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1

Lumbar and thoracic spinal fusion with transpedicular fixation (Including a novel distraction and compression device)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with three different systems of transpedicular fixation in fusion of the lumbar and thoracic spine over 4 years is reported. The Roy-Camille plates, Louis plates, and the Balgrist turn-buckle arrangement are compared. The Balgrist device allows both extension and compression, and affords better stability. Far better clinical results were obtained with transpedicular fixation in general than with the Harrington

Y. Suezawa; H. A. C. Jacob

1986-01-01

2

Physics of Dust in Magnetic Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant amount of dust will be produced in the next generation magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. The dust inventory must be controlled as it can pose a safety hazard and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. Questions regarding dust in magnetic fusion devices therefore may be divided into dust safety, dust production, dust motion (dynamics), characteristics of dust, dust-plasma interactions, and most important of all, can dust be controlled in ways so that it will not become a severe problem for magnetic fusion energy production? The answer is not apparent at this time, which has motivated this work. Although dust safety and dust chemistry are important, our discussions primarily focus on dust physics. We describe theoretical frameworks, mostly due to dust research under a nonfusion context, that have already been established and can be used to answer many dust-related questions. We also describe dust measurements in fusion devices, numerical methods and results, and laboratory experiments related to the physics of fusion dust. Although qualitative understanding of dust in fusion has been or can be achieved, quantitative understanding of most dust physics in magnetic fusion is still needed. In order to find an effective way to deal with dust, future research activities include better dust diagnosis and monitoring, basic dusty plasma experiments emulating fusion conditions (for example, by using a mockup facility), numerical simulations bench-marked by experimental data, and development of a new generation of wall materials for fusion, which may include wall materials with engineered nanostructures.

Wang, Zhehui; Skinner, Charles H.; Luca Delzanno, Gian; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Lapenta, Gianni M.; Pigarov, Alexander Yu.; Shukla, Padma K.; Smirnov, Roman D.; Ticos, Catalin M.; West, W. Phil

2008-03-01

3

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2009-04-01

4

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2010-04-01

5

Approximate modeling cylindrical IEC fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The C-Fusion code has been developed to model the plasma physics of the inertial electrostatic confinement cylindrical (IEC-C) fusion device and to predict the local volumetric and total neutron generation rates. C-Fusion predictions are used to help support the design and testing of experimental IEC-C devices for potential scientific and commercial applications as a neutron source

B. P. Bromley; L. Chacon; G. H. Miley

1997-01-01

6

Skyshine study for next generation of fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shielding analysis for next generation of fusion devices (ETR\\/INTOR) was performed to study the dose equivalent outside the reactor building during operation including the contribution from neutrons and photons scattered back by collisions with air nuclei (skyshine component). Two different three-dimensional geometrical models for a tokamak fusion reactor based on INTOR design parameters were developed for this study. In

Y. Gohar; S. Yang

1987-01-01

7

Fusion neutron research at Novosibirsk including experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews the characteristic features of a volumetric neutron source based on the gas dynamic trap and the results of current experiments at GDT device on modeling of the operational regimes of the neutron source. Some limiting factors in the current experiments and possible next steps towards more comprehensive modeling in a future experimental device are discussed.

Ivanov, A. A.

2012-06-01

8

Edge turbulence measurements in toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews measurements of edge plasma turbulence in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with an emphasis on recent results in tokamaks. The dominant feature of edge turbulence is a high level of broadband density fluctuations with a relative amplitude deltan\\/n ~ 5 100%, accompanied by large potential and electron temperature fluctuations. The frequency range of this turbulence is ~10 kHz

S. J. Zweben; J. A. Boedo; O. Grulke; C. Hidalgo; B. La Bombard; R. J. Maqueda; P. Scarin; J. L. Terry

2007-01-01

9

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25

10

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P.

2012-05-01

11

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

SciTech Connect

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, P.F.

1999-09-28

12

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

SciTech Connect

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01

13

77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers,...

2012-10-04

14

78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Investigations...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by...

2013-03-19

15

77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by...

2012-11-26

16

Fusion product diagnostics planned for Large Helical Device deuterium experiment  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium experiment on the Large Helical Device (LHD) is now being planned at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The fusion product diagnostics systems currently considered for installation on LHD are described in this paper. The systems will include a time-resolved neutron yield monitor based on neutron gas counters, a time-integrated neutron yield monitor based on activation techniques, a multicollimator scintillation detector array for diagnosing spatial distribution of neutron emission rate, 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer, 14 MeV neutron counter, and prompt {gamma}-ray diagnostics.

Isobe, M.; Yamanishi, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Osakabe, M.; Miyake, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tomita, H.; Iwai, H.; Nomura, Y.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, K.; Nishio, N.; Uritani, A. [Department of Materials, Physics and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 465-8603 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Sasao, M. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kaneko, J. H. [Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takada, E. [Toyama National College of Technology, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan)

2010-10-15

17

Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

1986-05-01

18

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H.F.

1981-11-01

19

Electrochemical Device Having Electrolyte Including Disiloxane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One example of the disiloxanes include a backbone with a first silicon and a second silicon. The first silicon is linked to a first substituent selected from a group consisting of: a first side chain that includes a cyclic carbonate moiety; a first side c...

K. Amine N. A. Antionio O. Wang R. C. West Z. Zhang

2004-01-01

20

Eddy current analysis in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

In magnetic fusion devices, particularly tokamaks and reversed field pinch (RFP) experiments, time-varying magnetic fields are in intimate contact with electrically conducting components of the device. Induced currents, fields, forces, and torques result. This note reviews the analysis of eddy current effects in the following systems: Interaction of a tokamak plasma with the eddy currents in the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) systems; Eddy currents in a complex but two-dimensional vacuum vessel, as in TFTR, JET, and JT-60; Eddy currents in the FWBS system of a tokamak reactor, such as NET, FER, or ITER; and Eddy currents in a RFP shell. The cited studies are chosen to be illustrative, rather than exhaustive. 42 refs.

Turner, L.R.

1988-06-01

21

Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

Barrett, R. J.; Bussell, G. T.

22

Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

Barrett, R.J.; Bussell, G.T.

1985-01-01

23

Electrostatic Lithium Injection for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant problems in fusion devices is controlling the recycling of hydrogen that is not used in the fusion process. A powerful getter of hydrogen, lithium, if injected into regions where it is needed, may getter hydrogen much more efficiently. Current lithium evaporation systems are inefficient in controlling where lithium deposits once injected, and a system that can control where it deposits would be invaluable. A solution may lie in a concept called electrospray, where charged lithium particles could be produced and controlled via electric and magnetic fields to target areas in need of getting impurities. While the electrospray concept has been used in other applications, the technique has yet to be applied to lithium injection. Preliminary research into the viability of an Electrostatic Lithium Injector (ELI) have shown that such a system may be capable of producing the lithium droplets and spray, and experiments are being performed to determine the optimal design. Modeling is also being done into using the ELI for repair of PFCs, and possibly even ELM control. Simulation has shown a lithium droplet can be made to follow an arbitrary path with application of a time varying voltage from 10 to -1700 V to the center stack of a tokamak. One run was able to calculate the voltage function required to make a lithium particle take a helical path.

Fiflis, Peter; Andruczyk, Daniel; Surla, Vijay; Ruzic, David

2011-11-01

24

Investigations of mirrors for ITER diagnostics in modern fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide experimental program on investigation of behavior of in-vessel mirrors in the present-day fusion devices is being implemented. The program is coordinated by the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) and now more than 10 fusion devices are involved in mirror studies. The aim of these investigations is to find solutions for several important tasks that arise with the necessity

V. S. Voitsenya; A. Litnovsky

2009-01-01

25

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

1983-06-01

26

Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

1989-05-01

27

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

2013-03-15

28

Spinous process fixation devices for instrumented spinal fusion.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal fusion is a well-established surgical procedure for many spinal conditions. Posterior instrumentation may be added to provide immediate stabilization and improve fusion rates. Spinous process fixation, a type of posterior fixation, offers a less-invasive option to pedicle or facet screws with quantitative evidence of similar biomechanical stabilization; however, little has been published on the use of these devices. Further, there has been confusion about the use of spinous process fixation devices versus spinous process spacers. Spinous process fixation devices provide spine surgeons with another option for instrumented fusion, offering potential advantages for select patients. Biomechanical data suggest that relative to pedicle screws, modern spinous process fixation devices provide equivalent stability with reduced clinical risk and a less-invasive surgical procedure. These devices need to be distinguished from spacers, which are non-fixation devices. PMID:24081843

Hardenbrook, Mitchell; Henn, Jeffrey S; Oppenheim, Jeffrey; Shah, Mitesh V

2013-09-01

29

D-3He fusion in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fusion fuels, D and 3He, have been successfully fused in an inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. It is thought that this is the first known fusion of helium-3 with deuterium on a steady state basis. The detection of 14.7 MeV protons has confirmed the reaction of D-3He fusion, and has produced a continuous, charged particle

R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; S. Krupakar Murali; G. Piefer

1999-01-01

30

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false TV interface devices, including cable system terminal...Unintentional Radiators § 15.115 TV interface devices, including cable system terminal...Measurements of the radiated emissions of a TV interface device shall be conducted with...

