Science.gov

Sample records for fused solar salts

  1. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  2. Electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, T.; Varma, R.; Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    Chromium can be conveniently electroplated from fused chloride electrolytes. The deposition from LiCl-KCl (eutectic)-CrCl/sub 2/ melts is known to produce large crystal grains. Large grain size and other problems encountered in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salt are discussed. The results indicate that combined use of forced electrolyte convection and a nucleating pulse in conjunction with a periodic reverse pulse produces fine-grained deposits.

  3. Technical report on galvanic cells with fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Crouthamel, C. E.; Fischer, A. K.; Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Johnson, C. E.; Shimotake, H.; Tevebaugh, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report is presented on sodium and lithium cells using fused salt electrolytes. It includes a discussion of the thermally regenerative galvanic cell and the secondary bimetallic cell for storage of electricity.

  4. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  5. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers check the installation of a solar panel on NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  6. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers move a solar panel toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before attaching it. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  7. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers attach a solar panel to NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  8. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), workers get ready to move a solar panel to be attached to NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite in the background. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  9. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  10. Storing solar energy in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the world`s largest power tower incorporating one of the newest commercial solar energy systems and being build in California`s Mojave Desert. The project -- sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and a consortium of western utilities, municipalities, and associations -- is called Solar Two, and it will use molten salt to absorb solar energy and store that energy until it is needed to generate electricity. Construction will be completed on Solar Two in September. Solar thermal systems convert the sun`s rays into electricity by using a thousand or more dual-axis, sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, to focus optimum sunlight on the solar receiver of a power tower containing a working fluid. The fluid is heated to a desired temperature and sent to a storage facility. During periods of peak demand, the fluid is circulating through heat exchangers to generate steam used to drive a turbine.

  11. Application of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrowinning with a view to reducing electrolytic energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.; Fray, D.J.

    1996-12-01

    A high-temperature, laboratory scale electrochemical cell was designed, constructed, and commissioned to investigate the use of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrolysis production of light metals. Fused salt electrowinning of zinc was initially investigated due to the simpler physical and chemical nature of the Zn{sub l}{vert_bar}ZnCl{sub 2(l)}:KCl{sub l}{vert_bar}Cl{sub 2(g)} system. Current efficiencies of 93 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of 8 mm using 70-mm-diameter plane disc electrodes rotating at 100 rpm, significantly reducing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage. By reducing the immersion depth of the electrodes from 25 to 10 mm, current efficiencies of 88 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of only 4 mm for the same operating conditions, further decreasing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage.

  12. Application of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrowinning with a view to reducing electrolytic energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Antony; Fray, Derek J.

    1996-12-01

    A high-temperature, laboratory scale electrochemical cell was designed, constructed, and commissioned to investigate the use of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrolysis production of light metals. Fused salt electrowinning of zinc was initially investigated due to the simpler physical and chemical nature of the Zn( l)‖ZnCl2( l):KCl( l)‖Cl2( g) system. Current efficiencies of 93 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of 8 mm using 70-mm-diameter plane disc electrodes rotating at 100 rpm, significantly reducing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage. By reducing the immersion depth of the electrodes from 25 to 10 mm, current efficiencies of 88 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of only 4 mm for the same operating conditions, further decreasing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage.

  13. The determination of UO/sub 2/ and UF/sub 4/ in fused fluoride salts

    SciTech Connect

    Batiste, D.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of uranium oxide solubilities in fused fluoride salts is important in the electrolytic preparation of uranium metal. This project was initiated to develop a method for the determination of UO/sub 2/ separately from UF/sub 4/ in UF/sub 4/-CaF/sub 2/-LiF fused salts. Previous methods used for the determination of UO/sub 2/ in fused fluoride salts involved inert gas fusions where oxygen was liberated as CO/sub 2/, and hydrofluorination where oxygen was released as H/sub 2/O; but the special equipment used for these procedures was no longer available. These methods assumed that all of the oxygen liberated was due to UO/sub 2/ and does not consider impurities from reagents and other oxygen sources that amount to a bias of approximately 0.3 wt %. This titrimetric method eliminates the bias by selectively extracting the UF/sub 4/ with a Na/sub 2/EDTA-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution. The remaining uranium oxide residue is treated and titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint with NBS standard K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/. An aliquot of the Na/sub 2/EDTA-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ extract is also titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint, this uranium component is determined and calculated as UF/sub 4/. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), get ready to move the scaffolding from around NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. FUSE is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  15. A reflectance spectra-based approach to mapping salt fields using PCA-fused Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Ping-Xiang; Gao, Jay

    2011-05-01

    In this paper a method based on in situ measured reflectance spectra was developed for accurately mapping salt fields in the Taibei Salt Farm in Lianyungang City of East China. After radiometric correction and geometric rectification, six multispectral ETM+ bands were fused with the panchromatic band via principal components analysis (PCA). The fused data were used to map salt fields in the farm. Salt fields were mapped 91.95% correctly in comparison with ground statistics from raw multispectral bands. This accuracy level rose to 96.4% with the use of the panchromatic band (15 m resolution). However, PCA-fused data produced the highest accuracy of 98.8%. At the zone level, coarse resolution data resulted in an accuracy of 98.93% for crystallization ponds, but only 82.68% for condensation ponds. Use of the panchromatic band alone improved the accuracy for condensation ponds but decreased the accuracy for crystallization and evaporation ponds. Results derived from PCA-fused data are highly consistent with the ground statistics at a discrepancy between 0.35% for evaporation zone and 1.80% for condensation zone. It is concluded that a fine spectral resolution is important to separation of ponds of a varying salt content while a fine spatial resolution is important to their mapped area. Ponds of a lower salt content can be mapped more accurately from fused data than from raw spectral bands.

  16. Workers at CCAS attach solar panel to FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), check NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite after moving it from the scaffolding behind it. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The satellite is targeted for launch June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  17. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  18. Fused-salt-liquid-metal corrosion of refractory alloys in the presence of hot cell impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C.S.; Raraz, A.G.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    The pyrochemical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel for the purpose of final disposal is currently being demonstrated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). One aspect of this program is to develop a lithium preprocessing stage for the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF). Furthermore, a pilot scale of this preprocessing stage is being designed by ANL-W to demonstrate the in situ hot cell capability of this process. In this pilot scale system, fused lithium chloride salt is saturated with molten lithium to form a powerful fluxing compound with a vigorous reducing agent. During this stage of the fuel conditioning, the reduction will take place at a nominal temperature of 650 C in an argon-cell atmosphere contaminated with up to 10,000 ppm nitrogen, 100 ppm oxygen and 100 ppm of moisture. The maximum local temperature was calculated to be 725 C on the inner shell of the reduction vessel during operation. One of the significant concerns of this project is the system`s corrosion response in the presence of irradiated commercial fuel as well as atmospheric impurities. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the potential corrosivity of the salt matrix in a worse case environment as well as provide a boundary for allowable impurities in the system during operation.

  19. Analysis of secondary cells with lithium anodes and immobilized fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Rogers, G. L.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Secondary cells with liquid lithium anodes, liquid bismuth or tellurium cathodes, and fused lithium halide electrolytes immobilized as rigid pastes operate between 380 and 485 degrees. Applications include power sources in space, military vehicle propulsion and special commercial vehicle propulsion.

  20. Diastereoselective synthesis of CF3-substituted, epoxide-fused heterocycles with β-(trifluoromethyl)vinylsulfonium salts.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Sven P; West, Thomas H; McGarrigle, Eoghan M; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2012-12-21

    CF(3)-substituted vinyl diphenylsulfonium triflate is an effective annulation reagent for the formation of α-CF(3) substituted, epoxide-fused heterocycles (pyrrolidines, piperidines, and tetrahydrofurans). This simple method affords a variety of valuable heterocyclic building blocks in a highly diastereoselective manner (dr >20:1). PMID:23231752

  1. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans. Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1–2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested. Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced. The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa’s history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the

  2. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  3. FUSED SALT PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF VALUES FROM USED NUCLEAR REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-08-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from a neutron-irradiated uranium mass (oxide or alloy) by dissolving the mass in an about equimolar alkali metalaluminum double chloride, adding aluminum metal to the mixture obtained at a temperature of between 260 and 860 deg C, and separating a uranium-containing metal phase and a plutonium-chloride- and fission-product chloridecontaining salt phase. Dissolution can be expedited by passing carbon tetrachloride vapors through the double salt. Separation without reduction of plutonium from neutron- bombarded uranium and that of cerium from uranium are also discussed.

  4. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  5. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  6. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  7. Supplement to report on boron disposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-10-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a process to fabricate pure, dense, coherent boron coatings 1 mm thick on graphite or copper substrates. Electrodeposition from molten fluoride salts was the technique chosen for development. The investigation was begun by making a thorough search of the relevant literature and consulting with workers active in the field or related fields. As a result of this search, the technique selected from the literature was a process whereby boron is electrodeposited from a molten equimolal mixture of potassium and lithium fluorides containing dissolved boron trifluoride gas. Initial tests at Bendix consisted of a material evaluation study of 0.02-mm-thick, boron-coated copper specimens. The properties of the boron deposit determined from this material evaluation study were such that an apparatus was designed, constructed, and tested at Bendix Kansas City.

  8. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  9. Salt-gradient solar ponds: design, construction and power production

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Salt-gradient solar ponds are combined solar energy collectors and thermal storage systems. The ponds are made non-convective by the formation of a density-gradient composed of salt solutions whose concentrations increase with depth. The depth of the various layers of the pond determine the efficiency and thermal storage capacity of the system. The construction of the largest such pond in the US, 2000 m/sup 2/, was completed in 1978 for approximately $35/m/sup 2/. The pond is estimated to produce 1015 GJ/y of low-temperature heat at a cost of $8.95/GJ, when the installation costs are amortized over 15 y. Construction changes are suggested to improve the reliability of the system. Electrical power generation by the use of Rankine cycle turbogenerators connected to solar ponds has been demonstrated in Israel. Feasibility studies are in progress to propose electricity production of up to 2000 MW for projects near the Dead Sea in Israel, and 600 MW in a proposed project at the California Salton Sea.

  10. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  11. Table Salt from Seawater (Solar Evaporation). What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module discusses methods of obtaining table salt from seawater. Topic areas considered include: (1) obtaining salt by solar evaporation of seawater in holes; (2) obtaining salt by boiling seawater in pots; (3) how table salt is obtained from seawater in the Philippines; and (4) methods of making salt by solar evaporation of seawater in the…

  12. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng; Yin, Fang; Zhang, Caihong

    2010-02-15

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

  13. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  14. Models for aqueous electrolyte mixtures for systems extending from dilute range to the fused salt: Evaluation of parameters to high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-09-01

    Models based on general equations for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid provide thermodynamically consistent structures for evaluating and predicting aqueous electrolyte properties. These equations yield other quantities upon appropriate differentiation, including osmotic and activity coefficients, excess enthalpies, heat capacities, and volumes. For this reason a wide array of experimental data are available from which model parameters and their temperature or pressure dependence can be evaluated. For systems of moderate concentration, the most commonly used model at present is the ion-interaction approach and coworkers. For more concentrated solutions, including those extending to the fused salt, an alternate model based on a Margules-expansion and commonly used for nonelectrolytes was proposed. We discuss these two models and give examples of parameter evaluations for some geologically relevant systems to high temperatures and pressures; also we show applications of the models to calculations of solubility equilibria.

  15. Growth Potential of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from Solar Salt Environments: Carbon Sources and Salt Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Javor, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen strains of extremely halophilic bacteria and three strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from four different solar salt environments. Growth tests on carbohydrates, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, and complex medium demonstrated that the moderate halophiles and strains of the extreme halophiles Haloarcula and Halococcus grew on most of the substrates tested. Among the Halobacterium isolates were several metabolic groups: strains that grew on a broad range of substrates and strains that were essentially confined to either amino acid (peptone) or carbohydrate oxidation. One strain (WS-4) only grew well on pyruvate and acetate. Most strains of extreme halophiles grew by anaerobic fermentation and possibly by nitrate reduction. Tests of growth potential in natural saltern brines demonstrated that none of the halobacteria grew well in brines which harbor the densest populations of these bacteria in solar salterns. All grew best in brines which were unsaturated with NaCl. The high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ found in saltern crystallizer brines limited bacterial growth, but the concentrations of K+ found in these brines had little effect. MgSO4 was relatively more inhibitory to the extreme halophiles than was MgCl2, but the reverse was true for the moderate halophiles. PMID:16346609

  16. Functional Conceptual Design Criteria - 5-MW/sub e/ salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Drost, M.K.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this solar pond plant facility would be to provide valid data on the cost, operation, and reliability of salt-gradient solar ponds as a means of producing power. A general facility description is given which includes design code requirements, site selection, site characteristics, and site-specific design requirements. Functional requirements discussed include: civil-structural; mechanical; electrical; and control, instrumentation and alarms. Occupational and environmental safety, security, and quality assurance are also discussed.

  17. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  18. Method of preparing highly purified kiln dried solar salt

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.; Hass, L.M.; Rose, D.L.

    1984-12-18

    Partially purified salt containing less than about 00.4 weight percent insolubles is further purified to reduce the insolubles until the milk pad rating is 3 or better for certain industrial uses and 1 for human consumption. The entry salt is washed in clarified brine to dislodge insoluble impurities adhered to the salt surfaces. The washed salt is then scrubbed with fresh water sprays to displace the wash brine from salt surfaces. The washed salt is drained and then dried in a kiln where flowing air blows away some impurities. The dried salt is passed through a magnetic separator, doubly sifted to remove both large and small impurities, and, where food grade salt is required, passed through a color sorter that removes relatively dark impurities.

  19. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Ramana G.

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go

  20. New operating strategies for molten salt in line focusing solar fields - Daily drainage and solar receiver preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Martin; Meyer-Grünefeldt, Mirko; Keller, Lothar

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays molten salt is efficiently used in point concentrating solar thermal power plants. Line focusing systems still have the disadvantage of elevated heat losses at night because of active freeze protection of the solar field piping system. In order to achieve an efficient operation of line focusing solar power plants using molten salt, a new plant design and a novel operating strategy is developed for Linear Fresnel- and Parabolic Trough power plants. Daily vespertine drainage of the solar field piping and daily matutinal refilling of the solar preheated absorber tubes eliminate the need of nocturnal heating of the solar field and reduce nocturnal heat losses to a minimum. The feasibility of this new operating strategy with all its sub-steps has been demonstrated experimentally.

  1. Optimization and preconceptual design of a 5 MWe salt-gradient solar pond power plant at Great Salt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Brown, L.M.; Barnhart, J.S.; Cavola, R.G.; Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-05-01

    The techniques used to optimize and design a solar salt-gradient pond (SSP) power plant for installation at the Great Salt Lake are described. The method and results of the site selection study are described as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used as well as the characteristics of the selected site. The figure of merit used in the optimization study, the general optimization approach, and the specific optimization method used for each subsystem are described. Results are then discussed of the optimization of the pond configuration, total system, and piping. Pond design and ground rule sensitivity studies are reported. (LEW)

  2. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  3. Review of the Molten Salt Electric Experiment: A solar central receiver project

    SciTech Connect

    Delameter, W.R.; Bergan, N.E.

