (ii) those that had no core rhamnose, and (iii) those that lacked all core sugars except for 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. The LPS composition of 10 of the rough, phage-resistant mutants was similar to that of the HR-inducing strain, B1, yet none of them induced the HR. Only 2 of 13 mutant strains tested caused wilting of tobacco, and these had rough LPS but produced large amounts of extracellular polysaccharide, unlike most LPS-defective mutants. The evidence did not support the hypothesis that the initial interaction between rough LPS and tobacco cell walls is the determining factor in HR initiation. Images

Hendrick, Carol A.; Sequeira, Luis

1984-01-01

109

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

SciTech Connect

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-18

110

Pathogenicity of two species of Fusarium on some cultivars of bean in greenhouse.  

PubMed

Twenty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from the infected roots of bean in different farms of east Azarbaijan and Tehran Provinces and their pathogenicity determined. Most isolates of the fungi were identified as F. oxysporun. They caused root rot, yellowing and wilting of bean in the field. In this test, the roots of 6 cultivars of bean seedlings soaked in suspension of the 7 isolates of the fungi (a1, Gogan, a2, Bilverdi, a3, Savojbolagh-Hashtgerd, a4, field of Agr. Coll. a5, Khomein, a6, Ramjin of F. oxysporum and a7 of F. solani of Varamin, Iran) for 5 minute (106 spores/ml.) then transplanted into the sterilized soil in 4 pots (as replication). For control (a8) the roots soaked in distilled water. The results showed that percentage average of necrotic roots and crowns of isolates al, a2, a3, a5, a6, a7 was %20.31 in group a, a4 was %43.52 in group b and a8 was %2.77 in group c after 3 weeks. The isolate a4 (from the field of Agricultural College, Karaj) was more infectious than the other because it caused wilting, yellowing the leaves and decreased the growth very soon, followed by a5 with %25.32 rate was more pathogenic. Bean cultivar Goli-Red was more tolerant with %10.02 than the others of 16.29 (Naz Red) to 25.15 percent of necrotic the roots & stems. PMID:16637191

Faraji, M; Okhovvat, S M

2005-01-01

111

Fine mapping of the tomato I-3 gene for fusarium wilt resistance and elimination of a co-segregating resistance gene analogue as a candidate for I-3.  

PubMed

The I-3 gene from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii confers resistance to race 3 of the devastating vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. As an initial step in a positional cloning strategy for the isolation of I-3, we converted restriction fragment length polymorphism and conserved orthologue set markers, known genes and a resistance gene analogue (RGA) mapping to the I-3 region into PCR-based sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Additional PCR-based markers in the I-3 region were generated using the randomly amplified DNA fingerprinting (RAF) technique. SCAR, CAPS and RAF markers were used for high-resolution mapping around the I-3 locus. The I-3 gene was localised to a 0.3-cM region containing a RAF marker, eO6, and an RGA, RGA332. RGA332 was cloned and found to correspond to a putative pseudogene with at least two loss-of-function mutations. The predicted pseudogene belongs to the Toll interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich-repeat sub-class of plant disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of two RGA332 homologues in L. esculentum, DNA gel blot and PCR analysis suggests that no other homologues are present in lines carrying I-3 that could be alternative candidates for the gene. PMID:15045176

Hemming, M N; Basuki, S; McGrath, D J; Carroll, B J; Jones, D A

2004-07-01

112

Possible involvement of G-proteins and cAMP in the induction of progesterone hydroxylating enzyme system in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungi present the ability to hydroxylate steroids. In some filamentous fungi, progesterone induces an enzyme system which converts the compound into a less toxic hydroxylated product. We investigated the progesterone response in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone was mainly transformed into 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which was found predominantly in the extracellular medium. The role of two conserved fungal signaling cascades in the induction of the progesterone-transforming enzyme system was studied, using knockout mutants lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 or the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Fgb1 functioning upstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. No steroid hydroxylation was induced in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting a role for the G-protein beta subunit in progesterone signaling. Exogenous cAMP restored the induction of progesterone-transforming activity in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting that steroid signaling in F. oxysporum is mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. PMID:19429428

Poli, Anna; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zigon, Dusan; Lenasi, Helena

2009-02-01

113

Comparative pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum isolates from China revealed by wheat coleoptile and floret inoculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab caused by Fusarium species is an economically important disease on small grain cereal crops worldwide. Accurate assessments of the pathogenicity of fungal isolates is a key obstacle toward a better understanding of the Fusarium-wheat scab system. In this study, a new laboratory method for inoculation of wheat coleoptiles was developed, which consists of cutting

A.-B. Wu; H.-P. Li; C.-S. Zhao; Y.-C. Liao

2005-01-01

114

Disseminated hyalohyphomycosis caused by a novel human pathogen, Fusarium napiforme.  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species are saprophytic molds and important plant pathogens, although they are increasingly recognized as agents of human mycosis. Frequently, the infection is superficial. Deep tissue infection may occur as an opportunistic hyalohyphomycosis, and wide dissemination is common in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a novel case of disseminated hyalohyphomycosis caused by F. napiforme in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The clinical manifestations of this infection were similar to those attributed to infection with other species. In vitro susceptibility testing demonstrated resistance to amphotericin B and flucytosine, and progressive infection was documented until recovery of granulocyte function. The distinguishing clinical mycologic characteristics of this opportunistic mold are the unique turnip- or lemon-shaped microconidia. F. napiforme is a new agent of hyalohyphomycosis, further emphasizing the importance of Fusarium species as opportunistic molds. Images

Melcher, G P; McGough, D A; Fothergill, A W; Norris, C; Rinaldi, M G

1993-01-01

115

Disseminated hyalohyphomycosis caused by a novel human pathogen, Fusarium napiforme.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are saprophytic molds and important plant pathogens, although they are increasingly recognized as agents of human mycosis. Frequently, the infection is superficial. Deep tissue infection may occur as an opportunistic hyalohyphomycosis, and wide dissemination is common in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a novel case of disseminated hyalohyphomycosis caused by F. napiforme in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The clinical manifestations of this infection were similar to those attributed to infection with other species. In vitro susceptibility testing demonstrated resistance to amphotericin B and flucytosine, and progressive infection was documented until recovery of granulocyte function. The distinguishing clinical mycologic characteristics of this opportunistic mold are the unique turnip- or lemon-shaped microconidia. F. napiforme is a new agent of hyalohyphomycosis, further emphasizing the importance of Fusarium species as opportunistic molds. PMID:8314987

Melcher, G P; McGough, D A; Fothergill, A W; Norris, C; Rinaldi, M G

1993-06-01

116

Combined use of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 with reduced fungicide application for the control of tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and suppressed the Fusarium wilt of tomato. The chemical fungicide, benomyl, did not suppress the disease incidence at low concentrations. However, the disease incidence was decreased by the combined application of benomyl at low concentrations with strain LRB3W1. Combined application of benomyl with the bacterium was more effective than treatment with the bacterium alone. The survival of strain LRB3W1 was not influenced by the presence of benomyl. This combined use of the biocontrol bacterium, strain LRB3W1, and a fungicide, benomyl, should be an attractive approach for suppressing tomato wilt. PMID:16789550

Someya, Nobutaka; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Noguchi, Masako T; Sawada, Hiroyuki

2006-06-01

117

Influence of chickpea genotype and Bacillus sp. on protection from Fusarium wilt by seed treatment with nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of kabuli chickpea cultivars ICCV 4 and PV 61 were treated with conidia of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolate Fo 90105 suspended in methylcellulose (3 × 106 conidia.seed-1), or with methylcellulose alone, and sown in soil artificially infested with 500 or 1,000 chlamydospores.g-1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5. At an inoculum concentration of 500 chlamydospores.g-1, seed treatment

Ana Harvás; Blanca Landa

1997-01-01

118

Trichoderma asperellum Strain T34 Controls Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato Plants in Soilless Culture Through Competition for Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness\\u000a of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000?µM provided as\\u000a EDTA\\/Fe(III)] in

Guillem Segarra; Eva Casanova; Manuel Avilés; Isabel Trillas

2010-01-01

119

Insight into the molecular requirements for pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici through large-scale insertional mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in tomato. In order to gain more insight into the molecular processes in F. oxysporum necessary for pathogenesis and to uncover the genes involved, we used Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis to generate 10,290 transformants and screened the transformants for loss or reduction of pathogenicity. Results This led to the identification of 106 pathogenicity mutants. Southern analysis revealed that the average T-DNA insertion is 1.4 and that 66% of the mutants carry a single T-DNA. Using TAIL-PCR, chromosomal T-DNA flanking regions were isolated and 111 potential pathogenicity genes were identified. Conclusions Functional categorization of the potential pathogenicity genes indicates that certain cellular processes, such as amino acid and lipid metabolism, cell wall remodeling, protein translocation and protein degradation, seem to be important for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum. Several known pathogenicity genes were identified, such as those encoding chitin synthase V, developmental regulator FlbA and phosphomannose isomerase. In addition, complementation and gene knock-out experiments confirmed that a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, thought to be involved in cell wall integrity, a transcriptional regulator, a protein with unknown function and peroxisome biogenesis are required for full pathogenicity of F. oxysporum.

Michielse, Caroline B; van Wijk, Ringo; Reijnen, Linda; Cornelissen, Ben JC; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

120

A study on the susceptibility of the model legume plant Medicago truncatula to the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne disease caused by formae specialis of Fusarium oxysporum on a large number of cultivated and wild plants. The susceptibility of the model legume plant Medicago truncatula to Fusarium oxysporum was studied by root-inoculating young plants in a miniaturised hydroponic culture. Among eight tested M. truncatula lines, all were susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. medicaginis, the

Montserrat Ramírez-Suero; Anas Khanshour; Yves Martinez; Martina Rickauer

2010-01-01

121

Galleria mellonella as model host for the trans-kingdom pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease, affects a wide range of plant species and can produce disseminated infections in humans. F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici isolate FGSC 9935 causes disease both on tomato plants and immunodepressed mice, making it an ideal model for the comparative analysis of fungal virulence on plant and animal hosts. Here we tested the ability of FGSC 9935 to cause disease in the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, an invertebrate model host that is widely used for the study of microbial human pathogens. Injection of living but not of heat-killed microconidia into the hemocoel of G. mellonella larvae resulted in dose-dependent killing both at 30°C and at 37°C. Fluorescence microscopy of larvae inoculated with a F. oxysporum transformant expressing GFP revealed hyphal proliferation within the hemocoel, interaction with G. mellonella hemocytes, and colonization of the killed insects by the fungus. Fungal gene knockout mutants previously tested in the tomato and immunodepressed mouse systems displayed a good correlation in virulence between the Galleria and the mouse model. Thus, Galleria represents a useful non-vertebrate infection model for studying virulence mechanisms of F. oxysporum on animal hosts. PMID:21907298

Navarro-Velasco, Gesabel Y; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Ortíz-Urquiza, Almudena; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-12-01

122

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application.  

PubMed

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

123

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

124

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20–35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran.

Chehri, K.; Salleh, B.; Yli-Mattila, T.; Reddy, K.R.N.; Abbasi, S.

2011-01-01

125

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain Transcription Factor LBD20 Functions in Fusarium Wilt Susceptibility and Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family encodes plant-specific transcriptional regulators functioning in organ development. In a screen of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequence-indexed transferred DNA insertion mutants, we found disruption of the LOB DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN20 (LBD20) gene led to increased resistance to the root-infecting vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. In wild-type plants, LBD20 transcripts were barely detectable in leaves but abundant in roots, where they were further induced after F. oxysporum inoculation or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of LBD20 expression in roots was abolished in coronatine insensitive1 (coi1) and myc2 (allelic to jasmonate insensitive1) mutants, suggesting LBD20 may function in jasmonate (JA) signaling. Consistent with this, expression of the JA-regulated THIONIN2.1 (Thi2.1) and VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2) genes were up-regulated in shoots of lbd20 following treatment of roots with F. oxysporum or methyl jasmonate. However, PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 expression was unaltered, indicating a repressor role for LBD20 in a branch of the JA-signaling pathway. Plants overexpressing LBD20 (LBD20-OX) had reduced Thi2.1 and VSP2 expression. There was a significant correlation between increased LBD20 expression in the LBD20-OX lines with both Thi2.1 and VSP2 repression, and reduced survival following F. oxysporum infection. Chlorosis resulting from application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate was also reduced in lbd20 leaves relative to the wild type. Taken together, LBD20 is a F. oxysporum susceptibility gene that appears to regulate components of JA signaling downstream of COI1 and MYC2 that are required for full elicitation of F. oxysporum- and JA-dependent responses. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a role for a LBD gene family member in either biotic stress or JA signaling.

Thatcher, Louise F.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Aitken, Elizabeth A.B.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2012-01-01

126

Occurrence, pathogenicity and distribution of Fusarium spp. in stored wheat seeds Kermanshah Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Fusarium is one of the most important pathogenic and toxigenic fungi widely distributed all over the world, including Iran. Fusarium species are found frequently in stored agriculture products especially wheat. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with stored wheat seeds and their pathogenicity on root and head of wheat in Kermanshah, the leading province in wheat production in Iran. In this survey 75 seed samples of stored wheat were collected from 10 different regions during 2006-2008 and tested for the presence of Fusarium. Fusarium spp. were found in 51 (68%) of 75 samples. A total of 580 Fusarium strains were isolated, identified and preserved. All these strains belong to 20 Fusarium spp. according to morphological characters. Each conidial suspension of selected strains representing all species was evaluated for their pathogenicity on roots and spikes of healthy wheat var. Fallat in the greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were the most pathogenic to wheat's head. Foot rot assessment revealed that F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum were the most damaging species. Of the Fusarium isolates, F. graminearum was the most prevalent followed by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. This is the first comprehensive report on identity and distribution of Fusarium spp. from stored wheat seeds in Iran while F. nelsonii was reported for the first time from wheat seeds in Iran. PMID:21313898

Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Soleimani, M J; Yousefi, A R

2010-12-15

127

Inactivation of Snt2, a BAH/PHD-containing transcription factor, impairs pathogenicity and increases autophagosome abundance in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soil-borne, asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) is a causal agent of muskmelon wilt disease. The current study focused on the most virulent race of FOM-race 1,2. The tagged mutant D122, generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, caused the delayed appearance of initial wilt disease symptoms, as well as a 75% reduction in pathogenicity. D122 was impaired in the gene product homologous to the Snt2-like transcription factor of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Involvement of snt2 in the early stage of FOM pathogenesis and its requirement for host colonization were confirmed by targeted disruption followed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of snt2 expression in planta. ?snt2 mutants of FOM and Neurospora crassa exhibited similar morphological abnormalities, including a reduction in conidia production and biomass accumulation, slower vegetative growth and frequent hyphal septation. In N. crassa, snt-2 is required for sexual development, as ?snt-2 mutants were unable to produce mature perithecia. Suppressive subtraction hybridization analysis of the D122 mutant versus wild-type isolate detected four genes (idi4, pdc, msf1, eEF1G) that were found previously in association with the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase pathway. Expression of the autophagy-related idi4 and pdc genes was found to be up-regulated in the ?snt2 FOM mutant. In N. crassa, disruption of snt-2 also conferred a significant over-expression of idi4. PMID:21535351

Denisov, Youlia; Freeman, Stanley; Yarden, Oded

2011-06-01

128

Auxin signaling and transport promote susceptibility to the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Currently, very little is known about the molecular or physiological processes that are activated in the host during infection and the roles these processes play in resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression profiles of F. oxysporum-infected Arabidopsis plants. Genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis as well as jasmonate-dependent defense were coordinately induced by F. oxysporum. Similarly, tryptophan pathway genes, including those involved in both indole-glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis, were upregulated in both the leaves and the roots of inoculated plants. Analysis of plants expressing the DR5:GUS construct suggested that root auxin homeostasis was altered during F. oxysporum infection. However, Arabidopsis mutants with altered auxin and tryptophan-derived metabolites such as indole-glucosinolates and camalexin did not show an altered resistance to this pathogen. In contrast, several auxin-signaling mutants were more resistant to F. oxysporum. Chemical or genetic alteration of polar auxin transport also conferred increased pathogen resistance. Our results suggest that, similarly to many other pathogenic and nonpathogenic or beneficial soil organisms, F. oxysporum requires components of auxin signaling and transport to colonize the plant more effectively. Potential mechanisms of auxin signaling and transport-mediated F. oxysporum susceptibility are discussed. PMID:21281113

Kidd, Brendan N; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Dombrecht, Bruno; Tekeoglu, Mücella; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Schenk, Peer M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2011-06-01

129

First record of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici occurring on sweet basil in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first record of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici causing wilt and crown rot of sweet basil plants in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The identification of the\\u000a pathogen was confirmed with a PCR assay using the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilici specific primer pair, Bik 1 + Bik 2.

L. Swart; J. M. van Niekerk

2003-01-01

130

Fusarium wilt suppressive soils: an example of disease-suppressive soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of soils that are naturally suppressive to diseases induced by soilborne plant pathogens provides good opportunities\\u000a to study situations where biological control is effectively working. In most cases, suppressiveness is fundamentally based\\u000a on microbial interactions between the pathogen and some populations of the saprophytic microflora. However, these biotic interactions\\u000a are dependent on the abiotic characteristics of the soil.

Claude Alabouvette

1999-01-01

131

Tomato Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses to Fusarium Wilt and Tomato Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant–pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV). Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK) were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses.

Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ferriello, Francesca; Tardella, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Sigillo, Loredana; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella

2014-01-01

132

Tomato genome-wide transcriptional responses to fusarium wilt and tomato mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Since gene expression approaches constitute a starting point for investigating plant-pathogen systems, we performed a transcriptional analysis to identify a set of genes of interest in tomato plants infected with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV). Differentially expressed tomato genes upon inoculation with Fol and ToMV were identified at two days post-inoculation. A large overlap was found in differentially expressed genes throughout the two incompatible interactions. However, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis evidenced specific categories in both interactions. Response to ToMV seems more multifaceted, since more than 70 specific categories were enriched versus the 30 detected in Fol interaction. In particular, the virus stimulated the production of an invertase enzyme that is able to redirect the flux of carbohydrates, whereas Fol induced a homeostatic response to prevent the fungus from killing cells. Genomic mapping of transcripts suggested that specific genomic regions are involved in resistance response to pathogen. Coordinated machinery could play an important role in prompting the response, since 60% of pathogen receptor genes (NB-ARC-LRR, RLP, RLK) were differentially regulated during both interactions. Assessment of genomic gene expression patterns could help in building up models of mediated resistance responses. PMID:24804963

Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ferriello, Francesca; Tardella, Luca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Sigillo, Loredana; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella

2014-01-01

133

Skippy, a retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has been isolated and characterized. The element, designated skippy (skp) is 7846 bp in length, flanked by identical long terminal repeats (LTR) of 429 bp showing structural features characteristic of retroviral and retrotransposon LTRs. Target-site duplications of 5 bp were found. Two long overlapping open reading frames (ORF) were identified. The first ORF, 2562 bp in length, shows homology to retroviral gag genes. The second ORF, 3888 bp in length, has homology to the protease, reverse transcriptase. RNase H and integrase domains of retroelement pol genes in that order. Sequence comparisons and the order of the predicted proteins from skippy indicate that the element is closely related to the gypsy family of LTR-retrotransposons. The element is present in similar copy numbers in the two races investigated, although RFLP analysis showed differences in banding patterns. The number of LTR sequences present in the genome is higher than the number of copies of complete elements, indicating excision by homologous recombination between LTR sequences. PMID:8544829

Anaya, N; Roncero, M I

1995-12-20

134

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

135

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

136

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

137

Disease Development Following Infection of Tomato and Basil Foliage by Airborne Conidia of the Soilborne Pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, and F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in basil, are soilborne pathogens capable of producing conspicuous masses of macroconidia along the stem. The role of the airborne propagules in the epidemics of the disease in tomato plants was studied. In the field, airborne propagules of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici were trapped with a selective medium and their prevalence was determined. Plants grown in both covered and uncovered pots, detached from the field soil, and exposed to natural aerial inoculum developed typical symptoms (82 to 87% diseased plants). The distribution of inoculum in the growth medium in the pots also indicated the occurrence of foliage infection. In greenhouse, foliage and root inoculations were carried out with both tomato and basil and their respective pathogens. Temperature and duration of high relative humidity affected rate of colonization of tomato, but not of basil, by the respective pathogens. Disease incidence in foliage-inoculated plants reached 75 to 100%. In these plants, downward movement of the pathogens from the foliage to the crown and roots was observed. Wounding enhanced pathogen invasion and establishment in the foliage-inoculated plants. The sporulation of the two pathogens on stems, aerial dissemination, and foliage infection raise the need for foliage protection in addition to soil disinfestation, in the framework of an integrated disease management program. PMID:18943372

Rekah, Y; Shtienberg, D; Katan, J

2000-12-01

138

Control of Banana Wilt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME years ago I reported in these columns an unusually interesting and important field experiment on the control of Panama (wilt) disease of bananas (Fusarium oxysporum cubense), which I had seen while travelling in Honduras1. This consisted in flood-fallowing an area of about a hundred acres which had gone out of cultivation because of wilt disease. The area was empoldered

C. W. Wardlaw

1947-01-01

139

The pH signalling transcription factor PacC controls virulence in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Gene expression in fungi by ambient pH is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor PacC/Rim1p. We have identified a pacC orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-GCCAAG-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to PacC from Aspergillus nidulans. pacC transcript levels were elevated in F. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme acidic growth conditions. PacC+/- loss-of-function mutants displayed an acidity-mimicking phenotype resulting in poor growth at alkaline pH, increased acid protease activity and higher transcript levels of acid-expressed polygalacturonase genes. Reintroduction of a functional pacC copy into a pacC+/- mutant restored the wild-type phenotype. Conversely, F. oxysporum merodiploids carrying a dominant activating pacCc allele had increased pacC transcript and protein levels and displayed an alkalinity-mimicking phenotype with reduced acid phosphatase and increased alkaline protease activities. PacC+/- mutants were more virulent than the wild-type strain in root infection assays with tomato plants, whereas pacCc strains were significantly reduced in virulence. We propose that F. oxysporum PacC acts as a negative regulator of virulence to plants, possibly by preventing transcription of acid-expressed genes important for infection. PMID:12694620

Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M Isabel G; Espeso, Eduardo A; González-Verdejo, Clara I; García-Maceira, Fe I; Di Pietro, Antonio

2003-05-01

140

HapX-mediated iron homeostasis is essential for rhizosphere competence and virulence of the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ?hapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:22968717

López-Berges, Manuel S; Capilla, Javier; Turrà, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-09-01

141

The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in

Neil A. Brown; John Antoniw; Kim E. Hammond-Kosack

2012-01-01

142

Earthworms disseminate a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish plants infested with a soil-borne plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani PEG-4, which is resistant to hygromycin B, were placed on the surface of a soil microcosm containing earthworms (Pheretima sp.). The earthworms ate the radish plants and scattered individual casts everywhere in the burrows. The fungal propagules were detected in the gut of the earthworms and in

K. Toyota; M. Kimura

1994-01-01

143

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate\\u000a maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We

Troy M. LarsonDavid; David F. Kendra; Mark Busman; Daren W. Brown

2011-01-01

144

Lack of biocontrol capacity in a non-pathogenic mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the biocontrol capacity of rev157, a non-pathogenic mutant of a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom24). Inoculated in association with the virulent parental strain, the mutant rev157 did not protect the host plant (muskmelon)\\u000a against infection by Fom24. Applied on flax, a non-host plant, the mutant rev157 was not

Floriane L’Haridon; Sébastien Aimé; Claude Alabouvette; Chantal Olivain

2007-01-01

145

Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ? †  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections.

Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

2011-01-01

146

The Wor1-like Protein Fgp1 Regulates Pathogenicity, Toxin Synthesis and Reproduction in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from

Wilfried Jonkers; Yanhong Dong; Karen Broz; H. Corby Kistler

2012-01-01

147

Fusarium oxysporum as a Multihost Model for the Genetic Dissection of Fungal Virulence in Plants and Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized

Montserrat Ortoneda; Josep Guarro; Marta P. Madrid; Zaira Caracuel; M. I. G. Roncero; E. Mayayo; A. Di Pietro

2004-01-01

148

Genomic analysis of host-pathogen interaction between Fusarium graminearum and wheat during early stages of disease development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum strains responsible for causing the plant disease Fusarium head blight vary greatly in their ability to cause disease and produce mycotoxins on wheat. With the goal of understanding fungal gene expression related to pathogenicity, three cDNA libraries were created by suppression subtractive hybridization using wheat heads inoculated with a highly aggressive strain and either water or a less

Rubella S. Goswami; Jin-Rong Xu; Frances Trail; Karen Hilburn; H. Corby Kistler

2006-01-01

149

Classification of the guava wilt fungus Myxosporium psidii, the palm pathogen Gliocladium vermoesenii and the persimmon wilt fungus Acremonium diospyri in Nalanthamala.  

PubMed

Psidium guajava wilt is known from South Africa, Malaysia and Taiwan. The fungus causing this disease, Myxosporium psidii, forms dry chains of conidia on surfaces of pseudoparenchymatous sporodochia, which develop in blisters on bark. Similar sporodochia are characteristic of Nalanthamala madreeya, the type species of Nalanthamala. Nalanthamala, therefore, is the appropriate anamorph genus for Myxosporium psidii, while Myxosporium is a nomen nudum (based on M. croceum). For M. psidii the combination Nalanthamala psidii is proposed. Nalanthamala psidii, the palm pathogen Gliocladium (Penicillium) vermoesenii, another undescribed anamorphic species from palm, two species of Rubrinectria and the persimmon pathogen Acremonium diospyri are monophyletic and belong to the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) based on partial nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) analyses. Rubrinectria, therefore, is the teleomorph of Nalanthamala, in which the anamorphs are classified as N. vermoesenii, N. diospyri or Nalanthamala sp. Nalanthamala squamicola, the only other Nalanthamala species, has affinities with the Bionectriaceae and is excluded from this group. Rubrinectria/Nalanthamala species form dimorphic conidiophores and conidia in culture. Fusiform, cylindrical, or allantoid conidia arise in colorless liquid heads on acremonium-like conidiophores; ovoidal conidia with somewhat truncated ends arise in long, persistent, dry chains on penicillate conidiophores. No penicillate but irregularly branched conidiophores were observed in N. diospyri. Conidia of N. psidii that are held in chains are shorter than those of N. madreeya, of which no living material is available. Nalanthamala psidii and N. diospyri are pathogenic specifically to their hosts. They form pale yellow to pale orange or brownish orange colonies, respectively, and more or less white conidial masses. Most strains of Rubrinectria sp., Nalanthamala sp. and N. vermoesenii originate from palm hosts, form mostly greenish or olive-brown colonies and white-to-salmon conidial masses. They form a monophyletic clade to which Nalanthamala psidii and N. diospyri are related based on analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions and 5.8S rDNA (ITS rDNA), LSU rDNA, and partial beta-tubulin gene. Few polymorphic sites in the ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin gene indicate that Nalanthamala psidii comprises two lineages, one of which has been detected only in South Africa. PMID:16396346

Schroers, H J; Geldenhuis, M M; Wingfield, M J; Schoeman, M H; Yen, Y F; Shen, W C; Wingfield, B D

2005-01-01

150

Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of Fusarium spp. in atmospheric dust and rainfall dust, samples were collected during September 2007, and July, August, and October 2008. The results reveal the prevalence of airborne Fusarium species coming from the atmosphere of the South East coast of Spain. Five different Fusarium species were isolated from the settling dust: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. dimerum, and F. proliferatum. Moreover, rainwater samples were obtained during significant rainfall events in January and February 2009. Using the dilution-plate method, 12 fungal genera were identified from these rainwater samples. Specific analyses of the rainwater revealed the presence of three species of Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. equiseti. A total of 57 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from both rainwater and atmospheric rainfall dust sampling were inoculated onto melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Piñonet and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. San Pedro. These species were chosen because they are the main herbaceous crops in Almeria province. The results presented in this work indicate strongly that spores or propagules of Fusarium are able to cross the continental barrier carried by winds from the Sahara (Africa) to crop or coastal lands in Europe. Results show differences in the pathogenicity of the isolates tested. Both hosts showed root rot when inoculated with different species of Fusarium, although fresh weight measurements did not bring any information about the pathogenicity. The findings presented above are strong indications that long-distance transmission of Fusarium propagules may occur. Diseases caused by species of Fusarium are common in these areas. They were in the past, and are still today, a problem for greenhouses crops in Almería, and many species have been listed as pathogens on agricultural crops in this region. Saharan air masses dominate the Mediterranean regions. The evidence of long distance dispersal of Fusarium spp. by atmospheric dust and rainwater together with their proved pathogenicity must be taken into account in epidemiological studies. PMID:20820862

Palmero, D; Rodríguez, J M; de Cara, M; Camacho, F; Iglesias, C; Tello, J C

2011-01-01

151

A proteomic study of in-root interactions between chickpea pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia and the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the main soil-borne disease limiting chickpea production. Management of this disease is achieved mainly by the use of resistant cultivars. However, co-infection of a Foc-resistant plant by the fungus and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia (Ma) causes breakdown of the resistance and thus limits its efficacy in the control of Fusarium wilt. In this work we aimed to reveal key aspects of chickpea:Foc:Ma interactions, studying fungal- and nematode-induced changes in root proteins, using chickpea lines 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' that show similar resistant (Foc race 5) and susceptible (Ma) responses to either pathogen alone but a differential response after co-infection with both pathogens. 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' chickpea plants were challenged with Foc race 5 and Ma, either in single or in combined inoculations, and the root proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using three biological replicates. Pairwise comparisons of treatments indicated that 47 protein spots in 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 31 protein spots in 'ICC 14216K' underwent significant changes in intensity. The responsive protein spots tentatively identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS (27 spots for 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 15 spots for 'ICC 14216K') indicated that same biological functions were involved in the responses of either chickpea line to Foc race 5 and Ma, although common as well as line-specific responsive proteins were found within the different biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study at the root proteome level of chickpea response to a biotic stress imposed by single and joint infections by two major soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21640211

Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2011-09-01

152

The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-07-19

153

The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Perez, Enrique Rodriguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragon; de Baldarrago, Fatima Caceres; Roco, Mauricio Jimenez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

154

Pathogenicity of some Fusarium species associated with superficial blemishes of potato tubers.  

PubMed

As an organ for reserve and propagation, the tuber grows underground and is in contact with soil-borne microorganisms, making it potentially exposed to blemishes. Therefore, the objective of this study was the possibility of using some modern methods of molecular diagnostics and detection of the presence of fungal contaminants in potato blemishes in Al-Qasim (Saudi Arabia). Polygonal lesions were the most observed blemish type in the collected samples. One hundred and sixty isolates were recovered from different types of blemishes obtained in this study. Fusarium, Penicillium, Ilyonectria, Alternaria and Rhizoctonia were the most common genera collected from different blemish types. Using ITS region sequencing, all collected fungi were identified at the species level. All Fusarium strains collected during this study were used to detect their pathogenicity against potato tubers. This is the first comprehensive report on the identification of major pathogenic fungi isolated from potato tuber blemishes in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23829078

Gashgari, Rukaia M; Gherbawy, Youssuf A

2013-01-01

155

Pathogenic, Genetic and Molecular Characterisation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from lily were screened for pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and compared to reference isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and F. oxysporum f.sp. tulipae to justify the distinction of F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii. Twenty-four isolates from different locations in The Netherlands (18 isolates), Italy (4 isolates), Poland and the United States

R. P. Baayen; M. G. Förch; C. Waalwijk; P. J. M. Bonants; H. J. M. Löffler; E. J. A. Roebroeck

1998-01-01

156

Comparative pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum isolates from China revealed by wheat coleoptile and floret inoculations.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab caused by Fusarium species is an economically important disease on small grain cereal crops worldwide. Accurate assessments of the pathogenicity of fungal isolates is a key obstacle toward a better understanding of the Fusarium-wheat scab system. In this study, a new laboratory method for inoculation of wheat coleoptiles was developed, which consists of cutting off the coleoptile apex, covering the cut apex with a piece of filter paper soaked in conidial suspension, and measuring the lengths of brown lesions 7 days post inoculation. After coleoptile inoculation, distinct brown lesions in the diseased stems were observed, in which the presence of the fungus was verified by PCR amplification with F. graminearum Schwable-specific primers. Coleoptile inoculation of six wheat varieties indicated that a highly susceptible wheat variety was more suitable as a differentiating host for the pathogenicity assay. Analysis of the coleoptiles inoculated with a set of 58 different isolates of F. graminearum showed a significant difference in the lengths of the lesions, forming the basis by which pathogenicity of the isolates was assessed. Field inoculation of florets of three wheat varieties over 2 years revealed significant differences in pathogenicity among the 58 isolates, and that the highly resistant and highly susceptible wheat varieties were more appropriate and stable for pathogenicity assessment in field trials. Comparative analyses of eight inoculation experiments of wheat with 58 F. graminearum isolates showed significant direct linear correlations (P<0.001) between coleoptile and floret inoculations. These results indicate that the wheat coleoptile inoculation is a simple, rapid and reliable method for pathogenicity studies of F. graminearum in wheat. PMID:16160772

Wu, A-B; Li, H-P; Zhao, C-S; Liao, Y-C

2005-08-01

157

The Genome Sequence of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium virguliforme That Causes Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean  

PubMed Central

Fusarium virguliforme causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, a disease of serious concern throughout most of the soybean producing regions of the world. Despite the global importance, little is known about the pathogenesis mechanisms of F. virguliforme. Thus, we applied Next-Generation DNA Sequencing to reveal the draft F. virguliforme genome sequence and identified putative pathogenicity genes to facilitate discovering the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have generated the draft genome sequence of F. virguliforme by conducting whole-genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Initially, single-end reads of a 400-bp shotgun library were assembled using the PCAP program. Paired end sequences from 3 and 20 Kb DNA fragments and approximately 100 Kb inserts of 1,400 BAC clones were used to generate the assembled genome. The assembled genome sequence was 51 Mb. The N50 scaffold number was 11 with an N50 Scaffold length of 1,263 Kb. The AUGUSTUS gene prediction program predicted 14,845 putative genes, which were annotated with Pfam and GO databases. Gene distributions were uniform in all but one of the major scaffolds. Phylogenic analyses revealed that F. virguliforme was closely related to the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca. Of the 14,845 F. virguliforme genes, 11,043 were conserved among five Fusarium species: F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum and N. haematococca; and 1,332 F. virguliforme-specific genes, which may include pathogenicity genes. Additionally, searches for candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes using gene sequences of the pathogen-host interaction database identified 358 genes. Conclusions The F. virguliforme genome sequence and putative pathogenicity genes presented here will facilitate identification of pathogenicity mechanisms involved in SDS development. Together, these resources will expedite our efforts towards discovering pathogenicity mechanisms in F. virguliforme. This will ultimately lead to improvement of SDS resistance in soybean.

Srivastava, Subodh K.; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Brar, Hargeet K.; Fakhoury, Ahmad M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

2014-01-01

158

The use of GFP - transformed isolates to study infection of banana with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of banana. To understand infection of banana roots by Foc race 4, we developed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged transformant and studied pathogenesis using fluorescence microscopy\\u000a and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The transformation was efficient, and GFP expression was stable for at least six subcultures\\u000a with fluorescence

Chunyu Li; Shi Chen; Cunwu Zuo; Qingming Sun; Qian Ye; Ganjun Yi; Bingzhi Huang

159

Impact of Transgenic Bt Maize Residues on the Mycotoxigenic Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. We assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin de- oxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Purified Cry1Ab protein caused no

Andreas Naef; Thierry Zesiger; Genevieve Defago

2006-01-01

160

Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.  

PubMed

Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

2014-04-01

161

Fusarium pathogenomics.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed that the Fusarium genome is compartmentalized into regions responsible for primary metabolism and reproduction (core genome), and pathogen virulence, host specialization, and possibly other functions (adaptive genome). Genes involved in virulence and host specialization are located on pathogenicity chromosomes within strains pathogenic to tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and pea (Fusarium 'solani' f. sp. pisi). The experimental transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici into a nonpathogen transformed the latter into a tomato pathogen. Thus, horizontal transfer may explain the polyphyletic origins of host specificity within the genus. Additional genome-scale comparative and functional studies are needed to elucidate the evolution and diversity of pathogenicity mechanisms, which may help inform novel disease management strategies against fusarial pathogens. PMID:24024636

Ma, Li-Jun; Geiser, David M; Proctor, Robert H; Rooney, Alejandro P; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trail, Frances; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2013-01-01

162

HapX-Mediated Iron Homeostasis Is Essential for Rhizosphere Competence and Virulence of the Soilborne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ?hapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals.

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Capilla, Javier; Turra, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jochl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

163

Targeted disruption of a G protein alpha subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a G protein alpha subunit, was performed by standard PCR techniques and by screening a Fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the PCR product as a probe. The full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of G protein alpha(i) family proteins from other filamentous fungi. Disruption of fga1 had no effect on vegetative growth, but reduced the conidiation and pathogenicity of the fungus. Disruptants also showed a decreased level of intracellular cAMP and increased resistance to heat shock at 45 degrees C. These results suggest that the Galpha subunit encoded by fga1 is involved in a signal transduction pathway in F. oxysporum that controls conidiation, heat resistance and pathogenicity. PMID:12228810

Jain, Sona; Akiyama, Kouichi; Mae, Kenjiro; Ohguchi, Tomizo; Takata, Renkichi

2002-09-01

164

Potential of microsatellites to distinguish four races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri prevalent in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, the causal agent of chickpea wilt, is an important fungal pathogen in India. Thirteen oligonucleotide probes complementary\\u000a to microsatellite loci, in combination with 11 restriction enzymes, were used to assess the potential of such markers to study\\u000a genetic variability in four Indian races of the pathogen. Hybridisation patterns, which were dependent upon both the restriction

M. P. Barve; M. P. Haware; M. N. Sainani; P. K. Ranjekar; V. S. Gupta

2001-01-01

165

Use of molecular markers to compare Fusarium verticillioides pathogenic strains isolated from plants and humans.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of agriculturally important crops, especially maize. It is considered one of the most important pathogens responsible for fumonisin contamination of food products, which causes severe, chronic, and acute intoxication in humans and animals. Moreover, it is recognized as a cause of localized infections in immunocompetent patients and disseminated infections among severely immunosuppressed patients. Several molecular tools have been used to analyze the intraspecific variability of fungi. The objective of this study was to use molecular markers to compare pathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides and isolates of the same species obtained from clinical samples of patients with Fusarium mycoses. The molecular markers that we used were inter-simple sequence repeat markers (primers GTG5 and GACA4), intron splice site primer (primer EI1), random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (primer OPW-6), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from rDNA. From the data obtained, clusters were generated based on the UPGMA clustering method. The amplification products obtained using primers ITS4 and ITS5 and loci ITS1-5.8-ITS2 of the rDNA yielded fragments of approximately 600 bp for all the isolates. Digestion of the ITS region fragment using restriction enzymes such as EcoRI, DraI, BshI, AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, MspI, and PstI did not permit differentiation among pathogenic and clinical isolates. The inter-simple sequence repeat, intron splice site primer, and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers presented high genetic homogeneity among clinical isolates in contrast to the high variability found among the phytopathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides. PMID:24065642

Chang, S C; Macêdo, D P C; Souza-Motta, C M; Oliveira, N T

2013-01-01

166

Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 systemically affects root exudates of watermelon to decrease the conidial germination of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 has been identified as a potential agent for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt in watermelon, which is caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON). In the present study, the effects of root exudates from watermelon plants inoculated or non-inoculated with either\\u000a SQR-21 or FON on conidial germination of FON were investigated. Compared to the

Ning Ling; Qiwei Huang; Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen

2011-01-01

167

Use of a Nitrate-Nonutilizing Mutant and Selective Media to Examine Population Dynamics of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional Fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. Therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. Colony forming units of the pathogen were countable after soil-dilution plating onto nit mutant-selective media MMCPA, CMP, and CGMBP. Colony forming units of wild-type Fusarium spp. were countable using a wildtype Fusarium-selective medium, GMBP. By combining nit mutant- and wild-type-selective media, the population densities of pathogenic and nonpathogenic F. oxysporum in the same soil could be measured selectively. This method was useful in studying population dynamics of the pathogen after different soil treatments. Soil disinfested with hot water or chloropicrin was amended with the nit mutant pathogen, and subsequent changes in population densities of the pathogen were compared with those in nontreated field soil. The pathogen rapidly proliferated in disinfested soil and wilt developed faster than in nontreated soil. When a nonpathogenic isolate of F. oxysporum was added at high density to sterilized soil prior to the pathogen, growth of the pathogen was greatly suppressed. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum could not, however, reduce the density of preexisting pathogen. PMID:18944103

Takehara, Toshiaki; Kuniyasu, Katsuto; Mori, Mitsutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

168

Molecular records of micro-evolution within the Algerian population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis during its spread to new oases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of the date palm wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis in Algeria was assessed using vegetative compatibility, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Ninety-eight isolates were collected from the main infested regions, Touat, Gourara and Mzab, and 6 isolates from Morocco were added for comparison. All isolates

Diana Fernandez; Mohamed Ouinten; Abdelaziz Tantaoui; Jean-Paul Geiger

1997-01-01

169

Comparison of antibiotic tolerance, lipids and respiration in the tomato pathogens Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici and F. oxysporum radicis lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiration and lipid contents and the tolerance to mycostatin, chloramphenicol and cycloheximide were compared in the two morphologically similar forms of the tomato pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici (FOL) and the virulent form F. oxysporum radicis lycopersici (FORL). The differential tolerances to mycostatin were the most significant feature of the comparisons. The MIC for FORL was 24 ?g\\/mL for the

Clarence Madhosingh; Alvin N. Starratt

1987-01-01

170

Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) markers by converting RAPD markers E07 (a 1.25-kb band) and G17 (a 1.05-kb band), respectively. The RAPD-PCR polymorphic fragments from the susceptible line 'Vedrantais' were cloned and sequenced in order to construct primers that would amplify only the target fragment. The derived primers, E07SCAR-1/E07SCAR-2 from E07 and G17SCAR-1/G17SCAR-2 from G17, yielded a single 1.25-kb fragment (designated SCE07) and a 1.05-kb fragment (designated SCG17) (the same as RAPD markers E07 and G17), respectively, from both resistant and susceptible melon lines, thus demonstrating locus-specific associated primers. Potential CAPS markers were first revealed by comparing sequence data between fragments amplified from resistant (PI 161375) and susceptible ('Vedrantais') lines and were then confirmed by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease digestion products. Twelve restriction endonucleases were evaluated for their potential use as CAPS markers within the SCE07 fragment. Three (BclI, MspI, and BssSI) yielded ideal CAPS markers and were subsequently subjected to extensive testing using an additional 88 diverse melon cultigens, 93 and 119 F(2) individuals from crosses of 'Vedrantais' x PI 161375 and 'Ananas Yokneam'×MR-1 respectively, and 17 families from a backcross BC(1)S(1) population derived from the breeding line 'MD8654' as a resistance source. BclI- and MspI-CAPS are susceptible-linked markers, whereas the BssSI-CAPS is a resistant-linked marker. The CAPS markers that resulted from double digestion by BclI and BssSI are co-dominant. Results from BclI- and MspI-CAPS showed over 90% accuracy in the melon cultigens, and nearly 100% accuracy in the F(2) individuals and BC(1)S(1) families tested. This is the first report of PCR-based CAPS markers linked to resistance/susceptibility for Fusarium wilt in melon. The RFLP markers resulting from probing with a clone-derived 1.05-kb SCG17 PCR fragment showed 85% correct matches to the disease phenotype. Both the CAPS and RFLP markers were co-dominant, easier to score, and more accurate and consistent in predicting the melon phenotype than the RAPD markers from which they were derived. PMID:22665178

Zheng, X Y; Wolff, D W; Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

1999-08-01

171

The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

SciTech Connect

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

2007-09-07

172

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. PMID:21246198

Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

2011-06-01

173

Slow sand filters effectively reduce Phytophthora after a pathogen switch from Fusarium and a simulated pump failure.  

PubMed

Slow sand filtration has been shown to effectively reduce Phytophthora zoospores in irrigation water. This experiment tested the reduction of Phytophthora colony forming units (CFUs) by slow sand filtration systems after switching the pathogen contaminating plant leachate from Fusarium to Phytophthora and the resilience of the system to a short period without water, as might be caused by a pump failure. The slow sand filtration system greatly reduced Phytophthora CFUs and transmission after switching the pathogens. In addition, Phytophthora reduction by the slow sand filter was equally effective before and after the simulated pump failure. Reduction of Fusarium was not seen by the SSFs, before or after the simulated pump failure. The results suggest that slow sand filters are effective at reducing larger organisms, such as Phytophthora zoospores, even after a pump failure or a change in pathogens. PMID:23866129

Lee, Eric; Oki, Lorence R

2013-09-15

174

Wilted plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this muskmelon plant has wilted from a bacterial infection, plants can wilt for other reasons and look just like this one. Plants can be over-watered and under-watered. Plants have a range of tolerance in which they can grow. Plants also have an optimum amount of water they can receive and take up. They grow best in their optimum condition.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-31

175

Population structure of plant-pathogenic Fusarium species in overwintered stalk residues from Bt-transformed and non-transformed maize crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt-transformed maize contains genes from Bacillus thuringiensis encoding for insecticidal crystal proteins. Less insect damage on Bt maize stalks can cause a reduced infection by Fusarium species through plant injuries. This could affect the presence of plant-pathogenic Fusarium species on maize residues which serve as an inoculum source for subsequent crops. We collected overwintered maize stalks of four different Bt

A. Naef; G. Défago

2006-01-01

176

Effect of Propiconazole on Laurel Wilt Disease Development in Redbay Trees and on the Pathogen In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is vectored by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to redbay (Persea borbonia) trees in forests, parks, and residential landscapes in the southeastern United States, and management strategies for reducing its impact are needed. In this study, the

Albert E. Mayfield; Edward L. Barnard; Jason A. Smith; Shawn C. Bernick; Jeffrey M. Eickwort; Tyler J. Dreaden

2008-01-01

177

Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.  

PubMed

Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease. PMID:24224251

Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

2013-10-01

178

Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease: shifts in root microbiome associated with reduction of pathogen root colonization.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease was induced by incubating sandy soil with debris of wild rocket (WR; Diplotaxis tenuifolia) under field conditions. We studied microbial dynamics in the roots of cucumber seedlings following transplantation into WR-amended or nonamended soil, as influenced by inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. Disease symptoms initiated in nonamended soil 6 days after inoculation, compared with 14 days in WR-amended soil. Root infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Target numbers were similar 3 days after inoculation for both WR-amended and nonamended soils, and were significantly lower (66%) 6 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive (WR-amended) soil. This decrease in root colonization was correlated with a reduction in disease (60%) 21 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive soil. Fungal community composition on cucumber roots was assessed using mass sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer gene fragments. Sequences related to F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp. 14005, Chaetomium sp. 15003, and an unclassified Ascomycota composed 96% of the total fungal sequences in all samples. The relative abundances of these major groups were highly affected by root inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, with a 10-fold increase in F. oxysporum sequences, but were not affected by the WR amendment. Quantitative analysis and mass-sequencing methods indicated a qualitative shift in the root's bacterial community composition in suppressive soil, rather than a change in bacterial numbers. A sharp reduction in the size and root dominance of the Massilia population in suppressive soil was accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of specific populations; namely, Rhizobium, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Streptomyces spp. Composition of the Streptomyces community shifted significantly, as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulting in an increase in the dominance of a specific population in suppressive soils after only 3 days. This shift was related mainly to the increase in Streptomyces humidus, a group previously described as antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi. Thus, suitable soil amendment resulted in a shift in the root's bacterial communities, and infection by a virulent pathogen was contained by the root microbiome, leading to a reduced disease rate. PMID:22950737

Klein, Eyal; Ofek, Maya; Katan, Jaacov; Minz, Dror; Gamliel, Abraham

2013-01-01

179

The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g.

Philipp Wiemann; Sabine Albermann; Eva-Maria Niehaus; Lena Studt; Katharina W. von Bargen; Nelson L. Brock; Hans-Ulrich Humpf; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Bettina Tudzynski

2012-01-01

180

Fusarium torreyae sp. nov., a pathogen causing canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), a critically endangered conifer restricted to northern Florida and southwestern Georgia.  