2009-10-01

31

Electrochemical Device Having An Electrolyte that Includes a Tetrasiloxane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemical device has an electrolyte that includes one or more tetrasiloxanes. The tetrasiloxanes have a backbone with two central silicons and two terminal silicons. A first one of the silicons is linked to a side chain that includes a poly(alky...

R. C. West K. Amine Z. Zhang Q. Wang D. R. Vissers

2004-01-01

32

Thermal fatigue testing devices for fusion-related projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper introduces thermal fatigue testing devices, developed and operated under fusion-related projects with focus on testing of ITER First Wall (FW) mock-ups. In frame of EFDA tasks, FW mock-up testing device was developed and put into operation in Centrum Vzkumu ?e s.r.o. (CV Rez) research centre, and one testing device was modified for thermal fatigue tests in Forsungszentrum Jlich (FZJ)

O. Zlmal; R. Volk; F. Zacchia; B. Bellin; A. Schmidt; A. Brger; C. Thomser; M. Rdig

2011-01-01

33

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.  

PubMed

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

2013-03-01

34

Super-X divertors and high power density fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Super-X Divertor (SXD), a robust axisymmetric redesign of the divertor magnetic geometry that can allow a fivefold increase in the core power density of toroidal fusion devices, is presented. With small changes in poloidal coils and currents for standard divertors, the SXD allows the largest divertor plate radius inside toroidal field coils. This increases the plasma-wetted area by 2-3 times over all flux-expansion-only methods (e.g., plate near main X point, plate tilting, X divertor, and snowflake), decreases parallel heat flux and hence plasma temperature at plate, and increases connection length by 2-5 times. Examples of high-power-density fusion devices enabled by SXD are discussed; the most promising near-term device is a 100 MW modular compact fusion neutron source ``battery'' small enough to fit inside a conventional fission blanket.

Valanju, P. M.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S. M.; Canik, J.

2009-05-01

35

Super-X Divertors and High Power Density Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The Super-X Divertor (SXD), a robust axisymmetric redesign of the divertor magnetic geometry that can allow a fivefold increase in the core power density of toroidal fusion devices, is presented. With small changes in poloidal coils and currents for standard divertors, the SXD allows the largest divertor plate radius inside toroidal field coils. This increases the plasma-wetted area by 2-3 times over all flux-expansion-only methods (e.g., plate near main X point, plate tilting, X divertor, and snowflake), decreases parallel heat flux and hence plasma temperature at plate, and increases connection length by 2-5 times. Examples of high-power-density fusion devices enabled by SXD are discussed; the most promising near-term device is a 100 MW modular compact fusion neutron source "battery" small enough to fit inside a conventional fission blanket.

Valanju, P. [University of Texas, Austin; Kotschenreuther, M. [University of Texas, Austin; Mahajan, S. [University of Texas, Austin; Canik, John [ORNL

2009-01-01

36

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01

37

Two-energy component toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of a superthermal ion component into a toroidal plasma can raise the fusion power density to levels considerably higher than those attainable in ordinary one component plasmas. As a result, energy break-even in D-T can be attained in bulk plasmas with ntau-values as low as 10 to the 13th power cm\\/3 sec, at temperatures of approximately 5 keV. The

H. L. Berk; H. P. Furth; D. L. Jassby; R. M. Kulsrud; C. S. Liu; M. N. Rosenbluth; P. H. Rutherford; F. H. Tenney; T. Johnson; J. Killeen; M. E. Rensik

1974-01-01

38

Skyshine study for next generation of fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A shielding analysis for next generation of fusion devices (ETR/INTOR) was performed to study the dose equivalent outside the reactor building during operation including the contribution from neutrons and photons scattered back by collisions with air nuclei (skyshine component). Two different three-dimensional geometrical models for a tokamak fusion reactor based on INTOR design parameters were developed for this study. In the first geometrical model, the reactor geometry and the spatial distribution of the deuterium-tritium neutron source were simplified for a parametric survey. The second geometrical model employed an explicit representation of the toroidal geometry of the reactor chamber and the spatial distribution of the neutron source. The MCNP general Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport was used to perform all the calculations. The energy distribution of the neutron source was used explicitly in the calculations with ENDF/B-V data. The dose equivalent results were analyzed as a function of the concrete roof thickness of the reactor building and the location outside the reactor building.

Gohar, Y.; Yang, S.

1987-02-01

39

Nonlinear dynamic modeling for control of fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the issue of modeling for control design with application to fusion devices is discussed. Given the difficulty to provide analytical solutions to the equations describing the system dynamics, the use of numerical tools for evaluating different control architectures is required. Although standard tools for computer aided control system design (CACSD) can be usefully employed for both analyzing

Alessandro Beghi; Mario Cavinato; Angelo Cenedese

2008-01-01

40

Wall reflection issues for optical diagnostics in fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of light reflection has been raised as a high priority issue for optical diagnostics in next step fusion devices where metallic wall environment will generate significant perturbations in the diagnostics measurements. Tore Supra is a large size tokamak equipped with water-cooled stainless-steel panels used to sustain the plasma long shot radiations. These panels are highly reflective and affect

Ph. Lotte; M. H. Aumeunier; P. Devynck; C. Fenzi; V. Martin; J. M. Travre

2010-01-01

41

Computational studies of collisional processes in inertial electrostatic glow discharge fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational studies of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices have yielded amazing results. An analytical model of charge exchange collisions in the IEC plasma has been developed to include ion time-of-flight and fusion neutron generation rates. Results from the model simulating 10 mA of D2+ ion current in a 30-cm diameter IEC device at 50 kV match the experimental results

G. H. Miley; J. M. DeMora; B. E. Jurczyk; M. Nieto

1999-01-01

42

Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization

Bromley; Blair P

2002-01-01

43

Negative Ion Studies in an IEC Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of negative ions in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion devices has made substantial progress since their discovery [1]. Modeling of negative ion formation and energy spectrum evolution has been undertaken by incorporating a negative ion physics module in a 1-D integral transport simulation of an IEC device [2]. Study of negative ion current focusing by the IEC device electrostatic potential structure has been undertaken by measuring the negative ion current azimuthal profile about the equator of the IEC device at various radii. This data set also allows for an extrapolation of total negative ion current produced in an IEC device at the studied parameters.[4pt] [1] D.R. Boris, et al., Phys. Rev. E. 80, 036408 (2009).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013503 (2010).

Alderson, E. C.; Santarius, J. F.; Emmert, G. A.; Kulcinski, G. L.

2011-11-01

44

Real-Time Decision Fusion for Multimodal Neural Prosthetic Devices  

PubMed Central

Background The field of neural prosthetics aims to develop prosthetic limbs with a brain-computer interface (BCI) through which neural activity is decoded into movements. A natural extension of current research is the incorporation of neural activity from multiple modalities to more accurately estimate the user's intent. The challenge remains how to appropriately combine this information in real-time for a neural prosthetic device. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we propose a framework based on decision fusion, i.e., fusing predictions from several single-modality decoders to produce a more accurate device state estimate. We examine two algorithms for continuous variable decision fusion: the Kalman filter and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Using simulated cortical neural spike signals, we implemented several successful individual neural decoding algorithms, and tested the capabilities of each fusion method in the context of decoding 2-dimensional endpoint trajectories of a neural prosthetic arm. Extensively testing these methods on random trajectories, we find that on average both the Kalman filter and ANNs successfully fuse the individual decoder estimates to produce more accurate predictions. Conclusions Our results reveal that a fusion-based approach has the potential to improve prediction accuracy over individual decoders of varying quality, and we hope that this work will encourage multimodal neural prosthetics experiments in the future.

White, James Robert; Levy, Todd; Bishop, William; Beaty, James D.

2010-01-01

45

Thermal fatigue properties of coated materials for fusion device applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adherence of plasma sprayed coatings of TiC, VC, TiB and B on substrates of Cu, 316 SS, Mo, Ta and Poco AXF-5Q artificial graphite has been evaluated in a pulsed electron beam, thermal fatigue environment. The materials are candidates for application as limiter and armor components of tokamak fusion devices. Up to 500 cycles of heating at power densities

A. W. Mullendore; J. B. Whitley; D. M. Mattox

1981-01-01

46

On the interpretation of tungsten emission spectra in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic spectra emitted by fusion plasmas are generally contaminated by ions originating from plasma erosion of material walls. These ions may be present in several charge states and the radiation they emit falls in the x-ray to vacuum ultraviolet regions, making them atomic fingerprints used as a diagnostic tool. This work reports on recent achievements on the interpretation of specific tungsten spectra from the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX) Upgrade tokamak and the Large Helical Device (LHD) stellarator.

Madeira, T. I.; Amorim, P.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J. P.

2013-09-01

47

Understanding of Edge Plasmas in Magnetic Fusion Energy Devices  

SciTech Connect

A limited overview is given of the theoretical understanding of edge plasmas in fusion devices. This plasma occupies the thin region between the hot core plasma and material walls in magnetically confinement configurations. The region is often formed by a change in magnetic topology from close magnetic field lines (i.e., the core region) and open field lines that contact material surfaces (i.e., the scrape-off layer [SOL]), with the most common example being magnetically diverted tokamaks. The physics of this region is determined by the interaction of plasma with neutral gas in the presence of plasma turbulence, with impurity radiation being an important component. Recent advances in modeling strong, intermittent micro-turbulent edge-plasma transport is given, and the closely coupled self-consistent evolution of the edge-plasma profiles in tokamaks. In addition, selected new results are given for the characterization of edge-plasmas behavior in the areas of edge-pedestal relaxation and SOL transport via Edge-Localize Modes (ELMs), impurity formation including dust, and magnetic field-line stochasticity in tokamaks.