    1986-12-01

    The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was the first full solar-to-electric central receiver system to use molten nitrate salt as a primary working fluid. The experiment was built and tested at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between 1982 and 1985. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a molten salt central receiver system. The Molten Salt Electric Experiment was operated through a year of successful testing; system performance was measured, operating procedures and an effective receiver control algorithm were developed, and personnel from participating electrical utilities and solar industries were trained to operate the system. The testing culminated in a one-month power production campaign to measure daily performance, component reliability, and system availability. This paper discusses the major accomplishments and some of the more significant problems of the project.

  4. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  5. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  6. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  7. Latent energy storage with salt and metal mixtures for solar dynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. A.; Konstantinou, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines three design alternatives for the development of a solar dynamic heat receiver as applied to power systems operating in low earth orbit. These include a base line design used for comparison in ongoing NASA studies, a system incorporating a salt energy storage system with the salt dispersed within a metal mesh and a hybrid system incorporating both a molten salt and molten metal for energy storage. Based on a typical low earth orbit condition, designs are developed and compared to determine the effect of resultant conductivity, heat capacity and heat of fusion on system size, weight, temperature gradients, cycle turbine inlet temperature and material utilization.

  8. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Ong, E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results of compatibility screening studies of 100 salt/containment/thermal conductivity enhancement (TCE) combinations for the high temperature solar thermal application range of 704 deg to 871 C (1300 to 1600 F) are presented. Nine candidate containment/HX alloy materials and two TCE materials were tested with six candidate solar thermal alkali and alkaline earth carbonate storage salts (both reagent and technical grade of each). Compatibility tests were conducted with salt encapsulated in approx. 6.0 inch x 1 inch welded containers of test material from 300 to 3000 hours. Compatibility evaluations were end application oriented, considering the potential 30 year lifetime requirement of solar thermal power plant components. Analyses were based on depth and nature of salt side corrosion of materials, containment alloy thermal aging effects, weld integrity in salt environment, air side containment oxidation, and chemical and physical analyses of the salt. A need for more reliable, and in some cases first time determined thermophysical and transport property data was also identified for molten carbonates in the 704 to 871 C temperature range. In particular, accurate melting point (mp) measurements were performed for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 while melting point, heat of fusion, and specific heat determinations were conducted on 81.3 weight percent Na2CO3-18.7 weight percent K2CO3 and 52.2 weight percent BaCO3-47.8 weight percent Na2CO3 to support future TES system design and ultimate scale up of solar thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems.

  9. Experimental study of the salt gradient solar pond stability

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Choubani; Slim, Zitouni; Kais, Charfi; Jomaa, Safi Mohamed; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2010-01-15

    Many natural systems such as oceans, lakes, etc.., are influenced by the effect of double-diffusive convection. This phenomenon, which is a combination of heat and mass transfer, can destroy the stability of system-flows. In the case of solar ponds the middle layer, that is linearly stratified, acts as a thermal and mass insulator for the lower layer. This middle layer, called the Non-Convective Zone (NCZ), needs special care to avoid convection and to maintain its stability. In fact, due to an excess of heat stored, a thermal gradient occurs within the NCZ. A convective movement appears at the bottom of the stratified-layers and then grows to a double-diffusive convection movement. This movement transforms the stratified-layers into a well mixed layer, reducing the storage capacity of the pond. Laboratory small-scale pond and middle-scale outdoor solar ponds were designed and built to provide both quantitative data and to study the dynamic processes in solar ponds, including the behavior of the gradient zone. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualization-experiments carried out in the mechanical and energetic laboratory in the engineering school of Tunisia and experiments in the field showed that the instability of solar ponds could be limited by using porous media placed in the lower layer of the stratification. (author)

  10. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  11. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  12. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth carbonate latent-heat storage salts, metallic containment materials, and thermal conductivity enhancement materials were investigated to satisfy the high temperature (704 to 871 C) thermal energy storage requirements of advanced solar-thermal power generation concepts are described. Properties of the following six salts selected for compatibility studies are given: three pure carbonates, K2CO3, Li2CO3 and Na2CO3; two eutectic mixtures, BaCO3/Na2CO3 and K2CO3/NaCO3, and one off-eutectic mixture of Na2CO3/K2CO3.

  13. Problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Kamal, W.A. ); Al-Noaimi, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper highlights the main problems encountered in operating salt gradient solar ponds in the Arabian Gulf region, characterized by hot, windy, and dusty environment. These problems are excessive erosion of the gradient zone, the formation of sizeable localized convective zones, the deterioration of pond water clarity and the high rates of surface evaporation. These weather-related problems severely impair the pond operation, as they lead to a serious drop in its collection and storage efficiency, and an excessive increase in salt consumption. Experience gained from operating a 1,600 m{sup 2} pond and a small-scale experimental pond is presented.

  14. Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

  15. Development of a submersible shadowgraph for the study of interfaces in salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Huacuz, J.M.; Sierra, F.; Venegas, C.; Ramos, C. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the processes of development and testing of a submersible shadowgraph are described. This instrument was devised as a tool for the study of interfaces in salt-gradient solar ponds. Tests were carried out in the solar pond of the University of Texas at El Paso. Photographs of interfaces inside the pond were taken for the first time. The submersible shadowgraph can be stationed inside the pond for time dependent studies of a given region, or it can be used to scan the pond depth.

  16. Guard For Fuse Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    L-shaped guard attached to fuse holder. Guard prevents casual tampering with fuses in electrical junction box or fuse block. Protects fuses from being damaged by handling or by rope or string used to secure them. With fuse-cap guard, only responsible people have access to fuses.

  17. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  18. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  19. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  20. Synthesis of α-substituted vinylsulfonium salts and their application as annulation reagents in the formation of epoxide- and cyclopropane-fused heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Matlock, Johnathan V; Fritz, Sven P; Harrison, Stephen A; Coe, Diane M; McGarrigle, Eoghan M; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of new methods for the synthesis of classes of potentially bioactive molecules remains an important goal for synthetic chemists. Vinylsulfonium salts have been used for the synthesis of a wide variety of small heterocyclic motifs; however, further developments to this important class of reagents has been focused on reaction with new substrates rather than development of new vinylsulfonium salts. We herein report the synthesis of a range of α-substituted vinylsulfonium tetraphenylborates (10 examples) in a 3 step procedure from commercially available styrenes. The important role of the tetraphenylborate counterion on the stability and accessibility of the vinylsulfonium salts is also detailed. The α-substituted vinylsulfonium tetraphenylborates gave good to excellent yields in the epoxyannulation of β-amino ketones (15 examples) and the cyclopropanation of allylic amines (4 examples). Hydrogenation of an epoxyannulation product proceeded with good diastereoselectivity. PMID:25310872

  1. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  2. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. PACS 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids PMID:25346648

  3. Effect of sand and moisture on molten salt properties for open direct absorption solar receiver/storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaydi, M. S.; Delclos, T.; AlMheiri, S.; McKrell, T.; Calvet, N.

    2016-05-01

    Solar Salt (60 wt. % sodium nitrate, 40 wt. % potassium nitrate) is one candidate salt mixture for the CSPonD Demo project (Concentrated Solar Power On Demand Demonstration), ongoing collaboration between Masdar Institute and MIT. One prototype is under preparation at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform in Abu Dhabi. In this new concept, the salt will be used as an open direct absorption solar receiver integrated with a storage system so that the effects of dust/sand and moisture on the thermophysical properties have to be investigated. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermal stability and mass loss, while a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to study the thermal properties and heat capacity of the salt mixture with and without sand. Considering the worst case scenario, the maximum mass loss rate at 550 °C, and in a fully open configuration, was measured to be 0.29 % per hour, around 2.34 per day of use (8 h of operation). The effect of sand was the same under nitrogen gas environment and air with moisture, which resulted in decreasing the melting temperature of the salts mixture and increasing its freezing temperature. The thermal properties remained stable even after 3 temperature cycles with impurities. Finally, the salt heat capacity increased due to the addition of 2 wt. % of sand.

  4. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  5. Construction and startup performance of the Miamisburg salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Harris, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    An account is given of the construction and 1.5 years of operation of the Miamisburg, Ohio salt-gradient solar pond which, with 2020 sq m, is the largest solar collector in the U.S. The 18% sodium chloride solution pond has reached storage temperatures of 64 C in July and 28 C in February. Under steady-state conditions, conservative heat-yield estimates on the order of 962 million Btu have been made. The heat is used to warm-up a summer outdoor swimming pool and in winter a recreational building. Installation costs were only $35/sq m, and heat costs based on a 15-year depreciation of installation costs is below that of fuel oil heating, at $9.45 per million Btu. Further study is recommended for maintenance of water clarity, metallic component corrosion and assurance of pond water containment.

  6. Preparation of nanofluids based on solar salt and boehmite nanoparticles: Characterization of starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, B.; Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Sánchez-García, J. A.; Julia, J. E.; García-Romero, A.

    2016-05-01

    A nanofluid composed of Solar Salt (SS) and boehmite nanoparticles (A) in a concentration of 1% by weight, is proposed as thermal storage medium for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants. A wide characterization of the raw materials has been done, focused on their thermal stability and the nanoparticle primary size and shape among other properties such as its specific heat and crystalline structure. Some features of the final nanofluids have been also investigated: thermal stability, nanoparticle sizes and their distribution and specific heat. The showed results confirm that these materials are thermally stable in the working temperature range both individually and combined. In addition, the synthesis procedure implemented is effective to keep the nanoparticle sizes in the nanometric range (<100 nm). These findings mean the first step to carry on research and characterization of this nanofluid.

  7. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  8. Pyridinium molten salts as co-adsorbents in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jui-Cheng; Sun, I-Wen; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Hao-Hsun; Hsueh, Mao-Lin; Ho, Wen-Yueh; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2011-01-15

    The influence of using pyridinium molten salts as co-adsorbents to modify the monolayer of a TiO{sub 2} semiconductor on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is studied. The current-voltage characteristics are measured under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The pyridinium molten salts significantly enhance the open-circuit photovoltage (V{sub oc}), the short circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) as well as the solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}). 1-Ethyl-3-carboxypyridinium iodide ([ECP][I]) is applied successfully to prepare an insulating molecular layer with N719, and achieve high energy conversion efficiency as high as 4.49% at 100 mW cm{sup -2} and AM 1.5. The resulting efficiency is 20% higher than that of a non-additive device. This enhancement of conversion efficiency is attributed to the negative shift of the conduction band (CB) edge and the abundant concentration of I{sup -} on the surface of the electrode when using [ECP][I] as the co-adsorbent. (author)

  9. The design, construction, and initial operation of a closed-cycle, salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Alagao, F.B.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Johnson, P.W. )

    1994-10-01

    In operation of a closed-cycle salt-gradient solar pond (CCSGSP) system, fresh or low salinity water is supplied at the surface of the solar pond (SP) as make-up for evaporation losses as well as for surface washing. In the present investigation the surface water is flushed to an evaporation pond (EP) and concentrated for reinjection at the bottom of the SP. A 20 m[sup 2] SP incorporating an EP for concentrating brine, has been established. Theoretical modelling of the CCSGSP is presented. Results from the initial operation of the SP show that wind action and convective mixing caused some erosion of the gradient layer thereby increasing the surface layer thickness. Salt flux to the surface was found to be approximately 19 kg/m[sup 2] per year. Sodium hypochlorite solution proved successful as shock treatment during severe algal bloom. The result of acidification w as less promising in maintaining pond clarity. Occasional addition of alum helped in settling some of the suspended particulates in the pond.

  10. Development of a solar thermal central heat receiver using molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1981-06-01

    The development and test of a 5 MWth solar heat receiver using a molten nitrate salt (60 percent NaNO3, 40 percent KNaNO3) as the heat transfer fluid is described. The application of the receiver concept in a central receiver solar power system is explained. The advantages of using molten nitrate salts as the receiver heat transfer fluid and the storage fluid are discussed. The problems associated with the receiver development including the need for high temperatures and combinations of creep and fatigue in the receiver tubes are discussed. Our approach to scaling from the 5 MWth test receiver to commercial receivers in the range of 200 MWth to 500 MWth is defined. The 5 MWth test system is described including the instrumentation used. The test facility which has a 60 m tower and 222 heliostats is described. The test results are presented. The receiver was in test for 500 hr at temperature and heat flux levels expected in commercial receiver systems.

  11. Emission of Volatile OrganoHalogens by Southern African Solar Salt Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, Karsten; Weissflog, Ludwig; Lange, Christian Albert; Huber, Stefan; Pienaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds containing halogens - especially chlorine - have been considered for a long time of industrial origin only, and it was assumed that the production and emission of these compounds can easily be controlled by humans in case they will cause a threat for life on Earth. Since the middle of the 80ies of the last century it became clear that the biologically active organohalogens isolated by chemists are purposefully produced by nature as antibiotics or as antifeedant etc. To date more than 3800 organohalogens are known to be naturally produced by bio-geochemical processes. The global budgets of many such species are poorly understood and only now with the emergence of better analytical techniques being discovered. For example the compound chloromethane nature's production (5 GT) outdates the anthropogenic production (50 KT) by a factor of 100. Thus organohalogens are an interesting recent case in point since they can influence the ozone budget of the boundary layer, play a role in the production of aerosols and the climate change discussion. An intriguing observation is that most of the atmospheric CH3Cl and CH3Br are of terrestrial rather than of marine origin and that a number of halogenated small organic molecules are produced in soils. The high concentrations of halides in salt soils point to a possibly higher importance of natural halogenation processes as a source of volatile organohalogens. Terrestrial biota, such as fungi, plants, animals and insects, as well as marine algea, bacteria and archaea are known or suspected to be de-novo producers of volatile organohalogens. In recent years we revealed the possibility for VOX to form actively in water and bottom sediments of hyper-saline environments in the course of studying aridization processes during climatic warming. Due to the nature of their production process solar salt works, as to be found along-side the Southern African coast line but also upcountry, combine a variety of semi- and

  12. FUSE satellite electrical power subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Roufberg, L.; Noah, K.

    1998-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite will be placed into a low earth orbit to investigate astrophysical processes related to the formation and development of the early universe. The FUSE satellite is considered a pathfinder for NASA's Mid-Class Explorers (MIDEX). To reduce mission cost and development time while delivering quality science, NASA has enforced strict cost caps with a clear definition of high-level science objectives. As a result, a significant design driver for the electrical power subsystem (EPS) was to minimize cost. The FUSE EPS is a direct energy transfer, unregulated bus architecture, with batteries directly on the bus and solar array power limted by pulse-width-modulated shunt regulators. The power subsystem electronics (PSE) contains circuitry to control battery charging, provide power to the loads, and provide fault protection. The electronics is based on the PSE which Orbital (formerly, Fairchild Space) designed and built for NASA/GSFC's XTE spacecraft. However, the FUSE PSE design incorporates a number of unique features to meet the mission requirements. To minimize size of the solar panels due to stowed attachment constraints, GaAs/Ge solar cells were selected. This is the first time this type of large area, thinned solar cell with integral bypass diodes are being used for a NASA LEO mission. The solar panels support a satellite load power of 520W. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are used which are identical to the RADARSAT-I design, except for different temperature sensors. This is the first mission for which Orbital is using SAFT NiCd batteries. The spacecraft bus, including the EPS, has successfully completed environmental testing and has been delivered for instrument integration. Tradeoffs involved in designing the EPS and selecting components based on the requirements are discussed. Analyses including solar array and battery sizing and energy balance are presented in addition to results from testing the flight

  13. The Spectrophotometric Method of Determining the Transmission of Solar Energy in Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianelli, J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the thermal efficiency of a solar pond it is necessary to know total average solar energy reaching the storage layer. One method for determining this energy for water containing dissolved colored species is based upon spectral transmission measurements using a laboratory spectrophotometer. This method is examined and some of the theoretical ground work needed to discuss the measurement of transmission of light water. Results of in situ irradiance measurements from oceanography research are presented and the difficulties inherent in extrapolating laboratory data obtained with ten centimeter cells to real three dimensional pond situations is discussed. Particular emphasis is put on the need to account for molecular and particulate scattering in measurements done on low absorbing solutions. Despite these considerations it is expected that attenuation calculations based upon careful measurements using a dual beam spectrophotometer technique combined with known attenuation coefficients will be useful in solar pond modeling and monitoring for color buildup. Preliminary results using the CSM method are presented.