PubMed

During a survey for pathogens of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) in 2009, a novel Fusarium species was isolated from cankers affecting this critically endangered conifer whose current range is restricted to northern Florida and southwestern Georgia. Published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that this pathogen represented a genealogically exclusive, phylogenetically distinct species representing one of the earliest divergences within the Gibberella clade of Fusarium. Furthermore, completion of Koch's postulates established that this novel species was the causal agent of Florida torreya canker disease. Here we formally describe this pathogen as a new species, Fusarium torreyae. Pure cultures of this species produced long and slender multiseptate sporodochial conidia that showed morphological convergence with two distantly related fusaria, reflecting the homoplasious nature of Fusarium conidial morphology. PMID:23099517

Aoki, Takayuki; Smith, Jason A; Mount, Lacey L; Geiser, David M; O'Donnell, Kerry

2013-01-01

181

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2.  

PubMed

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was clue to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen. PMID:15266911

Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

2003-06-01

182

Linear plasmidlike DNA in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.  

PubMed Central

Double-stranded, 1.9-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA molecules were found in 18 strains representing three pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The DNA element (pFOXC1) from a race 1 strain and the DNA element (pFOXC2) from a race 2 strain were shown by restriction endonuclease mapping to be linear. pFOXC2 was found in mitochondrial preparations and appears to have blocked 5' termini, as it was sensitive to 3'----5' exonuclease III but insensitive to 5'----3' lambda exonuclease. The major 1.8-kbp BglII restriction endonuclease fragment of pFOXC2 was cloned in plasmid pUC12. The recombinant plasmid (pCK1) was not homologous to the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. This suggests that pFOXC2 is self-replicating. pCK1 was homologous to all 1.9-kbp DNA elements of race 2 but was not homologous to those of race 1 or race 5. All race 1 and 5 elements were also shown to share common DNA sequences. Images

Kistler, H C; Leong, S A

1986-01-01

183

Lipolytic system of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The lipolytic profile of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici was studied by in silico search and biochemical enzyme activity analyses. Twenty-five structural secreted lipases were predicted based on the conserved pentapeptide Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly-, characteristic of fungal lipases, and secretion signal sequences. Moreover, a predicted lipase regulatory gene was identified in addition to the previously characterized ctf1. The transcription profile of thirteen lipase genes during tomato plant colonization revealed that lip1, lip3, and lip22 were highly induced between 21 and 96 h after inoculation. Deletion mutants in five lipase genes (lip1, lip2, lip3, lip5, and lip22) and in the regulatory genes ctf1 and ctf2 as well as a ?ctf1?ctf2 double mutant were generated. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression analyses of structural lipase genes in the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants indicated the existence of a complex lipase regulation network in F. oxysporum. The reduction of total lipase activity, as well as the severely reduced virulence of the ?ctf1, ?ctf2, and ?ctf1?ctf2 mutants, provides evidence for an important role of the lipolytic system of this fungus in pathogenicity. PMID:23718123

Bravo-Ruiz, Gustavo; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2013-09-01

184

Genomic clustering and co-regulation of transcriptional networks in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Background Genes for the production of a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites are frequently colinear. The prevalence of such gene clusters was systematically examined across the genome of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The topological structure of transcriptional networks was also examined to investigate control mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis and other processes. Results The genes associated with transcriptional processes were identified, and the genomic location of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) analyzed in conjunction with the locations of genes exhibiting similar expression patterns. Highly conserved TAPs reside in regions of chromosomes with very low or no recombination, contrasting with putative regulator genes. Co-expression group profiles were used to define positionally clustered genes and a number of members of these clusters encode proteins participating in secondary metabolism. Gene expression profiles suggest there is an abundance of condition-specific transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the promoter regions of co-expressed genes showed enrichment for conserved DNA-sequence motifs. Potential global transcription factors recognising these motifs contain distinct sets of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from those present in local regulators. Conclusions Proteins associated with basal transcriptional functions are encoded by genes enriched in regions of the genome with low recombination. Systematic searches revealed dispersed and compact clusters of co-expressed genes, often containing a transcription factor, and typically containing genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. Transcriptional networks exhibit a layered structure in which the position in the hierarchy of a regulator is closely linked to the DBD structural class.

2013-01-01

185

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley.

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

186

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

187

Comparative secretome analysis of Fusarium graminearum and two of its non-pathogenic mutants upon deoxynivalenol induction in vitro.  

PubMed

To understand early events in plant-pathogen interactions, it is necessary to explore the pathogen secretome to identify secreted proteins that help orchestrate pathology. The secretome can be obtained from pathogens grown in vitro, and then characterized using standard proteomic approaches based on protein extraction and subsequent identification of tryptic peptides by LC-MS. A subset of the secretome is composed of proteins whose presence is required to initiate infection and their removal from the secretome would result in pathogens with reduced or no virulence. We present here comparative secretome from Fusarium graminearum. This filamentous fungus causes Fusarium head blight on wheat, a serious cereal disease found in many cereal-growing regions. Affected grain is contaminated with mycotoxins and cannot be used for food or feed. We used label-free quantitative MS to compare the secretomes of wild-type with two nonpathogenic deletion mutants of F. graminearum, ?tri6, and ?tri10. These mutations in mycotoxin-regulating transcription factors revealed a subset of 29 proteins whose relative abundance was affected in their secretomes, as measured by spectral counting. Proteins that decreased in abundance are potential candidate virulence factors and these included cell wall-degrading enzymes, metabolic enzymes, pathogenesis-related proteins, and proteins of unknown function. PMID:23512867

Rampitsch, Christof; Day, Jacqueline; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Walkowiak, Sean

2013-06-01

188

Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).  

PubMed

The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

2014-01-01

189

The Wor1-like Protein Fgp1 Regulates Pathogenicity, Toxin Synthesis and Reproduction in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein.

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Corby Kistler, H.

2012-01-01

190

The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity determents in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is required for pathogenicity and expression of key plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an important pathogen of cereals, is not known to employ switching and no effector proteins from F. graminearum have been found to date that are required for infection. In this study, the potential role of the WOR1-like gene in pathogenesis was tested in this toxigenic fungus. Deletion of the WOR1 ortholog (called FGP1) in F. graminearum results in greatly reduced pathogenicity and loss of trichothecene toxin accumulation in infected wheat plants and in vitro. The loss of toxin accumulation alone may be sufficient to explain the loss of pathogenicity to wheat. Under toxin-inducing conditions, expression of genes for trichothecene biosynthesis and many other genes are not detected or detected at lower levels in ?fgp1 strains. FGP1 is also involved in the developmental processes of conidium formation and sexual reproduction and modulates a morphological change that accompanies mycotoxin production in vitro. The Wor1-like proteins in Fusarium species have highly conserved N-terminal regions and remarkably divergent C-termini. Interchanging the N- and C- terminal portions of proteins from F. oxysporum and F. graminearum resulted in partial to complete loss of function. Wor1-like proteins are conserved but have evolved to regulate pathogenicity in a range of fungi, likely by adaptations to the C-terminal portion of the protein. PMID:22693448

Jonkers, Wilfried; Dong, Yanhong; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H Corby

2012-01-01

191

Impact of a beneficial and of a pathogenic Fusarium strain on the fingerprinting-based structure of microbial communities in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Milll.) rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium solani strain FsK (FsK), isolated from a plant pathogen-suppressive compost, grows endophytically in tomato roots and controls infestations by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL). The effect of root colonization by the two fungi on the diversity of rhizosphere microbial community was studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with FsK and\\/or FORL and rhizosphere soil was collected 8, 15 and 30

Dimitrios G. Karpouzas; Anastasios Karatasas; Evangelia Spiridaki; Constantina Rousidou; Fotios Bekris; Michalis Omirou; Constantinos Ehaliotis; Kalliope K. Papadopoulou

2011-01-01

192

Effect of azoxystrobin on activities of antioxidant enzymes and alternative oxidase in wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale have distinct sensitivities to strobilurin fungicides, which inhibit activity of complex III in the mitochondrial electron\\u000a transport chain. When mycelia were cultured in medium with the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ), F. graminearum increased its oxygen-consumption, but M. nivale, which is more sensitive than Fusarium species to strobilurins, did not. There was

Isao Kaneko; Hideo Ishii

2009-01-01

193

Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits perform distinct functional roles in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize causing ear rot and stalk rot. The fungus also produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins linked to disorders in animals and humans. A cluster of genes, designated FUM genes, plays a key role in the synthesis of fumonisins. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of fumonisin biosynthesis is still incomplete. We have demonstrated previously that Cpp1, a protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit, negatively regulates fumonisin production and is involved in cell shape maintenance. In general, three PP2A subunits, structural A, regulatory B and catalytic C, make up a heterotrimer complex to perform regulatory functions. Significantly, we identified two PP2A regulatory subunits in the F.?verticillioides genome, Ppr1 and Ppr2, which are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae?Cdc55 and Rts1, respectively. In this study, we hypothesized that Ppr1 and Ppr2 are involved in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and/or cell development in F.?verticillioides, and generated a series of mutants to determine the functional role of Ppr1 and Ppr2. The PPR1 deletion strain (?ppr1) resulted in drastic growth defects, but increased microconidia production. The PPR2 deletion mutant strain (?ppr2) showed elevated fumonisin production, similar to the ?cpp1 strain. Germinating ?ppr1 conidia formed abnormally swollen cells with a central septation site, whereas ?ppr2 showed early hyphal branching during conidia germination. A kernel rot assay showed that the mutants were slow to colonize kernels, but this is probably a result of growth defects rather than a virulence defect. Results from this study suggest that two PP2A regulatory subunits in F.?verticillioides carry out distinct roles in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and fungal development. PMID:23452277

Shin, Joon-Hee; Kim, Jung-Eun; Malapi-Wight, Martha; Choi, Yoon-E; Shaw, Brian D; Shim, Won-Bo

2013-06-01

194

The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome annotation analysis was done in 2007, which predicted the secretome using TargetP, the F. graminearum gene call has changed considerably through the combined efforts of the BROAD and MIPS institutes. As a result of the modifications to the genome and the recent findings that suggested a role for secreted proteins in virulence, the F. graminearum secretome was revisited. In the current study, a refined F. graminearum secretome was predicted by combining several bioinformatic approaches. This strategy increased the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins. A secretome of 574 proteins was predicted of which 99% was supported by transcriptional evidence. The function of the annotated and unannotated secreted proteins was explored. The potential role(s) of the annotated proteins including, putative enzymes, phytotoxins and antifungals are discussed. Characterisation of the unannotated proteins included the analysis of Pfam domains and features associated with known fungal effectors, for example, small size, cysteine-rich and containing internal amino acid repeats. A comprehensive comparative genomic analysis involving 57 fungal and oomycete genomes revealed that only a small number of the predicted F. graminearum secreted proteins can be considered to be either species or sequenced strain specific.

Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

2012-01-01

195

MYT3, A Myb-Like Transcription Factor, Affects Fungal Development and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the ?myt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the ?myt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the ?myt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the ?myt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum. PMID:24722578

Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Hun; Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-01-01

196

MYT3, A Myb-Like Transcription Factor, Affects Fungal Development and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the ?myt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the ?myt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the ?myt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the ?myt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum.

Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-01-01

197

ChsVb, a Class VII Chitin Synthase Involved in Septation, Is Critical for Pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (?chsVb) and double (?chsV ?chsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus.

Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Jose Antonio; Ruiz-Roldan, Carmen

2008-01-01

198

Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.  

PubMed

Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

2006-01-01

199

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum n.f. embracing all formae speciales of F. oxysporum attacking Cucurbitaceous crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates ofFusarium oxysporum from wilted muskmelons, watermelons, cucumbers and from the muskmelon rootstockBenincasa hispida were screened for pathogenicity on seedlings and adult plants of these crops and related species. In seedling tests the isolates were not typically species-specific, contrary to what might be expected as an implication of their characterization as forma specialis. They often attacked species of several genera

M. Gerlagh; W. J. Blok

1988-01-01

200

Induction of resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by combination of chitosan with an endophytic bacterial strain: ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the host response  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The potential of Bacillus pumilus (PGPR strain SE?34), either alone or in combination with chitosan, for inducing defense reactions in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants inoculated with the vascular fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy and further investigated by gold cytochemistry. The key importance\\u000a of fungal challenge in the elaboration of

Nicole Benhamou; Joseph W. Kloepper; Sadik Tuzun

1998-01-01

201

Influence of pH, nutrient solution disinfestation and antagonists application in a closed soilless system on severity of fusarium wilt of gerbera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials were carried out during the years 2002–2005 at the Agricultural Experimental Center of Albenga (northern Italy)\\u000a on gerbera plants grown in a closed soilless system. The efficacy of slow sand filtration and UV treatment in eliminatingFusarium oxysporum f.sp.chrysanthemi (Foc) propagules, naturally present or artificially added to the recirculating nutrient solution, was evaluated. These techniques\\u000a were tested alone and

A. Minuto; L. Gaggero; M. L. Gullino; A. Garibaldi

2008-01-01

202

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum on Meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. As AM fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. Experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the AM fungus Glomus coronatum and the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 in the control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Pre-inoculation of tomato plants with G. coronatum or Fo162 stimulated plant growth and reduced M. incognita infestation. Combined application of the AM fungus and Fo162 enhanced mycorrhization of tomato roots but did not increase overall nematode control or plant growth. A higher number of nematodes per gall was found for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. In synergisms between biocontrol agents, differences in their antagonistic mechanisms seem to be less important than their effects on different growth stages of the pathogen. PMID:12938032

Diedhiou, P M; Hallmann, J; Oerke, E-C; Dehne, H-W

2003-08-01

203

PCR-based differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum ff. sp. lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenic type (form and race) of Fusarium oxysporum, which generates wilt symptoms on tomato, was rapidly identified with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique.\\u000a We compared the partial nucleotide sequences of endo polygalacturonase (pg1) and exo polygalacturonase (pgx4) genes from isolates of F. oxysporum ff. sp. lycopersici (FOL) and radicis-lycopersici (FORL) from Japan and designed specific primer sets (uni,

Yasushi Hirano; Tsutomu Arie

2006-01-01

204

Visualization of interactions between a pathogenic and a beneficial Fusarium strain during biocontrol of tomato foot and root rot.  

PubMed

The soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes tomato foot and root rot (TFRR), which can be controlled by the addition of the nonpathogenic fungus F. oxysporum Fo47 to the soil. To improve our understanding of the interactions between the two Fusarium strains on tomato roots during biocontrol, the fungi were labeled using different autofluorescent proteins as markers and subsequently visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results were as follows. i) An at least 50-fold excess of Fo47over F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was required to obtain control of TFRR. ii) When seedlings were planted in sand infested with spores of a single fungus, Fo47 hyphae attached to the root earlier than those of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. iii) Subsequent root colonization by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was faster and to a larger extent than that by Fo47. iv) Under disease-controlling conditions, colonization of tomato roots by the pathogenic fungus was significantly reduced. v) When the inoculum concentration of Fo47 was increased, root colonization by the pathogen was arrested at the stage of initial attachment to the root. vi) The percentage of spores of Fo47 that germinates in tomato root exudate in vitro is higher than that of the pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Based on these results, the mechanisms by which Fo47 controls TFRR are discussed in terms of i) rate of spore germination and competition for nutrients before the two fungi reach the rhizoplane; ii) competition for initial sites of attachment, intercellular junctions, and nutrients on the tomato root surface; and iii) inducing systemic resistance. PMID:16042017

Bolwerk, Annouschka; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Bloemberg, Guido V

2005-07-01

205

Colonization of Flax Roots and Early Physiological Responses of Flax Cells Inoculated with Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (Foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (Fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. Both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, and collapsed cells, were less frequent and less intense in a root colonized by Foln3 than by Fo47. Early physiological responses were measured in flax cell suspensions confronted with germinated microconidia of both strains. Both pathogenic (Foln3) and nonpathogenic strains (Fo47) triggered transient H2O2 production in the first few minutes of the interaction, but the nonpathogenic strain also induced a second burst 3 h postinoculation. Ca2+ influx was more intense in cells inoculated with Fo47 than in cells inoculated with Foln3. Similarly, alkalinization of the extracellular medium was higher with Fo47 than with Foln3. Inoculation of the fungi into flax cell suspensions induced cell death 10 to 20 h postinoculation, with a higher percentage of dead cells observed with Fo47 than with Foln3 beginning at 14 h. This is the first report showing that early physiological responses of flax cells can be used to distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum.

Olivain, Chantal; Trouvelot, Sophie; Binet, Marie-Noelle; Cordier, Christelle; Pugin, Alain; Alabouvette, Claude

2003-01-01

206

Colonization of flax roots and early physiological responses of flax cells inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (Foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (Fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. Both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, and collapsed cells, were less frequent and less intense in a root colonized by Foln3 than by Fo47. Early physiological responses were measured in flax cell suspensions confronted with germinated microconidia of both strains. Both pathogenic (Foln3) and nonpathogenic strains (Fo47) triggered transient H(2)O(2) production in the first few minutes of the interaction, but the nonpathogenic strain also induced a second burst 3 h postinoculation. Ca(2+) influx was more intense in cells inoculated with Fo47 than in cells inoculated with Foln3. Similarly, alkalinization of the extracellular medium was higher with Fo47 than with Foln3. Inoculation of the fungi into flax cell suspensions induced cell death 10 to 20 h postinoculation, with a higher percentage of dead cells observed with Fo47 than with Foln3 beginning at 14 h. This is the first report showing that early physiological responses of flax cells can be used to distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum. PMID:12957934

Olivain, Chantal; Trouvelot, Sophie; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Cordier, Christelle; Pugin, Alain; Alabouvette, Claude

2003-09-01

207

Spatial distribution and temporal development of fusarium crown and root rot of tomato and pathogen dissemination in field soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The spatial distribution and temporal development of tomato crown and root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, were studied in naturally infested fields in 1996 and 1997. Disease progression fit a logistic model better than a monomolecular one. Geostatistical analyses and semivariogram calculations revealed that the disease spreads from infected plants to a distance of 1.1 to 4.4 m during the growing season. By using a chlorate-resistant nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutant of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici as a "tagged" inoculum, the pathogen was found to spread from one plant to the next via infection of the roots. The pathogen spread to up to four plants (2.0 m) on either side of the inoculated focus plant. Root colonization by the nit mutant showed a decreasing gradient from the site of inoculation to both sides of the inoculated plant. Simulation experiments in the greenhouse further established that this soilborne pathogen can spread from root to root during the growing season. These findings suggest a polycyclic nature of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, a deviation from the monocyclic nature of many nonzoosporic soilborne pathogens. PMID:18944713

Rekah, Y; Shtienberg, D; Katan, J

1999-09-01

208

Effects of root-dip treatment with certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato.  

PubMed

Root-dip application of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum resulted in significant decline in the rhizosphere population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. A significant decrease in the severity of wilt occurred with A. awamori (37.1%) and P. digitatum (21.3%) compared to the control. Root-dip treatment with the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms tested resulted in significant increase in the yield of tomato, being greatest with A. awamori and P. digitatum in pathogen inoculated (36% and 33%) and uninoculated plants (19% and 23%). A chemical fungicide gave 24% better yield. PMID:12227549

Khan, Mujeebur Rahman; Khan, Shahana Majid

2002-11-01

209

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fus- arium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar

Nektarios Kavroulakis; Spyridon Ntougias; Georgios I. Zervakis; Constantinos Ehaliotis; Kosmas Haralampidis; Kalliope K. Papadopoulou

2010-01-01

210

Antagonistic effects of Streptomyces violaceusniger strain G10 on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4: indirect evidence for the role of antibiosis in the antagonistic process.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal pathogen of wilt disease of banana. A cost-effective measure of control for this disease is still not available. Streptomyces violaceusniger strain G10 acts as an antifungal agent antagonistic towards many different phytopathogenic fungi, including different pathogenic races of the Fusarium wilt pathogen. In an attempt to understand the mode of action of this antagonist in nature, the interaction between S. violaceusniger strain G10 and F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was first studied by paired incubation on agar plates. Evidence for the in vitro antibiosis of strain G10 was demonstrated by inhibition zones in the "cross-plug" assay plates. Microscopic observations showed lysis of hyphal ends in the inhibited fungal colonies. Culture of strain G10 in liquid media produces antifungal metabolites, which showed in vitro antagonistic effects against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense such as swelling, distortion and excessive branching of hyphae, and inhibition of spore germination. An indirect method was used to show that antibiosis is one of the mechanisms of antagonism by which strain G10 acts against F. oxysporun f.sp. cubense in soil. This study suggests the potential of developing strain G10 for the biological control of Fusarium wilt disease of banana. PMID:12032802

Getha, K; Vikineswary, S

2002-06-01

211

Phylogenetics and Taxonomy of the Fungal Vascular Wilt Pathogen Verticillium, with the Descriptions of Five New Species  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of pathogen biology and genetic diversity is a cornerstone of effective disease management, and accurate identification of the pathogen is a foundation of pathogen biology. Species names provide an ideal framework for storage and retrieval of relevant information, a system that is contingent on a clear understanding of species boundaries and consistent species identification. Verticillium, a genus of ascomycete fungi, contains important plant pathogens whose species boundaries have been ill defined. Using phylogenetic analyses, morphological investigations and comparisons to herbarium material and the literature, we established a taxonomic framework for Verticillium comprising ten species, five of which are new to science. We used a collection of 74 isolates representing much of the diversity of Verticillium, and phylogenetic analyses based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial sequences of the protein coding genes actin (ACT), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and tryptophan synthase (TS). Combined analyses of the ACT, EF, GPD and TS datasets recognized two major groups within Verticillium, Clade Flavexudans and Clade Flavnonexudans, reflecting the respective production and absence of yellow hyphal pigments. Clade Flavexudans comprised V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus as well as the new species V. zaregamsianum, V. isaacii and V. klebahnii, of which the latter two were morphologically indistinguishable from V. tricorpus but may differ in pathogenicity. Clade Flavnonexudans comprised V. nubilum, V. dahliae and V. longisporum, as well as the two new species V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae, which resembled the distantly related V. albo-atrum in morphology. Apart from the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, each of the ten species corresponded to a single clade in the phylogenetic tree comprising just one ex-type strain, thereby establishing a direct link to a name tied to a herbarium specimen. A morphology-based key is provided for identification to species or species groups.

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Bostock, Richard M.; Davis, R. Michael; Usami, Toshiyuki; Platt, Harold W.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2011-01-01

212

Accumulation of ?-Fructosidase in the Cell Walls of Tomato Roots following Infection by a Fungal Wilt Pathogen 1  

PubMed Central

Active defense in plants is associated with marked metabolic alterations, but little is known about the exact role of the reported changes in specific activity of several enzymes in infected plant tissues. ?-Fructosidase (invertase), the enzyme that converts sucrose into glucose and fructose, increases upon infection by fungi and bacteria. To understand the relationship between fungal growth and ?-fructosidase accumulation, we used an antiserum raised against a purified deglycosylated carrot cell wall ?-fructosidase to study by immunogold labeling the spatial and temporal distribution of the enzyme in susceptible and resistant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) root tissues infected with the necrotrophic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. racidis-lycopersici. In susceptible plants, the enzyme started to accumulate in host cell walls about 72 hours after inoculation. Accumulation occurred only in colonized cells and was mainly restricted to areas where the walls of both partners contacted each other. In resistant plants, accumulation of ?-fructosidase was noticeable as soon as 48 hours after inoculation and appeared to reach an optimum by 72 hours after inoculation. Increase in wall-bound ?-fructosidase was not restricted to infected cells but occurred also, to a large extent, in tissues that remained uncolonized during the infection process. The enzyme also accumulated in wall appositions (papillae) and intercellular spaces. This pattern of enzyme distribution suggests that induction of ?-fructosidase upon fungal infection is part of the plant's defense response. The possible physiological role(s) of this enzyme in infected tomato plants is discussed in relation to the high demand in energy and carbon sources during pathogenesis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

Benhamou, Nicole; Grenier, Jean; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

1991-01-01

213

Potassium Selectivity in Transported Volcanic Soils (Sorribas) under Banana Cultivation in Relation to Banana-Wilt Expression Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases for the microbiological nature of certain soils to suppress plant diseases caused by soil pathogens are well established. However, the microbial origin of the suppressiveness does not exclude edaphic factors and soil-management strategies, which need to be studied under field conditions. With respect to abiotic factors, we investigated the importance of potassium (K) selectivity on soil conduciveness and

Julia D. Domínguez-Hernández; Miguel A. Negrín-Medina; Carmen M. Rodríguez-Hernández

2010-01-01

214

Suitability of GFP-transformed isolates of the fungal root endophyte Acremonium strictum W. Gams for studies on induced Fusarium-wilt resistance in flax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant associated endophytic Acremo- nium species are capable of interacting with the host plant and altering its response towards pathogens and pests. Specialized root-coloniz- ing Acremonium spp. can achieve biocontrol effects based on induced disease resistance in whole plant assays. However, these fungi are hard to detect and to study in root tissue by classical methods of light microscopy or

Gisela Grunewaldt-Stöcker; Nadine Riediger; Christof Dietrich

2007-01-01

215

Colonization of Tomato Root by Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strains Inoculated Together and Separately into the Soil  

PubMed Central

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites.