Rognlien, T

2004-11-01

48

A laser device for fusion of nasal mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype device has been created to fuse septal tissue membranes as an alternative to sutures or staples through the controlled application of laser heating and pressure to induce protein denaturation and subsequent tissue fusion, through renaturation and intertwining, across the interface. Lasers have been used to close wounds in controlled laboratory tests over the last 15 years. Many encouraging results have been obtained; however, no commercial delivery systems are currently available. This is due primarily to two factors: requiring an inordinate amount of experience on the part of the operator, and attempting to achieve general applicability for multiple tissue systems. The present device overcomes these barriers as it is tailored for the particular application of septal laser fusion, namely for the coaptation of mucoperichondrial membranes. The important parameters involved in fusing biological tissues are identified. The development of the device followed from computational modeling based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport and on engineering firstprinciples. Experiments were designed and analyzed using orthogonal arrays, employing a subset of the relevant parameters, i.e., laser irradiance, dwell time and spot size, for a range of wavelengths. The in vitro fusion experiments employed 1cm by 1cm sections of equine nasal mucosa having a nominal thickness of 1mm.

Sooklal, Valmiki; McClure, Jesse; Hooper, Luke; Larson, Michael

2010-02-01

49

76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-08-01

50

78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

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2013-06-10

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2010-10-18

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75 FR 74080 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...  

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2010-11-30

53

75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers, by reason of...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that infringe...

2010-01-28

54

Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization and secondary electron emission processes and is used to give preliminary results for the ionized gas physics behavior and neutron generation in the C-Device for a range of pressure calibration factors.

Bromley, Blair P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

2002-01-15

55

Some considerations of cold fusion including the calculation of fusion rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the fusion reaction rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The rates are calculated analytically (for the first time) as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the electron mass to the reduced mass of the nucleii. The fusion rates of the P-D, D-D, and D-T reactions are given for a variable electron mass by a simple analytic formula. However, we do not know any mechanism by which a sufficiently localized electron in solid can have an effective mass' large enough to explain the result of Fleischman and Pons (FP). This calculation indicates that P-D rates should exceed D-D rates for D-D fusion rates less than approximately 10{sup {minus}23} per molecule per second. The D-D fusion rate is enhanced by a factor of 10{sup 5} at 10,000{degree}K if the excited vibrational states are populated with a Boltzmann distribution and the rotational excitations suppressed. The suggestion that experimental results could be explained by bombardment of cold deuterons by kilovolt deuterons is shown to be an unlikely from an energetic point of view. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

1989-11-01

56

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

57

Electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices  

SciTech Connect

The development of electrical insulation and conduction coating methods that can be applied to large components of fusion experimental devices has been investigated. A thermal spraying method is used to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components because of its applicability for large surfaces. The insulation material chosen was Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr were chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel substrates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the substrate, thermal shock resistance, electrical resistance, dielectric breakdown voltage, and thermal conductivity. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed adequate frictional properties. The spraying method was tested on a 100- x 1000-mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces of experimental fusion devices. 9 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiji; Toyoda, Masahiko; Inoue, Masahiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Yoshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

1996-01-01

58

Wall reflection issues for optical diagnostics in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The problem of light reflection has been raised as a high priority issue for optical diagnostics in next step fusion devices where metallic wall environment will generate significant perturbations in the diagnostics measurements. Tore Supra is a large size tokamak equipped with water-cooled stainless-steel panels used to sustain the plasma long shot radiations. These panels are highly reflective and affect significantly optical systems. In particular, we show that the infrared imaging diagnostic, which surveys the plasma facing component surface temperature for safety purposes, can give incorrect information due to reflected light coming from the bottom limiter. In the visible range, motional Stark effect and Zeff measurements experience important drifts during the plasma heating phases due to parasitic light coming from the limiter, but also from the plasma itself when the viewing lines are facing the reflecting walls. In the next step fusion devices such as ITER, the possibility to use optical measurements needs to be accessed by a modeling of the diagnostic light in its machine environment and the development of new techniques of online correction.

Lotte, Ph.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Martin, V.; Travere, J. M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2010-10-15

59

Wall reflection issues for optical diagnostics in fusion devices.  

PubMed

The problem of light reflection has been raised as a high priority issue for optical diagnostics in next step fusion devices where metallic wall environment will generate significant perturbations in the diagnostics measurements. Tore Supra is a large size tokamak equipped with water-cooled stainless-steel panels used to sustain the plasma long shot radiations. These panels are highly reflective and affect significantly optical systems. In particular, we show that the infrared imaging diagnostic, which surveys the plasma facing component surface temperature for safety purposes, can give incorrect information due to reflected light coming from the bottom limiter. In the visible range, motional Stark effect and Zeff measurements experience important drifts during the plasma heating phases due to parasitic light coming from the limiter, but also from the plasma itself when the viewing lines are facing the reflecting walls. In the next step fusion devices such as ITER, the possibility to use optical measurements needs to be accessed by a modeling of the diagnostic light in its machine environment and the development of new techniques of online correction. PMID:21033985

Lotte, Ph; Aumeunier, M H; Devynck, P; Fenzi, C; Martin, V; Travre, J M

2010-10-01

60

Strained-layer semiconductor devices including subsurface-patterned active layers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for patterning subsurface features in a semiconductor device, wherein the semiconductor device includes an internal strained layer. The method comprises creating a pattern of semiconductor material over the semiconductor device, the ...

B. W. Dodson

1991-01-01

61

78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and...

2013-01-08

62

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the

Yasushi Yamamoto; Ryousaku Kusaba; Takayuki Shirouzu; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

63

78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt...entitled Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission...Procedure filed on behalf of Pragmatus Mobile, LLC on June 27, 2013. The...

2013-07-03

64

Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific\\u000a character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an\\u000a outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen\\u000a boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of

V. Damideh; A. Sadighzadeh; A. Koohi; A. Aslezaeem; A. Heidarnia; N. Abdollahi; F. Abbasi Davani; R. Damideh

65

Development of multi-purpose MW gyrotrons for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest development achievements in the University of Tsukuba of over-1 MW power level gyrotrons required in present-day fusion devices, GAMMA 10, Large Helical Device (LHD), QUEST, Heliotron J and NSTX, are presented. The obtained maximum outputs are 1.9 MW for 0.1 s on the 77 GHz LHD tube and 1.2 MW for 1 ms on the 28 GHz GAMMA 10 one, which are new records in these frequency ranges. In long-pulse operation, 0.3 MW for 40 min at 77 GHz and 0.54 MW for 2 s at 28 GHz are achieved. A new programme of 154 GHz 1 MW development has started for high-density plasma heating in LHD. On the first 154 GHz tube, 1.0 MW for 1 s is achieved. As a next activity of the 28 GHz gyrotron, an over-1.5 MW gyrotron is designed and fabricated to study the multi-MW oscillation. The possibility of 0.4 MW continuous wave and 2 MW level output in operations of a few seconds, after the improvements of output window and mode converter, is shown. Moreover, a new design study of dual-frequency gyrotron at 28 and 35 GHz has started, which indicates the practicability of the multi-purpose gyrotron.

Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Numakura, T.; Endo, Y.; Nakabayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T.; Ito, S.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Mitsunaka, Y.; the GAMMA 10 Group

2013-06-01

66

Biomechanical behavior of a novel composite intervertebral body fusion device.  

PubMed

Purpose: Low back pain related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration represents a socio-economic problem which affects quality of life. In order to solve this problem the current gold standard techniques such as spinal arthroplasty and arthrodesis (or fusion) are considered. As for spinal arthroplasty, over the past 40 yrs, IVD prostheses have been designed to maintain the correct IVD spacing and to allow for motion, while providing stability. However, there are many difficulties in incorporating important features such as viscoelastic and shock absorber behavior of natural IVDs in a prosthetic disc design. Moreover, in some cases, the use of IVD prostheses does not represent the ideal solution. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the design of alternative devices for spinal fusion, which overcome the problems related to metal ones currently available on the market, such as stress shielding, stress concentration effects and eventual bone corrosive or inflammatory reaction. Methods: Accordingly, a novel polyetherimide (PEI)-based cage reinforced with carbon fibers through filament winding and compression molding technologies was realized. Results: The characterization through a porcine model has produced very interesting results. The small values obtained from local compression tests have suggested that a reduction in mobility occurred, whereas distributed compression tests on IVDs prosthesized by employing the PEI-based cage reinforced with carbon fibers have highlighted a compressive stiffness of 100 MPa. This stiffness is lower than that of the IVD prosthesized through the titanium cage (146 MPa), and closer to the stiffness of natural porcine IVDs (90 MPa). Conclusions: Through a suitable composite cage design it is possible to control stress-strain distributions and the mechanical signals to bone, thus avoiding the stress-shielding phenomena, but also corrosion and metal ions release which are typical of the metallic implants. PMID:20740461

Gloria, A; Manto, L; De Santis, R; Ambrosio, L

2008-01-01

67

Mini-fissionfusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less

F. Winterberg

2005-01-01

68

Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices.  