  14. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  15. Experiment and analysis of practical-scale solar pond stabilized with salt gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Kanayama, Kimio; Inaba, Hideo; Baba, Hiromu; Fukuda, Takeyuki )

    1991-01-01

    A large-scale solar pond with salty water was constructed in the suburbs of Kitami in 1985. Its performance has been measured and analyzed by the authors after that. The solar pond body is circular of 44 m diameter, and the pond water is of 3 min total depth. After, 15 months, the depth of the salt gradient zone (S.G.Z.) was thinned by 10 cm in the top and by 20 cm in the bottom due to convection of the top and bottom zones. The temperature in the convective storage zone (C.S.Z.) reached 70C, its maximum, at the beginning of September in 1985, however, it was not as high in 1986 due to contamination of the pond water. The temperature of the storage zone was reduced from November to April due to ice covering on the pond surface. The collected heat yielded largely and the collection efficiency reached more than 30% in summer, but decreased to negative values in winter. The thermal performance of the solar pond was predicted by a simulation calculation, and the calculated result compared well with the measurements.

  16. Fish assemblages in Tanzanian mangrove creek systems influenced by solar salt farm constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwandya, Augustine W.; Gullström, Martin; Öhman, Marcus C.; Andersson, Mathias H.; Mgaya, Yunus D.

    2009-04-01

    Deforestation of mangrove forests is common occurrence worldwide. We examined fish assemblage composition in three mangrove creek systems in Tanzania (East Africa), including two creeks where the upper parts were partly clear-cut of mangrove forest due to the construction of solar salt farms, and one creek with undisturbed mangrove forest. Fish were caught monthly for one year using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m 2) within three locations in each creek, i.e. at the upper, intermediate and lower reaches. Density, biomass and species number of fish were lower in the upper deforested sites compared to the mangrove-fringed sites at the intermediate and lower parts in the two creeks affected by deforestation, whereas there were no differences among the three sites in the undisturbed mangrove creek system. In addition, multivariate analyses showed that the structure of fish assemblages varied between forested and clear-cut sites within the two disturbed creeks, but not within the undisturbed creek. Across the season, we found no significant differences except for a tendency of a minor increase in fish densities during the rainy season. At least 75% of the fishes were juveniles and of commercial interest for coastal fisheries and/or aquaculture. Mugil cephalus, Gerres oyena and Chanos chanos were the most abundant species in the forested sites. The dominant species in the clear-cut areas were M. cephalus and Elops machnata, which were both found in relatively low abundances compared to the undisturbed areas. The conversion of mangrove forests into solar salt farms not only altered fish assemblage composition, but also water and sediment conditions. In comparison with undisturbed areas, the clear-cut sites showed higher salinity, water temperature as well as organic matter and chlorophyll a in the sediments. Our results suggest that mangrove habitat loss and changes in environmental conditions caused by salt farm developments will decrease fish densities, biomass

  17. Application of a salt gradient solar pond to a chemical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Johnson, S.C.; Sadan, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for establishing a salinity gradient for a solar pond for the purpose of increasing the magnesium yield of an electrolysis plant on the Great Salt Lake. The method is to start with the filled pond, layer on an incremental thickness of fresh water, and allow surface wave action to mix this layer with the dense brine below. This is to be repeated until a sufficient gradient zone is produced. A rubber sheet is floated on the pond surface and water is allowed to flow slowly and continuously onto the sheet, thus avoiding turbulance and mixing at the injection site. Temperature and specific gravity profiles are given for the pond. (LEW)

  18. Miamisburg salt-gradient solar pond: mid-1980 status report. [For swimming pool heating

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Harris, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The largest salt-gradient solar pond in the US was constructed by the City of Miamisburg, Ohio to provide heat for an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreational building from October to December. The pond which occupies an area of 2020 m/sup 2/ was installed for $35/m/sup 2/ and is conservatively estimated to provide 1012 GJ/year (960 million Btu) at a cost of $6.80/GJ ($7.20/MBtu). During July to September 1979, 143.5 GJ (136 million Btu) of heat was utilized. Several unpredicted operational concerns have been noted related to corrosion of the metallic heat exchanger and the failure of selected seams in the plastic liner. Based upon two years of experience, suggestions are made to prevent or minimize these difficulties.

  19. Kocuria marina BS-15 a biosurfactant producing halophilic bacteria isolated from solar salt works in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarafin, Yesurethinam; Donio, Mariathasan Birdilla Selva; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant screening was made among the eight halophilic bacterial genera isolated from Kovalam solar salt works in Kanyakumari of India. After initial screening, Kocuria sp. (Km), Kurthia sp. (Ku) and Halococcus sp. (Hc) were found to have positive biosurfactant activity. Biosurfactant derived from Kocuria sp. emulsified more than 50% of the crude oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, olive oil and kerosene when compared to the other strains. Further, Kocuria marina BS-15 derived biosurfactant was purified and characterized by TLC, FTIR and GC–MS analysis. The TLC analysis revealed that, the purified biosurfactants belong to the lipopeptide group. The IR spectrum results revealed that functional groups are R2C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 NN, alkenes and N–H. The GC–MS analysis confirmed the compound as Nonanoic acid and Cyclopropane with the retention time of 12.78 and 24.65, respectively. PMID:25473358

  20. Culturable halophilic archaea at the initial and crystallization stages of salt production in a natural solar saltern of Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Goa is a coastal state in India and salt making is being practiced for many years. This investigation aimed in determining the culturable haloarchaeal diversity during two different phases of salt production in a natural solar saltern of Ribandar, Goa. Water and sediment samples were collected from the saltern during pre-salt harvesting phase and salt harvesting phase. Salinity and pH of the sampling site was determined. Isolates were obtained by plating of the samples on complex and synthetic haloarchaeal media. Morphology of the isolates was determined using Gram staining and electron microscopy. Response of cells to distilled water was studied spectrophotometrically at 600nm. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by sequencing the 16S rRNA. Results Salinity of salt pans varied from 3-4% (non-salt production phase) to 30% (salt production phase) and pH varied from 7.0-8.0. Seven haloarchaeal strains were isolated from water and sediment samples during non-salt production phase and seventeen haloarchaeal strains were isolated during the salt production phase. All the strains stained uniformly Gram negative. The orange-red acetone extract of the pigments showed similar spectrophotometric profile with absorption maxima at 393, 474, 501 and 535 nm. All isolates obtained from the salt dilute phase were grouped within the genus Halococcus. This was validated using both total lipid profiling and 16S rRNA data sequencing. The isolates obtained from pre-salt harvesting phase were resistant to lysis. 16S rRNA data showed that organisms belonging to Halorubrum, Haloarcula, Haloferax and Halococcus genera were obtained during the salt concentrated phase. The isolates obtained from salt harvesting phase showed varied lysis on suspension in distilled water and /or 3.5% NaCl. Conclusion Salterns in Goa are transiently operated during post monsoon season from January to May. During the pre-salt harvesting phase, all the isolates obtained belonged to

  1. Research Update: Comparison of salt- and molecular-based iodine treatments of PbS nanocrystal solids for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jähnig, Fabian; Bozyigit, Deniz; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    Molecular- and salt-based chemical treatments are believed to passivate electronic trap states in nanocrystal-based semiconductors, which are considered promising for solar cells but suffer from high carrier recombination. Here, we compare the chemical, optical, and electronic properties of PbS nanocrystal-based solids treated with molecular iodine and tetrabutylammonium iodide. Surprisingly, both treatments increase—rather than decrease—the number density of trap states; however, the increase does not directly influence solar cell performance. We explain the origins of the observed impact on solar cell performance and the potential in using different chemical treatments to tune charge carrier dynamics in nanocrystal-solids.

  2. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  3. Acetate Salts as Nonhalogen Additives To Improve Perovskite Film Morphology for High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhou, Weiran; Wei, Xiangfeng; Chen, Tao; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-06-22

    A two-step method has been popularly adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, this method often generates uncontrollable film morphology with poor coverage. Herein, we report a facile method to improve perovskite film morphology by incorporating a small amount of acetate (CH3COO(-), Ac(-)) salts (NH4Ac, NaAc) as nonhalogen additives in CH3NH3I solution used for immersing PbI2 film, resulting in improved CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH4Ac additive concentration of 10 wt %, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 17.02%, which is enhanced by ∼23.2% relative to that of the pristine device without additive, whereas the NaAc additive does not lead to an efficiency enhancement despite the improvement of the CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. SEM study reveals that NH4Ac and NaAc additives can both effectively improve perovskite film morphology by increasing the surface coverage via diminishing pinholes. The improvement on CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology is beneficial for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film and improving the interfacial contact at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, leading to the increase of short-circuit current and consequently efficiency enhancement of the PSC device for NH4Ac additive only. PMID:27253082

  4. Titania produced from Ti-salt flocculated sludge: photocatalytic activity under solar light.

    PubMed

    Shon, Ho Kyong; Okour, Yousef; Park, Se Min; Kim, Jong Beom; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2014-08-01

    In this study, titania photocatalyst was produced from the wastewater sludge of Ti-salt flocculation. The high photocatalytic activity of titania reported was evaluated based on a single organic substrate. However, the photocatalytic activity is a substrate-specific; one photocatalyst showed different photocatalytic degradation rates for different substrates. Thus, to investigate the substrate-specific photocatalytic activity of titania, various substrates of humic acid (HA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), rhodamine B (RhB), metsulfuron methyl (M&M) and phenol were used under simulated solar light irradiation. Results showed titania had a high activity rate for RhB, moderate activity for HA and DCA and low activity for M&M and phenol indicating substrate-specific activities. When compared with Degussa-P25, titania showed higher activity for M&M, while the opposite was observed for HA and phenol. The specific-substrate behaviour of titania could depend on specific physicochemical and electronic interactions between titania, substrates, and their intermediates compounds formed. PMID:25936122

  5. Halarchaeum acidiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately acidophilic haloarchaeon isolated from commercial solar salt.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Nagaoka, Shuhei; Kamekura, Masahiro; Usami, Ron

    2010-11-01

    A novel halophilic archaeon, strain MH1-52-1(T), was isolated from solar salt imported from Australia. Cells were pleomorphic, non-motile and Gram-negative. Strain MH1-52-1(T) required at least 3.0 M NaCl and 1 mM Mg(2+) for growth. Strain MH1-52-1(T) was able to grow at pH 4.0-6.0 (optimum, pH 4.4-4.5) and 15-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C). The diether phospholipids phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, derived from both C(20)C(20) and C(20)C(25) archaeol, were present. Four unidentified glycolipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the highest similarity to that of Halobacterium noricense A1(T) (91.7%); there were lower levels of similarity to other members of the family Halobacteriaceae. The G+C content of its DNA was 61.4 mol%. Based on our phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified as a representative of a new genus and species, for which the name Halarchaeum acidiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Halarchaeum acidiphilum is MH1-52-1(T) (=JCM 16109(T) =DSM 22442(T) =CECT 7534(T)). PMID:19965997

  6. Additives and salts for dye-sensitized solar cells electrolytes: what is the best choice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bella, Federico; Sacco, Adriano; Pugliese, Diego; Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    A multivariate chemometric approach is proposed for the first time for performance optimization of I-/I3- liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Over the years the system composed by iodide/triiodide redox shuttle dissolved in organic solvent has been enriched with the addition of different specific cations and chemical compounds to improve the photoelectrochemical behavior of the cell. However, usually such additives act favorably with respect to some of the cell parameters and negatively to others. Moreover, the combined action of different compounds often yields contradictory results, and from the literature it is not possible to identify an optimal recipe. We report here a systematic work, based on a multivariate experimental design, to statistically and quantitatively evaluate the effect of different additives on the photovoltaic performances of the device. The effect of cation size in iodine salts, the iodine/iodide ratio in the electrolyte and the effect of type and concentration of additives are mutually evaluated by means of a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. Through this statistical method, the optimization of the overall parameters is demonstrated with a limited number of experimental trials. A 25% improvement on the photovoltaic conversion efficiency compared with that obtained with a commercial electrolyte is demonstrated.

  7. Haloalkaliphilic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 isolated from solar salt works and its' pharmacological potential.