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-01-01

216

Colonization of tomato root by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated together and separately into the soil.  

PubMed

In soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, Fo47, and a pathogenic strain, Fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. When inoculated separately, both fungi colonized the entire root surface, with the exception of the apical zone. When both strains were introduced together, they both colonized the root surface and were observed at the same locations. When Fo47 was introduced at a higher concentration than Fol8, it colonized much of the root surface, but hyphae of Fol8 could still be observed at the same location on the root. There was no exclusion of the pathogenic strain by the presence of the nonpathogenic strain. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that specific infection sites exist on the root for Fusarium oxysporum and instead support the hypothesis that competition occurs for nutrients rather than for infection sites. PMID:16461707

Olivain, Chantal; Humbert, Claude; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; L'Haridon, Floriane; Alabouvette, Claude

2006-02-01

217

Genome Sequences of Six Wheat-Infecting Fusarium Species Isolates  

PubMed Central

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported.

Moolhuijzen, Paula M.; Manners, John M.; Wilcox, Stephen A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.

2013-01-01

218

Genome sequences of six wheat-infecting fusarium species isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens represent a major constraint to wheat and barley production worldwide. To facilitate future comparative studies of Fusarium species that are pathogenic to wheat, the genome sequences of four Fusarium pseudograminearum isolates, a single Fusarium acuminatum isolate, and an organism from the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex are reported. PMID:24009115

Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Manners, John M; Wilcox, Stephen A; Bellgard, Matthew I; Gardiner, Donald M

2013-01-01

219

Antagonistic interactions between fungal rice pathogen Fusarium Verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma harzianum has been found to be a competitor and mycoparasite ofFusarium verticillioides which causes foot rot disease on rice. The experiment was undertaken macroscopically and microscopically. In total 6 treatments\\u000a were performed combining three water activities (0.95, 0.98, 0.995) and two temperatures (15 and 25 °C). At all conditions\\u000a tested, except at 0.95a\\u000a w and 15 °C.Trichoderma harzianum acted

Francisca Sempere; María Pilar Santamarina

2009-01-01

220

Passive transport of microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in carnation after root inoculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root inoculation of susceptible carnations withFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi induced characteristic unilateral wilt only if root woundings and use of a microconidial suspension had not been combined at the time of inoculation. The combination, however, induced atypical and sudden stem breaking soon followed by death. In all cases wilt was due to destruction of the xylem. Unilateral wilt appeared to

R. P. Baayen; A. L. De Maat

1987-01-01

221

A novel virus in the family Hypoviridae from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

A double-stranded (ds) RNA element, sized at approximately 13 kb pairs, was purified from a field isolate, HN10, of Fusarium graminearum. The coding strand of the dsRNA was 13,023 nucleotides (nt) long (excluding the 3' poly(A) tail) and was predicted to contain two discontiguous open reading frames (ORF A and ORF B). The 5' proximal ORF A of 531 nt encoded a protein of 176 amino acids (aa), and a BLAST search showed it to be similar to the putative papain-like protease domains encoded by Valsa ceratosperma hypovirus 1 (35% identity) and Cryphonectria hypovirus 4 (CHV4) (31% identity). The 3' proximal ORF B of 11,118nt encoded a large polyprotein with three conserved domains, including papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase domains. The polyprotein shared significant aa identities with CHV1 (32%) and CHV2 (32%). Both the genome organization and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the characterized RNA represented a novel hypovirus, designated "Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1)", which was closely related to CHV1 and CHV2 in the Hypoviridae family. Elimination of the virus resulted in no dramatic phenotypic alteration of the fungus. PMID:23499998

Wang, Shuangchao; Kondo, Hideki; Liu, Liang; Guo, Lihua; Qiu, Dewen

2013-06-01

222

Pathogen Induced Changes in the Protein Profile of Human Tears from Fusarium Keratitis Patients  

PubMed Central

Fusarium is the major causative agent of fungal infections leading to corneal ulcer (keratitis) in Southern India and other tropical countries. Keratitis caused by Fusarium is a difficult disease to treat unless antifungal therapy is initiated during the early stages of infection. In this study tear proteins were prepared from keratitis patients classified based on the duration of infection. Among the patients recruited, early infection (n?=?35), intermediate (n?=?20), late (n?=?11), samples from five patients in each group were pooled for analysis. Control samples were a pool of samples from 20 patients. Proteins were separated on difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and the differentially expressed proteins were quantified using DeCyder software analysis. The following differentially expressed proteins namely alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin ?2 chain, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein, albumin, haptoglobin precursor - ? chain, lactoferrin, lacrimal lipocalin precursor, cystatin SA III precursor, lacritin precursor were identified using mass spectrometry. Variation in the expression level of some of the proteins was confirmed using western blot analysis. This is the first report to show stage specific tear protein profile in fungal keratitis patients. Validation of this data using a much larger sample set could lead to clinical application of these findings.

Ananthi, Sivagnanam; Venkatesh Prajna, Namperumalsamy; Lalitha, Prajna; Valarnila, Murugesan; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

2013-01-01

223

Arabidopsis defense response against Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) is the causal agent of root rot or wilt diseases in several plant species, including crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), banana (Musa sapientum) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). Colonization of plants by Fox leads to the necrosis of the infected tissues, a subsequent collapse of vascular vessels and decay of the plant. Plant resistance to Fox appears to be monogenic or oligogenic depending on the host. Perception of Fox by plants follows the concept of elicitor-induced immune response, which in turn activates several plant defense signaling pathways. Here, we review the Fox-derived elicitors identified so far and the interaction among the different signaling pathways mediating plant resistance to Fox. PMID:18289920

Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Molina, Antonio

2008-03-01

224

Mutation of CRE1 in Fusarium oxysporum reverts the pathogenicity defects of the FRP1 deletion mutant.  

PubMed

The F-box protein Frp1 is required for pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici towards tomato. The Delta frp1 mutant is deficient in expression of genes for cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) and ICL1, encoding a key enzyme for the assimilation of C2 carbon sources. An explanation for the inability of the Delta frp1 mutant to express these genes may be found in constitutive carbon catabolite repression. Cre1 is the transcriptional repressor in filamentous fungi known to repress several CWDE genes and other genes required for assimilation of non-sugar carbon sources. Here, we demonstrate that Frp1 and Cre1 both control the repression/derepression state of such genes. The replacement of CRE1 with GST::CRE1 resulted in a derepressed phenotype in wild-type background, suggesting that this replacement affects Cre1 function. Strikingly, in the Delta frp1 mutant the replacement of CRE1 with GST::CRE1 restored pathogenicity, growth on ethanol and expression of ICL1 and CWDE genes. A GFP-Cre1 fusion protein is not degraded nor exported out of the nucleus during growth on ethanol, a derepressing carbon source, suggesting that Cre1 is not likely a target of Frp1 for degradation by the proteasome. We conclude that both proteins function together to regulate transcription of carbon source utilization genes. PMID:19912543

Jonkers, Wilfried; Rep, Martijn

2009-12-01

225

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

Lenar?i?, Rok; Morisset, Dany; Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

2014-01-01

226

The endophytic strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47: a good candidate for priming the defense responses in tomato roots.  

PubMed

The protective Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 is effective in controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of direct antagonism and involvement of induced resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether priming of plant defense responses is a mechanism by which Fo47 controls Fusarium wilt. An in vitro design enabled inoculation of the tap root with Fo47 and the pathogenic strain (Fol8) at different locations and different times. The expression levels of six genes known to be involved in tomato defense responses were quantified using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Three genes-CHI3, GLUA, and PR-1a-were overexpressed in the root preinoculated with Fo47, and then challenged with Fol8. The genes GLUA and PR-1a were upregulated in cotyledons after inoculation of Fo47. Fungal growth in the root was assessed by qPCR, using specific markers for Fo47 and Fol8. Results showed a reduction of the pathogen growth in the root of the tomato plant preinoculated with Fo47. This study demonstrated that priming of tomato defense responses is one of the mechanisms of action of Fo47, which induces a reduced colonization of the root by the pathogen. PMID:23617416

Aimé, Sébastien; Alabouvette, Claude; Steinberg, Christian; Olivain, Chantal

2013-08-01

227

Fusarium graminearum Gene Deletion Mutants Map1 and tri5 Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Pathogenicity Requirements to Cause Disease on Arabidopsis and Wheat Floral Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F graminearum (strain PH-1) and two

Alayne Cuzick; Martin Urban; Kim Hammond-Kosack

2008-01-01

228

Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth  

PubMed Central

The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature.

Palmero, D.; de Cara, M.; Iglesias, C.; Galvez, L.; Tello, J.C.

2011-01-01

229

Mating, conidiation and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum , the main causal agent of the headblight disease of wheat, are regulated by the MAP kinase gpmk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, only very little is known about the molecular infection mechanisms of the head-blight pathogen of wheat, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae). Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of the Fus3\\/Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue Gpmk1 from F. graminearum. Disruption of the gpmk1 gene in F. graminearum results in mutants that are reduced in conidial production, are

Nicole J. Jenczmionka; Frank J. Maier; Anke P. Lösch; Wilhelm Schäfer

2003-01-01

230

Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum isolates from Turkish greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum isolates from cucumbers in Turkey in terms of pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and amplified fragment length polymorphism\\u000a (AFLP) variation. In the 2007 and 2008 greenhouse cucumber-growing seasons, surveys were conducted in Adana, Antalya, Hatay\\u000a and Mersin provinces of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Forty-seven fungal isolates of

Fatih Mehmet Tok; ?ener Kurt

2010-01-01

231

The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.  

PubMed

The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum. PMID:22923110

Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

2012-08-01

232

The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g. moniliformin. The key enzymes needed for their production belong to the family of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) that are generally known to be post-translationally modified by a Sfp-type 4?phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). In this study we provide evidence that the F. fujikuroi Sfp-type PPTase FfPpt1 is essentially involved in lysine biosynthesis and production of bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins, but not moniliformin as shown by analytical methods. Concomitantly, targeted Ffppt1 deletion mutants reveal an enhancement of terpene-derived metabolites like GAs and volatile substances such as ?-acorenol. Pathogenicity assays on rice roots using fluorescent labeled wild-type and Ffppt1 mutant strains indicate that lysine biosynthesis and iron acquisition but not PKS and NRPS metabolism is essential for establishment of primary infections of F. fujikuroi. Additionally, FfPpt1 is involved in conidiation and sexual mating recognition possibly by activating PKS- and/or NRPS-derived metabolites that could act as diffusible signals. Furthermore, the effect on iron acquisition of Ffppt1 mutants led us to identify a previously uncharacterized putative third reductive iron uptake system (FfFtr3/FfFet3) that is closely related to the FtrA/FetC system of A. fumigatus. Functional characterization provides evidence that both proteins are involved in iron acquisition and are liable to transcriptional repression of the homolog of the Aspergillus GATA-type transcription factor SreA under iron-replete conditions. Targeted deletion of the first Fusarium homolog of this GATA-type transcription factor-encoding gene, Ffsre1, strongly indicates its involvement in regulation of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance.

Wiemann, Philipp; Albermann, Sabine; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Studt, Lena; von Bargen, Katharina W.; Brock, Nelson L.; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Tudzynski, Bettina

2012-01-01

233

Targeting Iron Acquisition Blocks Infection with the Fungal Pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections.

Leal, Sixto M.; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

2013-01-01

234

Characterization of the four GH12 Endoxylanases from the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Four putative GH12 genes were found in the Fusarium graminearum genome. The corresponding proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and evaluated. FGSG_05851 and FGSG_11037 displayed high activities towards xyloglucan (V(max) of 4 and 11 micronmol/min, respectively), whereas FGSG_07892 and FGSG_16349 were much less active with this substrate (0.081 and 0.004 micronmol/min, respectively). However, all four of these enzymes had a similar binding affinity for xyloglucan. Xyloglucan was the substrate preferred by FGSG_05851, in contrast to the three other enzymes, which preferred beta-glucan or lichenan. Therefore, FGSG_05851 is a xyloglucan-specific glucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.151) rather than an endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4) with broad substrate specificity. FGSG_11037 displayed a peculiar behavior in that the xyloglucan binding was highly cooperative, with a Hill coefficient of 2.5. Finally, FGSG_05851 essentially degraded xyloglucan into hepta-, octa-, and nonasaccharides, whereas the three other enzymes yielded hepta- and octa-saccharides as well as larger molecules. PMID:22713989

Habrylo, Olivier; Song, Xinghan; Forster, Anne; Jeltsch, Jean-Marc; Phalip, Vincent

2012-08-01

235

Real-time PCR Assay Based on Topoisomerase-II Gene for Detection of Fusarium udum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt is an important soilborne disease of pigeonpea, caused by Fusarium udum. In this study, we have designed a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Fusarium udum from infected pigeonpea plants. Based on Topoisomerase-II gene sequence data from Fusarium udum and other related Fusarium species, a pair of primer was designed. The species-specific primers were tested in real-time

Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Bandavari Kishore Babu; Anil Kumar Saxena; Bhim Pratap Singh; Kiran Singh; Dilip Kumar Arora

2011-01-01

236

The role of the bark beetle Cryphalus trypanus in the transmission of the vascular wilt pathogen of takamaka ( Calophyllum inophyllum) in the Seychelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bark beetle, Cryphalus trypanus breeds in the bark of branches and trunk of Calophyllum inophyllum var. takamaka. High population densities occur in trees affected by the vascular wilt fungus designated as Verticillium calophylli but now considered to be in the genus Leptographium. In experiments with detached branches from healthy trees, entries by breeding beetles were concentrated around leaf petiole

D Wainhouse; S Murphy; B Greig; J Webber; M Vielle

1998-01-01

237

Microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in the presence of root exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we assessed microconidia germination of the tomato pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) in the presence of root exudates. Tomato root exudates stimulated microconidia germination and the level of stimulation was affected by plant age. Treatment of root exudates with insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, which binds phenolic compounds, indicated that tomato

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2005-01-01

238

The velvet gene, FgVe1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Trichothecenes are a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) during the infection of crop plants, including wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye and rice. Some fungal genes involved in trichothecene biosynthesis have been shown to encode regulatory proteins. However, the global regulation of toxin biosynthesis is still enigmatic. In addition to the production of secondary metabolites belonging to the trichothecene family, F. graminearum produces the red pigment aurofusarin. The gene regulation underlying the production of aurofusarin is not well understood. The velvet gene (veA) is conserved in various genera of filamentous fungi. Recently, the veA gene from Aspergillus nidulans has been shown to be the key component of the velvet complex regulating development and secondary metabolism. Using blast analyses, we identified the velvet gene from F. graminearum, FgVe1. Disruption of FgVe1 causes several phenotypic effects. However, the complementation of this mutant with the FgVe1 gene restores the wild-type phenotypes. The in vitro phenotypes include hyperbranching of the mycelium, suppression of aerial hyphae formation, reduced hydrophobicity of the mycelium and highly reduced sporulation. Our data also show that FgVe1 modulates the production of the aurofusarin pigment and is essential for the expression of Tri genes and the production of trichothecenes. Pathogenicity studies performed on flowering wheat plants indicate that FgVe1 is a positive regulator of virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:22013911

Merhej, Jawad; Urban, Martin; Dufresne, Marie; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Richard-Forget, Florence; Barreau, Christian

2012-05-01

239

Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts  

PubMed Central

The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ? 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus .

Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmuller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

2013-01-01

240

Endopolygalacturonase PG1 in Different Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

PG1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. A Southern analysis of genomic DNA and PCR performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. Two PG1-deficient isolates were identified; one lacked the encoding gene, and the other carried a pg1 allele disrupted by a 3.2-kb insertion with sequence homology to hAT transposases. The virulence for muskmelon of different F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates was not correlated with PG1 production in vitro. We concluded that PG1 is widely distributed in F. oxysporum and that it is not essential for pathogenicity.

Di Pietro, Antonio; Garcia-Maceira, Fe I.; Huertas-Gonzalez, M. Dolores; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Caracuel, Zaira; Barbieri, Andrea S.; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

1998-01-01

241

Endopolygalacturonase PG1 in Different Formae Speciales of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed

PG1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. A Southern analysis of genomic DNA and PCR performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. Two PG1-deficient isolates were identified; one lacked the encoding gene, and the other carried a pg1 allele disrupted by a 3.2-kb insertion with sequence homology to hAT transposases. The virulence for muskmelon of different F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates was not correlated with PG1 production in vitro. We concluded that PG1 is widely distributed in F. oxysporum and that it is not essential for pathogenicity. PMID:9572983

Di Pietro A; García-Maceira; Huertas-González; Ruíz-Roldan; Caracuel; Barbieri; Roncero

1998-05-01

242

Impact of transgenic Bt maize residues on the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride.  

PubMed

Transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. We assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Purified Cry1Ab protein caused no growth inhibition of these fungi on agar plates. Cry1Ab concentrations above levels common in Bt maize tissue stimulated the growth of F. graminearum. The fungi were also grown on gamma-radiation-sterilized leaf tissue of four Bt maize hybrids and their non transgenic isolines collected at maize maturity on a field trial in 2002 and 2003. Both fungi degraded the Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize tissue. Fungal biomass quantification with microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays revealed differential fungal growth on leaf tissue of different maize varieties but no consistent difference between corresponding Bt and non-Bt hybrids. Generally, year of maize tissue collection had a greater impact on biomass production than cultivar or Bt transformation. The mycotoxin DON levels observed in maize tissue experiments corresponded with patterns in F. graminearum biomass, indicating that Bt transformation has no impact on DON production. In addition to bioassays, maize leaf tissue was analyzed with a mass spectrometer-based electronic nose, generating fingerprints of volatile organic compounds. Chemical fingerprints of corresponding Bt and non-Bt leaf tissues differed only for those hybrid pairs that caused differential fungal biomass production in the bioassays. Our results suggest that Cry1Ab protein in maize residues has no direct effect on F. graminearum and T. atroviride but some corresponding Bt/non-Bt maize hybrids differ more in composition than Cry protein content alone, which can affect the saprophytic growth of fungi on crop residues. PMID:16738384

Naef, Andreas; Zesiger, Thierry; Défago, Geneviève

2006-01-01

243

The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth  

PubMed Central

Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth.

Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

2009-01-01

244

Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungal species that includes human and animal pathogens and a diverse range of nonpathogens. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of this species can be distinguished from each other with pathogenicity tests, but not with morphological analysis or sexual compatibility studies. Substantial genetic diversity among isolates has led to the realization that F. oxysporum represents a complex of cryptic species. F. oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is one of the more than 150 plant pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies of Foc revealed at least eight phylogenetic lineages, a finding that was supported by random amplified polymorphic DNAs, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Most of these lineages consist of isolates in closely related vegetative compatibility groups, some of which possess opposite mating type alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2; thus, the evolutionary history of this fungus may have included recent sexual reproduction. The ability to cause disease on all or some of the current race differential cultivars has evolved convergently in the taxon, as members of some races appear in different phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, various factors including co-evolution the plant host and horizontal gene transfer are thought to have shaped the evolutionary history of Foc. This review discusses the evolution of Foc as a model formae specialis in F. oxysporum in relation to recent research findings involving DNA-based studies. PMID:21256980

Fourie, G; Steenkamp, E T; Ploetz, R C; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

2011-04-01

245

Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

Jimenez-Fernandez, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jimenez-Diaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortes, Juan A.

2013-01-01

246

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

247

Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) in laboratory.  

PubMed

The entomopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum are the next generation mosquito controlling agent. F. oxysporum basically contains unique toxin and can be a selectively good agent in tropical countries. We are reporting here the efficacy of the metabolites of F. oxysporum against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. F. oxysporum was grown on Czapek Dox broth. The bioassays were run at five different concentrations (1.30, 1.60, 1.77, 1.90, and 2.00 ppm). The LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99) values with 95% fiducial limits and probit equations were calculated by probit analysis. The mortality was observed after 24, 48, and 72 h against all instars. The LC(90) values in the case of C. quinquefasciatus after 48 h when calculated were 1.85, 1.92, 1.87, and 1.87 ppm, respectively, while LC(99) values calculated were 2.24, 2.25, 2.18, and 2.19 ppm. Moreover, after 48 h in the case of A. stephensi, the LC(50) values for the first, second, third, and fourth instars were recorded as 1.48, 1.51, 1.71, and 1.50 ppm, respectively. The LC(90) values recorded were 1.88, 1.91, 1.93, and 1.89 ppm and LC(99) values observed were 2.36, 2.23, 2.26, and 2.21 ppm. The results obtained 24, 48, and 72 h have been compared and it was observed significantly that 48 h after exposure the metabolite has more pathogenicity. The results of the metabolites of F. oxysporum may be considered as a new bio-control agent for vector mosquitoes if the field trial succeeds. PMID:20499096

Prakash, Soam; Singh, Gavendra; Soni, Namita; Sharma, Sweta

2010-08-01

248

Susceptibility of gerbera and chrysanthemum varieties (Gerbera jamesoni and Chrysanthemum morifolium) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. chrysanthemi.  

PubMed

In 2002, gerbera plants (cv Kaliki) were observed exhibiting symptoms of a wilt in a soilless cultivation at Albenga area (Northern Italy). A similar wilt was also observed in the Sanremo area (Northern Italy) on cv Red Bull, Anedin and Gud finger grown in soil. The same observations were carried out in 2004 in SW Spain where gerbera plants showing wilt symptoms were observed in soilless crops. In all cases, the planting material originated from the Netherlands. Recently on the base of experimental trials F. oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi was recognized as the causal agent of wilts of gerbera both in Italy and in Spain. The aim of this experimental work was the evaluation of the resistance/susceptibility of available cultivars of chrysanthemum and gerbera to the Fusarium wilt. The pathogenicity of two isolates of Fusarium chrysanthemi obtained from infected gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants was tested on several varieties both of gerbera and chrysanthemum in 2004-2006. In 2004 and 2005 respectively 54 and 30 cultivars of chrysanthemum and 57 and 55 of gerbera were tested, while in 2006 only 53 cultivars of gerbera were tested. The results showed that respectively in 2004 and 2005 67 and 33 % of chrysanthemum cultivars were highly resistant to F. chrysanthemi obtained from chrysanthemum while 57 and 53 % were highly resistant to strain isolated from gerbera. In 2004, 2005 and 2006 47, 65 and 75 % of gerbera cultivars were highly resistant to F. chrysanthemi obtained from chrysanthemum and 48, 56 and 72 % were highly resistant to the strain isolated from gerbera. PMID:18396800

Minuto, Andrea; Gullino, Lodovica Maria; Garibaldi, Angelo

2007-01-01

249

Antimicrobial activities of Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens and S. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in Egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. Most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. On starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of Fusarium wilt), 18 against Verticillium albo-atrum (the cause of Verticillium wilt), and 18 against Alternaria solani (the cause of early blight). In liquid media, 14 isolates antagonized Pseudomonas solanacearum (the cause of bacterial wilt) and 20 antagonized Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (the cause of bacterial canker). The most active antagonists of the pathogenic microorganisms studied were found to be Streptomyces pulcher, S. canescens (syn. S. albidoflavus) and S. citreofluorescens (syn. S. anulatus). The antagonistic activities of S. pulcher and S. canescens against pathogenic fungi were assessed on solid media, and those of S. pulcher and S. citreofluorescens against pathogenic bacteria in liquid media under shaking conditions. The optimum culture conditions were determined. PMID:9131789

el-Abyad, M S; el-Sayed, M A; el-Shanshoury, A R; el-Sabbagh, S M

1996-01-01

250

The membrane mucin Msb2 regulates invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogenicity in plants requires a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast filamentous growth pathway. How this signaling cascade is activated during infection remains poorly understood. In the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the orthologous MAPK Fmk1 (Fusarium MAPK1) is essential for root penetration and pathogenicity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Here, we show that Msb2, a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein, is required for surface-induced phosphorylation of Fmk1 and contributes to a subset of Fmk1-regulated functions related to invasive growth and virulence. Mutants lacking Msb2 share characteristic phenotypes with the ?fmk1 mutant, including defects in cellophane invasion, penetration of the root surface, and induction of vascular wilt symptoms in tomato plants. In contrast with ?fmk1, ?msb2 mutants were hypersensitive to cell wall targeting compounds, a phenotype that was exacerbated in a ?msb2 ?fmk1 double mutant. These results suggest that the membrane mucin Msb2 promotes invasive growth and plant infection upstream of Fmk1 while contributing to cell integrity through a distinct pathway. PMID:21441438

Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

2011-03-01

251

A PR-1-like Protein of Fusarium oxysporum Functions in Virulence on Mammalian Hosts*  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis-related PR-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. Here we have characterized a PR-1-like protein, Fpr1, from Fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. Fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. The fpr1 gene is required for virulence in a disseminated immunodepressed mouse model, and its function depends on the integrity of the proposed active site of PR-1-like proteins. Fpr1 belongs to a gene family that has expanded in plant pathogenic Sordariomycetes. These results suggest that secreted PR-1-like proteins play important roles in fungal pathogenicity.

Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Roldan-Rodriguez, Raquel; Serena, Carolina; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Guarro, Josep; Martinez-del-Pozo, Alvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio

2012-01-01

252

Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme  

PubMed Central

Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species.

Sarmiento-Ramirez, Jullie M.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2014-01-01

253

Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme.  

PubMed

Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species. PMID:24743166

Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2014-01-01

254

Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

2013-01-01

255

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2007-01-01

256

A robust identification and detection assay to discriminate the cucumber pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum.  

PubMed

The fungal species Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous inhabitant of soils worldwide that includes pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic or even beneficial strains. Pathogenic strains are characterized by a high degree of host specificity and strains that infect the same host range are organized in so-called formae speciales. Strains for which no host plant has been identified are believed to be non-pathogenic strains. Therefore, identification below the species level is highly desired. However, the genetic basis of host specificity and virulence in F. oxysporum is so far unknown. In this study, a robust random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker-based assay was developed to specifically detect and identify the economically important cucumber pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. While the F. oxysporum radicis-cucumerinum strains were found to cluster in a separate clade based on elongation factor-1alpha phylogeny, strains belonging to F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum were found to be genetically more diverse. This is reflected in the observation that specificity testing of the identified markers using a broad collection of F. oxysporum strains with all known vegetative compatibility groups of the target formae speciales, as well as representative strains belonging to other formae speciales, resulted in two cross-reactions for the F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerimum marker. However, no cross-reactions were observed for the F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerimum marker. This F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerimum marker shows homology to Folyt1, a transposable element identified in the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and may possibly play a role in host-range specificity in the target forma specialis. The markers were implemented in a DNA array that enabled parallel and sensitive detection and identification of the pathogens in complex samples from diverse origins. PMID:17686014

Lievens, Bart; Claes, Loes; Vakalounakis, Demetrios J; Vanachter, Alfons C R C; Thomma, Bart P H J

2007-09-01

257

Distinction of Fusarium oxysporum fungal isolates (strains) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a large fungi genus of a large variety of species and strains which inhabits soil and vegetation. It is distributed worldwide and affiliated to both warm and cold weather. Fusarium oxysporum species, for instance, cause the Fusarium wilt disease of plants, which appears as a leaf wilting, yellowing and eventually plant death. Early detection and identification of these pathogens are very important and might be critical for their control. Previously, we have managed to differentiate among different fungi genera (Rhizoctonia, Colletotrichum, Verticillium and Fusarium) using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy methods and cluster analysis. In this study, we used Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate and differentiate between different strains of F. oxysporum. The result obtained was of spectral patterns distinct to each of the various examined strains, which belong to the same species. These differences were not as significant as those found between the different genera species. We applied advanced statistical techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the FTIR-ATR spectra in order to examine the feasibility of distinction between these fungi strains. The results are encouraging and indicate that the FTIR-ATR methodology can differentiate between the different examined strains of F. oxysporum with a high success rate. Based on our PCA and LDA calculations performed in the regions [900-1775 cm(-1), 2800-2990 cm(-1), with 9 PCs], we were able to classify the different strains with high success rates: Foxy1 90%, Foxy2 100%, Foxy3 100%, Foxy4 92.3%, Foxy5 83.3% and Foxy6 100%. PMID:21258677

Salman, A; Pomerantz, A; Tsror, L; Lapidot, I; Zwielly, A; Moreh, R; Mordechai, S; Huleihel, M

2011-03-01

258

Phylogenetic relationships between the lettuce root rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae races 1, 2, and 3 based on the sequence of the intergenic spacer region of its ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationship between the vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and between physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (FOL), the causal pathogen of lettuce root rot, was determined by analyzing the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of its ribosomal\\u000a DNA. A total of 29 isolates containing a type strain were tested: 24 Japanese isolates, 2 Californian isolates, and 3 Italian

Masashi Fujinaga; Hideki Ogiso; Hirosuke Shinohara; Seiya Tsushima; Norio Nishimura; Masayuki Togawa; Hideki Saito; Masayuki Nozue

2005-01-01

259

Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum MSA35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grownwithVOCfrom WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression. PMID:19396945

Minerdi, Daniela; Bossi, Simone; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

2009-04-01

260

Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was con- structed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between mutants of the sequenced strain (PH-1, NRRL 31084, originally isolated from Michigan) and a field strain from Minnesota (00-676, NRRL 34097). A total

L. R. Gale; J. D. Bryant; S. Calvo; H. Giese; T. Katan; K. O'Donnell; H. Suga; M. Taga; T. R. Usgaard; T. J. Ward; H. C. Kistler

2005-01-01

261

Efficacy of chemical and fluorescent protein markers in studying plant colonization by endophytic non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studying plant colonization by inoculated Fusarium oxysporum endophytes, it is important to be able to distinguish inoculated isolates from saprophytic strains. In the current study,\\u000a F. oxysporum isolates were transformed with the green (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) genes, and benomyl- and chlorate-resistant\\u000a mutant isolates were also developed. The benomyl- and chlorate-resistant mutants, and the fluorescently labelled transformants,

Pamela Paparu; Adele Macleod; Thomas Dubois; Daniel Coyne; Altus Viljoen

2009-01-01

262

Zinc Improves Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Represses the Production of Pathogen Metabolites Inhibitory to Bacterial Antibiotic Biosynthesis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is an increasing problem in Europe, Israel, Japan, and North America. The biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 provides only moderate control of this disease. A one-time amendment of zinc EDTA at 33 mug of Zn(2+)/ml to hydroponic nutrient solution in soilless rockwool culture did not reduce disease when used alone, but did reduce disease by 25% in the presence of CHA0. In in vitro studies with the pathogen, zinc at concentrations as low as 10 mug/ml abolished production of the phytotoxin fusaric acid, a Fusarium pathogenicity factor, and increased production of microconidia over 100-fold, but reduced total biomass. Copper EDTA at 33 mug of Cu(2+)/ml had a similar effect as zinc on the pathogen in vitro; it reduced disease when used alone, and increased the biocontrol activity of CHA0 in soilless culture. Ammonium-molybdate neither improved the biocontrol activity of CHA0 nor affected production of fusaric acid or microconidia. Strain CHA0 did not degrade fusaric acid. Fusaric acid at concentrations as low as 0.12 mug/ml repressed production by CHA0 of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a key factor in the biocontrol activity of this strain. Production of pyoluteorin by CHA0 was also reduced, but production of hydrogen cyanide and protease was not affected, suggesting that fusaric acid affects biosynthesis at a regulatory level downstream of gacA and apdA genes. Fusaric acid did not affect the recovery of preformed antibiotics nor did it affect bacterial growth even at concentrations as high as 200 mug/ml. When microbial meta-bolite production was measured in the rockwool bioassay, zinc amendments reduced fusaric acid production and enhanced 2,4-diacetylphloro-glucinol production. We suggest that zinc, which did not alleviate the repression of antibiotic biosynthesis by fusaric acid, improved biocontrol activity by reducing fusaric acid production by the pathogen, which resulted in increased antibiotic production by the biocontrol agent. This demonstrates that pathogens can have a direct negative impact on the mechanism(s) of biocontrol agents. PMID:18945026

Duffy, B K; Défago, G

1997-12-01

263

Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles and their interactive effect with a biocontrol bacterium on growth antagonism of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fungal plant pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum cause severe global economic losses in cereals crops, and current control measures are limited. This work addresses the potential for ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and biocontrol bacteria to be used in plant fungal control strategies. Growth of F. graminearum was significantly (p = 0.05) inhibited by inclusion of the NPs in a mung bean broth agar and in sand. Suspension in mung bean broth medium modified the surface charge, dissolution, and aggregation state of the ZnO NPs, in comparison to processes occurring in water suspension. The ZnO NPs were significantly more inhibitory to fungal growth than micro-sized particles of ZnO, although both types of particles released similar levels of soluble Zn, indicating size-dependent toxicity of the particles. Zn ions produced dose-dependent inhibition, noticeable at the level of soluble Zn released from NPs after seven-day suspension in medium; inhibitory levels caused acidification of the growth medium. Transfer of fungal inoculum after exposure to the ZnO NPs to fresh medium did not indicate adaptation to the stress because growth was still inhibited by the NPs. The ZnO NPs did not prevent metabolites from a biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, from inhibiting Fusarium growth: no synergism was observed in the mung bean agar. Because other studies find that soil amendment with ZnO NPs required high doses for inhibition of plant growth, the findings of pathogen growth control reported in this paper open the possibility of using ZnO NP-based formulations to complement existing strategies for improving crop health in field settings. PMID:23933719

Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

2013-12-01

264

A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W  

PubMed Central

During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ?meaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi.

Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-01-01

265

Ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in Fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.  

PubMed

Cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. The role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. Here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor Ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of CTF1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. Mutants carrying a Deltactf1 loss-of-function allele grown on inducing substrates failed to activate extracellular cutinolytic activity and expression of the cut1 and lip1 genes, encoding a putative cutinase and lipase, respectively, whereas strains harbouring a ctf1(C) allele in which the ctf1 coding region was fused to the strong constitutive Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter showed increased induction of cutinase activity and gene expression. These results suggest that F. oxysporum Ctf1 mediates expression of genes involved in fatty acid hydrolysis. However, expression of lip1 during root infection was not dependent on Ctf1, and virulence of the ctf1 mutants on tomato plants and fruits was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. Thus, in contrast to the stem pathogen F. solani, Ctf1 is not essential for virulence in the root pathogen F. oxysporum. PMID:18705871

Rocha, Ana Lilia Martínez; Di Pietro, Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Roncero, M Isabel G

2008-05-01

266

Tomato root colonization by fluorescent-tagged pathogenic and protective strains of Fusarium oxysporum in hydroponic culture differs from root colonization in soil.  

PubMed

The colonization process of tomato roots inoculated separately or/and simultaneously by a pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol8 and the protective F. oxysporum strain Fo47, genetically tagged with the red and green fluorescent protein genes, respectively, was studied in a hydroponic culture. Plants were coinoculated with Fol8 and Fo47 at two conidial concentration ratios of 1/1 and 1/100, in which biological control was not effective or effective, respectively. First observation of fungi on root was possible 48 h after inoculation at a high inoculum level and 5 days post inoculation at the lower concentration of inoculum. The pattern of root colonization was similar for both strains with the initial development of hyphal network on the upper part of taproot, followed by the growth of hyphae towards the elongation zone, lateral roots and root apices. Finally, the whole elongation zone and root apex were invaded by both strains but no specific infection sites were observed. When coinoculated, both strains could grow very closely or even at the same spot on the root surface. At the nonprotective ratio, Fol8 was the successful colonizer, but application of Fo47 at a concentration 100 times >Fol8 delayed vessel colonization by the pathogen. PMID:18657114

Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude

2008-09-01

267

Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a cosmopolitan fungus known almost exclusively from animal infections and biofilms. To better understand its diversity and population dynamics, we developed and utilized a nine-locus sequence-based typing system to make inferences about clonality, recombination, population structure, species boundaries and hybridization. Results High levels of genetic diversity and evidence for recombination and clonality were detected among 75 clinical and 156 environmental isolates of Fusarium keratoplasticum. The multilocus sequence typing system (MLST) resolved 111 unique nine-locus sequence types (STs). The single locus bifactorial determinants of mating compatibility (mating types MAT1-1 and MAT1-2), were found in a ratio of 70:30. All but one of the 49 isolates of the most common ST (FSSC 2d-2) came from human infections, mostly of the cornea, and from biofilms associated with contact lenses and plumbing surfaces. Significant levels of phylogenetic incongruence were found among loci. Putative clonal relationships among genotypes were estimated, showing a mixture of large clonal complexes and unrelated singletons. Discordance between the nuclear ribosomal rRNA and other gene genealogies is consistent with introgression of ribosomal RNA alleles of phylogenetic species FSSC 9 into F. keratoplasticum. No significant population subdivision based on clinical versus non-clinical sources was found. Conclusions Incongruent phylogenetic trees and the presence of both mating types within otherwise identical STs were observed, providing evidence for sexuality in F. keratoplasticum. Cryptic speciation suggested in a published three-locus MLST system was not supported with the addition of new loci, but evidence of introgression of ribosomal RNA genes from another strongly supported phylogenetic species (FSSC 9), also known from plumbing systems and human infections, was detected in two isolates. Overall, F. keratoplasticum is a diverse and geographically unstructured species with a mixed clonal and recombinant life history.

2014-01-01

268

Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes “bakanae” disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen.

Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J.; Huss, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B.; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M.; Brown, Daren W.; Proctor, Robert H.; Munsterkotter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Guldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-01-01

269

A novel Asian clade within the Fusarium graminearum species complex includes a newly discovered cereal head blight pathogen from the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

We investigated Fusarium graminearum complex (Fg complex) species diversity and toxin potential in European and Asian regions of the Russian Federation and adjoining regions northwest to Finland and south near Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, to expand our knowledge of the host range and geographic distribution of these economically devastating cereal head blight pathogens. Results of a recently described multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay revealed that F. graminearum was the sole Fg complex pathogen in northern Europe and the predominant one in Asia (90.5%). Even though isolates of F. graminearum were segregating for 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON) chemotype in nearly equal frequencies in the regions sampled on both continents, significant differences in the geographic distribution of isolates producing these acetyl ester derivatives of deoxynivalenol (DON) were observed in Europe. While 93.5% of the isolates in southern Russia (n = 43 of 46) possessed the 15ADON chemotype, isolates of F. graminearum recovered in Finland and northwestern Russia (n = 40) were exclusively 3ADON producers. Based on results of the MLGT assay, species identity of 10 genetically novel Fg complex isolates from the Russian Far East was investigated further via molecular phylogenetic analyses of multilocus DNA sequence data. Results of these analyses resolved these isolates as a phylogenetically distinct, reciprocally monophyletic sister lineage of F. asiaticum, which together with F. vorosii form a newly discovered Asian clade within the Fg complex. Because this novel lineage fulfills the highly conservative criterion of genealogical exclusivity under phylogenetic species recognition it is formally described herein as F. ussurianum. In addition to morphologically characterizing isolates of F. ussurianum, experiments were conducted to assess pathogenicity to wheat and trichothecene toxin potential in planta. PMID:19927749

Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Gagkaeva, Tatiana; Ward, Todd J; Aoki, Takayuki; Kistler, H Corby; O'Donnell, Kerry

2009-01-01

270

A molecular insight into the early events of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (race 1) interaction through cDNA-AFLP analysis.  

PubMed

Wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most severe diseases of chickpea throughout the world. Variability of pathotypes of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and breakdown of natural resistance are the main hindrances to developing resistant plants by applying resistant breeding strategies. Additionally, lack of information of potential resistant genes limits gene-transfer technology. A thorough understanding of Fusarium spp.-chickpea interaction at a cellular and molecular level is essential for isolation of potential genes involved in counteracting disease progression. Experiments were designed to trigger the pathogen-challenged disease responses in both susceptible and resistant plants and monitor the expression of stress induced genes or gene fragments at the transcript level. cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism followed by homology search helped in differentiating and analyzing the up- and downregulated gene fragments. Several detected DNA fragments appeared to have relevance with pathogen-mediated defense. Some of the important transcript-derived fragments were homologous to genes for sucrose synthase, isoflavonoid biosynthesis, drought stress response, serine threonine kinases, cystatins, arginase, and so on. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed with samples collected at 48 and 96 h postinfection confirmed a similar type of differential expression pattern. Based on these results, interacting pathways of cellular processes were generated. This study has an implication toward functional identification of genes involved in wilt resistance. PMID:19821728

Gupta, Sumanti; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rangi, Rumdeep K; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

2009-11-01

271

Antagonistic bacteria of composted agro-industrial residues exhibit antibiosis against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens and protection of tomato plants from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizospheric and root-associated\\/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from tomato plants grown in three suppressive compost-based\\u000a plant growth media derived from the olive mill, winery and Agaricus bisporus production agro-industries. Forty-four (35 rhizospheric and 9 RAE) out of 329 bacterial strains showed in vitro antagonistic\\u000a activity against at least one of the soil-borne fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), F.

Nektarios Kavroulakis; Spyridon Ntougias; Maria I. Besi; Pelagia Katsou; Athanasia Damaskinou; Constantinos Ehaliotis; Georgios I. Zervakis; Kalliope K. Papadopoulou

2010-01-01

272

Coprinellus curtus (Hitoyo-take) prevents diseases of vegetables caused by pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A strain of Coprinellus curtus (designated GM-21), a basidiomycete that suppressed bottom-rot disease of Chinese cabbage, 'pak-choi' (Brassica campestris), caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Pak-choi 2 was isolated. The mechanism of plant disease suppression was discovered to be hyphal interference, a combative fungal interaction between strain GM-21 and the pathogen. The antifungal spectrum of strain GM-21 was shown to include R. solani and Fusarium sp., i.e. strain GM-21 showed disease-suppressive ability against bottom-rot disease of lettuce and Rhizoctonia-patch disease of mascarene grass caused by strains of R. solani. In addition, clear evidence of hyphal interference between strain GM-21 and Fusarium pathogens that cause crown (foot) and root-rot disease of tomato and Fusarium wilt of melon, respectively, was demonstrated. It was thus considered that GM-21 is effective for suppressing soil-borne pathogens, and that GM-21 presents new possibilities for biological control of vegetable diseases. PMID:17850327

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Saito, Miyuki; Suzuki, Nobuaki

2007-10-01

273

Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus intraradices modify the hormone disruption induced by Fusarium oxysporum infection in melon plants.  

PubMed

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and abscisic acid (ABA) are known to play crucial roles in plant disease and pest resistance. Changes in the concentrations of these plant hormones in melon plant shoots, as a consequence of the interaction between the plant, the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, the antagonistic microorganism Trichoderma harzianum, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices were investigated. Attack by F. oxysporum activated a defensive response in the plant, mediated by the plant hormones SA, JA, ET, and ABA, similar to the one produced by T. harzianum. When inoculated with the pathogen, both T. harzianum and G. intraradices attenuated the plant response mediated by the hormones ABA and ET elicited by the pathogen attack. T. harzianum was also able to attenuate the SA-mediated response. In the three-way interaction (F. oxysporum-T. harzianum-G. intraradices), although a synergistic effect in reducing disease incidence was found, no synergistic effect on the modulation of the hormone disruption induced by the pathogen was observed. These results suggest that the induction of plant basal resistance and the attenuation of the hormonal disruption caused by F. oxysporum are both mechanisms by which T. harzianum can control Fusarium wilt in melon plants; while the mechanisms involving G. intraradices seem to be independent of SA and JA signaling. PMID:20528186

Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Albacete, Alfonso; Roldán, Antonio

2010-07-01

274

Antibiotic effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid on in vitro soilborne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid, which is biosynthesized inside plant and is often found and accumulated in soil due to plant debris decaying, is considered as a signaling substance during plant-microbe interactions. It is involved in the cycling of biogeochemistry and related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. The antibiotic effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum (FON) was studied to investigate the relationships between the salicylic acid and the fungus in the ecological interaction of plant-microbe. Results showed that the biomass, colony diameter, number of conidium germination and conidium production of FON were decreased by 52.0%, 25.7%, 100% and 100% at concentrations of 800 mg L(-1). However, mycotoxin yield was increased by 233%, pectinase activity raised by 168.0% and cellulase activity increased by 1325% compared to control at higher concentrations. It was concluded that salicylic acid as an allelochemical greatly inhibited FON growth and conidia formation and germination, though stimulated mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes by FON. PMID:18952255

Wu, Hong-Sheng; Raza, Waseem; Fan, Jia-Qin; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bao, Wei; Liu, Dong-Yang; Huang, Qi-Wei; Mao, Ze-Sheng; Shen, Qi-Rong; Miao, Wei-Guo

2008-12-01

275

Pengujian Planlet Abaka Hasil Seleksi terhadap Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilt by Fusarium oxysporum has been a problem on abaca (Musa textilis Nee.) plantation. Utilization of the disease resistant variety can solve the disease problem. However, abaca resistant variety to F. oxysporum disease has not been found. In vitro selection is a selection method to produce a disease resistant plant which have been conducted in abaca in vitro culture to

Deden Sukmadjaja; Ika Mariska; Endang G. Lestari; M. Tombe; Balai Penelitian; Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya; Genetik Pertanian

276

Longevity of Fusarium oxysporum in Soil Tube Culture.  

PubMed

In soil tube culture, representatives of three biologic forms of Fusarium oxysporum survived unchanged morphologically for 11 years or more. An isolate of the muskmelon wilt fungus remained viable after 17 years' storage in dry air at a temperature of from 3 degrees to 4 degrees C. The surviving unit was found to be the chlamydospore. PMID:17800128

McKeen, C D; Wensley, R N

1961-11-10

277

Natural and Natural-like Phenolic Inhibitors of Type B Trichothecene in Vitro Production by the Wheat (Triticum sp.) Pathogen Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

Fusarium culmorum, a fungal pathogen of small grain cereals, produces 4-deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives that may cause toxicoses on humans or animals consuming contaminated food or feed. Natural and natural-like compounds belonging to phenol and hydroxylated biphenyl structural classes were tested in vitro to determine their activity on vegetative growth and trichothecene biosynthesis by F. culmorum. Most of the compounds tested at 1.5 or 1.0 mM reduced 3-acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol production by over 70% compared to the control, without affecting fungal growth significantly. Furthermore, several compounds retained their ability to inhibit toxin in vitro production at the lowest concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mM. Magnolol 27 showed fungicidal activity even at 0.1 mM. No linear correlation was observed between antioxidant properties of the compounds and their ability to inhibit fungal growth and mycotoxigenic capacity. A guaiacyl unit in the structure may play a key role in trichothecene inhibition. PMID:24820850

Pani, Giovanna; Scherm, Barbara; Azara, Emanuela; Balmas, Virgilio; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Carta, Paola; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fadda, Angela; Dessì, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Migheli, Quirico; Delogu, Giovanna

2014-06-01

278

Folyt1, a new member of the hAT family, is active in the genome of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

An active transposable element, Folyt1, has been isolated from the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene (nit 1) in two independent mutants (CO66 and CO108). Folyt1 was 2615 bp in length and contained 9-bp imperfect inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and 8 bp duplicated at the target site upon insertion. The element contained a long open reading frame interrupted by a single putative intron. The predicted amino acid sequence showed similarity to conserved domains of transposases from hobo, Ac, and Tam3 elements, which belong to the hAT family. The excision frequency of Folyt1 was determined to be less than 10(-5) in both mutants. These events restored the nit 1 wild-type allele without leaving footprints in all the revertants of strain CO66. Nevertheless, some revertants of strain CO108 showed a point mutation footprint at the target sequence. Expression of the Folyt1 transposase was detected by Northern analysis as a 2.1-kb transcript. The element exists in about 10 copies per genome in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and appears to be widely distributed among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. PMID:10413616

Gómez-Gómez, E; Anaya, N; Roncero, M I; Hera, C

1999-06-01

279

alpha-Tomatine, the major saponin in tomato, induces programmed cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species in the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The tomato saponin alpha-tomatine has been proposed to kill sensitive cells by binding to cell membranes followed by leakage of cell components. However, details of the modes of action of the compound on fungal cells are poorly understood. In the present study, mechanisms involved in alpha-tomatine-induced cell death of fungi were examined using a filamentous pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. alpha-Tomatine-induced cell death of F. oxysporum (TICDF) occurred only under aerobic conditions and was blocked by the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase inhibitor oligomycin, the caspase inhibitor D-VAD-fmk, and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Fungal cells exposed to alpha-tomatine showed TUNEL-positive nuclei, depolarization of transmembrane potential of mitochondria, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These results suggest that TICDF occurs through a programmed cell death process in which mitochondria play a pivotal role. Pharmacological studies using inhibitors suggest that alpha-tomatine activates phosphotyrosine kinase and monomeric G-protein signaling pathways leading to Ca(2+) elevation and ROS burst in F. oxysporum cells. PMID:17585910

Ito, Shin-Ichi; Ihara, Takashi; Tamura, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Dissanayake, Chandrika; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma F; El-Sayed, Magdi A

2007-07-10

280

Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers recorded the best results for controlling damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in greenhouse and field with addition improved plant growth and increased yield components in field.