PubMed

A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe. PMID:24593580

Chang, D H; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Park, M; Lee, K W; In, S R

2014-02-01

69

Erosion from Liquid-Metal Plasma-Facing Components in Future Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of liquid metals as candidate plasma-facing component (PFC) materials can enhance the performance and heat flux limits of fusion devices. Their applicability however, is strongly dependent on erosion properties including sputtering and evaporation. In this paper, the viability of candidate liquid metals such as lithium, tin and tin-lithium is considered. Recent experimental results in the (Ion-surface Interaction Experiment) IIAX at the University of Illinois and PISCES-B at the University of California, San Diego have demonstrated anomalous erosion properties for liquid lithium and liquid tin-lithium as the sample temperatures are raised. In IIAX the sputtering yield of liquid lithium and liquid tin-lithium has been measured for 200-1000 eV bombardment of H+, D+, He+ and Li+ at 45-degree incidence. Experiments in IIAX are carried out for sample temperatures between 200-450 degC. These experiments simulate similar conditions in fusion devices such as deuterium surface treatment, oblique incidence and ion fluence. The secondary ion sputtered fraction from liquid lithium and tin-lithium has been found to be near 60-70% for temperatures ranging from 200-450 degC. This measurement is important in that the sputtered flux in the ionic state will immediately return to the lithium surface due to the sheath potential in a magnetic confinement device. Erosion from liquid lithium both from evaporation and sputtering is tolerable for temperatures ranging from 200-450 degC. When all mechanisms are considered: sputtering, secondary ion fraction and evaporation, candidate liquid metals such as lithium, show promise as viable PFCs under fusion device conditions.

Allain, Jean P.

2002-10-01

70

DC glow discharge conditioning of remote areas in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods are used for wall conditioning of the vacuum chamber of magnetic fusion devices. Among them, direct current glow discharges in deuterium or helium are used to control the contamination of the plasma by impurities coming from the walls. However, the relatively high energy of the ions on the plasma facing components and the difficulty to extend the glow discharge in remote areas could reduce their attractiveness. We present the results from tests performed in a dedicated reactor, equipped with a narrow cylindrical duct with seven Langmuir probes. A heated cathode, biased at -40 Volts with respect to the walls, is placed inside the duct. The influence of the pressure on the penetration of the discharge into the tube is shown and discussed. Significant values of ion current and potential in the tube are obtained for pressures two orders of magnitude higher than those currently used in present Tokamaks. The effect of establishing the glow discharge between the anode and the heated cathode was studied. The heated cathode currents can be tuned in such a way that the current measured by the probe increases whereas the potential drop between the glow discharge and the wall decreases and the energy of the ions which are impinging onto the surfaces is reduced.

Douai, D.; Garnier, D.; Brmond, S.; Grisolia, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Shigin, P.; Begrambekov, L.

2008-03-01

71

Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

72

77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination...

2012-07-31

73

77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Final Determination of No...

2012-06-20

74

Grid-Enabled Mutation-Based Genetic Algorithm to Optimise Nuclear Fusion Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion community is becoming more important as long as fusion energy is considered the next generation of energy. However,\\u000a many problems are presented in fusion devices. One of these problems consists of improving the equilibrium of confined plasma.\\u000a Some modelling tools can be used to improve the equilibrium, but the computational cost of these tools and the number of different

Antonio Gmez-iglesias; Miguel A. Vega-rodrguez; Francisco Castejn-magaa; Miguel Crdenas Montes; Enrique Morales-ramos

2009-01-01

75

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the experiments designed to confirm these results using different electrode shapes, the effects of the anode shape are clearly observed.

Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kusaba, Ryousaku; Shirouzu, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

76

Effects of the Cathode Grid Wires on Fusion Proton Measurements in Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2011-01-01

77

A review of dust in fusion devices: Implications for safety and operational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust is produced in fusion devices by energetic plasmasurface interactions. As the amount of dust increases, potential safety and operational concerns arise. The dust may contain tritium, may be radioactive from activation products, and may be chemically reactive and\\/or toxic. Possible accidents in large fusion reactors could mobilize the dust and threaten public safety. Dust also poses potential problems to

J. P Sharpe; D. A Petti; H.-W Bartels

2002-01-01

78

Spatial and Energy Profiling of D-D Fusion Reactions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Group utilizes highly transparent, concentric spherical electrodes to create a potential well that is used to accelerate charged particles towards the center of the spheres. The cathode is placed at a sufficiently high voltage to accelerate deuterium ions to such a speed as to allow fusion to occur with background, embedded, and other fast particles. A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the resulting fusion products to determine where along a radial line through the electrodes the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of collecting the energy of the fusion reactants using the magnitude of the Doppler shift of the fusion products. The TOF diagnostic will be used to collect spatial and energy profiles of the fusion reactions occurring along a radial line through a spherical IEC device while varying parameters such as background pressure, cathode voltage, ion current, and spacing between electrodes with levels of accuracy never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, David; Boris, David

2009-11-01

79

77 FR 20048 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors...006 patent to require a solid and not liquid material? ID at 220. Can the term ``plate'' include a liquid compensation layer sealed between...

2012-04-03

80

Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ?107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

Winterberg, F.

2005-11-01

81

Diagnosing the High Energy Deuterium Spectra in IEC Devices Using Doppler Shifted Fusion Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UW-Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is comprised of concentric spherical metallic grids within a cylindrical vacuum vessel. The central grid, which can be held at high negative potentials ( -100 to -200kV), is the device cathode, while the outer grid, held at ground potential, is the device anode. This configuration accelerates ions, created near the anode, toward the center of the device. A weakly ionized cold plasma, created by a filament assisted DC discharge outside the anode, is the ion source for the device. The fill gas for this device is typically deuterium, thus leading to D-D fusion rates on the order of 10^8 fusions/s. The high energy protons and tritons resultant from D-D fusion reactions have been observed using charged particle detectors. These detectors are capable of discerning the Doppler shift on D-D fusion products imparted by the center of mass energy of the deuterium reactants. From the fusion product spectra compiled by a multi-channel analyzer the energy spectra of the deuterium reactants can be calculated. Using this diagnostic the effect, on the deuterium spectra, of varying the parameters of fill gas pressure, cathode voltage, cathode current and grid geometry have been examined.

Boris, David

2008-11-01

82

Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 109-1010 neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G.

2012-07-01

83

Instructions included? Make safety training part of medical device procurement process.  

PubMed

Before hospitals embrace new technologies, it's important that medical personnel agree on how best to use them. Likewise, hospitals must provide the support to operate these sophisticated devices safely. With this in mind, it's wise for hospitals to include medical device training in the procurement process. Moreover, purchasing professionals can play a key role in helping to increase the amount of user training for medical devices and systems. What steps should you take to help ensure that new medical devices are implemented safely? Here are some tips. PMID:20464854

Keller, James P

2010-04-01

84

Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame

Osamu Motojima

2006-01-01

85

76 FR 41522 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of...importation of certain mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers. 76 FR 24051 (Apr. 29,...

2011-07-14

86

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

Herman, Robin

1990-10-01

87

Optical relay design for an IR imaging diagnostic system in TJ-II fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surroundings of a nuclear fusion reactor experiments the presence of magnetic fields, which affects the performance of any diagnostic optical system located nearby. It is therefore necessary to determine with precision the optimum location for the diagnostic and to design magnetically robust optical imaging systems. The purpose of the present optical diagnostic is to measure the temperature dispersion in the vicinity of the NBI (neutral beam injectors) that heat the confined plasma inside the fusion device. The measure is made by processing the information contained in the images of the objects inside the chamber in the 7 to 16 um far infrared wavelength range, through a F2Ba vacuum viewport window. Our main concern is to design the optical relay from this viewport to the IR sensor, a FPA uncooled microbolometer 320x240px, for different axial distances, with a field of view of 24x18 and 1.3 mrad of IFOV spatial resolution. The proposed optical relay system includes the use of a reflexive relay (aspheric concave mirrors) and a refractive and imaging camera. The system has being corrected for primary aberrations and optimized to allow a future second optical system working in visible range after the mirrors, by including a dichroic beamsplitter.

Ruiz de Galarreta, Carlota; Manzanares Ituarte, Ana; de la Cal Heusch, Eduardo; Liniers, Macarena; Wolfers, Gilles

2012-12-01

88

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

89

Prospects of the cylindrical IEC fusion device as a neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate model (C-Fusion) has been developed to model the plasma physics of the inertial electrostatic confinement cylindrical (IEC-C) fusion device. Several simplifying approximations are employed: the plasma is locally quasi-neutral, there is a spatially one-dimensional variation of plasma properties, and the plasma potential profile is linear. Ions are assumed to have a mono-energetic distribution. The effects of ion-ion and

L. Chacon; B. P. Bromley; G. H. Miley

1997-01-01

90

Modeling Gridded Inertial-Electrostatic Fusion Devices with Short Mean Free Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices accelerate and focus ions using voltage differences between nearly transparent concentric grids in spherical or cylindrical geometry. Voltages of 50-100 kV can be produced relatively easily between the grids, giving the accelerated ions energies with substantial fusion cross sections. The resulting fusion products potentially can produce radioisotopes useful for positron emission tomography and other applications.