    PubMed

    Jenifer, John Selesteen Charles Adlin; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Antagonistic Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was isolated and identified from the Kovalam solar salt works in India. The antimicrobial NRPS cluster gene was characterized by PCR, sequencing and predict the secondary structure analysis. The secondary metabolites will be extracted from different organic solvent extraction and studied the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. In vitro antagonistic activity results revealed that, Streptomyces spp. AJ8 was highly antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila WPD1 and Candida albicans. The genomic level identification revealed that, the strain was confirmed as Streptomyces spp. AJ8 and submitted the NCBI database (KC603899). The NRPS gene was generated a single gene fragment of 781 bp length (KR491940) and the database analysis revealed that, the closely related to Streptomyces spp. SAUK6068 and S. coeruleoprunus NBRC15400. The secondary metabolites extracted with ethyl acetate was effectively inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth at the ranged between 7 and 19.2 mm of zone of inhibition. The antiviral activity results revealed that, the metabolite was significantly (P < 0.001) controlled the killer shrimp virus white spot syndrome virus at the level of 85 %. The metabolite also suppressed the L929 fibroblast cancer cells at 35.7 % viability in 1000 µg treatment. PMID:26307214

  8. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  9. Dynamic modelling and simulation of linear Fresnel solar field model based on molten salt heat transfer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Tähtinen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Demonstrations of direct steam generation (DSG) in linear Fresnel collectors (LFC) have given promising results related to higher steam parameters compared to the current state-of-the-art parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology using oil as heat transfer fluid (HTF). However, DSG technology lacks feasible solution for long-term thermal energy storage (TES) system. This option is important for CSP technology in order to offer dispatchable power. Recently, molten salts have been proposed to be used as HTF and directly as storage medium in both line-focusing solar fields, offering storage capacity of several hours. This direct molten salt (DMS) storage concept has already gained operational experience in solar tower power plant, and it is under demonstration phase both in the case of LFC and PTC systems. Dynamic simulation programs offer a valuable effort for design and optimization of solar power plants. In this work, APROS dynamic simulation program is used to model a DMS linear Fresnel solar field with two-tank TES system, and example simulation results are presented in order to verify the functionality of the model and capability of APROS for CSP modelling and simulation.

  10. Self-healing fuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fast-acting current limiting device provides current overload protection for vulnerable circuit elements and then re-establishes conduction path within milliseconds. Fuse can also perform as fast-acting switch to clear transient circuit overloads. Fuse takes advantage of large increase in electrical resistivity that occurs when liquid metal vaporizes.

  11. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  12. The FUSE Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Victor M.

    1973-01-01

    A description of the present position of the FUSE organization relative to the development of unified science programs is discussed, including the related purposes and directions that characterize the newly established center. (DF)

  13. Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov., from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake of China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Mou, Yun-Zhuang; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Han, Dong; Ren, Min; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC20(T) and XD15, were isolated from a marine solar saltern and an inland salt lake in China. Both had pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They were neutrophilic, requiring at least 100 g NaCl l(-1) and 0.5-95 g MgCl2 l(-1) for growth at the optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1) and mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), respectively. Trace amounts of two unidentified glycolipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.5 % identical and showed 94.0-95.9 % similarity to the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene sequence similarity between strains YC20(T) and XD15 was 98.2 % and these sequences showed 89.6-92.8 % similarity to those of the most closely related members of the genus Halobellus. The DNA G+C contents of strains YC20(T) and XD15 were 65.8 mol% and 65.4 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain XD15 was 92 %, and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness to members of the genus Halobellus. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC20(T) and XD15 represent a novel species of the genus Halobellus, for which the name Halobellus inordinatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC20(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12120(T) = JCM 18361(T)) and the other strain is XD15 ( = CGMCC 1.12236 = JCM 18648). PMID:23728369

  14. Salt-gradient Solar Ponds: Summary of US Department of Energy Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Johnson, D. H.; Jones, G. F.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-01-01

    The solar pond research program conducted by the United States Department of Energy was discontinued after 1983. This document summarizes the results of the program, reviews the state of the art, and identifies the remaining outstanding issues. Solar ponds is a generic term but, in the context of this report, the term solar pond refers specifically to saltgradient solar pond. Several small research solar ponds have been built and successfully tested. Procedures for filling the pond, maintaining the gradient, adjusting the zone boundaries, and extracting heat were developed. Theories and models were developed and verified. The major remaining unknowns or issues involve the physical behavior of large ponds; i.e., wind mixing of the surface, lateral range or reach of horizontally injected fluids, ground thermal losses, and gradient zone boundary erosion caused by pumping fluid for heat extraction. These issues cannot be scaled and must be studied in a large outdoor solar pond.

  15. Tropone-fused carbaporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy D; Gilot, Gean C; AbuSalim, Deyaa I

    2014-10-17

    Previous attempts to prepare tropone-fused carbaporphyrins by reacting peroxides with azuliporphyrins under basic conditions afforded benzocarbaporphyrins instead. In this study, a methoxyazulitripyrrane condensed with a pyrrole dialdehyde in the presence of TFA, followed by oxidation with ferric chloride, to give a tropone-fused carbaporphyrin following a spontaneous demethylation. The porphyrinoid gave a modified UV-vis spectrum showing multiple bands in the Soret region, and the proton NMR spectrum showed that it has a reduced diamagnetic ring current in comparison to other carbaporphyrins. The tropone-fused derivative failed to react with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and potassium hydroxide, demonstrating that this type of structure is not an intermediate in the formation of benzocarbaporphyrins. However, the reaction with silver(I) acetate gave the corresponding silver(III) complex. Condensation of the methoxyazulitripyrrane with 2,5-thiophenedicarbaldehyde gave a related tropone-fused thiacarbaporphyrin together with a methoxythiaazuliporphyrin. Treatment of the carbaporphyrins with DBU resulted in the formation of anionic species, while addition of acid afforded dicationic structures. DFT studies were performed on a series of tautomers, protonated species, and anionic structures related to these tropone-fused carbaporphyrins, and NICS calculations were carried out. These results allowed favorable conjugation pathways to be identified. In addition, these studies predicted that protonation initially occurs on the carbonyl moiety rather than on the expected interior pyrrolenine nitrogen atom. PMID:25229306

  16. Self-healing fuse development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The mercury-filled self-healing fuses developed for this program afford very good protection from circuit faults with rapid reclosure. Fuse performance and design parameters have been characterized. Life tests indicate a capability of 500 fuse operations. Fuse ratings are 150 v at 5, 15, 25 and 50 circuit A. A series of sample fuses using alumina and beryllia insulation have been furnished to NASA for circuit evaluation.

  17. Assessment of molten-salt solar central-receiver freeze-up and recovery events

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Dunkin, S.R.

    1996-02-01

    Molten salt used as a heat transfer fluid in central-receiver so ar power plants has a high freezing point (430{degrees}F (221{degrees}C)). It is very likely during the life of the plant that the receiver will accidentally freeze up due to equipment malfunction or operator error. Experiments were conducted to measure the effects of a molten salt receiver freeze-up and recovery event and methods to thaw the receiver. In addition, simulated freeze/thaw experiments were conducted to determine what happens when salt freezes and is thawed in receiver tubes and to quantify the damage caused to candidate receiver tube materials. Fourteen tube samples of various materials, diameters and wall thicknesses were tested to destruction. Results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  18. Triphenylsilane-fused Porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jun Oh; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    A reaction sequence of 2-(diphenylsilyl)phenylation by Negishi coupling and intramolecular sila-Friedel-Crafts reaction has been explored for the synthesis of mono-triphenylsilane-fused porphyrins 5 M and 6 M (M= Ni, Zn) and bis-triphenylsilane-fused porphyrins 7 M and 8 Ni. A triply linked triphenylsilane-fused Ni(II) porphyrin, 13 Ni, was synthesized in a stepwise manner involving the above reaction sequence and a final Pd-catalyzed C-H activating arylative cyclization. The silicon atom in 13 Ni takes a distorted planarized structure with an almost perpendicular Si-phenyl group, causing an electronic effect due to effective σ*-π* interaction. PMID:27124659

  19. New design for CSP plant with direct-steam solar receiver and molten-salt storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganany, Alon; Hadad, Itay

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the evolution of BrightSource's Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology - from a solar steam generator (SRSG) with no Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to SRSG with TES to Extended-cycle TES. The paper discusses SRSG with TES technology, and the capabilities of this solution are compared with those of an MSR plant.

  20. Regional thermal and electric energy output of salt-gradient solar ponds in the U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. J.; Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Salt-gradient solar pond thermal and electrical energy output was calculated for each of twelve regions within the United States as part of an effort to assess solar pond applicability and extent of requisite physical resources on a regional basis. The energy output level is one of the key factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar ponds. Calculated thermal energy output ranges from 6.9 Wt/sq m in Fairbanks, Alaska, to 73.1 Wt/sq m in Daggett, California, at an energy extraction temperature of 45 C. The output ranges from 0.0 Wt/sq m in Fairbanks to 63.2 Wt/sq m in Daggett at 60 C. Electrical energy output ranges from 0.0 We/sq m in Fairbanks to 3.11 We/sq m in Daggett. Although these estimates constitute a reasonable basis for regional comparison, site-specific analysis must be performed for an actual application design.

  1. Boron doped Si rich oxide/SiO2 and silicon rich nitride/SiNx bilayers on molybdenum-fused silica substrates for vertically structured Si quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ziyun; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Vertically structured Si quantum dots (QDs) solar cells with molybdenum (Mo) interlayer on quartz substrates would overcome current crowding effects found in mesa-structured cells. This study investigates the compatibility between boron (B) doped Si QDs bilayers and Mo-fused silica substrate. Both Si/SiO2 and Si/SiNx based QDs bilayers were studied. The material compatibility under high temperature treatment was assessed by examining Si crystallinity, microstress, thin film adhesion, and Mo oxidation. It was observed that the presence of Mo interlayer enhanced the Si QDs size confinement, crystalline fraction, and QDs size uniformity. The use of B doping was preferred compared to phosphine (PH3) doping studied previously in terms of better surface and interface properties by reducing oxidized spots on the film. Though crack formation due to thermal mismatch after annealing remained, methods to overcome this problem were proposed in this paper. Schematic diagram to fabricate full vertical structured Si QDs solar cells was also suggested.

  2. Boron doped Si rich oxide/SiO{sub 2} and silicon rich nitride/SiN{sub x} bilayers on molybdenum-fused silica substrates for vertically structured Si quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ziyun Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-07-28

    Vertically structured Si quantum dots (QDs) solar cells with molybdenum (Mo) interlayer on quartz substrates would overcome current crowding effects found in mesa-structured cells. This study investigates the compatibility between boron (B) doped Si QDs bilayers and Mo-fused silica substrate. Both Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiN{sub x} based QDs bilayers were studied. The material compatibility under high temperature treatment was assessed by examining Si crystallinity, microstress, thin film adhesion, and Mo oxidation. It was observed that the presence of Mo interlayer enhanced the Si QDs size confinement, crystalline fraction, and QDs size uniformity. The use of B doping was preferred compared to phosphine (PH{sub 3}) doping studied previously in terms of better surface and interface properties by reducing oxidized spots on the film. Though crack formation due to thermal mismatch after annealing remained, methods to overcome this problem were proposed in this paper. Schematic diagram to fabricate full vertical structured Si QDs solar cells was also suggested.

  3. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  4. The influence of mixing water on the thermophysical properties of nanofluids based on solar salt and silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, B.; Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Sánchez-García, J. A.; Julia, J. E.; García-Romero, A.

    2016-05-01

    The use of nanofluids (NFs) based on Solar Salt (SS) and nanoparticles (NPs), either as Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material or as Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), is attracting great interest in recent years. Many authors [1,3] have reported important improvements on the thermophysical properties (specific heat capacity cp,thermal conductivity k) of NFs based on SS and ceramic NPs. These improvements would lead to important savings and better performance of TES facilities on new Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants due to lower quantities of material required and smaller storage tanks. To achieve these advantageous features in the final NFs, it is essential to avoid NP agglomeration during their preparation. Different synthesis procedures have been reported: mixing of solid NPs within a SS solution by means of ultrasounds [1-3], direct mixing of solid NPs and molten salt [4]. In this work, NFs based on SS and 1% by wt. of silica NPs were synthetized from a SS-water solution and a commercial water-silica NF called Ludox HS 30% (Sigma-Aldrich). The influence of the mixing water volume (MW) on the cp of NFs was evaluated. With this aim, the cp of these samples was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) both in the solid and the liquid state. In addition, the distribution of sizes was measured during the whole preparation process by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Further information about sizes and uniformity of the final NFs was obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the SS and final NF were performed.

  5. Observations regarding materials and site preparation for salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.J.; Etter, D.E.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    Experiences gained during the past two years at the largest solar pond in the US are presented. Approximately one year after the pond was completed, the random failures of portions of the factory-fabricated seams in the plastic liner were detected. In addition, excessive corrosion was evident in the copper tube heat exchanger which was submerged in the pond. Based upon these experiences, recommendations are made regarding the preparation of a solar pond site and regarding the materials and their fabrication into pond liners and heat exchangers.

  6. OLED panel with fuses

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  7. Economic feasibility and performance study of a solar-powered absorption cycle using some aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, I.H.; Siddiqui, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    Economic analyses of solar collectors, for optimizing generator temperatures in the absorption cycle using aqueous solutions of LiBr, LiBr-ZnBr{sub 2}, LiBr-ZnBr{sub 2}-LiCl, and LiBr-ZnCl{sub 2}-CaBr{sub 2} salts, have been carried out for a wide range of the operating conditions. Ordinary collectors with two glass covers and evacuated-tubular collectors have been selected as the sources of energy for providing hot liquid in the generator of the absorption cycle. Of the four solutions, as the working fluids in the absorption cycles, those having better coefficients of performance are the LiBr/H{sub 2}O at the low evaporator temperatures, and the (LiBr-ZnBr{sub 2}-LiCl)/H{sub 2}O as well as the (LiBr-ZnCl{sub 2}-CaBr{sub 2})/H{sub 2}O at the high evaporator temperatures. Similarly, costs of the solar collectors are low, at low evaporation temperatures for the LiBr/H{sub 2}O and at high temperatures for the other two solutions: the (LiBr-ZnBr{sub 2})/H{sub 2}O, on the other hand, have relatively low COP and high operating costs.

  8. Tuning the LUMO level of organic photovoltaic solar cells by conjugately fusing graphene flake: A DFT-B3LYP study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, M. Darvish; Tajbakhsh, M.; Kariminasab, M.; Alinezhad, H.

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of polymer solar cells can be essentially enhanced by improving the performance of electron acceptor materials especially by increasing its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level. To this aim, the electronic properties of an extremely π-extended system, graphene flake and functionalized graphene flake with phenyl-C-butyric methyl ester (PCBM) group, were investigated and compared with those of C60 ones. Several properties of phenyl-C61-butyric methyl ester ([C60]PCBM) derivatives have been calculated and compared against the experimental and other theoretical results. All geometrical and electronic structures calculations were carried out by using the density functional theory (DFT) method at the B3LYP level of theory. The results show that the phenyl ring of [C60]PCBM was substituted with the methoxy groups to increase the LUMO level of the respective system which is in agreement with other studies. We found that graphene flake functionalized by methoxy-PCBM group offer significant increase in the value of the LUMO energy level in comparison with C60 counterpart. Furthermore, the electrophilicity of this compound is lower than that of the other counterparts, which results in higher open circuit voltage (Voc) value in the photovoltaic device. These findings could provide fundamental insights in improving the Voc value as well as raising the LUMO levels of electron acceptor materials and may also serve as an alternative strategy to increase open circuit voltage in polymer solar cells.