2013-01-01

281

Fusarium oxysporum hijacks COI1-mediated jasmonate signaling to promote disease development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Although defense responses mediated by the plant oxylipin jasmonic acid (JA) are often necessary for resistance against pathogens with necrotrophic lifestyles, in this report we demonstrate that jasmonate signaling mediated through COI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for susceptibility to wilt disease caused by the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Despite compromised JA-dependent defense responses, the JA perception mutant coronatine insensitive 1 (coi1), but not JA biosynthesis mutants, exhibited a high level of resistance to wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum. This response was independent from salicylic acid-dependent defenses, as coi1/NahG plants showed similar disease resistance to coi1 plants. Inoculation of reciprocal grafts made between coi1 and wild-type plants revealed that coi1-mediated resistance occurred primarily through the coi1 rootstock tissues. Furthermore, microscopy and quantification of fungal DNA during infection indicated that coi1-mediated resistance was not associated with reduced fungal penetration and colonization until a late stage of infection, when leaf necrosis was highly developed in wild-type plants. In contrast to wild-type leaves, coi1 leaves showed no necrosis following the application of F. oxysporum culture filtrate, and showed reduced expression of senescence-associated genes during disease development, suggesting that coi1 resistance is most likely achieved through the inhibition of F. oxysporum-incited lesion development and plant senescence. Together, our results indicate that F. oxysporum hijacks non-defensive aspects of the JA-signaling pathway to cause wilt-disease symptoms that lead to plant death in Arabidopsis. PMID:19220788

Thatcher, Louise F; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2009-06-01

282

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

PubMed

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

283

Allelopathic effects of root exudates from watermelon and rice plants on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates have a key role in communication between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere. Fusarium wilt of watermelon,\\u000a caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fusarium oxysporum), drastically reduces watermelon yields in continuous cultivation systems, but it can be significantly alleviated using watermelon\\/aerobic\\u000a rice intercropping system as shown by the research carried out in this laboratory. It is important

Wen-ya Hao; Li-xuan Ren; Wei Ran; Qi-rong Shen

2010-01-01

284

Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties ? ‡  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall ?-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

Lee, Hyeseung; Damsz, Barbara; Woloshuk, Charles P.; Bressan, Ray A.; Narasimhan, Meena L.

2010-01-01

285

Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size?=?554 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99%) genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 33,243 (37.71%) unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI), ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in banana. Conclusions This study generated a substantial amount of banana transcript sequences and compared the defense responses against Foc TR4 between resistant and susceptible Cavendish bananas. The results contribute to the identification of candidate genes related to plant resistance in a non-model organism, banana, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

2012-01-01

286

[Identification of phenylacetic acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud, using GC-MS].  

PubMed

These studies are concerned with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a.), the causal agent of bayoud, the wilt disease of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Fungal secondary metabolites are chemical compounds identified in a limited number of species. They consist of toxins, antibiotics and antifungal agents. Among the metabolites we could isolate from the pathogen grown in a liquid medium, and then identify by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), phenylacetic acid has been distinguished. This compound is widely described in the literature as having antimicrobial, antifungal, phytotoxic properties and also endowed with hormonal activity similar to that of indole acetic acid (IAA). To date, this metabolite has never been reported in F. o. a. PMID:21146137

Ait Kettout, T; Rahmania, F

2010-01-01

287

Evolutionary relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense vegetative compatibility groups.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.), is one of the most destructive strains of the vascular wilt fungus F. oxysporum. Genetic relatedness among and within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied by sequencing two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA regions in a collection of 70 F. oxysporum isolates that include representatives of 20 VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, other formae speciales, and nonpathogens. To determine the ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to sexually recombine, crosses were made between isolates of opposite mating types. Phylogenetic analysis separated the F. oxysporum isolates into two clades and eight lineages. Phylogenetic relationships between F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and other formae speciales of F. oxysporum and the relationships among VCGs and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense clearly showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense's ability to cause disease on banana has emerged multiple times, independently, and that the ability to cause disease to a specific banana cultivar is also a polyphyletic trait. These analyses further suggest that both coevolution with the host and horizontal gene transfer may have played important roles in the evolutionary history of the pathogen. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system should sexual reproduction occur. Although, no sexual structures were observed, some lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense harbored MAT-1 and MAT-2 isolates, suggesting a potential that these lineages have a sexual origin that might be more recent than initially anticipated. PMID:19482953

Fourie, Gerda; Steenkamp, E T; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

2009-07-01

288

Evolutionary Relationships among the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Vegetative Compatibility Groups?  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.), is one of the most destructive strains of the vascular wilt fungus F. oxysporum. Genetic relatedness among and within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense was studied by sequencing two nuclear and two mitochondrial DNA regions in a collection of 70 F. oxysporum isolates that include representatives of 20 VCGs of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, other formae speciales, and nonpathogens. To determine the ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to sexually recombine, crosses were made between isolates of opposite mating types. Phylogenetic analysis separated the F. oxysporum isolates into two clades and eight lineages. Phylogenetic relationships between F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and other formae speciales of F. oxysporum and the relationships among VCGs and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense clearly showed that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense's ability to cause disease on banana has emerged multiple times, independently, and that the ability to cause disease to a specific banana cultivar is also a polyphyletic trait. These analyses further suggest that both coevolution with the host and horizontal gene transfer may have played important roles in the evolutionary history of the pathogen. All examined isolates harbored one of the two mating-type idiomorphs, but never both, which suggests a heterothallic mating system should sexual reproduction occur. Although, no sexual structures were observed, some lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense harbored MAT-1 and MAT-2 isolates, suggesting a potential that these lineages have a sexual origin that might be more recent than initially anticipated.

Fourie, Gerda; Steenkamp, E. T.; Gordon, T. R.; Viljoen, A.

2009-01-01

289

Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Investigation of the defense response against this pathogen had primarily been conducted using leaf tissue and little was known about the root defense response. In this study, we profiled the expression of root genes after infection with F. oxysporum by microarray analysis. In contrast to the leaf response, root tissue did not show a strong induction of defense-associated gene expression and instead showed a greater proportion of repressed genes. Screening insertion mutants from differentially expressed genes in the microarray uncovered a role for the transcription factor ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR72 (ERF72) in susceptibility to F. oxysporum. Due to the role of ERF72 in suppressing programmed cell death and detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined the pub22/pub23/pub24 U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligase triple mutant which is known to possess enhanced ROS production in response to pathogen challenge. We found that the pub22/23/24 mutant is more resistant to F. oxysporum infection, suggesting that a heightened innate immune response provides protection against F. oxysporum. We conclude that root-mediated defenses against soil-borne pathogens can be provided at multiple levels.

Chen, Yi Chung; Wong, Chin Lin; Muzzi, Frederico; Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Kidd, Brendan N.; Schenk, Peer M.

2014-01-01

290

Induced resistance in tomato plants by IAA against Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici.  

PubMed

The phytohormone IAA (indol-3-acetic acid) was tested in vitro on growth of tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici. The hormone reduced spore germination, mycelial dry weight and protein content. Such reduction was matched with the elevation in the hormone concentration. The in vivo application of IAA to soil of the uninoculated plants (controls) improved growth and yielded longer shoot and root, particularly at low concentrations. Moreover, the hormone could prevent completely any chance for disease incidence by soil pathogens. Presence of IAA in soil of inoculated plants not only reduced the infection rate but also increased plant growth, causing that they appeared healthy and normal. Disease suppression in tomato plants, exerted by application of IAA, was achieved through either increasing plant growth, exerting a direct harmful effect on the target pathogen and/or inducing resistance in host tissue. The induced resistance was correlated with induction of certain secondary metabolites which may have a role in increasing tolerance in tomato plants to the pathogen. PMID:15478356

Sharaf, Eman F; Farrag, Ayman A

2004-01-01

291

Increased resistance to fungal wilts in transgenic eggplant expressing alfalfa glucanase gene.  

PubMed

The wilt diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum are the major diseases of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). In order to generate transgenic resistance against the wilt diseases, Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was performed to introduce alfalfa glucanase gene encoding an acidic glucanase into eggplant using neomycin phosphotransferase (npt-II) gene as a plant selection marker. The transgene integration into eggplant genome was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis and transgene expression by the glucanase activity and western blot analysis. The selected transgenic lines were challenged with V. dahliae and F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo growth conditions, and transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance against the wilt-causing fungi with a delay of 5-7 days in the disease development as compared to wild-type plants. PMID:24757318

Singh, Deepali; Ambroise, Annick; Haicour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2014-04-01

292

Induced resistance to Fusarial wilt of banana by menadione sodium bisulphite treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal agent of banana vascular wilt disease named Panama disease and one of the most serious threats to banana crops worldwide. A water-soluble addition compound of vitamin K3, menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), first studied as a plant growth regulator, has recently been shown to induce resistance against Panama disease. Effective fungicides

A. A. Borges; A. Borges-Pérez; M. Fernández-Falcón

2004-01-01

293

Plant Pathology and nematology Development of a DNA-based Macroarray for the Detection and Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in Cotton t issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

a dna-based macroarray was developed to quickly and accurately identify all known races and the two australian biotypes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of cotton. t he macroarray utilized oligonucleotide probes designed from sequences of the elongation factor gene unique to Races 1, 3, 4, 8 or the australian biotypes. Starting with diseased

C. A. Gilbert; N. Zhang; R. B. Hutmacher; R. M. Davis; C. D. Smart

294

Immunocytochemical localization of fusarium toxins in infected wheat spikes by Fusarium culmorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two antisera raised against deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) were used to investigate the subcellular localization of the fusarium toxins, DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, in Fusarium culmorum infected wheat spikes and kernels by means of the immunogold labelling technique. The hyphae of the pathogen produced the toxins when they grew on the surface of the lemma and the ovary as

Z KANG; H BUCHENAUER

1999-01-01

295

Cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. Here we describe that cerebroside C is produced in diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. In addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside A, B, or C was detected in other soilborne phytopathogens, such as Pythium and Botrytis. Treatment of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), melon (Cucumis melo), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with cerebroside B resulted in resistance to infection by each pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum. Induction of pathogenesis-related genes and H(2)O(2) production by treatment with cerebroside B were observed in tomato root tissues. The cerebroside elicitor showed no antifungal activity against F. oxysporum in vitro, indicating that the cerebroside elicitor activates defense mechanisms to confer resistance to Fusarium disease. These results suggest that cerebroside functions as a non-race-specific elicitor in a wide range of plant-phytopathogenic fungus interactions. Additionally, cerebroside elicitor serves as a potential biologically derived control agent. PMID:18943100

Umemura, Kenji; Tanino, Shigeki; Nagatsuka, Tadako; Koga, Jinichiro; Iwata, Michiaki; Nagashima, Kenji; Amemiya, Yoshimiki

2004-08-01

296

Panama Disease: Cell Wall Reinforcement in Banana Roots in Response to Elicitors from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race Four.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. Tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. Goldfinger and susceptible cv. Williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for resistance in breeding programs. Similarly, defense responses were induced by treatment of the plants with an elicitor preparation from the mycelial cell walls of the pathogen. Differences in the induction of lignin and callose deposition, phenolics, and the enzymes involved in cell wall strengthening; phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were determined. Root tissue of the tolerant cv. Goldfinger responded to the fungal elicitor through the strong deposition of lignin, preceded by the induction or activation of the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and polymerization thereof, whereas only slight increases were observed for the susceptible cv. Williams. No increase in callose content was observed for either clone. These results indicate an important role for cell wall strengthening due to the deposition of lignin as an inducible defense mechanism of banana roots against F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four. PMID:18944483

De Ascensao, A R; Dubery, I A

2000-10-01

297

Allelopathic impact of artificially applied coumarin on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watermelon production is threatened by fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON) in continuous cultivation system. Some elements, mainly allelochemicals, released from living roots or decayed plants\\u000a might be associated with the disease. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possible impact of coumarin, one kind of\\u000a watermelon allelochemical, on FON. Furthermore, possible new mechanisms might

Hong-Sheng Wu; Waseem Raza; Dong-Yang Liu; Cheng-Long Wu; Ze-Shen Mao; Yang-Chun Xu; Qi-Rong Shen

2008-01-01

298

Functional characterization of the gene FoOCH1 encoding a putative ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt and has become one of the most destructive pathogens threatening the banana production worldwide. However, few genes related to morphogenesis and pathogenicity of this fungal pathogen have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the disrupted gene in a T-DNA insertional mutant (L953) of FOC with significantly reduced virulence on banana plants. The gene disrupted by T-DNA insertion in L953 harbors an open reading frame, which encodes a protein with homology to ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase (OCH1) in fungi. The deletion mutants (?FoOCH1) of the OCH1 orthologue (FoOCH1) in FOC were impaired in fungal growth, exhibited brighter staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Concanavalin A, had less cell wall proteins and secreted more proteins into liquid media than the wild type. Furthermore, the mutation or deletion of FoOCH1 led to loss of ability to penetrate cellophane membrane and decline in hyphal attachment and colonization as well as virulence to the banana host. The mutant phenotypes were fully restored by complementation with the wild type FoOCH1 gene. Our data provide a first evidence for the critical role of FoOCH1 in maintenance of cell wall integrity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. PMID:24503549

Li, Min-Hui; Xie, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Xiu; Ding, Zhao-Jian; Ling, Jin-Feng; Xi, Ping-Gen; Zhou, Jia-Nuan; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin; Jiang, Zi-De

2014-04-01

299

Phylogenetic relationship between different race representative populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in respect of translation elongation factor-1?, ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer region genes.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1? (TEF-1?), ?-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1?, ?-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1?, the groups generated by ?-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1? partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately. PMID:24639029

Dubey, Sunil C; Priyanka, Kumari; Singh, Vivek

2014-06-01

300

FoSTUA, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein, differentially regulates development of three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores, in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt of a wide variety of plant species. F. oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. Falcate macroconidia are formed generally from terminal phialides on conidiophores and rarely from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Ellipsoidal microconidia are formed from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Globose chlamydospores with thick walls are developed by the modification of hyphal and conidial cells. Here we describe FoSTUA of F. oxysporum, which differentially regulates the development of macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. FoSTUA encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to Aspergillus nidulans StuA, which has been identified as a transcriptional regulator controlling conidiation. Nuclear localization of FoStuA was verified by using strains expressing FoStuA-green fluorescent protein fusions. The FoSTUA-targeted mutants exhibited normal microconidium formation in cultures. However, the mutants lacked conidiophores and produced macroconidia at low frequencies only from intercalary phialides. Thus, FoSTUA appears to be necessary to induce conidiophore differentiation. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. These data demonstrate that FoStuA is a positive regulator and a negative regulator for the development of macroconidia and chlamydospores, respectively, and is dispensable for microconidium formation in cultures. The disease-causing ability of F. oxysporum was not affected by mutations in FoSTUA. However, the mutants produced markedly fewer macroconidia and microconidia in infected plants than the wild type. These results suggest that FoSTUA also has an important role for microconidium formation specifically in infected plants. PMID:15590816

Ohara, Toshiaki; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-12-01

301

Preliminary Identification and Typing of Pathogenic and Toxigenic Fusarium Species Using Restriction Digestion of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 Region  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusarium species are capable of causing a wide range of crop plants infections as well as uncommon human infections. Many species of the genus produce mycotoxins, which are responsible for acute or chronic diseases in animals and humans. Identification of Fusaria to the species level is necessary for biological, epidemiological, pathological, and toxicological purposes. In this study, we undertook a computer-based analysis of ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 in 192 GenBank sequences from 36 Fusarium species to achieve data for establishing a molecular method for specie-specific identification. Methods: Sequence data and 610 restriction enzymes were analyzed for choosing RFLP profiles, and subsequently designed and validated a PCR-restriction enzyme system for identification and typing of species. DNA extracted from 32 reference strains of 16 species were amplified using ITS1 and ITS4 universal primers followed by sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products. Results: The following 3 restriction enzymes TasI, ItaI and CfoI provide the best discriminatory power. Using ITS1 and ITS4 primers a product of approximately 550bp was observed for all Fusarium strains, as expected regarding the sequence analyses. After RFLP of the PCR products, some species were definitely identified by the method and some strains had different patterns in same species. Conclusion: Our profile has potential not only for identification of species, but also for genotyping of strains. On the other hand, some Fusarium species were 100% identical in their ITS-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 sequences, therefore differentiation of these species is impossible regarding this target alone. ITS-PCR-RFLP method might be useful for preliminary differentiation and typing of most common Fusarium species.

Mirhendi, H; Ghiasian, A; Vismer, HF; Asgary, MR; Jalalizand, N; Arendrup, MC; Makimura, K

2010-01-01

302

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

303

Germination of Fusarium oxysporum in root exudates from tomato plants challenged with different Fusarium oxysporum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microconidia from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum to root exudates from tomato plants inoculated with different pathogenic and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains was studied. Root exudates from non-inoculated tomatoes highly stimulated the microconidial germination of the two\\u000a tomato pathogens, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici strain Fol 007 and F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici strain Forl 101587. In root exudates

Siegrid Steinkellner; Roswitha Mammerler; Horst Vierheilig

2008-01-01

304

Detection of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in infected tomato plants.  

PubMed

The antifungal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) is proposed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a vascular pathogen of tomato, produces a tomatinase enzyme which hydrolyses the glycoalkaloid into non-fungitoxic compounds. Detoxification of alpha-tomatine may be how this fungus avoids the plant glycoalkaloid barrier. As an initial step to evaluate this possibility we have studied the induction of tomatinase; (i) in fungal cultures containing extracts from leaf, stem or root of tomato plants; and (ii) in stem and root of tomato plants infected with the pathogen at different infection stages. The kinetics of tomatinase induction with leaf extract (0.6% dry weight) was similar to that observed with 20 micrograms ml-1 of alpha-tomatine. In the presence of stem extract, tomatinase activity was less than 50% of that induced with leaf extract, whereas in the presence of root extract tomatinase activity was very low. In the stem of infected tomato plants tomatinase activity was higher at the wilt stage than in previous infections stages and in root, tomatinase activity appeared with the first symptoms and was maintained until wilting. TLC analysis showed that the tomatinase induced in culture medium with plant extracts and in infected tomato plants had the same mode of action as the enzyme induced with pure alpha-tomatine, hydrolysing the glycoalkaloid into its non-fungitoxic forms, tomatidine and beta-lycotetraose. The antisera raised against purified tomatinase recognized in extracts of root and stem of infected tomato plants a protein of 50000 (45000 when proteins were deglycosylated), corresponding to the tomatinase enzyme. Therefore, it is concluded that F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici express tomatinase in vivo as a result of the infection of tomato plant. PMID:9237400

Lairini, K; Ruiz-Rubio, M

1997-08-01

305

Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction for Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (telomorph Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of several destructive crop diseases. Investigating subcellular localizations of F. gramin- earum proteins can provide insight into pathogenic mechanisms underlying F. graminearum-host interactions. In this paper, we design a novel balanced ensemble classifier based on support vector machines (SVMs) to predict F. graminearum proteins' subcellular localization from the

Chenglei Sun; Wei-Hua Tang; Luonan Chen; Xing-Ming Zhao

306

Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Conclusion Our data suggest that resistance against FOM in melon involves only limited transcriptional changes, and that wilting symptoms could derive, at least partially, from an active plant response. We discuss the pathogen-derived transcripts expressed in planta during the infection process and potentially related to virulence functions, as well as transcripts that are differentially expressed between the two FOM races grown in vitro. These transcripts provide candidate sequences that can be further tested for their ability to distinguish between races. Sequence data from this article have been deposited in GenBank, Accession Numbers: HO867279-HO867981.

2011-01-01

307

Use of mass spectrometry to identify clinical Fusarium isolates.  

PubMed

Fusarium spp. have recently emerged as significant human pathogens. Identification of these species is important, both for epidemiological purposes and for patient management, but conventional identification based on morphological traits is hindered by major phenotypic polymorphism. In this study, 62 strains, or isolates, belonging to nine Fusarium species were subjected to both molecular identification TEF1 gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Following stringent standardization, the proteomic-based method appeared to be both reproducible and robust. Mass spectral analysis by comparison with a database, built in this study, of the most frequently isolated species, including Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticilloides, Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium dimerum, correctly identified 57 strains. As expected, the four species (i.e. Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium polyphialidicum, Fusarium sacchari) not represented in the database were not identified. Results from mass spectrometry and molecular identification agreed in five of the six cases in which results from morphological and molecular identification were not in agreement. MALDI-TOF yielded results within 1 h, making it a valuable tool for identifying clinical Fusarium isolates at the species level. Uncommon species must now be added to the database. MALDI-TOF may also prove useful for identifying other clinically important moulds. PMID:19456834

Marinach-Patrice, C; Lethuillier, A; Marly, A; Brossas, J-Y; Gené, J; Symoens, F; Datry, A; Guarro, J; Mazier, D; Hennequin, C

2009-07-01

308

A rapid molecular method for differentiating two special forms (lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici) of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Two pathogenic special forms (f. sp.) of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) are morphologically indistinguishable. Although they are pathogenic to the same host genus Lycopersicon (tomato), and infect the same tomato cultivar, they form distinct diseases; Fol causes wilt and Forl causes crown rot and root rot. These two special forms apparently exist as genetically isolated populations, based on vegetative compatibility and molecular variation at the DNA level. In seeking efficient diagnostic tools for differentiating Fol and Forl isolates, we examined three techniques: isozyme analysis, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RFLP by HaeIII-digestion of total genomic DNA, and an osmotic method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect fungal pigments. The isolates were collected from geographically widespread locations. Distinct HPLC-profile differences were found between an endophytic non-pathogenic isolate and the other pathogenic isolates. However, the direct mtDNA RFLP technique proved to be an efficient diagnostic tool for routine differentiation of Fol and Forl isolates. PMID:15446712

Attitalla, Idress H; Fatehi, Jamshid; Levenfors, Jens; Brishammar, Sture

2004-07-01

309

The type 2C protein phosphatase FgPtc1p of the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is involved in lithium toxicity and virulence.  