J. F. Santarius; R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; G. R. Piefer; K. M. Subramanian

2000-01-01

91

Partial aortic valve fusion induced by left ventricular assist device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be used (1) as a bridging device to cardiac transplantation, (2) for permanent replacement of left ventricular function, and (3) as a bridge to recovery of ventricular function, for example, in recoverable myocardial disease. In this third group of patients, it is important that the LVAD does not produce changes in the heart

Alan G Rose; Soon J Park; Alan J Bank; Leslie W Miller

2000-01-01

92

Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of the design and construction of the first Iranian IECF device (IR-IECF). It consists of 13.5 cm diameter stainless steel cathode, 41 cm diameter anode with a 60 cm diameter and 60 cm height vacuum chamber. The outcomes of neutron detection represent more than 107 neutron/s at the maximum biased voltage of -140 kV and 70 mA current with deuterium operational filling gas in the steady state regime.

Damideh, V.; Sadighzadeh, A.; Koohi, A.; Aslezaeem, A.; Heidarnia, A.; Abdollahi, N.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Damideh, R.

2012-04-01

93

Dielectric and electrical design consideration of ceramics for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research and development of high performance ceramics for nuclear applications are increasing their importance. Especially in nuclear development, innovative and application of ceramics are needed in fusion reactors. Summarized are the development of new materials such as silicon nitride with good mechanical and electrical properties and the application of zirconia-based ceramics for high temperature electrolysis of tritiated water in a tritium recycling system.

Ohno, H.

1991-03-01

94

Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device  

SciTech Connect

A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

2012-07-01

95

Effect of Fusion Neutron Source Numerical Models on Neutron Wall Loading in a D-D Tokamak Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of various spatial and energy distributions of fusion neutron source on the calculation of neutron wall loading of Tokamak D-D fusion device has been investigated by means of the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP. A realistic Monte Carlo source model was developed based on the accurate representation of the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of fusion neutrons to solve

Yi-xue Chen; Yi-can Wu

2003-01-01

96

Microfluidic device for high-yield pairing and fusion of stem cells with somatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro cell fusion has significant potential as a biotechnology tool with applications ranging from antibody production to cellular reprogramming. However due to low fusion efficiency of the conventional electro fusion methodology the true potential of the technique has not been reached. In this paper, we report a new method which takes cell fusion efficiency two orders magnitude higher than the conventional electro fusion method. The new method, based on one-toone pairing, fusion and selection of fused cells was developed using a microfabricated device. The device was composed of two microfluidic channels, a micro slit array and a petri dish integrated with electrodes. The electrodes positioned in each channel were used to generate electric field lines concentrating in the micro slits. Cells were introduced into channels and brought in to contact through the micro slit array using dielectrophoresis. The cells in contact were fused by applying a DC pulse to electrodes. As the electric field lines were concentrated at the micro slits the membrane potential was induced only at the vicinity of the micro slits, namely only at the cell-cell contact point. This mechanism assured the minimum damage to cells in the fusion as well as the ability to control the strength and location of induced membrane potential. We introduced mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to the microfluidic channels and demonstrated high-yield fusion (> 80%). Post-fusion study showed the method can generate viable hybrids of stem cells and embryonic fibroblasts. Multinucleated hybrid cells adhering on the chip surface were routinely obtained by using this method and on-chip culturing.

Gel, Murat; Hirano, Kunio; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Tada, Takashi; Washizu, Masao

2011-12-01

97

Crystal Structure of HIV1 gp41 Including Both Fusion Peptide and Membrane Proximal External Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) composed of the receptor binding domain gp120 and the fusion protein subunit gp41 catalyzes virus entry and is a major target for therapeutic intervention and for neutralizing antibodies. Env interactions with cellular receptors trigger refolding of gp41, which induces close apposition of viral and cellular membranes leading to membrane fusion. The energy released during refolding

Victor Buzon; Ganesh Natrajan; David Schibli; Felix Campelo; Michael M. Kozlov; Winfried Weissenhorn

2010-01-01

98

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-an isotope of helium with

S. Krupakar Murali; B. B. Cipiti; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2006-01-01

99

Dust in fusion devices---a multi-faceted problem connecting high- and low-temperature plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small particles with sizes between a few nanometers and a few 10 m (dust) are formed in fusion devices by plasma surface interaction processes. Though it is not a major problem today, dust is considered a problem that could arise in future long pulse fusion devices. This is primarily due to its radioactivity and due to its very high chemical

J. Winter

2004-01-01

100

Progress Toward a Sono-Fusion Demonstration Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Energy Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing a commercial demonstration device, based on the pioneering work of Roger Stringham (First Gate Energies). Stringham has shown how to produce excess heat from ultrasonic, cavitating bubbles, typically using D_2O, in contact with various metals. NERL has improved the power and heat measurements, by employing Seebeck envelope calorimetry. Nerl has also improved

Kenneth Rauen; Eugene Mallove

2002-01-01

101

One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated

Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Satoshi Konishi

2005-01-01

102

An approach to ulta-tightly coupled data fusion for handheld input devices in robotic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an ultra-tightly coupled approach to data fusion of optical and inertial measurements. The two redundant sensor systems complement each other well, with the cameras providing absolute positions and the inertial measurements giving low latency information of derivatives. The targeted application is the tracking of handheld input devices for robotic surgery, where landmarks are not always visible to

Andreas Tobergte; Mihai Pomarlan; Georg Passig; Gerd Hirzinger

2011-01-01

103

Effects of Grid Cathode Structure on a Low-Input-Power Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grid cathode structure on a low-input-power inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device were studied to achieve a high neutron production rate (NPR). An increase in geometric transparency of the grid cathode by decreasing the number of wire rings is known to mean that the recirculation ion current is increased. We expected that this increase would contribute to

Yasuyuki TANIUCHI; Yoshihito MATSUMURA; Katsuyoshi TAIRA; Michiaki UTSUMI; Masami CHIBA; Toshiaki SHIRAKAWA; Masatoshi FUJII

2010-01-01

104

The Potential Profile and its Influence on the Neutron Yield of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

2005-01-01

105

A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

Dylla, H.F.

1989-09-01

106

A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates such as H2O, CO, and CH4, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H2O, CO, and CO2; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling.

Dylla, H. F.

1990-02-01

107

Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1993-10-26

108

Quasi-symmetry in magnetic fusion energy confinement devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-symmetry in three-dimensional magnetic confinement devices provides a path for external control of the confining magnetic field while achieving confinement comparable to axisymmetric configurations. In a quasi-symmetric toroidal configuration, magnetic field strength in magnetic flux coordinates depends primarily on two coordinates, B( ,) B( ,theta+ Nzeta) where M and N are integers. Here, psi is the flux coordinate (analogous to

Andrew Ware; Kathleen McGarvey

2010-01-01

109

Multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) for organelle targeting via a stepwise membrane fusion process.  

PubMed

A single cell contains a variety of organelles. Included among these organelles are the nucleus that regulates the central dogma, mitochondria that function as an energy plant, the Golgi apparatus that determines the destination of endogenous protein, and others. If it were possible to prepare a nano craft that could specifically target a specific organelle, this would open a new field of research directed toward therapy for various diseases. We recently developed a new concept of "Programmed Packaging," by which we succeeded in creating a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) as a nonviral gene-delivery system. Our attempts to target certain organelles (nucleus and mitochondria) are described here, mainly focusing on the construction of a tetra-lamellar MEND (T-MEND), and on methods for screening the organelle-specific fusogenic envelope. The critical structural elements of the T-MEND include an organelle-specific membrane-fusogenic inner envelope and a cellular membrane-fusogenic outer envelope. The resulting T-MEND can be utilized to overcome intracellular membrane barriers, since it involves stepwise membrane fusion. To deliver cargos into a target organelle in our strategy, the carriers must fuse with the organelle membrane. Therefore, we screened a series of lipid envelopes that have the potential for fusing with an organelle membrane by monitoring the inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and identified the optimal lipid conditions for nuclear and mitochondrial membrane fusion. Finally, we describe the delivery of a bioactive molecule targeted to the nucleus and mitochondria in living cells, demonstrating that this system can be useful for targeting various organelles. PMID:22568912

Yamada, Yuma; Akita, Hidetaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2012-01-01

110

Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to

Eric Alderson; John Santarius; Gil Emmert; David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

111

76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-06-02

112

76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-07-12

113

78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Docket No 2954] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...received a complaint entitled Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...Procedure filed on behalf of Black Hills Media, LLC on May 13, 2013. The...

2013-05-17

114

78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 337-TA-882] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...S.C. 1337, on behalf of Black Hills Media, LLC of Wilmington, Delaware. The complaint...States after importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions,...

2013-06-18

115

Remote-maintenance operations on the fusion engineering device  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of FED maintenance and, specfiically, to determine the impact of maintenance tasks on downtime. One fact that clearly emerges from studying the replacement scenarios for the major systems is that the unscheduled occurrences dominate the potential downtime of the device. Perhaps that should not be surprising, except that most of these components, even though they are high-reliability designs, do have some probability of failure. The results from this study indicate that further improvements in the configuration are highly desirable, so as to lessen the possible impact of component replacements on the operating lifetime.

Spampinato, P.T.