  9. Testing thermocline filler materials and molten-salt heat transfer fluids for thermal energy storage systems used in parabolic trough solar power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Michael James; Hlava, Paul Frank; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Parabolic trough power systems that utilize concentrated solar energy to generate electricity are a proven technology. Industry and laboratory research efforts are now focusing on integration of thermal energy storage as a viable means to enhance dispatchability of concentrated solar energy. One option to significantly reduce costs is to use thermocline storage systems, low-cost filler materials as the primary thermal storage medium, and molten nitrate salts as the direct heat transfer fluid. Prior thermocline evaluations and thermal cycling tests at the Sandia National Laboratories' National Solar Thermal Test Facility identified quartzite rock and silica sand as potential filler materials. An expanded series of isothermal and thermal cycling experiments were planned and implemented to extend those studies in order to demonstrate the durability of these filler materials in molten nitrate salts over a range of operating temperatures for extended timeframes. Upon test completion, careful analyses of filler material samples, as well as the molten salt, were conducted to assess long-term durability and degradation mechanisms in these test conditions. Analysis results demonstrate that the quartzite rock and silica sand appear able to withstand the molten salt environment quite well. No significant deterioration that would impact the performance or operability of a thermocline thermal energy storage system was evident. Therefore, additional studies of the thermocline concept can continue armed with confidence that appropriate filler materials have been identified for the intended application.

  10. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  11. Improved hole-transporting property via HAT-CN for perovskite solar cells without lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingzhuang; Chung, Yao-Hsien; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Danfei; Yu, Xiao; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Wang, Shufeng; Qu, Bo; Gong, Qihuang; Zou, Dechun

    2015-04-01

    A nonadditive hole-transporting material (HTM) of a triphenylamine derivative of N,N'-di(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (TPD) is used for the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be significantly enhanced by inserting a thin layer of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) without adding an ion additive because the hole-transporting properties improve. The short-circuit current density (J(sc)) increases from 8.5 to 13.1 mA/cm(2), the open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) increases from 0.84 to 0.92 V, and the fill-factor (FF) increases from 0.45 to 0.59, which corresponds to the increase in PCE from 3.2% to 7.1%. Moreover, the PCE decreases by only 10% after approximately 1000 h without encapsulation, which suggests an alternative method to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells. PMID:25761404

  12. Optimal spacing within a tubed, volumetric, cavity receiver suitable for modular molten salt solar towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A 2-dimensional radiation analysis has been developed to analyse the radiative efficiency of an arrangement of heat transfer tubes distributed in layers but spaced apart to form a tubed, volumetric receiver. Such an arrangement could be suitable for incorporation into a cavity receiver. Much of the benefit of this volumetric approach is gained after using 5 layers although improvements do continue with further layers. The radiation analysis splits each tube into multiple segments in which each segment surface can absorb, reflect and radiate rays depending on its surface temperature. An iterative technique is used to calculate appropriate temperatures depending on the distribution of the net energy absorbed and assuming that the cool heat transfer fluid (molten salt) starts at the front layer and flows back through successive layers to the rear of the cavity. Modelling the finite diameter of each layer of tubes increases the ability of a layer to block radiation scattered at acute angles and this effect is shown to reduce radiation losses by nearly 25% compared to the earlier 1-d analysis. Optimum efficient designs tend to occur when the blockage factor is 0.2 plus the inverse of the number of tube layers. It is beneficial if the distance between successive layers is ≥ 2 times the diameter of individual tubes and in this situation, if the incoming radiation is spread over a range of angles, the performance is insensitive to the degree of any tube positional offset or stagger between layers.

  13. Fused fiber micro-knots.

    PubMed

    Shahal, Shir; Klein, Avi; Masri, Gilad; Fridman, Moti

    2016-06-10

    We present fusing of a fiber micro-knot by a CO2 laser beam. We demonstrate tuning of the coupling strength and tuning of the spectral resonance of the micro-knot by the fusing process. The experimental results reveal that fusing the fiber micro-knots increases the coupling efficiency and improves the robustness and the stability of the micro-knots. PMID:27409009

  14. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  15. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Handford, C.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  16. Self-healing fuse development.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    The self-healing fuse is a very fast acting current overload protective device which opens and recloses in a few milliseconds. The fuse confines a mercury column in an insulated channel and returns the mercury to the channel after firing. Ratings 5 to 50 A at 600 peak volts are possible with a life of hundreds of cycles. Compared to conventional fuses, much less fault current energy fires the fuse by heating the mercury to boiling temperature. Next an arc discharge develops while explosive forces expel the liquid mercury from the channel. Then the high impedance arc either extinguishes immediately, or operates for a few milliseconds, until a switch opens the circuit.

  17. Design, construction, and initial operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Dreicer, J.S.; Grimmer, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    A 232 m/sup 2/ solar pond was constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of studying pond hydrodynamics on a large scale and to complement the flow visualization and one-dimensional pond simulator experiments that are ongoing at the Laboratory. Design methods and construction techniques, some of which are unique to this pond, are described in detail. The pond was excavated from a soft volcanic rock known as tuff; such rock forms a large fraction of the Los Alamos area surface geology. Because tuff has a small thermal conductivity, little insulation was required to reduce perimeter energy losses. In addition, the strength of tuff permitted the pond to be built with vertical side walls; this design eliminated local side wall convection in the gradient zone that is possible with sloping side walls. Instrumentation in the pond consists of traversing and fixed rakes of thermometers and salinity probes, an underwater pyranometer, and a weather station. The traversing rake is a wheeled trolley driven vertically on a rectangular rail. Installed on the trolley are coplanar platinum RTDs, a point conductivity probe, and an induction salinometer. The stationary rake supports 28 thermocouples and 28 sample-fluid withdrawal taps located every 10 cm. About 127 T of sodium chloride has been introduced and is nearly dissolved. A 120-cm-thick salinity gradient was established and the pond is heating. Preliminary results indicate a lower-convective-zone heating rate of 1.2/sup 0/C/day during the pond's first month of operation. Recommendations on pond design, construction, and instrumentation are presented.

  18. Operations with the FUSE observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Moos, Henry W.; Oegerle, William R.

    2003-02-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite (FUSE) is a NASA Origins mission launched on 1999 June 24 and operated from the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus in Baltimore, MD. FUSE consists of four aligned telescopes feeding twin far-ultraviolet spectrographs that achieve a spectral resolution of R=20,000 over the 905-1187 Å spectral region. This makes FUSE complementary to the Hubble Space Telescope and of broad general interest to the astronomical community. FUSE is operated as a general-purpose observatory with proposals evaluated and selected by NASA. The FUSE mission concept evolved dramatically over time. The version of FUSE that was built and flown was born out of the "faster, better, cheaper" era, which drove not only the mission development but also plans for operations. Fixed price contracts, a commercial spacecraft, and operations in the University environment were all parts of the low cost strategy. The satellite performs most functions autonomously, with ground contacts limited typically to seven 12-minute contacts per day through a dedicated ground station. All support functions are managed by a staff of 40 scientists and engineers located at Johns Hopkins. In this configuration, we have been able to achieve close to 30% average on-target science efficiency. In short, FUSE is a successful example of the "faster, better, cheaper" philosophy.

  19. Effect of iron salt counter ion in dose-response curves for inactivation of Fusarium solani in water through solar driven Fenton-like processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurioles-López, Verónica; Polo-López, M. Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; López-Malo, Aurelio; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    The inactivation of Fusarium solani in water was assessed by solar driven Fenton-like processes using three different iron salts: ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). The experimental conditions tested were [Fe] ≈ 5 mg L-1, [H2O2] ≈ 10 mg L-1 and [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1 mild and high, respectively, and pH 3.0 and 5.0, under solar radiation. The highest inactivation rates were observed at high reaction conditions for the three iron salts tested at pH 5.0 with less than 3.0 kJ L-1 of accumulate energy (QUV) to achieve over 99.9% of F. solani inactivation. Fe(acac)3 was the best iron salt to accomplishing F. solani inactivation. The modified Fermi equation was used to fix the experimental inactivation, data showed it was helpful for modeling the process, adequately describing dose-response curves. Inactivation process using FeSO4 at pH 3.0 was modeled fairly with r2 = 0.98 and 0.99 (mild and high concentration, respectively). Fe(acac)3, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at high concentration (i.e. [Fe] ≈ 10 mg L-1; [H2O2] ≈ 20 mg L-1) and pH 5.0 showed the highest fitting values (r2 = 0.99). Iron salt type showed a remarkable influence on the Fenton-like inactivation process.

  20. Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

  1. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  2. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, begin removing the plastic covering from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  3. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is unveiled before prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  4. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, get ready to remove the protective shipping cover from NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite for prelaunch processing. FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  5. The FUSE satellite is prepped for prelaunch processing at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands alone after workstands have been removed. As part of prelaunch processing, FUSE will undergo a functional test of its systems, followed by installation of the flight batteries and solar arrays. Tests are also scheduled for the communications and data systems linking FUSE with the spacecraft control center at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FUSE was developed and will be operated by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The launch aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket is targeted for May 20 at Launch Complex 17.

  6. FUSED REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.W.

    1962-11-13

    This invention relates to a nuciear reactor fuel composition comprising (1) from about 0.01 to about 50 wt.% based on the total weight of said composition of at least one element selected from the class consisting of uranium, thorium, and plutonium, wherein said eiement is present in the form of at least one component selected from the class consisting of oxides, halides, and salts of oxygenated anions, with components comprising (2) at least one member selected from the class consisting of (a) sulfur, wherein the sulfur is in the form of at least one entity selected irom the class consisting of oxides of sulfur, metal sulfates, metal sulfites, metal halosulfonates, and acids of sulfur, (b) halogen, wherein said halogen is in the form of at least one compound selected from the class of metal halides, metal halosulfonates, and metal halophosphates, (c) phosphorus, wherein said phosphorus is in the form of at least one constituent selected from the class consisting of oxides of phosphorus, metal phosphates, metal phosphites, and metal halophosphates, (d) at least one oxide of a member selected from the class consisting of a metal and a metalloid wherein said oxide is free from an oxide of said element in (1); wherein the amount of at least one member selected from the class consisting of halogen and sulfur is at least about one at.% based on the amount of the sum of said sulfur, halogen, and phosphorus atom in said composition; and wherein the amount of said 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) components in said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, arid plutonium, is at least about 60 wt.% based on the combined weight of the components of said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. (AEC)

  7. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP. PMID:20579682

  8. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Findings of a survey concerning salt ponds are summarized. The residential, commercial, and institutional buildings sector is discussed. The industrial process heat sector is considered. The agricultural process heat sector is examined. The electrical power sector is reviewed. The desalinization sector is considered.

  9. Ion Specific Electrodes in Fused Salts: An Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Floyd, Sr.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that will acquaint the student with the ion-exchange model, yield data which fit nicely to a computer type analysis, introduce the preparation of electrodes, provide a unique experience with elevated temperatures and ionic solvents, and provide experience in electrometric measurements. (GS)

  10. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  11. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING... this part, fuses shall be considered to be approved for use with direct current in providing...

  12. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING... this part, fuses shall be considered to be approved for use with direct current in providing...

  13. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING... this part, fuses shall be considered to be approved for use with direct current in providing...

  14. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING... this part, fuses shall be considered to be approved for use with direct current in providing...

  15. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... it will support either the weight of the fireworks device plus 8 ounces of dead weight or double...

  16. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... it will support either the weight of the fireworks device plus 8 ounces of dead weight or double...

  17. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... it will support either the weight of the fireworks device plus 8 ounces of dead weight or double...

  18. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... it will support either the weight of the fireworks device plus 8 ounces of dead weight or double...

  19. 16 CFR 1507.3 - Fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.3 Fuses. (a) Fireworks devices that require a fuse shall: (1) Utilize only a fuse that has been... it will support either the weight of the fireworks device plus 8 ounces of dead weight or double...

  20. 30 CFR 28.2 - Approved fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved fuses. 28.2 Section 28.2 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 28.2 Approved fuses. (a) On and after the effective date...

  1. FUSE Observations of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Young, P. R.; Ake, T. B.

    2000-12-01

    Luminous cool stars can address the evolution of magnetic activity and the dynamics of stellar winds and mass loss. The region of yellow supergiants in the HR diagram contains stars of intermediate mass both with coronas and those possessing a hot outer atmosphere in the presence of a strong wind (the ``hybrid'' stars). These hybrid objects hold particular significance for evolution studies because they represent the physically important connection between solar-like stars (with coronas and fast winds of low-mass loss rate) and the cool supergiant stars (Alpha Ori-like) with cool outer atmospheres and massive winds. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) measured the chromospheric and transition region emissions of the bright G2 Ib supergiant Beta Draconis (HD 159181) on 9 May 2000. Two exposures through the large aperture totaled 7695 s and were obtained in all channels covering the region λ λ 912-1180. Emission from chromospheric and transition region ions (C III, O VI, Si III, S IV, S VI) is detected along with a number of low ion stages. Profiles of strong lines are asymmetric suggesting the presence of a wind. A short exposure (3260 s) of Alpha Aquarii (HD 209750), a hybrid supergiant also of spectral type G2 Ib was obtained June 29, 2000. Dynamics of the atmospheres can be inferred from line profiles. The atmospheric temperature distribution, densities, and scale sizes can be evaluated from line fluxes to characterize the differences between a coronal star and a hybrid supergiant. FUSE is a NASA Origins mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Funding for this research is provided through NASA Contract NAS-532985.

  2. TTFs nonsymmetrically fused with alkylthiophenic moieties

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafaela A L; Vieira, Bruno J C; Andrade, Marta M; Santos, Isabel C; Rabaça, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two new dithiolene ligand precursors, containing fused TTF and alkyl thiophenic moieties 3,3'-{[2-(5-(tert-butyl)thieno[2,3-d][1,3]dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3-dithiole-4,5-diyl]bis[sulfanediyl]}dipropanenitrile (α-tbtdt, 1), and 3,3'-{[2-(5-methylthieno[2,3-d][1,3]dithiol-2-ylidene)-1,3-dithiole-4,5-diyl]bis[sulfanediyl]}dipropanenitrile (α-mtdt, 2), were synthesized and characterized. The electrochemical properties of these electronic donors were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in dichloromethane. Both compounds show two quasi-reversible oxidation processes, versus Ag/AgCl, typical of TTF donors at E 1 1/2 = 279 V and E 2 1/2 = 680 V for 1 and E 1 1/2 = 304 V and E 2 1/2 = 716 V in the case of 2. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 1 and of a charge transfer salt of 2, (α-mtdt)[Au(mnt)2] (3), are reported. PMID:26124865

  3. Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Baxamusa, S; Miller, P E; Wong, L; Steele, R; Shen, N; Bude, J

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the laser damage threshold of fused silica have been driven by the successive elimination of near-surface damage precursors such as polishing residue, fractures, and inorganic salts. In this work, we show that trace impurities in ultrapure water used to process fused silica optics may be responsible for the formation of carbonaceous deposits. We use surrogate materials to show that organic compounds precipitated onto fused silica surfaces form discrete damage precursors. Following a standard etching process, solvent-free oxidative decomposition using oxygen plasma or high-temperature thermal treatments in air reduced the total density of damage precursors to as low as <50 cm(-2). Finally, we show that inorganic compounds are more likely to cause damage when they are tightly adhered to a surface, which may explain why high-temperature thermal treatments have been historically unsuccessful at removing extrinsic damage precursors from fused silica. PMID:25606889

  4. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  5. FUSE observations of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iping, Rosina C.; Sonneborn, George; Massa, Derck L.