PubMed

Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are monomeric protein serine/threonine phosphatases that play various roles in eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we characterized the PP2C encoded by FgPTC1 in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight on wheat and barley. We found that deletion of FgPTC1 delays the mycelium growth of F. graminearum in response to lithium. Consistently, FgPTC1 complemented the function of ScPTC1 in lithium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of FgPTC1 attenuated the virulence of F. graminearum on wheat. Therefore, FgPTC1 plays an important role in regulating the hyphal growth and virulence of F. graminearum. PMID:20447276

Jiang, Linghuo; Yang, Jingran; Fan, Feiyu; Zhang, Dajun; Wang, Xuli

2010-03-01

310

A comparison of wild-type, old and modern tomato cultivars in the interaction with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

The effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AM) varies in plant cultivars. In the present study, we tested whether wild-type, old and modern tomato cultivars differ in the parameters of the AM interaction. Moreover, the bioprotective effect of AM against the soilborne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) was tested in the different cultivars. Ten tomato cultivars were inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae alone or in combination with Fol. At the end of the experiment, AM root colonization, Fusarium infection, and the plant fresh weight was determined. The tomato cultivars differed in their susceptibility to AMF and Fol, but these differences were not cultivar age dependent. In all the cultivars affected by Fol, mycorrhization showed a bioprotective effect. Independent of the cultivar age, tomato cultivars differ in their susceptibility to AMF and Fol and the bioprotective effect of mycorrhization, indicating that the cultivar age does not affect the AM parameters tested in this study. PMID:21674299

Steinkellner, Siegrid; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; García-Garrido, Jose M; Illana, Antonio; Ocampo, Juan A; Vierheilig, Horst

2012-04-01

311

Pathogenicity of Aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

2012-01-01

312

Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity. PMID:22662271

Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

2012-01-01

313

Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results confirmed the good suppressive activity of the compost under study against soil-borne pathogens. The selection of antagonists from compost is a promising strategy for the development of new biological control agents against soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21534476

Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

2010-01-01

314

Fusarium equiseti GF191 as an effective biocontrol agent against Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in rock wool systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, and five isolates of bacteria were tested in hydroponic rock wool systems as potential biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL). PGPF Fusarium equiseti proved the most effective organism in controlling FCRR, and the reduction rate by F.

H. Horinouchi; A. Muslim; T. Suzuki; M. Hyakumachi

2007-01-01

315

Cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A pectate lyase (PL1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. The gene encoding PL1 was isolated from a genomic library of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative N-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid N-terminal signal peptide. PL1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi pelA, pelB, pelC and pelD genes, respectively. A single copy of the gene was detected in different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The pl1 transcript was observed during growth on polygalacturonic acid sodium salt and tomato vascular tissue, but not on pectin or glucose. RT-PCR showed pl1 expression in roots and stems of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. PMID:10022947

Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; García Maceira, F I; Roncero, M I; Di Pietro, A

1999-02-01

316

Antimicrobial activity of pyrrocidines from Acremonium zeae against endophytes and pathogens of maize.  

PubMed

Acremonium zeae produces pyrrocidines A and B, which are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics, and is recognized as a seedborne protective endophyte of maize which augments host defenses against microbial pathogens causing seedling blights and stalk rots. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant in vitro activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in assays performed using conidia as inoculum, with pyrrocidine A being more active than B. In equivalent assays performed with conidia or hyphal cells as inoculum, pyrrocidine A revealed potent activity against major stalk and ear rot pathogens of maize, including F. graminearum, Nigrospora oryzae, Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, and Rhizoctonia zeae. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant activity against seed-rotting saprophytes A. flavus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, as well as seed-infecting colonists of the phylloplane Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Curvularia lunata, which produces a damaging leaf spot disease. Protective endophytes, including mycoparasites which grow asymptomatically within healthy maize tissues, show little sensitivity to pyrrocidines. Pyrrocidine A also exhibited potent activity against Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense, causal agent of Goss's bacterial wilt of maize, and Bacillus mojaviense and Pseudomonas fluorescens, maize endophytes applied as biocontrol agents, but were ineffective against the wilt-producing bacterium Pantoea stewartii. PMID:19055442

Wicklow, Donald T; Poling, Stephen M

2009-01-01

317

Phylogeny of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae Inferred from Mitochondrial Small Subunit, Elongation Factor 1-alpha, and Nuclear Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Sequence Data.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, causal agent of Fusarium wilt of lettuce, is a serious pathogen recently reported in Arizona. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, and the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region was conducted to resolve relationships among f. sp. lactucae isolates, F. oxysporum isolates from other hosts, and local non-pathogenic isolates. Analysis of mtSSU sequences provided limited phylogenetic resolution and did not differentiate the lactucae isolates from 13 other F. oxysporum isolates. Analysis of EF-1alpha sequences resulted in moderate resolution, grouping seven formae speciales with the lactucae isolates. Analysis of the IGS region revealed numerous sequence polymorphisms among F. oxysporum formae speciales consisting of insertions, deletions, and single nucleotide transitions and substitutions. Repeat sequence analysis revealed several duplicated subrepeat units that were distributed across much of the region. Based on analysis of the IGS sequence data, lactucae race 1 isolates resolved as a monophyletic group with three other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. In all analyses, lactucae race 2 isolates composed a separate lineage that was phylo-genetically distinct and distantly related to the lactucae race 1 isolates. PMID:18942941

Mbofung, Gladys Y; Hong, Soon Gyu; Pryor, Barry M

2007-01-01

318

Impaired colonization and infection of tomato roots by the Deltafrp1 mutant of Fusarium oxysporum correlates with reduced CWDE gene expression.  

PubMed

The vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici efficiently invades roots and colonizes vascular tissues of its host tomato. For these processes, the F-box protein Frp1 is required. The Fusarium oxysporum Deltafrp1 mutant was characterized in detail to uncover the cause of its colonization defect. Using growth assays, we could attribute poor root colonization to reduced assimilation of organic acids, amino acids (except proline), or polysaccharides, singly or in combination. External root colonization by the Deltafrp1 mutant is restored by the addition of 0.1% glucose or proline but infection still does not occur. This is due to the inability of the Deltafrp1 mutant to penetrate the roots, as demonstrated by the lack of expression of SIX1 in the Deltafrp1 strain, which is a gene exclusively expressed inside roots, and loss of cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) gene expression. Many of the metabolic defects of the Deltafrp1 strain can be attributed to reduced expression of the ICL1 (isocitrate lyase) gene. Strikingly, an Deltaicl1 mutant is still fully pathogenic and capable of external root colonization. We conclude that the inability of the Deltafrp1 strain to colonize and invade roots is not primarily due to metabolic defects but can be attributed to reduced expression of several CWDE genes. PMID:19348569

Jonkers, Wilfried; Rodrigues, Christopher D Andrade; Rep, Martijn

2009-05-01

319

Molecular Characterization of an Endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum Expressed during Early Stages of Infection  

PubMed Central

The tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. Here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 8.3 and is more closely related to endoPGs from other fungal plant pathogens than to PG1, the major endoPG of F. oxysporum. Overexpression of pg5 in a bacterial heterologous system produced a 35-kDa protein with endoPG activity. Accumulation of pg5 transcript is induced by citrus pectin and d-galacturonic acid and repressed by glucose. As shown by reverse transcription-PCR, pg5 is expressed by F. oxysporum in tomato roots during the initial stages of infection. Targeted inactivation of pg5 has no detectable effect on virulence toward tomato plants.

Garcia-Maceira, Fe I.; Di Pietro, A.; Huertas-Gonzalez, M. Dolores; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Roncero, M. Isabel G.

2001-01-01

320

Molecular characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum expressed during early stages of infection.  

PubMed

The tomato vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. Here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. The putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pI of 8.3 and is more closely related to endoPGs from other fungal plant pathogens than to PG1, the major endoPG of F. oxysporum. Overexpression of pg5 in a bacterial heterologous system produced a 35-kDa protein with endoPG activity. Accumulation of pg5 transcript is induced by citrus pectin and D-galacturonic acid and repressed by glucose. As shown by reverse transcription-PCR, pg5 is expressed by F. oxysporum in tomato roots during the initial stages of infection. Targeted inactivation of pg5 has no detectable effect on virulence toward tomato plants. PMID:11319099

García-Maceira, F I; Di Pietro, A; Huertas-González, M D; Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Roncero, M I

2001-05-01

321

Differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Phoenix canadensis (Canary Island Date Palm) by vegetative compatibility grouping and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island Date Palm) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc). The disease occurs worldwide, including Australia where hundreds of palms have been killed. Isolates of Foc were collected from fronds of diseased palms at sites around Sydney and different parts (non-frond) of individual palms within\\u000a a site. Three techniques were used to

L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

2002-01-01

322

Suppression of growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, tomato bacterial wilt agent, on\\/in tomato seedlings cultivated in a suppressive soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the sites responsible for the suppressiveness of tomato bacterial wilt in a suppressive soil, population dynamics of {iRalstonia solanacearum} in non-rhizosphere soil, roots and stems of tomato plants was compared between a wilt-conducive soil and a suppressive soil both of which were artificially infested with the pathogenic strain SL8. Rhizobacteria were recovered as two fractions; root fraction-l obtained

Masaya Nishiyama; Yoshitaka Shiomi; Sae Suzuki; Takuya Marumoto

1999-01-01

323

Technological Advancement Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2 h, germination tube

Kye-Yong Seong; Xinhua Zhao; Jin-Rong Xu; Ulrich Guldener; H. Corby Kistler

324

Conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These events, recorded after suspension of spores in liquid germination medium, included spore swelling at 2h, germination tube emergence

Kye-Yong Seong; Xinhua Zhao; Jin-Rong Xu; Ulrich Güldener; H. Corby Kistler

2008-01-01

325

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

326

Differential Control of Head Blight Pathogens of Wheat by Fungicides and Consequences for Mycotoxin Contamination of Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of wheat is caused by a disease complex comprised of toxigenic pathogens, predominantly Fusarium spp., and a non-toxigenic pathogen Microdochium nivale, which causes symptoms visually indistinguishable from Fusarium and is often included as a causal agent of Fusarium head blight. Four field trials are reported here, including both naturally and artificially inoculated trials in which the effect

Duncan R. Simpson; Gillian E. Weston; Judith A. Turner; Philip Jennings; Paul Nicholson

2001-01-01

327

Fusarium oxysporum as a Multihost Model for the Genetic Dissection of Fungal Virulence in Plants and Mammals  

PubMed Central

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase, a pH response transcription factor, or a class V chitin synthase previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants were tested in the mouse model. The results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during the infection of tomato plants and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to study fungal virulence mechanisms in plant and mammalian pathogenesis.

Ortoneda, Montserrat; Guarro, Josep; Madrid, Marta P.; Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Mayayo, Emilio; Di Pietro, Antonio

2004-01-01

328

Fusarium oxysporum as a multihost model for the genetic dissection of fungal virulence in plants and mammals.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. The extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. We present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted in disseminated infection of multiple organs and death of the animals. Knockout mutants in genes encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase, a pH response transcription factor, or a class V chitin synthase previously shown to be implicated in virulence on tomato plants were tested in the mouse model. The results indicate that some of these virulence factors play functionally distinct roles during the infection of tomato plants and mice. Thus, a single F. oxysporum strain can be used to study fungal virulence mechanisms in plant and mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:14977985

Ortoneda, Montserrat; Guarro, Josep; Madrid, Marta P; Caracuel, Zaira; Roncero, M Isabel G; Mayayo, Emilio; Di Pietro, Antonio

2004-03-01

329

Fusarium solani: An Emerging Fungus in Chronic Diabetic Ulcer  

PubMed Central

Fusarium species, a mold which causes disease mainly in plants has emerged as pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Fusarium is known to cause keratitis, onychomycosis, and endophthalmitis. Fusarium solani, is the most common isolate from clinical specimen. Here is a case, a 65-year-old male with type II diabetes mellitus since 10 years presented with a large ulcer on the left leg since 8 months following trauma. The fungal culture of the escar of the ulcer isolated a mold, Fusarium solani. The patient's leg was amputated and was treated with amphotericin B. The patient was discharged on healing of the stump. This case gives emphasis on fungal culture in chronic diabetic ulcer.

Pai, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Shreevidya, K; Shenoy, Divakar

2010-01-01

330

Biological and phylogenetic characterization of Fusarium oxysporum complex, which causes yellows on Brassica spp., and proposal of F. oxysporum f. sp. rapae, a novel forma specialis pathogenic on B. rapa in Japan.  

PubMed

Although the causal agent of yellows of Brassica rapa (turnip, pak choi, and narinosa) in Japan was reported in 1996 to be Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, this classification has remained inconclusive because of a lack of detailed genetic and pathogenic studies. Therefore, we analyzed the taxonomic position of this organism using Japanese isolates of F. oxysporum complex obtained from diseased individuals of various B. rapa subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the rDNA intergenic spacer region and the mating-type gene (MAT1-1-1alpha-box) showed that B. rapa and cabbage isolates belong to different monophyletic clades that separated at early evolutionary stages. Additionally, correlations were observed between the molecular phylogeny and the vegetative compatibility groups. Isolates from turnip, komatsuna, and narinosa (B. rapa group) did not show pathogenicity against cabbage or broccoli (B. oleracea group), although they caused severe symptoms on their original host species. In contrast, cabbage isolates had significantly higher (P = 0.05) virulence on B. oleracea than on B. rapa crops. Our results indicate that F. oxysporum complex isolates from B. rapa and B. oleracea are not only phylogenetically distinct but also differ in host specificity. Therefore, we propose a novel forma specialis, F. oxysporum f. sp. rapae, which causes yellows on B. rapa, including turnip, komatsuna, pak choi, and narinosa. PMID:18944198

Enya, J; Togawa, M; Takeuchi, T; Yoshida, S; Tsushima, S; Arie, T; Sakai, T

2008-04-01

331

Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an econom- ically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not

Anna E. Whitfield; Diane E. Ullman; Thomas L. German

2004-01-01

332

Distribution of the FoToml gene encoding tomatinase in formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and identification of a novel tomatinase from F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici , the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine accumulates in tomato plants and may protect plants from fungal infection. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of vascular wilt of tomato, produces a tomatinase (FoToml) that degrades ?-tomatine to the nontoxic compounds tetrasaccharide lycotetraose and tomatidine. Induction of tomatinases and the distribution of FoToml homologs were examined among 30 strains belonging to 16

Shin-ichi Ito; Takashi Kawaguchi; Ayumi Nagata; Hideyuki Tamura; Hanako Matsushita; Hiroyuki Takahara; Shuhei Tanaka; Tsuyoshi Ikeda

2004-01-01

333

Dispersal of Formulations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis by Ants.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A natural epidemic of Fusarium wilt on coca (Erythroxylum coca) in Peru prompted the suggestion of possibly using the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli as a mycoherbicide against this narcotic plant. During field trials conducted in Kauai, HI, to test the pathogenicity of the coca wilt pathogen, ants were observed removing formulations from test plots. While removal of formulations by ants was considered detrimental with respect to conducting field tests, ant removal was considered potentially beneficial in disseminating the mycoherbicide. Thus, research was initiated to assess the ability of formulation additives to alter the preference of ants for the formulated mycoherbicide. In Hawaii, preference of indigenous ants for removing formulations was tested using three different food bases (rice, rice plus canola oil, and wheat flour [gluten]). Similar tests were conducted at Beltsville, MD, using F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, in which the formulation based on wheat flour was replaced by a formulation based on canola meal. Formulations based on wheat were preferred by ants in both locations; up to 90% of the wheat plus rice flour granules (C-6) and the wheat gluten plus kaolin granules (pesta) were removed within 24 h, while only 20% of those containing rice without oils were taken. However, when either canola, sunflower (Maryland only), or olive oil was added to the rice formulation, up to 90% of the granules were taken. The formulation based on canola meal was less attractive to ants, as only 65% of the granules were removed within a period of 24 h. Ants showed no preference with respect to presence or absence of fungal biomass. To alter the attractiveness of the C-6 formulation to ants, C-6 was amended with three natural products. Canna and tansy leaves were added to C-6 at a ratio of 1:5 (wt/wt), while chili powder was added at 1:25 or 1:2.5 (wt/wt). Canna, tansy, and the higher rate of chili powder significantly reduced the number of C-6 granules removed by ants. Canna and tansy leaves affected neither germination nor sporulation of the mycoherbicide, while the high concentration of chili powder reduced viability of propagules in the formulation. More F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli-type colonies were recovered from inside ant nests (9 cm depth) than from nest surfaces, indicating that ants may distribute the mycoherbicide in the soil profile. Ants passively carried propagules of F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli outside their bodies, as well as either very closely adhering to the outside or within their bodies. PMID:18944963

Gracia-Garza, J A; Fravel, D R; Bailey, B A; Hebbar, P K

1998-03-01

334

Spatial and temporal dynamics of the colonization of Pinus radiata by Fusarium circinatum, of conidiophora development in the pith and of traumatic resin duct formation.  

PubMed

· Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease in a wide range of pine trees, including Pinus radiata, with devastating economic consequences. · To assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of growth of this pathogen in radiata pine, we examined the process of infection using both real-time PCR to quantify fungal biomass inside the plant host, and confocal microscopy using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of F. circinatum. · Pathogen growth exhibited three distinct phases: an initial exponential increase in fungal biomass, concomitant with pathogen colonization of the cortex and phloem; a slowdown in fungal growth coincident with sporulating hyphae deep within the host; and stabilization of the fungal biomass when the first wilting symptoms appeared. The number of resin ducts in the xylem was found to increase in response to infection and the fungus grew inside both constitutive and traumatic resin ducts. · These results indicate that conidiation may contribute to the spatial or temporal dissemination of the pathogen. Moreover, the present findings raise the intriguing possibility that the generation of traumatic resin ducts may be of more benefit to the fungus than to the plant. PMID:23496340

Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Espinel, Santiago; Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Ortíz, Amaia; González-Murua, Carmen; Duñabeitia, Miren K

2013-06-01

335

Formation of tomatine in tomato plants infected with Streptomyces species and treated with herbicides, correlated with reduction of Pseudomonas solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of tomato seeds with pendimethalin or metribuzin and inoculation of seedlings with the antagonistic Streptomyces corchorusii or/and Streptomyces mutabilis were tested for the formation of tomatine in roots and stems of tomato, infested with Pseudomonas solancearum or/and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. All treatments induced the formation of variable quantities of tomatine, compared with untreated control. The variation was proportional to: the pathogen, Fusarium was more stimulating than Pseudomonas; the antagonistic organism, S. corchorusii being more eliciting than S. mutabilis; the herbicide and its concentration, pendimethalin at 2 x 10(-3) M being the most eliciting of tomatine; and according to the soil, plants grown in non-sterilized soil accumulated more tomatine than did these grown in sterilized soil. In all treatments, stems had more tomatine than roots and non-sterilized soil was better than sterilized soil. The antagonistic streptomycetes induced accumulation of tomatine more than did the herbicides. The highest amounts of tomatine were detected in plants pretreated with pendimethalin at 2 x 10(-3) M, grown in non-sterilized soil, infested with F. oxysporum, and inoculated with S. corchorusii and S. mutabilis. The effect of the extracted tomatine on the growth of Fusarium and Pseudomonas was examined in vitro. The crude extract of tomatine from all treatments reduced growth and sporulation of F. oxysporum and growth of P. solanacearum in defined media. The reduction varied according to the treatment and was proportional to the quantities of extracted tomatine, the highest amounts being the most effective. The mechanism of phytoalexins in controlling tomato wilt pathogens was also discussed. PMID:8934667

El-Raheem, A; El-Shanshoury, R; El-Sououd, S M; Awadalla, O A; El-Bandy, N B

1995-01-01

336

Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 ?g g?¹ FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR. PMID:23702248

Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

2013-07-15

337

Effects of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial communities and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumberinum.  

PubMed

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses. PMID:19230952

Shi, Kai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Yun-Long; Yu, Jing-Quan

2009-05-01

338

The photolyase gene from the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.  

PubMed

Survival of irradiated spores from Fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (UV) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of UV. A genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from F. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the Neurospora crassa photolyase gene. The F. oxysporum phr1 cDNA was isolated and expressed in a photolyase deficient Escherichia coli strain. The complementation of the photoreactivation deficiency of this E. coli mutant by phr1 cDNA demonstrated that the photolyase gene from F. oxysporum encodes a functional protein. The F. oxysporum PHR1 protein has a domain characteristic of photolyases from fungi (Trichoderma harziaium, N. crassa, Magnaporthe grisea, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to bacteria (E. coli), and clusters in the photolyases phylogenetic tree with fungal photolyases. The F. oxysporum phr1 gene was inducible by visible light. The phr1 expression was also detected in presence of alpha-tomatine, a glycoalkaloid from tomato damaging cell membranes, suggesting that phr1 is induced by this cellular stress. PMID:14516768

Alejandre-Durán, Encarna; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

2003-11-01

339

REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

2004-01-01

340

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) is one of the major limiting factors for watermelon production worldwide. Rapid and accurate detection of the causal pathogen is the cornerstone of integrated disease management. In this paper, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Fon in soil. Positive products were amplified only from Fon isolates and not from any other species or formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested, showing a high specificity of the primer sets. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was 1.2 pg ?L(-1) genomic DNA or 10(3) spores g(-1) of artificially inoculated soil, whereas real-time PCR could detect as low as 12 fg ?L(-1) or 10(2) spores g(-1). The RealAmp assay was further applied to detect eight artificially inoculated and 85 field soil samples. No significant differences were found between the results tested by the RealAmp and real-time PCR assays. The RealAmp assay is a simple, rapid and effective technique for the quantitative detection and monitoring of Fon in soil under natural conditions. PMID:24256412

Peng, Jun; Zhan, Yuanfeng; Zeng, Fanyun; Long, Haibo; Pei, Yuelin; Guo, Jianrong

2013-12-01

341

Inoculation of tomato seedlings with Trichoderma Harzianum and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and their effect on growth and control of wilt in tomato seedlings.  

PubMed

A green house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing growth and control of a wilt pathogen caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato seedlings. The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. There were four treatments applied as follows; P52, AMF, AMF + P52 and a control. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements and disease assessment taken after 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Treatments that significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced heights and root dry weights were P52, AMF and a treatment with a combination of both P52 and AMF when compared the control. The treatment with both P52 and AMF significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced all growth parameters (heights; shoot and root dry weight) investigated compared to the control. Disease severity was generally lower in tomato plants grown with isolate P52 and AMF fungi either individually or when combined together, though the effect was not statistically significant (P? 0.05). A treatment combination of P52 + AMF had less trend of severity as compared to each individual fungus. T. harzianum and AMF can be used to enhance growth in tomato seedlings. PMID:24031662

Mwangi, Margaret W; Monda, Ethel O; Okoth, Sheila A; Jefwa, Joyce M

2011-04-01

342

Vegetative Hyphal Fusion Is Not Essential for Plant Infection by Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

Vegetative hyphal fusion (VHF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in filamentous fungi whose biological role is poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Mak-2 and the WW domain protein So are required for efficient VHF. A MAPK orthologous to Mak-2, Fmk1, was previously shown to be essential for root penetration and pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Here we took a genetic approach to test two hypotheses, that (i) VHF and plant infection have signaling mechanisms in common and (ii) VHF is required for efficient plant infection. F. oxysporum mutants lacking either Fmk1 or Fso1, an orthologue of N. crassa So, were impaired in the fusion of vegetative hyphae and microconidial germ tubes. ?fmk1 ?fso1 double mutants exhibited a more severe fusion phenotype than either single mutant, indicating that the two components function in distinct pathways. Both ?fso1 and ?fmk1 strains were impaired in the formation of hyphal networks on the root surface, a process associated with extensive VHF. The ?fso1 mutants exhibited slightly reduced virulence in tomato fruit infection assays but, in contrast to ?fmk1 strains, were still able to perform functions associated with invasive growth, such as secretion of pectinolytic enzymes or penetration of cellophane sheets, and to infect tomato plants. Thus, although VHF per se is not essential for plant infection, both processes have some signaling components in common, suggesting an evolutionary relationship between the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Prados Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

2008-01-01

343

A highly conserved effector in Fusarium oxysporum is required for full virulence on Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secreted-in-xylem (SIX) proteins of the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are secreted during infection of tomato and function in virulence or avirulence. F. oxysporum formae speciales have specific host ranges but the roles of SIX proteins in diverse hosts are unknown. We identified homologs of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici SIX1, SIX4, SIX8, and SIX9 in the genome of Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176. A SIX4 homolog (termed Fo5176-SIX4) differed from that of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol-SIX4) by only two amino acids, and its expression was induced during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing Fo5176-SIX4 had increased disease symptoms with Fo5176. Conversely, Fo5176-SIX4 gene knock-out mutants (?six4) had significantly reduced virulence on Arabidopsis, and this was associated with reduced fungal biomass and host jasmonate-mediated gene expression, the latter known to be essential for host symptom development. Full virulence was restored by complementation of ?six4 mutants with either Fo5176-SIX4 or Fol-SIX4. Thus, Fo5176-SIX4 contributes quantitatively to virulence on Arabidopsis whereas, in tomato, Fol-SIX4 acts in host specificity as both an avirulence protein and a suppressor of other race-specific resistances. The strong sequence conservation for SIX4 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Fo5176 suggests a recent common origin. PMID:21942452

Thatcher, Louise F; Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2012-02-01

344

The two-component histidine kinase Fhk1 controls stress adaptation and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungal histidine kinases (HKs) have been implicated in different processes, such as the osmostress response, hyphal development, sensitivity to fungicides and virulence. Members of HK class III are known to signal through the HOG mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but possible interactions with other MAPKs have not been explored. In this study, we have characterized fhk1, encoding a putative class III HK from the soil-borne vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Inactivation of fhk1 resulted in resistance to phenylpyrrole and dicarboximide fungicides, as well as increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress and menadione-induced oxidative stress. The osmosensitivity of Delta fhk1 mutants was associated with a striking and previously unreported change in colony morphology. The Delta fhk1 strains showed a significant decrease in virulence on tomato plants. Epistatic analysis between Fhk1 and the Fmk1 MAPK cascade indicated that Fhk1 does not function upstream of Fmk1, but that the two pathways may interact to control the response to menadione-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20447287

Rispail, Nicolas; Di Pietro, Antonio

2010-05-01

345

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1  

PubMed Central

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens.