1982-01-01

116

Multiparametric Data Processing on Fusion Device Stellarator L-2M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying the high-temperature plasma physics, the researcher is faced with the need to process large amounts of semi-structured data. Dozens of multi-channel diagnostics, the results of which are multi-million ensembles of time samples of plasma signals, are usually installed at the same time in thermonuclear devices. These samples contain information necessary to understand the mechanisms of relation between plasma macroparameters (plasma density and temperature, plasma current, magnetic field, auxiliary heating power, etc) and plasma microparameters determined by turbulence (energy, spectral composition, amplitude density distribution, etc). The methods of analysis of plasma signals based on the processing of a single time realization of turbulence cannot be used as a basis for comparison with macroparameters and identification of new patterns of plasma containment in a magnetic trap. The main objective of this work is to obtain information about the relationship between the macro- and microparameters of the plasma based on the structuring of the acquired data and its multi-parameter processing using the modern software and hardware.

Malakhov, D. V.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Konchekov, E. M.; Tedtoev, B. A.; Vasilkov, D. G.

2014-03-01

117

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to manage inventories of dust will become increasingly important as fusion devices become larger and operate with a higher duty cycle. An electrostatic dust conveyor, originally developed to remove dust from solar panels on planetary rovers, has been tested for applicability to fusion devices. It consists of a spiral pattern of three indium tin oxide traces on a glass substrate that is biased to produce a surface electrostatic traveling wave. A digital microscope measured the particle size distribution before and after operation. The transport efficiency for different particle sizes of tungsten, carbon from an NSTX tile, fine glass spheres, and sand versus given different pre-charge voltages, pre-charge durations, driving amplitudes, and driving frequencies, will be presented. The results will be used to determine the optimal settings for a dust conveyor demonstration on NSTX.

Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, L.; Calle, C.

2010-11-01

118

Two-dimensional modeling of a radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research was achieved by self-consistently modeling the discharge characteristics of the radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (RC-IEC) fusion device using a Monte Carlo numerical approach. The model (called MCP) is time-independent and spatially two-dimensional with three dimensions in energy and direction. Multiple particle species and collisions with background neutral gas are taken into account, and the

Robert Andrew Stubbers

2002-01-01

119

Kinetics of dust particles around the scrape off layer in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model based on the balance of charge and energy over the dust particle surface around the scrape off layer (SOL) region in fusion devices has been developed; for describing the dust mass diminution, its temperature evolution and phase change process have been taken into account. The formulation has been utilized to determine the lifetime of cylindrical and spherical dust particles. A realistic situation in fusion devices, when the plasma exhibits meso-thermal flow, has been taken into account; for this purpose a rigorous approach, pioneered by Mott-Smith and Langmuir (1926 Phys. Rev. 28 727), has been adopted to derive the general expressions for the electron (ion) current on cylindrical dust surfaces and the corresponding mean energy of accreting electrons/ions in a flowing plasma. On the basis of analytical modelling the numerical results for the dust electric potential energy and the lifetime of the dust particles corresponding to a typical plasma environment near the SOL region of Mega Ampere Spherical tokamak (MAST)/Joint European Torus (JET) fusion devices have been evaluated for graphite and tungsten dust particles. The results are graphically illustrated as functions of particle size, electron/ion temperature and plasma ionization. It is seen that a large dust particle immersed in low temperature plasma can survive for long time; as an important outcome it is also noticed that the cylindrical particles of tungsten last longer than spherical particles. The findings are of relevance in characterizing and simulating the effects of a variety of dusts for experimental campaigns in large scale (ITER/Demo-like) fusion devices.

Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.

2014-05-01

120

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

1990-05-01

121

Tungsten as material for plasma-facing components in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of tungsten (W) as material for plasma-facing components (PFM) in fusion devices is reviewed with respect to its plasma and material compatibility under burning plasmas conditions. Fusion-relevant plasma operation with W walls is characterised by the need to operate at high edge densities, no or moderate density peaking, and external tools to control the W transport in the plasma core. Several surface and material issues related with the high particle fluencies in fusion devices needs further R&D but are not considered from present view to seriously limit the use of W as PFM. Reliable control of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) and disruptions is indispensable for the application of W, both to control the W transport in the edge and to avoid target melting in uncontrolled events which can seriously detoriate the operational performance of the device. For DEMO and reactors, the behaviour of W under large neutron fluencies has to be further clarified and measures must be developed to mitigate degradation of material properties by neutron damage.

Philipps, V.

2011-08-01

122

Design of an Ion Source for {sup 3}He Fusion in a Low Pressure IEC Device  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in helicon ion sources and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device performance at UW-Madison have enabled low pressure (< 50 {mu}torr, 6.7 mPa) operating conditions that should allow the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reaction to be observed in an IEC device. An ion source capable of delivering a {approx} 10 mA {sup 3}He ion beam into an IEC device with minimal neutral gas flow has been designed and tested. Furthermore, a new IEC device that has never been operated with deuterium has been constructed to avoid D-{sup 3}He protons from obstructing the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He reaction product spectrum, and to minimize Penning ionization of deuterium by excited helium, which in the past is suspected to have limited the ionized density of He. These developments make it possible to study beam-background {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reactions with > 300 mA recirculating ion currents.

Piefer, Gregory R.; Santarius, John F.; Ashley, Robert P.; Kulcinski, Gerald L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

123

Simultaneous Neutron and Proton Measurements of D-D and D-3He Fusion Reaction in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device can produce copious amount of neutrons and protons from D-D and D-3 He fusion reactions using D2 and 3He fuels. The 14.7 MeV protons from D-3He reactions are highly energetic and are expected to be utilized to produce radioisotopes for medical use, for example, positron emission tomography (PET). In order to measure the

Kai Masuda; S. Ogawa; T. Takamatsu; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2005-01-01

124

MAGPIE: A new linear plasma device for studying fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-surface interactions are crucial to determining the success of ITER and the ultimate viability of generating fusion power under steady state conditions. The first walls of magnetic fusion reactors must sustain large particle and heat fluxes and present a major challenge to achieving fusion power. To answer fundamental questions about the science of plasma-surface interactions at the complex fusion boundary a new purpose-built linear plasma device, the prototype MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE), has been constructed at The Australian National University (ANU) to develop novel diagnostics and test materials under aggressive plasma conditions. In this work we employ optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and fast imaging to characterize the plasma environment and its interaction with various materials. It will be shown that a well-collimated plasma is created in the downstream region with a diameter of about 2 cm. High-energy electrons are observed along the axis of the discharge and the power deposition region is transferred to where the magnetic field maximum occurs in the downstream region. These findings indicate that efficient non-collisional heating occurs downstream of the plasma source.

Corr, Cormac; Samuell, Cameron; Blackwell, Boyd; Howard, John; Caneses, Juan; Lester, Romana

2012-10-01

125

In vitro corrosion resistance of porous NiTi intervertebral fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous titanium-nickel (PTN) intervertebral fusion devices, produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, represent an alternative to traditional long-term implants in the orthopaedic field. PTN promotes tissue ingrowth and has succeeded short-term and long-term biocompatibility in vivo testing. In this in vitro study, the PTN morphology was characterized using microfocus computer tomography (?CT) in order to calculate the active PTN surface. Potentiodynamic polarization testing was then performed to evaluate the in vitro corrosion resistance of PTN devices in Hanks' based salt solution. Direct coupling experiments of PTN with Ti6Al4V were also performed in order to establish the galvanic corrosion resistance of PTN intervertebral implants in the presence of potential Ti6Al4V supplemental fixation devices. Compared to the behaviour of other orthopaedic biomaterials and solid NiTi devices, PTN devices showed a level of corrosion resistance that is comparable to other NiTi devices and acceptable for the intended orthopaedic application. Further improvement of the corrosion resistance is still possible by specific electrochemical surface treatments.

Schrooten, Jan; Assad, Michel; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Leroux, Michel A.

2007-02-01

126

Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOEpatents

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26

127

Detection of highly enriched uranium and tungsten surface damage studies using a pulsed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in this thesis examines two applications of a pulsed Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (EEC) fusion device: detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and tungsten surface damage studies. In order to complete this thesis, a pulsed IEC device was developed that is capable of generating converging ion pulses with widths ranging from 0.1 to 5 ms at frequencies between 1

Ross F. Radel

2007-01-01

128

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in suitcases, packages, or shipping containers.Steady-state D-D operation is possible using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. The University of Wisconsin IEC device has produced D-D neutrons at 1.8 x 10{sup 8} neutrons/second at a true cathode voltage of 166 kV and a meter current of 68 mA. These neutron production rates are approaching the levels required for the detection of explosives. In order to increase and optimize the neutron production rate in the IEC device, experiments were performed altering the cathode's size (diameter), geometry, and material composition. Preliminary results indicate that significant differences in neutron production rates are not achieved by altering the geometry or material composition of the cathode. However, the neutron production rate was found to increase approximately 20% by doubling the cathode's diameter from 10 cm to 20 cm. In addition, increasing the cathode voltage from 34 kV to 94 kV at a meter current of 30 mA increased the neutron production rate from 1.24 x 10{sup 6} n/s to 2.83 x 10{sup 7} n/s.

Wehmeyer, A.L.; Radel, R.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

129

One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation  

SciTech Connect

Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated efficiently with little energy loss through charge-exchange collision with background gas at low pressure. And when the pressure is lower than 0.05Pa, almost all injected ions reach to the cathode and it is expected that applying high geometrical transparency enhances accumulation of ion and enlarges neutron yield.