    P Cyg, AG Car, HD 5980 and η Car were observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer ( FUSE) satellite. FUSE covers the spectral range from 980 Å to 1187 Å at a resolution of 0.05 Å. In this paper we discuss the far-UV properties of these LBVs and explore their similarities and differences. The FUSE observations of P Cyg and AG Car, both spectral type B2pe, are very similar. The atmospheres of both η Car and HD 5980 appear to be somewhat hotter and have much higher ionization stages (Si IV, S IV, and P V) in the FUSE spectrum than P Cyg and AG Car. There is a very good agreement between the FUSE spectrum of P Cygni and the model atmosphere computed by John Hillier with his code CMFGEN. The FUSE spectrum of η Car, however, does not agree very well with existing model spectra.

  6. Corrosion of high temperature alloys in solar salt at 400, 500, and 680%C2%B0C.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Corrosion tests at 400, 500, and 680%C2%B0C were performed using four high temperature alloys; 347SS, 321SS In625, and HA230. Molten salt chemistry was monitored over time through analysis of nitrite, carbonate, and dissolved metals. Metallography was performed on alloys at 500 and 680%C2%B0C, due to the relatively thin oxide scale observed at 400%C2%B0C. At 500%C2%B0C, corrosion of iron based alloys took the form of chromium depletion and iron oxides, while nickel based alloys also had chromium depletion and formation of NiO. Chromium was detected in relatively low concentrations at this temperature. At 680%C2%B0C, significant surface corrosion occurred with metal losses greater than 450microns/year after 1025hours of exposure. Iron based alloys formed complex iron, sodium, and chromium oxides. Some data suggests grain boundary chromium depletion of 321SS. Nickel alloys formed NiO and metallic nickel corrosion morphologies, with HA230 displaying significant internal oxidation in the form of chromia. Nickel alloys both exhibited worse corrosion than iron based alloys likely due to preferential dissolution of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten.

  7. Internal fuse modules for solid tantalum capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Miniature fuse modules were designed for and incorporated into two styles of solid tantalum capacitors. One is an epoxy molded, radial leaded, high frequency decoupling capacitor; the other is an hermetically sealed device with axial lead wires. The fusible element for both devices consists of a fine bimetallic wire which reacts exothermically upon reaching a critical temperature and then disintegrates. The desirability of having fused devices is discussed and design constraints, in particular those which minimize inductance and series resistance while optimizing fuse actuation characteristics, are reviewed. Factors affecting the amount of energy required to actuate the fuse and reliability of acuation are identified.

  8. Integrated fuses for OLED lighting device

    DOEpatents

    Pschenitzka, Florian

    2007-07-10

    An embodiment of the present invention pertains to an electroluminescent lighting device for area illumination. The lighting device is fault tolerant due, in part, to the patterning of one or both of the electrodes into strips, and each of one or more of these strips has a fuse formed on it. The fuses are integrated on the substrate. By using the integrated fuses, the number of external contacts that are used is minimized. The fuse material is deposited using one of the deposition techniques that is used to deposit the thin layers of the electroluminescent lighting device.

  9. Gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile and a novel quaternary ammonium salt for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guiqiang . E-mail: wgqiang@iccas.ac.cn; Zhou Xiaowen; Li Mingyu; Zhang Jinbo; Kang Junjia; Lin Yuan . E-mail: a1703@iccas.ac.cn; Fang Shibi; Xiao Xurui

    2004-11-02

    Gel polymer electrolytes were prepared by incorporating polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a mixture of polysiloxane with quaternary ammonium side groups (PSQAS), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and iodine. The influence of PAN content on the ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes and the charge-transfer kinetic performance in counterelectrode-electrolyte interface was investigated. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the gel polymer electrolyte containing 5 wt.% PAN showed the best photovoltaic performance; a maximum incident photon conversion efficiency of 63% at 520 nm was obtained, the short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}), the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and the fill factor (FF) were 7 mA cm{sup -2}, 0.565 V and 0.65, respectively. The corresponding overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) is 4.3%.

  10. Genomic Analysis of the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 Isolated from Solar Salt That Is an Essential Material for Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Joon Yong; Song, Hye Seon; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Jun; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lee, Dong-Gi; Choi, Jong-Soon; Yoon, Changmann; Sohn, Eunju; Rahman, Md Arif-Ur; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-08-28

    The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense is a member of the genus Halobacterium. Strain CBA1132 (= KCCM 43183, JCM 31150) was isolated from solar salt. The genome of strain CBA1132 assembled with 4 contigs, including three rRNA genes, 44 tRNA genes, and 3,208 open reading frames. Strain CBA1132 had nine putative CRISPRs and the genome contained genes encoding metal resistance determinants: copper-translocating P-type ATPase (CtpA), arsenical pump-driving ATPase (ArsA), arsenate reductase (ArsC), and arsenical resistance operon repressor (ArsR). Strain CBA1132 was related to Halobacterium noricense, with 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on the comparative genomic analysis, strain CBA1132 has distinctly evolved; moreover, essential genes related to nitrogen metabolism were only detected in the genome of strain CBA1132 among the reported genomes in the genus Halobacterium. This genome sequence of Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 may be of use in future molecular biological studies. PMID:27160574

  11. Precise Sealing of Fused-Quartz Ampoules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnan, W. J. J.; Clark, I. O.

    1982-01-01

    New technique rapidly evacuates and seals fused-quartz ampoule with precise clearance over contents without appreciably thinning ampoule walls. Quartz plug is lowered into working section of ampoule after ampoule has been evacuated. Plug is then fused to ampoule walls, forming vacuum seal. New technique maintains wall strength and pumping speed.

  12. Blast Off into Space Science with Fuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombaugh, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity in which students build a fuse with steel, wood, light bulbs, copper wire, clay, and batteries. Uses the cross-age instructional approach to teach about the value of instructional time. Contains directions for building a fuse. (YDS)

  13. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of fuses. 18.52 Section 18.52 Mineral... § 18.52 Renewal of fuses. Enclosure covers that provide access to fuses, other than headlight, control-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  14. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  15. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  16. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  17. The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

  18. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and

  19. Improving the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer in polymer solar cells via copper(II) bromide salt doping.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Wu, Qiliang; Xia, Fei; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-01-28

    Copper(II) bromide (CuBr2) salt has been applied to dope poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer (HTL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs), improving dramatically the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film and consequently the device power conversion efficiency (PCE). Under the optimized doping concentration of CuBr2 of 10 mmol·L(-1), PCE of the CuBr2:PEDOT:PSS HTL-incorporated BHJ-PSC device based on poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5- (4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'- benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) (PCDTBT:PC71BM) reaches 7.05%, which is improved by ∼20.7% compared to that of the reference device based on pristine PEDOT:PSS HTL (5.84%) and represents the highest PCE for PCDTBT:PC71BM-based PSC devices without an electron transport layer (ETL) reported so far. The dramatic improvement of the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film is interpreted by the weakening of the Coulombic attractions between PEDOT and PSS components. The work function of CuBr2:PEDOT:PSS slightly increases compared to that of the undoped PEDOT:PSS as inferred from scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) measurements, contributing to the improved PCE due to the increases of the open-current voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). PMID:25536017

  20. Performance characteristics of guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes with binary iodide salts for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of guanine as an organic dopant in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer blend electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (potassium iodide (KI) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)) and iodine (I2). The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2, PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 and guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as solvent. The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte showed an ionic conductivity value of 9.99 × 10-5 Scm-1, whereas, it was found to be increased to 4.53 × 10-5 Scm-1 when PEO was blended with PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte. However, a maximum ionic conductivity value of 3.67 × 10-4 Scm-1 was obtained for guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 blend electrolyte. The photovoltaic properties of all these polymer electrolytes in DSSCs were characterized. As a consequence, the power conversion efficiency of the guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC was significantly improved to 4.98% compared with PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC (2.46%). These results revealed that the guanine can be an effective organic dopant to enhance the performance of DSSCs.

  1. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and

  2. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  3. Launch of NASA's FUSE satellite from CCAS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As light peers over the horizon at the crack of dawn, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite waits for launch on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Boeing Delta II rocket. Liftoff is scheduled for 11:39 a.m. EDT. FUSE was developed to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Workers at CCAS move the FUSE satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite stands in the Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), ready for its launch, targeted for June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Launch of NASA's FUSE satellite from CCAS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Boeing Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite clears the tower after liftoff at 11:44 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. FUSE was developed to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  6. Launch of NASA's FUSE satellite from CCAS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Clouds of smoke and steam billow around the Boeing Delta II rocket as it roars into the sky after liftoff at 11:44 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The rocket is carrying NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. FUSE was developed to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  7. Launch of NASA's FUSE satellite from CCAS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite sits on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, aboard the Boeing Delta II rocket waiting for launch. Liftoff is scheduled for 11:39 a.m. EDT. FUSE was developed to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  9. Regioselective Oxidation of Fused-Pentagon Chlorofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Shu-Fen; Gao, Cong-Li; Zhou, Ting; Shan, Gui-Juan; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-01-19

    Two monoxides of typical smaller chlorofullerenes, (#271)C50Cl10O and (#913)C56Cl10O, featured with double-fused-pentagons, were synthesized to demonstrate further regioselective functionalization of non-IPR (IPR = isolated pentagon rule) chlorofullerenes. Both non-IPR chlorofullerene oxides exhibit an epoxy structure at the ortho-site of fused pentagons. In terms of the geometrical analysis and theoretical calculations, the principles for regioselective epoxy oxidation of non-IPR chlorofullerenes are revealed to follow both "fused-pentagon ortho-site" and "olefinic bond" rules, which are valuable for prediction of oxidation of non-IPR chlorofullerenes. PMID:26726707

  10. The Legacy of the FUSE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission was a far-ultraviolet space telescope that performed high resolution (R=20,OOO) spectroscopy in the 905 - 1187 A spectral range. FUSE primarily observed stars and distant galaxies to study interstellar and intergalactic gas through absorption spectroscopy, as well as the properties of the objects themselves. This capability complemented the Hubble Space Telescope at longer wavelengths, and provided the international astronomical community with access to an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE was a joint project of NASA, CNES, and CSA. The mission operated from 1999 to 2007. This review talk will summarize the scientific impact of the FUSE mission on several key scientific problems, as well as lessons learned for future mission concepts.

  11. Process for energy reduction with flash fusing

    SciTech Connect

    Berkes, J.S.

    1987-10-06

    This patent describes a process for affecting a reduction in the energy needed for accomplishing the flash fusing of a developed image which comprises (1) providing a toner composition with resin particles, pigment articles, and wax. The wax possesses a lower melting temperature than the resin particles and is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene and polypropylene with a molecular weight of less than about 6,000; (2) introducing the aforementioned toner composition into a xerographic imaging apparatus having incorporated therein a flash fusing device; (3) generating an electrostatic latent image in the imaging apparatus, and subsequently developing this image with the toner composition; (4) transferring the image to a supporting substrate; and (5) permanently attaching the image to the substrate with energy emitted from a flash fusing device, and wherein there is formed between the supporting substrate and the toner composition during fusing a wax layer.

  12. 1,4-Dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine fused with two tetrathiafulvalenes.

    PubMed

    Avarvari, Narcis; Fourmigué, Marc

    2004-12-21

    Electrochemical and theoretical investigations demonstrate through-bond interactions between two TTF moieties fused to a 1,4-dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine, for which the single crystal X-ray structure of the cis isomer is described together with that of a mixed-valent, charge-localized, radical cation salt with Mo6O19(2-), obtained upon electrocrystallization of the same cis isomer. PMID:15599410

  13. Redox shuttles having an aromatic ring fused to a 1,1,4,4-tetrasubstituted cyclohexane ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    An electrolyte includes an alkali metal salt; an aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive including an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring fused with at least one non-aromatic ring, the aromatic ring having two or more oxygen or phosphorus-containing substituents.

  14. Molten salt safety study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The considerations concerning safety in using molten salt (40% potassium nitrate, 60% sodium nitrate) in a solar central receiver plant are addressed. The considerations are of a general nature and do not cover any details of equipment or plant operation. The study includes salt chemical reaction, experiments with molten salt, dry storage and handling constraints, and includes data from the National Fire Protection Association. The contents of this report were evaluated by two utility companies and they concluded that no major safety problems exist in using a molten salt solar system.

  15. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  16. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  17. Provocation Lumbar Diskography at Previously Fused Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dulai, H.S.; Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.S.; Gerszten, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recurrent or persistent low back pain (LBP) after lumbar fusion can be related to many factors. We reviewed the provocation lumbar diskogram (PLD) features and redo-fusion outcome in our patients evaluated for recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion. LD was performed in 27 patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after prior successful lumbar surgical fusion (31 fused levels: single-level fusion-23; two-level fusion-4). PLD response and imaging characteristics at fused and non-fused levels were assessed including: intra-diskal lidocaine response, diskogram-image/post-diskogram CT appearance, presence/absence of diskographic contrast leakage, and evidence of fusion integrity or hardware failure. Outcomes in patients having redo-fusion were assessed. Concordant pain was encountered at 15 out of 23 (65%) single-level fusions, non-concordant pain in one fusion with non-painful response in seven. Adjacent-level concordant pain was identified in seven out of 23 (30%) patients (three of 15 with painful fused levels; four of seven with non-painful fusions). In two-level fusions, concordant pain was encountered at one fused level in each patient. In painful fused levels, leaking and contained disks were encountered with partial or complete pain elimination after intra-diskal lidocaine injection. In anterior fusions, space or contrast surrounding the cage was noted at five of 11 levels. Pseudoarthrosis was noted only with trans-sacral screw fusions. Redo-fusion in 13 patients resulted in significant improvement in nine and moderate improvement in one. Patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion may have a diskogenic pain source at the surgically fused or adjacent level confirmed by lidocaine-assisted PLD. PMID:20977869

  18. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Edwin Y.; James, Ralph B.

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  19. The FUSE satellite is ready to move to the launch pad.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Standing in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) is NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. The black rectangle on top is the optical port; at the lower right is the solar panel; behind (left) the lower edge of the panel are the radiators. The total length of the instrument is approximately four meters. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Launch is targeted for June 23 from Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket.