Anderson, Marilyn A.

2014-01-01

346

Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1.  

PubMed

The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2-3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2-4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

Gaspar, Yolanda M; McKenna, James A; McGinness, Bruce S; Hinch, Jillian; Poon, Simon; Connelly, Angela A; Anderson, Marilyn A; Heath, Robyn L

2014-04-01

347

Molecular detection and genotyping of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii isolates from different agro-ecological regions of India.  

PubMed

Twenty one isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii (Fop), causing a vascular wilt in guava (Psidium guajava L.), were collected from different agro-ecological regions of India. The pathogenicity test was performed in guava seedlings, where the Fop isolates were found to be highly pathogenic. All 21 isolates were confirmed as F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii by a newly developed, species-specific primer against the conserved regions of 28S rDNA and the intergenic spacer region. RAPD and PCR-RFLP were used for genotyping the isolates to determine their genetic relationships. Fifteen RAPD primers were tested, of which five primers produced prominent, polymorphic, and reproducible bands. RAPD yielded an average of 6.5 polymorphic bands per primer, with the amplified DNA fragments ranging from 200-2,000 bp in size. A dendrogram constructed from these data indicated a 22-74% level of homology. In RFLP analysis, two major bands (350 and 220 bp) were commonly present in all isolates of F. oxysporum. These findings provide new insight for rapid, specific, and sensitive disease diagnosis. However, genotyping could be useful in strain-level discrimination of isolates from different agro-ecological regions of India. PMID:23990290

Mishra, Rupesh Kumar; Pandey, Brajesh Kumar; Singh, Vijai; Mathew, Amita John; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2013-08-01

348

Role of the transcriptional activator xlnR of Fusarium oxysporum in regulation of xylanase genes and virulence.  

PubMed

Fungal infection of plants involves degradation of the host cell wall through the action of lytic enzymes secreted by the pathogen. The role of these enzymes in virulence is difficult to determine due to their functional redundancy and, therefore, remains controversial. Here, we have studied XlnR, a zinc-finger transcription factor from the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum that is orthologous to the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes in Aspergillus spp. Transcription of the xlnR gene was activated by inducing carbon sources such as oat spelt xylan (OSX) and repressed by glucose. Targeted knockout of xlnR in F. oxysporum resulted in lack of transcriptional activation of structural xylanase genes, both in culture and during infection of tomato plants, as well as in dramatically reduced extracellular xylanase activity. By contrast, overexpression of xlnR under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA promoter did not significantly increase xylanase activity, suggesting that XlnR is regulated not only at the transcriptional but also at the post-translational level. The deltaxlnR mutants were still fully virulent on tomato plants. Thus, XlnR, the major transcriptional activator of xylanase genes, is not an essential virulence determinant in F. oxysporum. PMID:17722701

Calero-Nieto, Fernando; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Hera, Concepcion

2007-08-01

349

Proteomic identification of potential target proteins regulated by the SCF(F) (bp1) -mediated proteolysis pathway in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

F-box proteins function in the recruitment of proteins for SCF ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. Here, we studied the role of Fbp1, a nonessential F-box protein of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The ?fbp1 mutant showed a significant delay in the production of wilt symptoms on tomato plants and was impaired in invasive growth on cellophane membranes and on living plant tissue. To search for target proteins recruited by Fbp1, a combination of sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to compare proteins in mycelia of the wild-type and ?fbp1 mutant. The proteomic approach identified 41 proteins differing significantly in abundance between the two strains, 17 of which were more abundant in the ?fbp1 mutant, suggesting a possible regulation by proteasome degradation. Interestingly, several of the identified proteins were related to vesicle trafficking. Microscopic analysis revealed an impairment of the ?fbp1 strain in directional growth and in the structure of the Spitzenkörper, suggesting a role of Fbp1 in hyphal orientation. Our results indicate that Fbp1 regulates protein turnover and pathogenicity in F.?oxysporum. PMID:23855991

Miguel-Rojas, Cristina; Hera, Concepcion

2013-12-01

350

Isolates of Fusarium graminearum collected 40–320 meters above ground level cause Fusarium head blight in wheat and produce trichothecene mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobiology of fungi in the genus Fusarium is poorly understood. Many species of Fusarium are important pathogens of plants and animals and some produce dangerous secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. In 2006\\u000a and 2007, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were used to collect Fusarium 40–320 m above the ground at the Kentland Farm in Blacksburg, Virginia. Eleven single-spored isolates of

D. G. Schmale; S. D. Ross; T. L. Fetters; P. Tallapragada; A. K. Wood-Jones; B. Dingus

351

Isolation and characterization of an exopolygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 and race 4  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium wilt is an economically devastating disease that affects banana production. Although Cavendish banana cultivars are resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 1 (FOC1) and maitain banana production after Gros Michel was destructed by race 1, a new race race 4 (FOC4) was found to infect Cavendish. Results An exopolygalacturonase (PGC2) was isolated and purified from the supernatant of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). PGC2 had an apparent Mr of 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 51.7 kDa by mass spectrometry. The enzyme was N-glycosylated. PGC2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. To obtain adequate amounts of protein for functional studies between the PGC2 proteins of two races of the pathogen, pgc2 genes encoding PGC2 from race 4 (FOC4) and race 1 (FOC1), both 1395 bp in length and encoding 465 amino acids with a predicted amino-terminal signal sequence of 18 residues, were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC2 products, r-FOC1-PGC2 and r-FOC4-PGC2, were expressed and purified as active extracellular proteins. Optimal PGC2 activity was observed at 50°C and pH 5. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC1-PGC2 were 0.43 mg.mL-1 and 94.34 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. The Km and Vmax values of purified r-FOC4-PGC2 were 0.48 mg.mL-1 and 95.24 units mg protein-1 min-1, respectively. Both recombinant PGC2 proteins could induce tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that PGC2 is the first exoPG reported from the pathogen FOC, and we have shown that fully functional PGC2 can be produced in the P. pastoris expression system.

2011-01-01

352

Liquid fermentation to produce biomass of mycoherbicidal strains of Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for optimizing spore production, especially chlamydospores, by host-specific mycoherbicidal strains of Fusarium oxysporum causing vascular wilts in coca (Erythroxylum coca) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) were studied in 2.5-1 fermentors. The fermentor dissolved oxygen and pH had significant effects on the growth characteristics\\u000a of F. oxysporum strains. The effect of the fungal strain, however was not significant for most of

K. P. Hebbar; R. D. Lumsden; S. M. Poch; J. A. Lewis

1997-01-01

353

Molecular cloning and in silico analysis of potential Fusarium resistance genes in banana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for causing a destructive wilting disease in numerous crops including banana. To date, only two non-TIR-NBS-LRR\\u000a genes that confer resistance to F. oxysporum, the I2 and Fom-2 genes from tomato and melon, respectively, have been isolated. We previously identified two partial non-TIR-NBS sequences,\\u000a designated RGC2 and RGC5, from FOC race 4 resistant banana, Musa

Santy Peraza-Echeverria; James L. Dale; Rob M. Harding; Chris Collet

2009-01-01

354

Mutation breeding of banana cv. Highgate ( Musa spp., AAA Group) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using chemical mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot apices of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were treated with various concentrations of the mutagens sodium azide, diethyl sulphate, and ethyl methanesulphonate to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

355

Effects of abiotic factors and biocontrol agents on chlamydospore formation in Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium sporotrichioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydospores are vital asexual resting cells, which allow most of the Fusarium pathogenic strains to retain their longevity, thus ensuring survival of viable reproductive cells. This study suggested that both abiotic – extreme temperature and growth media, and biotic – antagonistic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SMCD 518 and mycoparasititic Acremonium strictum SMCD 504 are natural stressors able to shift chlamydospores formation in

Yit Kheng Goh; Prasad Daida; Vladimir Vujanovic

2009-01-01

356

Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.  

PubMed

The effects of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. Conditions were selected under which introduction of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with P. fluorescens WCS365 decreased the percentage of diseased plants from 96 to 7%. This is a much better disease control level than was observed in potting soil. Analysis of root exudate revealed that the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici did not alter the total amount of organic acids, but that the amount of citric acid decreased and that of succinic acid increased compared with the nontreated control. In contrast, in the presence of the P. fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, the total amount of organic acid increased, mainly due to a strong increase of the amount of citric acid, whereas the amount of succinic acid decreased dramatically. Under biocontrol conditions, when both microbes are present, the content of succinic acid decreased and the level of citric acid was similar to that in the nontreated control. The amount of sugar was approximately half that of the control sample when either one of the microbes was present alone or when both were present. Analysis of the interactions between the two microbes grown together in sterile tomato root exudate showed that WCS365 inhibited multiplication of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, whereas the fungus did not affect the number of CFU of the bacterium. PMID:17022176

Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

2006-10-01

357

Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host  

PubMed Central

Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen.

Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2011-01-01

358

Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host.  

PubMed

Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the haemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37 °C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30 °C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella haemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium-infected larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

Coleman, Jeffrey J; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V; Vyas, Jatin M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

2011-12-01

359

Xyr1 regulates xylanase but not cellulase formation in the head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen that causes severe economical losses by infecting numerous agriculturally important plants and until\\u000a now most culture plants have only low levels of Fusarium resistance. The plant cell wall can be assumed as the first target that has to be overcome by plant pathogens. Therefore\\u000a pathogenic organisms are known to produce a complex cocktail of

Kurt Brunner; Anton M. Lichtenauer; Klaus Kratochwill; Marizela Delic; Robert L. Mach

2007-01-01

360

Phenylpropanoid Pathway Is Potentiated by Silicon in the Roots of Banana Plants During the Infection Process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the resistance of banana plants to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection when supplied with Si. PMID:24350769

Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

2014-06-01

361

The infection biology of Fusarium graminearum: Defining the pathways of spikelet to spikelet colonisation in wheat ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is one of the main causal agents of Fusarium Ear Blight on wheat. How the pathogen colonises the entire ear is not known. There is controversy over whether this mycotoxin producing pathogenic fungus invades wheat floral tissue using a necrotrophic or another mode of nutrition. A detailed microscopic investigation has revealed how wild-type fungal hyphae, of the sequenced

Neil A. Brown; Martin Urban; Kim E. Hammond-Kosack

2010-01-01

362

Evaluation of Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Russet Norkotah and Six Strain Selections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain selections of Russet Norkotah have been selected for enhanced vigor and high yield. In addition, they exhibit less\\u000a severe expression of disease symptoms in the presence of Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes Verticillium wilt. However, this apparent resistance may be due to later maturity\\u000a in the strain selections. This study was designed to compare the levels

Shelley H. Jansky; J. Creighton Miller Jr

2010-01-01

363

Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae by ISSR and RAPD markers on eggplant.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae is a major soil-borne pathogen of eggplant (Solanum melongena). ISSR and RAPD markers were used to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae isolates collected from eggplant fields in southern Turkey. Those isolates were not pathogenic to tomato. Pathogens were identified by their morphology, and their identity was confirmed by PCR amplification using the specific primer PF02-3. The isolates were classified into groups on the basis of ISSR and RAPD fingerprints, which showed a level of genetic specificity and diversity not previously identified in Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae, suggesting that genetic differences are related to the pathogen in the Mediterranean region. The primers selected to characterize Fusarium oxysporum f. melongenae may be used to determine genetic differences and pathogen virulence. This study is the first to characterize eggplant F. oxysporum species using ISSR and RAPD. PMID:20390339

Baysal, O; Siragusa, M; Gumrukcu, E; Zengin, S; Carimi, F; Sajeva, M; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

2010-06-01

364

Loss of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A affects multiple traits important for root pathogenesis by Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt and root rot diseases in many plant species. We investigated the role of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A of F. oxysporum (FoCPKA) in growth, morphology, and root attachment, penetration, and pathogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Affinity of spore attachment to root surfaces of A. thaliana, observed microscopically and measured by atomic force microscopy, was reduced by a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of FoCPKA. The resulting mutants also failed to penetrate into the vascular system of A. thaliana roots and lost virulence. Even when the mutants managed to enter the vascular system via physically wounded roots, the degree of vascular colonization was significantly lower than that of the corresponding wild-type strain O-685 and no noticeable disease symptoms were observed. The mutants also had reduced vegetative growth and spore production, and their hyphal growth patterns were distinct from those of O-685. Coinoculation of O-685 with an focpkA mutant or a strain nonpathogenic to A. thaliana significantly reduced disease severity and the degree of root colonization by O-685. Several experimental tools useful for studying mechanisms of fungal root pathogenesis are also introduced. PMID:21261464

Kim, Hye-Seon; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Sangwoo; Adams, Elizabeth L; Czymmek, Kirk; Kang, Seogchan

2011-06-01

365

Fumonisins: probable role as effectors in the complex interaction of susceptible and resistant maize hybrids and Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is best known for its worldwide occurrence on maize resulting in highly variable disease symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic to severe rotting and wilting and fumonisin production. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hybrid genotypes in the early stages of F. verticillioides infection, and the role of fumonisins as effectors in the outcome of this complex interaction. Disease symptoms, growth parameters, root morphology, and fungal colonization were evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 days after planting in seedlings from maize seeds of resistant (RH) and susceptible (SH) hybrids inoculated with F. verticillioides or watered with solutions of fumonisins. F. verticillioides induced growth enhancement or retardation depending on the plant genetic background and the fungal colonization rate, while fumonisins caused severe reduction in biomass and fitness. Seedlings watered with high fumonisin concentrations displayed lesions similar to those seen in F. verticillioides maize seedling disease, and also elicited inhibitory effects on root growth and morphology and on functional properties. In summary, these data strongly suggest a dual role for fumonisins in the F. verticillioides-maize interaction, acting as pathogenic factors at high concentrations, or triggering the plant detoxification mechanisms at low levels. PMID:22578291

Arias, Silvina L; Theumer, Martin G; Mary, Veronica S; Rubinstein, Hector R

2012-06-01

366

Isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, using an enrichment protocol, in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of eight microsatellite markers in the haploid filamentous fungus Fusarium culmorum, a pathogen of numerous cereal crops. An enrichment protocol was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with isolates of Fusarium cul- morum and F. graminearum from natural populations collected from several French locations.

T. G IRAUD; E. F OURNIER; D. V AUTRIN; M. S OLIGNAC; E. V ERCKEN; B. B AKAN

367

Systemic expression of defense response genes in wheat spikes as a response to Fusarium graminearum infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat spikes infected by Fusarium graminearum result in Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat. The spikes respond to infection by inducing a set of defense response genes in infected spikelets much as has been shown in other plant-pathogen interactions. To determine whether defense response genes are expressed systemically within F. graminearum -inoculated wheat spikes, we examined transcript accumulation

Clara Pritsch; Carroll P. Vance; William R. Bushnell; David A. Somers; Thomas M. Hohn; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2001-01-01

368

Inhibition of vomitoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum by marine actinomycetes and the extracellular metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium head blight on wheat and the toxic vomitoxin- producing species. Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes, isolated from the sea mud of Yellow Sea, were used for the screening of activity against F. graminearum by co-culture plate assay and agar diffusion method. Nine strains showed the inhibitory activity against the mycelia growth of

Yan Pei-Sheng; Shi Cui-Juan; Hou Chun-Chun; Kan Guang-Feng

2011-01-01

369

Species diversity and toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum complex isolates from maize fields in northwest Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex) are the causal agents of ear rot in maize and Fusarium head blight of wheat and other small grain cereals. The potential of these pathogens to contaminate cereals with trichothecene mycotoxins is a health risk for both humans and animals. A survey of ear rot isolates from maize collected in northwest

D. A. Sampietro; C. G. Díaz; V. Gonzalez; M. A. Vattuone; L. D. Ploper; C. A. N. Catalan; T. J. Ward

2011-01-01

370

Molecular detection of Fusarium species and prediction of mycotoxin levels in food and feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Fusarium are among the most potent plant pathogens worldwide, and members of this genus produce a range of mycotoxins which may be harmful for humans and animals. The current morphology based taxonomical system for Fusarium is inadequate, and detection and identification procedures are both time consuming and error-prone. In the last decade molecular detection methods have

Ralf Kristensen; Knut Berdal; Arne Holst-Jensen

2007-01-01

371

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service studies on polyketide toxins of Fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.  

PubMed

A group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f sp vasinfectum (Atk) Sny & Hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. All isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. Most isolates of race 1 (previously denoted as races 1, 2 and 6; and also called race A) also synthesized the heptaketide naphthoquinones, nectriafurone, anhydrofusarubin lactol and 5-O-methyljavanicin. Nine avirulent isolates of F oxysporum from Upland cotton roots, three isolates of race 3 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum, and four isolates of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum from Australia, all of which previously failed to cause disease of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in stem-puncture assays, also failed to synthesize or secrete more than trace amounts of the heptaketide compounds. These results indicate that the heptaketides may have a unique role in the virulence of race 1 to Upland cotton. The synthesis of all polyketide toxins by ATCC isolate 24908 of F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum was regulated by pH, carbon/nitrogen ratios, and availability of calcium in media. Synthesis was greatest below pH 7.0 and increased progressively as carbon/nitrogen ratios were increased by decreasing the amounts of nitrogen added to media. The nonaketides were the major polyketides accumulated in synthetic media at pH 4.5 and below, whereas the heptaketides were predominant at pH 5.0 and above. The heptaketides were the major polyketides formed when 10 F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum race 1 isolates were grown on sterilized stems of Fusarium wilt-susceptible cotton cultivars, but these compounds were not produced on sorghum grain cultures. Both groups of polyketide toxins were apparently secreted by F oxysporum f sp vasinfectum, since half of the toxin in 2-day-old shake culture was present in the supernatant. Secretion was enhanced by calcium. Glutamine and glutamic acid inhibited both nonaketide and heptaketide syntheses, even at low nitrogen PMID:12846324

Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Liu, Jinggao; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Orta, Heather

2003-01-01

372

Role of salicylic acid in systemic resistance induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in chickpea.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1-94, Pf4-92, Pf12-94, Pf151-94 and Pf179-94) and chemical resistance inducers (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, DL-norvaline, indole-3-carbinol and lichenan) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. The isolates of P. fluorescens systemically induced resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium. oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (FocRs1), and significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the wilt disease by 26-50% as compared to control. Varied degree of protection against Fusarium wilt was recorded with chemical inducers. The reduction in disease was more pronounced when chemical inducers were applied with P. fluorescens. Among chemical inducers, SA showed the highest protection of chickpea seedlings against wilting. Fifty two- to 64% reduction of wilting was observed in soil treated with isolate Pf4-92 along with chemical inducers. A significant (P = 0.05; r = -0.946) negative correlation was observed in concentration of salicylic acid and mycelial growth of FocRs1 and at a concentration of 2000 microg ml(-1) mycelial growth was completely arrested. Exogenously supplied SA also stimulated systemic resistance against wilt and reduced the disease severity by 23% and 43% in the plants treated with 40 and 80 microg ml(-1) of SA through root application. All the isolates of P. fluorescens produced SA in synthetic medium and in root tissues. HPLC analysis indicated that Pf4-92 produced comparatively more SA than the other isolates. 1700 to 2000 nanog SA g(-1) fresh root was detected from the application site of root after one day of bacterization whereas, the amount of SA at distant site ranged between 400-500 nanog. After three days of bacterization the SA level decreased and was found more or less equal at both the detection sites. PMID:14521230

Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Tanuja; Kumar, Rakesh; Srivastava, Juhi; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K

2003-01-01

373

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

374

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China.

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

375

Subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Fusarium in a kidney transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Abstract Fusarium is a filamentous opportunistic pathogenic fungus responsible for superficial as well as invasive infection in immunocompromized hosts. Net state of immunosuppression and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection appear to predispose to this disease which is life-threatening when disseminated. Though infections with Fusarium have been widely described in hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant cases, they have been reported to be rare in solid organ transplant recipients, are often localized and carry a favorable prognosis. We here describe a rare case of subcutaneous non-invasive infection with Fusarium in a renal allograft recipient two and half years after transplantation. Patient had a previous history of CMV infection along with multiple other recurrent co-infections. Diagnosis was based on culture of tissue specimens yielding Fusarium species. The infection had a protracted course with persistence of lesions after treatment with voriconazole alone, requiring a combination of complete surgical excision and therapy with the anti-fungal drug. PMID:24941223

Keskar, Vaibhav S; Wanjare, Shashir; Jamale, Tukaram E; Mahajan, Dinesh; Jawale, Sunil Y; Fernandes, Gwendolyn; Suryawanshi, Rupali; Hase, N K

2014-08-01

376

Mutation breeding of Highgate (Musa acuminata, AAA) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using gamma irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explants of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group cv. Highgate) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation\\u000a to evaluate the effectiveness of inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama Disease in banana and plantain. Based on phenotypic

B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan

1998-01-01

377

Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.  

PubMed

Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of ?-macrocarpene and ?-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

2014-06-01

378

Physiological races and vegetative compatibility groups within Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility of mainly Dutch isolates ofFusarium oxysporum collected from diseased gladioli and other Iridaceae were investigated. Based on their pathogenicity to two differential gladiolus cultivars, the isolates could tentatively be divided into two races. All self-compatible isolates ofFusarium oxysporum f.sp.gladioli belonged to one of three distinct vegetative compatibility groups, VCG 0340, 0341 or 0342, and were

E. J. A. Roebroeck; J. J. Mes

1992-01-01

379

Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

2014-05-01

380

Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and Fusarium redolens f.sp. dianthi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and four as F. redolens f.sp. dianthi. All VCGs of F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi were characterized

R. P. Baayen; F. van Dreven; M. C. Krijger; C. Waalwijk

1997-01-01

381

Genome Sequence of Fusarium graminearum Isolate CS3005.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important fungal pathogens of wheat, barley, and maize worldwide. This announcement reports the genome sequence of a highly virulent Australian isolate of this species to supplement the existing genome of the North American F. graminearum isolate Ph1. PMID:24744326

Gardiner, Donald M; Stiller, Jiri; Kazan, Kemal

2014-01-01

382

FGsub: Fusarium graminearum protein subcellular localizations predicted from primary structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (telomorph Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of several destructive crop diseases, where a set of genes usually work in concert to cause diseases to crops. To function appropriately, the F. graminearum proteins inside one cell should be assigned to different compartments, i.e. subcellular localizations. Therefore, the subcellular localizations of F. graminearum proteins can

Chenglei Sun; Xing-Ming Zhao; Weihua Tang; Luonan Chen

2010-01-01

383

Studies on verticillium wilt of potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  High resistance to Verticillium wilt has been recorded in seedling F4328 and the variety Houma. All other varieties under\\u000a test have shown moderate to high susceptibility to soil-borne inoculum. No direct correlation is apparent between the amount\\u000a of disease developed from soil-borne inoculum and the extent to which the disease is perpetuated by the invasion of the tubers\\u000a by the

G. W. Ayers

1952-01-01

384

Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine  

PubMed Central

This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

Pouzoulet, Jerome; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

2014-01-01

385

Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes. PMID:24504695

Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

2014-05-01