Noborio, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

130

Scaling, stability, and fusion mechanisms. Studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to tenth of joules  

SciTech Connect

Fusion studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to less than one joule performed at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission are presented. The similarity of the physical behavior and the scaling observed in these machines are emphasized. Experiments on actual devices show that scaling holds at least through six order of magnitude. In particular all of these devices, from the largest to the smallest, keep the same quantity of energy per particle. Therefore, fusion reactions are possible to be obtained in ultraminiature devices (driven by generators of 0.1 J), as they are in the bigger devices (driven by generators of 1 MJ). However, the stability of the plasma depends on the size and energy of the device.

Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile); Tarifeno, Ariel [Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

2009-01-21

131

Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels,\\u000a their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power\\u000a production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases\\u000a with increasing fusion reactivity.

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

132

Spatial profiling using a Time of Flight Diagnostic and applications of deuterim-deuterium fusion in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Research Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison utilizes IEC devices as small-scale neutron generators using D-D fusion to create 2.45 MeV neutrons for the purpose of detecting clandestine material. Detection of explosives in particular can be accomplished using thermal neutron capture methods to identify characteristic nitrogen signatures in explosive material. Research has been conducted to increase reliability of detection, decrease interrogation time, and increase the steady-state operational time. Efforts have also been made to increase the neutron production rate of the device. Optimization studies have varied the configuration and design of the electrodes and have resulted in system configurations with up to 50 percent higher neutron production rates than have previously been utilized. A new feedthrough design has been constructed that is intended to increase the maximum operating voltage from 175 kV with the previous feedthrough to 300 kV. Neutron production rates scale almost linearly with both current and voltage, so the IEC device will be capable of operation at higher neutron producing regimes than have ever before been achieved. The optimization efforts involve the use of several new diagnostic tools developed at UW, which are the Fusion Ion Doppler (FIDO) Diagnostic and the Time of Flight (TOF) Diagnostic. FIDO provides the energy spectra of the charged fusion products and reactants created in the IEC device. The FIDO Diagnostic was originally only capable of studying D-D fusion, but with recent advancements is now able to study both D-D and D-3He fusion. The TOF Diagnostic provides spatial information along with the energy resolution of where the fusion reactions are occurring in the IEC device. Development of the diagnostics has involved the implementation of timing electronics, alignment systems, data acquisition software, computational post-processing, and upgrades to the experimental facility. A significant rise in the concentration of fusion events was found outside of the anode, believed to be due in part from negative ions. The FIDO and TOF Diagnostics have proven to be valuable additions to the study of IEC devices and have greatly advanced IEC operation and theory.

Donovan, David C.

133

First mirrors for diagnostic systems of an experimental fusion reactor II. The mirror tests on the large fusion devices under operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part II of this review, the results of experiments on the exposure of mirrors in the operating fusion devices are described (we restricted the results to those that had been obtained up to the end of 2004). It is shown that in the locations that are suitable for the positions of the mirrors (at the ports and divertor), as

D. V. Orlinski; V. S. Voitsenya; K. Yu. Vukolov

2007-01-01

134

Ion Extraction from a Helicon Plasma Source for an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HELIOS, an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device designed for advanced fuel studies [1], uses an external helicon plasma source, from which ions are extracted and subsequently accelerated radially into an electrostatic potential well set up by a semi-transparent cathode grid inside a spherical chamber. A campaign is underway to raise fusion rates to allow for diagnostic studies of IEC physics with helium-3 fuel, in order to benchmark the single-atomic-species formalism of VICTER, a Volterra integral-equation code on spherically convergent ion flow [2]. The helicon plasma has been characterized through double probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for various rf antenna and magnetic field geometries. Measurements of the extracted ion current using a witness plate and a Faraday cup are also presented.[4pt] [1] G.R. Piefer et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1255 (2005).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010).

Becerra, Gabriel; Kulcinski, Gerald; Santarius, John

2012-10-01

135

Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He-^3He Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally, the helicon plasma source and its ion extraction system are being upgraded to deliver ion currents of 60 mA. These improvements will help achieve the goal of significantly raising the ^3He-^3He fusion rates, to allow for a detailed diagnostic study of IEC physics with helium-3 fuel, as well as a direct comparison with a theoretical model [2]. Initial results will be presented. [4pt] [1] G.R. Piefer, ``Performance of a Low-Pressure, Helicon Driven IEC 3He Fusion Device,'' Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison (2006). [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, ``Atomic and molecular effects on spherically convergent ion flow. I. Single atomic species,'' Physics of Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010).

Becerra, Gabriel; Santarius, John; Kulcinski, Gerald

2010-11-01

136

Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels, their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases with increasing fusion reactivity. These devices are simple to operate but are inherently complicated to understand and an effort to incrementally understand the device to improve its operational efficiency is underway at University of Wisconsin, Madison. Of all the parameters under study we are focusing on the effects of flow rate and flow ratio on the fusion reactivity in the present paper. Experiments were conducted to understand the influence of fuel flow ratio on the fusion reactions. The residual gas analyzer (RGA) was used to study the impurity concentration as the flow ratio was changed. It was observed that the higher flow rate resulted in reduced impurity levels and hence an increase in fusion rate. Several different species of gases were detected, some of these molecules formed inside the RGA analyzer. The flow ratio scan revealed that the optimum mixture of D2 with 3He to be D2:3He::1:2 for maximum D-3He fusion rate.

Krupakar Murali, S.; Santarius, John F.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

2009-09-01

137

Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate ions radially using voltage differences of 10-100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects the ion flow into the cathode. Raising the cathode from the mean position has relatively more deteriorating effect than lowering it. In general, displacing the grids from the mean (concentric) condition seems to deteriorate the fusion reactivity. However, fine adjustments can be done to fine tune the fusion reactivity. The microchannels that form in IEC devices move with the cathode grid orientation. The shape and especially the locations of the microchannels are determined by the grid wire spacing of the cathode. New microchannels are also formed when the grid is offset, the region of maximum E-field, which is the direction in which the grid is moved, favors such microchannel formation.

Murali, S. Krupakar; Santarius, John F.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

2010-06-01

138

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2006-05-15

139

Confinement of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device and its influence on neutron production rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a one-dimensional particle code, low pressure and large current discharge in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been simulated, and confinement level of ions and the neutron yield through beambeam fusion have been investigated.From the calculation of low-pressure operation, it is clear that the averaged life span of ions is extended but converges to a value corresponding

Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yukihisa Ueno; Satoshi Konishi

2006-01-01

140

Summary of the 19th International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting on 'Research Using Small Fusion Devices'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a summary of recent results reported on several topics on magnetic confinement, dense magnetized plasmas, innovative fusion technology and applications, diagnostic systems and control and data acquisition systems. The main topics covered on the magnetic confinement devices, diagnostics and data acquisition concern the tokamak KTM (Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing) for materials research and testing, and IAEA Joint Experiments on small tokamaks. For the dense magnetized plasmas results on development and commissioning of plasma focus devices were reported. The plasmatron VISION I for innovative plasma-wall interaction studies, a lithium divertor for KTM and compact fusion reactors as neutron sources were presented.

Van Oost, G.; Mank, G.

2011-08-01

141

Multi-Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Contextual Awareness of Everyday Activities with Ubiquitous Devices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Nave Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances.

Guiry, John J.; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

2014-01-01

142

Multi-sensor fusion for enhanced contextual awareness of everyday activities with ubiquitous devices.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Nave Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

Guiry, John J; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

2014-01-01

143

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acknowledgments; 1. The invention of Dr Spitzer; 2. Behind closed doors; 3. Friends and rivals; 4. Searching for answers; 5. Dawn of the tokamak; 6. Building big science; 7. Forming the major league; 8. The political plasma; 9. The modern fusion lab; 10. The plasma olympics; 11. Different directions; 12. Struggling to sell fusion; 13. In sight of breakeven; 14. Fusion's past and future; Notes; Glossary; Appendices; Index.

Herman, Robin

2006-03-01

144

Measurement of Ion Energy Distribution in a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) Device  

SciTech Connect

In recent researches, an assisted glow discharge experiment using an external ion source has been tried to reduce operation gas pressure. As results, operating gas pressure has been successfully reduced from 1.5 Pa to 0.3 Pa, and the neutron production rate has increased.These results are considered to be due to an increase of ion energy. However, it is necessary to measure the ion energy distribution of the Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) device in order to confirm this. To do this, we have measured the distribution of the neutral particle beam energy (relative to ion energy distribution). These experimental results demonstrate that a decrease of operation gas pressure (from 1.7 Pa to 0.3 Pa) contributes to the increase in ion energy.