  20. Propagation mechanism of polymer optical fiber fuse

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hayashi, Neisei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    A fiber fuse phenomenon in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has recently been observed, and its unique properties such as slow propagation, low threshold power density, and the formation of a black oscillatory damage curve, have been reported. However, its characterization is still insufficient to well understand the mechanism and to avoid the destruction of POFs. Here, we present detailed experimental and theoretical analyses of the POF fuse propagation. First, we clarify that the bright spot is not a plasma but an optical discharge, the temperature of which is ~3600 K. We then elucidate the reasons for the oscillation of the damage curve along with the formation of newly-observed gas bubbles as well as for the low threshold power density. We also present the idea that the POF fuse can potentially be exploited to offer a long photoelectric interaction length. PMID:24762949

  1. Stability of fuses under cyclic load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namitokov, K. K.; Shklovskiy, I. G.

    1984-05-01

    Thermal stresses in fuses, stimulated by the high degree of mechanical stiffness and the cause of low stability under cyclic current loads, can be reduced by reducing the stiffness of the fuse element, which is typically a strap welded to contact caps at both ends. It is indicated that the stiffness can be reduced by increasing the length and decreasing the cross section. A thin strap consists of flat and bend segments. Simple bending and multiple bending were evaluated. It is indicated that bent fuse segments are less stiff than straight segments, that the relation between stiffness and amplitude of the bend is an inverse power law with the amplitude to a power much higher than squared, that the decrease of overall stiffness is approximately proportional to the number of bends, and that rectangular or circular bending reduce the stiffness most efficiently, inasmuch as such contours envelop the largest areas on the basis of fixed length.

  2. Inverse melting in stressed fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchut, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    The emissive properties of proton implanted fused silica surfaces have been studied by laser beam annealing. When submitted to a high thermal step from a focused CO2 laser, an intense near infra-red thermoluminescence peak rises at a heating rate threshold. The in plane tensile stress relaxes and silica melts. We show that in the irreversible inverse melting of stressed fused silica, the protons exo-diffuse through internal modes coupling. The heat and mass transfer is one entropy flux whose dynamics are regulated by the mass transport. Inverse melting is the thermodynamic process that initiates the glass transition when heating.

  3. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The different types of solar ponds are described, including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. Then the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds are discussed and costs are compared. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirement is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  4. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... least the minimum burning time for a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E... blasthole detonates. (d) Fuse shall be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped... with devices designed for that purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... least the minimum burning time for a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E... blasthole detonates. (d) Fuse shall be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped... with devices designed for that purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E-1—Safety Fuse—Minimum Burning... be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped to fuse only with implements... purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and cigarette lighters shall not be used...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E-1—Safety Fuse—Minimum Burning... be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped to fuse only with implements... purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and cigarette lighters shall not be used...

  8. Crystal growth in fused solvent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Noone, M. J.; Spear, K. E.; White, W. B.; Henry, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported on the growth of electronic ceramic single crystals from solution for the future growth of crystals in a microgravity environment. Work included growth from fused or glass solvents and aqueous solutions. Topics discussed include: crystal identification and selection; aqueous solution growth of triglycine sulphate (TGS); and characterization of TGS.

  9. Fusing face-verification algorithms and humans.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Alice J; Abdi, Hervé; Jiang, Fang; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2007-10-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that state-of-the-art face-recognition algorithms can surpass human accuracy at matching faces over changes in illumination. The ranking of algorithms and humans by accuracy, however, does not provide information about whether algorithms and humans perform the task comparably or whether algorithms and humans can be fused to improve performance. In this paper, we fused humans and algorithms using partial least square regression (PLSR). In the first experiment, we applied PLSR to face-pair similarity scores generated by seven algorithms participating in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge. The PLSR produced an optimal weighting of the similarity scores, which we tested for generality with a jackknife procedure. Fusing the algorithms' similarity scores using the optimal weights produced a twofold reduction of error rate over the most accurate algorithm. Next, human-subject-generated similarity scores were added to the PLSR analysis. Fusing humans and algorithms increased the performance to near-perfect classification accuracy. These results are discussed in terms of maximizing face-verification accuracy with hybrid systems consisting of multiple algorithms and humans. PMID:17926698

  10. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric Blasting §...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety fuse. 57.6502 Section 57.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety fuse. 57.6502 Section 57.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Nonelectric Blasting §...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... least the minimum burning time for a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E... blasthole detonates. (d) Fuse shall be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped... with devices designed for that purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a particular size round, as specified in the following table: Table E-1—Safety Fuse—Minimum Burning... be cut and capped in dry locations. (e) Blasting caps shall be crimped to fuse only with implements... purpose. Carbide lights, liquefied petroleum gas torches, and cigarette lighters shall not be used...

  16. OSAC analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) telescope. [Optical Surface Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Thomas, David A.; Osantowski, John F.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation is made of the sensitivity of the image quality for the proposed FUSE telescope to mirror misalignments and a wide spatial frequency range of figure errors. Representative figure error data was obtained for the analysis from measurements made on the SEUTS (Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope Spectrograph) telescope mirrors. The tolerancing analysis was carried out with the aid of the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) program.

  17. SEPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM FROM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.H.; Strain, J.E.; Cuneo, D.R.; Kelly, M.J.

    1963-11-12

    A method for selectively precipitating protactinium from a neutron- irradiated fused fluoride salt composition comprising at least one metal fluoride selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal fluoride and an alkaline earth metal fluoride containing dissolved thorium-232 values is presented. An inorganic metal oxide corresponding to any of the metal fluorides of the composition is also added. (AEC)

  18. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  19. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consecutive hours. (b) Fusees (highway and railway) must be packaged in steel drums (1A2), steel jerricans...), plywood (1D) or fiber (1G) drums. If the fusees are equipped with spikes packagings must have...

  20. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consecutive hours. (b) Fusees (highway and railway) must be packaged in steel drums (1A2), steel jerricans...), plywood (1D) or fiber (1G) drums. If the fusees are equipped with spikes packagings must have...

  1. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  2. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  3. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  4. 30 CFR 18.52 - Renewal of fuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements...-circuit, and handheld-tool fuses, shall be interlocked with a circuit-interrupting device. Fuses shall...

  5. An electron-conducting pyrene-fused phenazinothiadiazole.

    PubMed

    Marco, A Belen; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego; Gozalvez, Cristian; Olano, Mikel; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Sun, Xiangnan; Melle-Franco, Manuel; Hueso, Luis E; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio

    2015-07-01

    A pyrene-fused phenazinothiadiazole that shows electron mobilities (μe = 0.016 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) two orders of magnitude higher than those reported for pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes is described. PMID:26051680

  6. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  7. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12036 - Fuse removal or replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuse removal or replacement. 57.12036 Section 57.12036 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12036 Fuse removal or replacement. Fuses shall not be removed...

  9. Multimodal Plasmonics in Fused Colloidal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Teulle, Alexandre; Bosman, Michel; Girard, Christian; Gurunatha, Kargal L.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen; Dujardin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the optical properties of noble metals down to the nanometer-scale is a key step towards fast and low-dissipative information processing. At the 10-nm length scale, metal crystallinity and patterning as well as probing of surface plasmon (SP) properties must be controlled with a challenging high level of precision. Here, we demonstrate that ultimate lateral confinement and delocalization of SP modes are simultaneously achieved in extended self-assembled networks comprising linear chains of partially fused gold nanoparticles. The spectral and spatial distributions of the SP modes associated with the colloidal superstructures are evidenced by performing monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy with a nanometer-sized electron probe. We prepare the metallic bead strings by electron beam-induced interparticle fusion of nanoparticle networks. The fused superstructures retain the native morphology and crystallinity but develop very low energy SP modes that are capable of supporting long range and spectrally tunable propagation in nanoscale waveguides. PMID:25344783

  10. Interactions of spatial solitons with fused couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Alon; Malomed, Boris A.

    2014-04-01

    We study dynamical and stationary states of solitons in dual-core waveguides which are locally coupled (fused) at one or several short segments. The model applies to planar optical waveguides, and to Bose-Einstein condensate in dual traps. Collisions of an incident soliton with single and double locally fused couplers are investigated by means of systematic simulations and several analytical methods (quasilinear, fast-soliton, and adiabatic approximations). Excitation dynamics of a soliton trapped by a local coupler is studied by means of the variational approximation, and verified by simulations. Shuttle motion of a soliton trapped in a cavity between two local couplers, and in a finite array of couplers, is studied too.

  11. Fused methods for visual saliency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danko, Amanda S.; Lyu, Siwei

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we present a new model of visual saliency by combing results from existing methods, improving upon their performance and accuracy. By fusing pre-attentive and context-aware methods, we highlight the abilities of state-of-the-art models while compensating for their deficiencies. We put this theory to the test in a series of experiments, comparatively evaluating the visual saliency maps and employing them for content-based image retrieval and thumbnail generation. We find that on average our model yields definitive improvements upon recall and f-measure metrics with comparable precisions. In addition, we find that all image searches using our fused method return more correct images and additionally rank them higher than the searches using the original methods alone.

  12. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOEpatents

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  13. FUSE: lessons learned for future FUV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moos, H. W.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2004-10-01

    The far ultraviolet spectral region (roughly 900 - 1200 Å) is densely packed with strong atomic, ionic and molecular transitions of astrophysical importance. Many of these transitions provide unique access to the associated species. This spectral region is also technically challenging: optical reflectivities are limited, contamination control requirements are severe and detectors must be windowless. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) covers the spectral region 905 -1187 Å with a resolution ~ 15 km s-1. The mission, launched in June 1999 and now in its fifth year of science operations, has reaped a rich scientific harvest from this spectral region. This paper will examine the lessons learned from the FUSE mission with the perspective of looking ahead to possible future missions. In order to build on the scientific advances of the FUSE mission, such a mission would require both increased sensitivity and higher spectral resolution. We conclude that achieving these requirements will necessitate, among other advances, new approaches to far ultraviolet mirror coating technology. We also examine the possibility of accessing the far ultraviolet using an ultraviolet observatory designed for longer wavelength ultraviolet radiation.

  14. A Possible Regenerative, Molten-Salt, Thermoelectric Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Jacob; Thaller, Lawrence H.; Weber, Donald E.

    1964-01-01

    Molten or fused salts have been evaluated as possible thermoelectric materials because of the relatively good values of their figures of merit, their chemical stability, their long liquid range, and their ability to operate in conjunction with a nuclear reactor to produce heat. In general, molten salts are electrolytic conductors; therefore, there will be a transport of materials and subsequent decomposition with the passage of an electric current. It is possible nonetheless to overcome this disadvantage by using the decomposition products of the molten-salt electrolyte in a fuel cell. The combination of a thermoelectric converter and a fuel cell would lead to a regenerative system that may be useful.

  15. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  16. Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P.; Snyder, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.

  17. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  18. Quartz/fused silica chip carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research and development effort was to develop monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) packaging which will operate efficiently at millimeter-wave frequencies. The packages incorporated fused silica as the substrate material which was selected due to its favorable electrical properties and potential performance improvement over more conventional materials for Ka-band operation. The first step towards meeting this objective is to develop a package that meets standard mechanical and thermal requirements using fused silica and to be compatible with semiconductor devices operating up to at least 44 GHz. The second step is to modify the package design and add multilayer and multicavity capacity to allow for application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) to control multiple phase shifters. The final step is to adapt the package design to a phased array module with integral radiating elements. The first task was a continuation of the SBIR Phase 1 work. Phase 1 identified fused silica as a viable substrate material by demonstrating various plating, machining, and adhesion properties. In Phase 2 Task 1, a package was designed and fabricated to validate these findings. Task 2 was to take the next step in packaging and fabricate a multilayer, multichip module (MCM). This package is the predecessor to the phased array module and demonstrates the ability to via fill, circuit print, laminate, and to form vertical interconnects. The final task was to build a phased array module. The radiating elements were to be incorporated into the package instead of connecting to it with wire or ribbon bonds.

  19. Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476

  20. Fused silica mirror development for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced design, lightweight, fuse-quartz mirror of sandwich construction was evaluated for optical figure performance at cryogenic temperatures. A low temperature shroud was constructed with an integral mirror mount and interface to a cryostat for use in a vacuum chamber. The mirror was tested to 13 K. Cryogenic distortion of the mirror was measured interferometrically. Separate interferometry of the chamber window during the test permitted subtraction of the small window distortions from the data. Results indicate that the imaging performance of helium cooled, infrared telescopes will be improved using this type of mirror without correction of cryogenic distortion of the primary mirror.

  1. Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

  2. CO2 laser welding fused silica.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Scott T.; MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert

    2005-08-01

    The feasibility of laser welding of fused silica (aka quartz) has been demonstrated recently by others. An application requiring hermetic sealing of a thin, pressure-bearing quartz diaphragm to a thicker frame led us to explore this technique. We found that laser welding techniques normally used for metallic parts caused scorching and uneven melting. Contrary to standard practices (near focus, high travel speed, high power density), successful welds in fused silica required a broad heat source applied over a large area under a slow rotation to gradually heat the glass through the annealing, softening and finally working temperatures. Furthermore, good mechanical contact between the parts to be joined played an even more important role in this process than in typical metallic joints. A 50 W CO2 laser with 4 f.l. ZnSe2 lens and rotary head was used to weld 0.425 OD, 0.006-0.010 thick, disks to 0.500 OD tubing with 0.125 walls. Several joint geometries and beam orientations were investigated. Temperature profiles were measured and compared to an FEM thermal model. We will discuss the effects of laser power, travel speed, number of passes, joint geometry and part thicknesses on achieving hermeticity and cosmetically-acceptable joints.

  3. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  4. FUSE Observations of K--M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, T. B.; Dupree, A. K.; Linsky, J. L.; Harper, G. M.; Young, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the FUSE PI program, a representative sample of cool stars is being surveyed in the LWRS (30 x 30 arcsec) aperture. We report on recent observations of three late-type stars, AU Mic (HD 197481, M0 Ve), β Gem (HD 62509, K0 IIIb), and α Ori (HD 39801, M1-2 Ia--Iab). AU Mic and β Gem show strong emission lines of O VI 1032/1037 and C III 977/1176 and weaker lines of C II, N II, N III, S IV, Si III, Si IV, and perhaps Fe III. AU Mic has evidence of He II and S III emission, and β Gem shows S I emission. Differences are seen in line ratios and line profiles between these stars. In α Ori, these features are very weak or non-existent, and Fe II fluorescent lines in the 1100-1150 Å region, pumped by H I Lyman α , are present. Several emission lines are still unidentified in all spectra. Prospects for future cool star observations will be discussed. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  5. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  6. Spectral fusing Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meemon, Panomsak; Widjaja, Joewono; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-02-01

    Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) is one of many variations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques that aims for invariant high resolution across a 3D field of view by utilizing the ability to dynamically refocus the imaging optics in the sample arm. GD-OCM acquires multiple cross-sectional images at different focus positions of the objective lens, and then fuses them to obtain an invariant high-resolution 3D image of the sample, which comes with the intrinsic drawback of a longer processing time as compared to conventional Fourier domain OCT. Here, we report on an alternative Gabor fusing algorithm, the spectral-fusion technique, which directly processes each acquired spectrum and combines them prior to the Fourier transformation to obtain a depth profile. The implementation of the spectral-fusion algorithm is presented and its performance is compared to that of the prior GD-OCM spatial-fusion approach. The spectral-fusion approach shows twice the speed of the spatial-fusion approach for a spectrum size of less than 2000 point sampling, which is a commonly used spectrum size in OCT imaging, including GD-OCM. PMID:26907410

  7. Fusing multifocus images for yarn hairiness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongwu; Zhou, Jinfeng; Yu, Lingjie; Xu, Bugao

    2014-12-01

    Yarn hairiness has been an important indication of yarn quality that affects weaving production and fabric appearance. In addition to many dedicated instruments, various image analysis systems have been adopted to measure yarn hairiness for potential values of high accuracy and low cost. However, there is a common problem in acquiring yarn images; that is, hairy fibers protruding beyond the depth of field of the imaging system cannot be fully focused. Fuzzy fibers in the image inevitably introduce errors to the hairiness data. This paper presents a project that attempts to solve the off-focus problem of hairy fibers by applying a new imaging scheme-multifocus image fusion. This new scheme uses compensatory information in sequential images taken at the same position but different depths to construct a new image whose pixels have the highest sharpness among the sequential images. The fused image possesses clearer fiber edges, permitting more complete fiber segmentation and tracing. In the experiments, we used six yarns of different fiber contents and spinning methods to compare the hairiness measurements from the fused images with those from unfused images and from the Uster tester.

  8. Boeing Delta II rocket for FUSE launch arrives at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the first stage of a Boeing Delta II rocket is moved into the tower. The rocket is targeted to launch NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe, hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched June 23 at CCAS.

  9. Fast-acting self-healing metallic fuse.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, F. C.; Renton, C. A.; Rabinovici, B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a fast-acting nonmechanical self-healing mercury fuse capable of protecting a high current circuit or device from overcurrent fault damages. Basically the self-healing fuse consists of two enclosed mercury reservoirs connected by a fine capillary tube filled with mercury that serves as the fusing element. It is pointed out that a better understanding of the energy conversion process involved in the operation of the device could help explore other device configurations (such as a tapering geometry and use of magnetic field to drive the arc into the fuse wall on inductive loads, etc.) and thus extend the range of capabilities for this type of protective device.

  10. CuInSe₂ thin-film solar cells with 7.72 % efficiency prepared via direct coating of a metal salts/alcohol-based precursor solution.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sejin; Son, Tae Hwa; Cho, Ara; Gwak, Jihye; Yun, Jae Ho; Shin, Keeshik; Ahn, Seoung Kyu; Park, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Kyunghoon

    2012-09-01

    A simple direct solution coating process for forming CuInSe₂ (CIS) thin films was described, employing a low-cost and environmentally friendly precursor solution. The precursor solution was prepared by mixing metal acetates, ethanol, and ethanolamine. The facile formation of a precursor solution without the need to prefabricate nanoparticles enables a rapid and easy processing, and the high stability of the solution in air further ensures the precursor preparation and the film deposition in ambient conditions without a glove box. The thin film solar cell fabricated with the absorber film prepared by this route showed an initial conversion efficiency of as high as 7.72 %. PMID:22890958

  11. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte gelated by a quaternary ammonium halide salt for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Cai, Molang; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are fabricated using tetradodecylammonium bromide as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte with a high solution-to-gel transition temperature (T SG) of 75 °C to hinder flow and volatilization of the liquid. The steady-state voltammograms reveal that the diffusion of the I 3 - and I - in the gel electrolyte is hindered by the self-assembled network of the gel. An increased interfacial exchange current density (j 0) of 4.95 × 10 -8 A cm -2 and a decreased electron recombination lifetime (τ) of 117 ms reveal an increased electron recombination at the dyed TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the DSC after gelation. The results of the accelerated aging tests show that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell can retain over 93% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 °C for 1000 h, and device degradation is negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  12. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  13. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  14. Mid-IR fused fiber couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Woodbridge, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from our recent efforts on developing single-mode fused couplers in ZBLAN fibre. We have developed a custom fusion workstation for working with lower melting temperature fibres, such as ZBLAN and chalcogenide fibres. Our workstation uses a precisely controlled electrical heater designed to operate at temperatures between 100 - 250°C as our heat source. The heated region of the fibers was also placed in an inert atmosphere to avoid the formation of microcrystal inclusions during fusion. We firstly developed a process for pulling adiabatic tapers in 6/125 μm ZBLAN fibre. The tapers were measured actively during manufacture using a 2000 nm source. The process was automated so that the heater temperature and motor speed automatically adjusted to pull the taper at constant tension. This process was then further developed so that we could fuse and draw two parallel 6/125 μm ZBLAN fibres, forming a single-mode coupler. Low ratio couplers (1-10%) that could be used as power monitors were manufactured that had an excess loss of 0.76 dB. We have also manufactured 50/50 splitters and wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs). However, the excess loss of these devices was typically 2 - 3 dB. The increased losses were due to localised necking and surface defects forming as the tapers were pulled further to achieve a greater coupling ratio. Initial experiments with chalcogenide fibre have shown that our process can be readily adapted for chalcogenide fibres. A 5% coupler with 1.5 dB insertion loss was manufactured using commercial of the shelf (COTS) fibres.

  15. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars

  16. Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.907 - Use of safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destroyed. (f) No fuse shall be capped, or primers made up, in any magazine or near any possible source of ignition. (g) No one shall be permitted to carry detonators or primers of any kind on his person. (h) The...-called “drop fuse” method of dropping or pushing a primer or any explosive with a lighted fuse...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.907 - Use of safety fuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... destroyed. (f) No fuse shall be capped, or primers made up, in any magazine or near any possible source of ignition. (g) No one shall be permitted to carry detonators or primers of any kind on his person. (h) The...-called “drop fuse” method of dropping or pushing a primer or any explosive with a lighted fuse...

  19. Real-mode depth-fused display with viewer tracking.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-10-01

    A real-mode depth-fused display is proposed by employing an integral imaging method in the depth-fused display system with viewer tracking. By giving depth-fusing effect between a transparent display and a floated planar two-dimensional image generated by the real-mode integral imaging method, a three-dimensional image is generated in front of the display plane unlike conventional depth-fused displays. The viewing angle of the system is expanded with a viewer tracking method. In addition, dynamic vertical and horizontal motion parallax can be given according to the tracked position of the viewer. As the depth-fusing effect is not dependent on the viewing distance, accommodation cue and motion parallax are provided for a wide range of viewing position. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method by experimental system. PMID:26480184

  20. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  1. Proposed solar two project Barstow, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental consequences of the proposed conversion and operation of the existing Solar One Facility in Daggett, Ca, near the city of Barstow, to a nitrate salt based heat transfer system, Solar Two. The EA also addresses the alternatives of different solar conversion technologies and alternative sites and discusses a no action alternative. A primary objective of the Solar Two Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a solar central receiver power plant using molten salt as the thermal storage and transport fluid medium. If successful, the information gathered from the Solar Two Project could be used to design larger commercial solar power plants.

  2. A high temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plichta, Edward J.; Behl, Wishvender K.

    1990-02-01

    This invention relates in general to a high temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cell and in particular to such a cell including cobalt oxide (Co3O4) as the cathode material. High temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cells are widely used as power sources for projectiles, rockets, bombs, mines, missiles, decoys, jammers, and torpedoes. These are also used as fuses. Thermal electrochemical cells are reserve-type cells that can be activated by heating with a pyrotechnic heat source such as zirconium and barium chromate powders or mixtures of iron powder and potassium perchlorate.

  3. Computational design of fused heterocyclic energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Pagoria, Philip; Batyrev, Iskander; Kuklja, Maija

    A continuous traditional search for effective energetic materials is often based on a trial and error approach. Understanding of fundamental correlations between the structure and sensitivity of the materials remains the main challenge for design of novel energetics due to the complexity of the behavior of energetic materials. State of the art methods of computational chemistry and solid state physics open new compelling opportunities in simulating and predicting a response of the energetic material to various external stimuli. Hence, theoretical and computational studies can be effectively used not only for an interpretation of sensitivity mechanisms of widely used explosives, but also for identifying criteria for material design prior to its synthesis and experimental characterization. We report here, how knowledge on thermal stability of recently synthesized materials of LLM series is used for design of novel fused heterocyclic energetic materials, including DNBTT (2,7-dinitro-4H,9H-bis([1, 2, 4"]triazolo)[1,5-b:1',5'-e][1, 2, 4, 5]tetrazine), compound with high thermal stability, which is on par or better than that of TATB. This research is supported by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529), NSF XSEDE resources (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC resources (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  4. Buddy: fusing multiple search results together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, John J.; Boulware, Doug M.; Myers, John E.; Khattri, Vishal; Corzillus, Dave R.

    2003-03-01

    If you have ever used a popular search engine on the Internet to search for a specific topic you are interested in, you know that most of the results you get back are unrelated, or do not have the information for which you are searching. Usually you end up looking through many Web pages before you find information. Different search engines give you different ranked results, so how do you choose which one to use? Buddy solves these problems for you. With Buddy you can search multiple search engines with many different queries. Using topic trees to create in depth search queries, utilizing the power of many renowned search engines, with the ability to dynamically create and delete them on the fly, Buddy gives you the results you want on the information you are looking for. Using its unique ranking algorithm the results from multiple search engines are correlated and fused together, removing multiple document hits. This paper will discuss the motivation for and the capabilities of Buddy.

  5. Future ultraviolet experiments, including FUSE/COLUMBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several new facilities for ultraviolet astronomy are under construction or study for launch within the coming decade. These include the Hubble Space Telescope to be launched in 1986 with instruments for spectroscopy, imaging, and photopolarimetry in the ultraviolet; the ASTRO Spacelab payload, also to be launched in 1986 with a similar range of instrumentation; STARLAB, a combined Canadian, Australian and U.S. mission concentrating primarily on imagery; and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which was renamed COLUMBUS. COLUMBUS is currently under study by NASA and ESA as a future joint mission for spectroscopic studies of astrophysical plasmas covering a temperature range from approximately 10 to the 3rd power to approximately 10 to the 7th power k. In order to achieve this objective, the optics should be optimized for wavelengths below 1200 Angstroms, with a total wavelength range from approximately 2000 to approximately 100 Angstroms. The operational concept will be based on experience with IUE, but changes in communications techniques since IUE was designed suggest some interesting new approaches to observing.

  6. The challenges of treating a fused tooth.

    PubMed

    Baratto-Filho, Flares; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Baratto, Samantha Pugsley; Campos, Edson Alves; Tomazinho, Flavia Sens Fagundes; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the multidisciplinary treatment involving a permanent maxillary lateral incisor fused to a supernumerary tooth, both presenting pulp necrosis and periapical lesion. A 15-year-old male patient sought treatment complaining of pain, swelling and mobility on the maxillary right lateral incisor. After clinical and radiographic examination, root canal preparation was performed according to the crown-down technique and a calcium hydroxide dressing was placed for 15 days. The patient returned and the definitive endodontic filling was done with thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. After 18 months, clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out and no pain or swelling was reported. Two years after endodontic treatment, the patient returned for periodontal and cosmetic treatments. Nine months later, a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed that the previously detected periodontal defect and periapical lesion were persistent. Apical endodontic surgery was indicated. The supernumerary tooth was removed, the communicating distal surface was filled and the surgical site received bioactive glass and demineralized bovine organic bone. The pathological tissue was submitted to histopathological examination and the diagnosis was periapical cyst. One year after the apical endodontic surgery, CBCT showed bone formation at maxillary lateral incisor apical area. Two years after the surgery, the restoration was replaced due to aesthetic reasons and periapical radiograph showed success after 5 years of treatment. A correct diagnosis and establishment of an adequate treatment plan resulted in a successful management of the case. PMID:22814696

  7. Opening Mechanisms in AN Explosively Formed FUSE Opening Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, D.; Frese, M. H.; Merkle, L. D.; Peterkin, R. E.; Roderick, N. F.; Stephens, K. F.

    2004-11-01

    MACH2 is a general purpose MHD code that has been used to simulate the evolution of an explosively formed fuse consisting of a thin cylindrical aluminum shell that is driven into a Teflon die by an explosion. The simulations included the initiation and propagation of the explosive detonation wave and tracked the extrusion of the fuse into the Teflon die. The code predicted that the fuse resistance increased by approximately three orders of magnitude due to the lengthening and thinning of the fuse material and the rise of temperature caused by the ohmic heating. Comparisons with recent experimental measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory indicate that the predicted resistance is approximately one order of magnitude too small and suggest that the fuse must undergo a transition to a plasma in order to reach the observed switch voltage. Additional simulations of a short fuse segment were performed to investigate this transition and to evaluate the effect of spent explosive resistivity on the maximum electric field obtained. These simulations revealed a rapid expansion and heating of the vaporized fuse material that allows current to diffuse into the spent explosion products and limit the maximum value of electric field obtained.

  8. Vascular anastomoses in dichorionic diamniotic-fused placentas.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Gabrielli, Liliana; Dorji, Tshering; Kos, Marina; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Lanari, Marcello; Landini, Maria P

    2003-10-01

    A case of fetal twin-to-twin cytomegalovirus infection through a dichorionic diamniotic (DiDi)-fused placenta prompted our search for possible vascular anastomoses in this type of placenta. This case and three additional DiDi-fused placentas were studied with gross (macro) sections and a three-dimensional (3D) stereomicroscopic technique. Two twins were dizygotic (they differed in gender and blood groups) and the other two were probably monozygotic. Macrosections and 3D-image analysis demonstrated side-to-side connections between small subchorionic vessels. These findings demonstrate that vascular anastomoses are present in DiDi-fused placentas. PMID:14501816

  9. Fused preforms for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenstein, Paul; Merritt, Charles D.; Justus, Brian L.

    2004-08-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of high-quality preforms for use in the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers is described. The preforms are fabricated in a multistep process that involves stacking a bundle with rods and (or) tubes of two dissimilar glasses, fusing the bundle, and then etching the fused bundle in acid to remove one of the two glasses. The procedure for fabrication of the fused preforms is similar to that used in the fabrication of microchannel plate glass and yields periodically spaced, uniform, round channels that extend through the length of the preform.

  10. Capturing the Fused-Pentagon C74 by Stepwise Chlorination.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cong-Li; Abella, Laura; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Wu, Xin-Zhou; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Poblet, Josep M; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-07-18

    As a bridge to connect medium-sized fullerenes, fused-pentagon C74 is still missing heretofore. Of 14 246 possible isomers, the first fused-pentagon C74 with the Fowler-Manolopoulos code of 14 049 was stabilized as C74Cl10 in the chlorine-involving carbon arc. The structure of C74Cl10 was identified by X-ray crystallography. The stabilization of pristine fused-pentagon C74 by stepwise chlorination was clarified in both theoretical simulation with density functional theory calculations and experimental fragmentation with multistage mass spectrometry. PMID:27341488