Ueno, Yukihisa; Tomizawa, Takahito; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

145

Reactive power optimization with different objectives in large power systems including HVDC systems and FACTS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day power systems are growing in size and complexity of operation with inter connections to neighboring systems, introduction of large generating units, EHV 400\\/765 kV AC transmission systems, HVDC systems and more sophisticated control devices such as FACTS. For planning and operational studies, it requires suitable modeling of all components in the power system, as the number of HVDC

D. Thukaram; S. Lakpathi; K. Ravishankar; S. Surendra

2009-01-01

146

Effects of Grid Structures and Dielectric Materials of the Holder in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device modeling has been carried out. Finite element method is used in a 3D media\\u000a in order to identify the potential and electrical fields inside the device. The effects of different materials on the electrostatic\\u000a features are found. In addition, different geometric arrangements for cathode sphere (i.e. inner grid) are considered for\\u000a the determination of

E. KurtS; S. Arslan; M. E. Gven

147

Model-order reduction of finite-element approximations of passive electromagnetic devices including lumped electrical-circuit models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for the development of reduced-order macromodels for multiport passive electromagnetic devices that include embedded lumped elements. The proposed methodology utilizes a discrete state-space model for the electromagnetic device, generated through the application of the finite-element method for the spatial discretization of Maxwell's curl equations. The incorporation of lumped resistors, inductors, and capacitors is effected through the

Hong Wu; Andreas C. Cangellaris

2004-01-01

148

Thermal modeling of phase change solidification in thermal control devices including natural convection effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural convection effects in phase change thermal control devices were studied. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate natural convection effects in a phase change test cell undergoing solidification. Although natural convection effects are minimized in flight spacecraft, all phase change devices are ground tested. The mathematical approach to the problem was to first develop a transient two-dimensional conduction heat transfer model for the solidification of a normal paraffin of finite geometry. Next, a transient two-dimensional model was developed for the solidification of the same paraffin by a combined conduction-natural-convection heat transfer model. Throughout the study, n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) was used as the phase-change material in both the theoretical and the experimental work. The models were based on the transient two-dimensional finite difference solutions of the energy, continuity, and momentum equations.

Ukanwa, A. O.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

1972-01-01

149

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

150

Effect of Fusion Neutron Source Numerical Models on Neutron Wall Loading in a D-D Tokamak Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of various spatial and energy distributions of fusion neutron source on the calculation of neutron wall loading of Tokamak D-D fusion device has been investigated by means of the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP. A realistic Monte Carlo source model was developed based on the accurate representation of the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of fusion neutrons to solve the complicated problem of tokamak fusion neutron source modelling. The results show that those simplified source models will introduce significant uncertainties. For accurate estimation of the key nuclear responses of the tokamak design and analyses, the use of the realistic source is recommended. In addition, the accumulation of tritium produced during D-D plasma operation should be carefully considered.

Chen, Yi-xue; Wu, Yi-can

2003-04-01

151

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOEpatents

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04

152

Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys.JAPIAU0021-897910.1063/1.1735380 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.86.045202 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert [Phys. Status Solidi APSSABA0031-896510.1002/pssa.200925460 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device.

Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

2012-11-01

153

Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices.  

PubMed

A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device. PMID:23214902

Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

2012-11-01

154

Advanced performance fusion engineering device based on low safety factor and current drive (FED-A)  

SciTech Connect

The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive. The FED-A performance objectives (ignition, neutron wall load, and power-reactor-like operation) are set to be equal to or better than those of the FED Baseline. The results show that assuming magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) q/sub psi/ (edge) to be 1.8 permits reduction in device size and plasma current and leads to a 30% reduction in direct cost. A closely fitted, 1.5-cm-thick, continuous water-cooled shell made of the copper alloy AMAX-MZC (0.6 Cr, 0.1 Zr, 0.03 Mg) is proposed to provide a 0.5-s time constant, to help avoid disruption when q/sub psi/ passes near 2, and to mitigate disruption impact. The lower hybrid wave current drive in a cyclic density operation is proposed to achieve a quasi-steady-state operation permitting a design with low toroidal loop voltage and a 1000-s burn time.

Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

1983-01-01

155

Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOEpatents

An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-02-05

156

Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to produce negative ion spectra that can be compared with experiment. Experimental studies of negative ions in an IEC device focus on examining negative ion current spatial profiles, generated by a mobile Faraday Cup in the IEC device source region. This study explores the relationship between negative ion production and cathode geometry, and looks for evidence of negative ion focusing. The improved understanding of IEC physics from this work will be presented and the viability of the IEC as a negative ion source will be evaluated.[4pt] [1] D.R. Boris, et al., Phys. Rev. E. 80, 036408 (2009).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013503 (2010).

Alderson, Eric; Santarius, John; Emmert, Gil; Donovan, David; Kulcinski, Gerald

2010-11-01

157

Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices  

DOEpatents

A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

2012-11-06

158

An enhanced bacterial foraging algorithm approach for optimal power flow problem including FACTS devices considering system loadability.  

PubMed

Obtaining optimal power flow solution is a strenuous task for any power system engineer. The inclusion of FACTS devices in the power system network adds to its complexity. The dual objective of OPF with fuel cost minimization along with FACTS device location for IEEE 30 bus is considered and solved using proposed Enhanced Bacterial Foraging algorithm (EBFA). The conventional Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) has the difficulty of optimal parameter selection. Hence, in this paper, BFA is enhanced by including Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm for better performance. A MATLAB code for EBFA is developed and the problem of optimal power flow with inclusion of FACTS devices is solved. After several run with different initial values, it is found that the inclusion of FACTS devices such as SVC and TCSC in the network reduces the generation cost along with increased voltage stability limits. It is also observed that, the proposed algorithm requires lesser computational time compared to earlier proposed algorithms. PMID:23759251

Belwin Edward, J; Rajasekar, N; Sathiyasekar, K; Senthilnathan, N; Sarjila, R

2013-09-01

159

Optimization and Characterization of a Helicon Ion Source on an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for Helium-3 Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HELIOS is an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device designed for ^3He-^3He fusion studies as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. HELIOS uses a helicon plasma as a source of ions, which are subsequently accelerated radially to fusion energies by the electrostatic field between the spherical chamber wall and a concentric cathode grid. The experimental setup, in which ^3He-^3He fusion in an IEC system has previously been demonstrated, has since been upgraded to raise fusion rates to allow for diagnostic studies of IEC physics with helium-3 fuel, in order to benchmark the single-atomic-species formalism of a numerical code on spherically convergent ion flow [2]. The helicon ion source has been characterized through double probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for various rf antenna and magnetic field geometries and upgraded to deliver higher ion currents.[4pt] [1] G.R. Piefer et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1255 (2005).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010).

Becerra, Gabriel; Kulcinski, Gerald; Santarius, John

2011-11-01

160

Spatial and Energy Profiling of D-D Fusion Reactions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Group utilizes highly transparent, concentric spherical electrodes to create a potential well that is used to accelerate charged particles towards the center of the spheres. The cathode is placed at a sufficiently high voltage to accelerate deuterium ions to such a speed as to allow fusion to occur with background, embedded, and

David Donovan; David Boris

2009-01-01

161

Air Filter Devices Including Nonwoven Meshes of Electrospun Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins  

PubMed Central

Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols.

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

2013-01-01

162

Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.  

PubMed

Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

2013-01-01

163

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding  

PubMed Central

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration.

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

164

Energy-dependent finite-orbit treatment for plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation of hot plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices and results from this model are presented. In a small, hot magnetically confined plasma, the ion orbit radius (rho/sub i/) can be comparable to the plasma radius (R/sub p/). It a mirror-confined plasma were rho/sub i//R/sub p/ > 1/25 (such as 2XII-B), a point kinetic treatment of ion interactions becomes inaccurate and a finite gyro-radius (FGR) treatment must be used to adequately describe plasma buildup processes. This is particularly true for describing losses due to cold-gas charge exchange (c-x) near the plasma surface, since a particle lost near the vacuum interface may have contributed to the density as far as 2 rho/sub i/ radially inward from the c-x point. A similar FGR effect applies to beam-deposited ions whose large orbits influence the density up to 2 rho/sub i/ from the trapping point.

Campbell, M.M.

1980-01-01

165

Surface temperature measurements by means of pulsed photothermal effects in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fusion devices, the surface temperature of plasma facing components is measured using infrared cameras. This method requires a knowledge of the emissivity of the material, the reflected and parasitic fluxes (Bremsstrahlung). For carbon, the emissivity is known and constant over the detection wavelength (3-5 ?m). For beryllium and tungsten, the reflected flux could contribute significantly to the collected flux. The pulsed photothermal method described in this paper allows temperature measurements independently of both reflected and parasitic fluxes. A local increase of the surface temperature (? T 10-15 K) introduced by a laser pulse (few ns) results in an additional component of the photon flux collected by the detector. Few ?s after the pulse, a filtering of the signal allows to extract a temporal flux proportional only to the variation of the emitted flux, the emissivity and ? T. The ratio of simultaneous measurements at two wavelengths leads to the elimination of ? T and emissivity. The range of application increases for measurements at short wavelengths (1-1.7 ?m) with no limitation due to the Bremsstrahlung emission.

Loarer, Th.; Brygo, F.; Gauthier, E.; Grisolia, C.; Le Guern, F.; Moreau, F.; Murari, A.; Roche, H.; Semerok, A.

2007-06-01

166

Characterization tests of an Apitron particulate control device. Final report. [Includes electrostatic augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2400-acfm pilot-scale Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter was evaluated on a slip-stream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler at the EPRI Arapahoe Test Facility in Denver, Colorado. Tests made over a range of operating conditions included determination of the dependence of collection efficiency and operating pressure drop on the air-to-cloth ratio, the level of electrostatic augmentation, and the type of filter

Kistler

1984-01-01

167

A fusion-fission test experiment proposal, based on the standard H-mode scenario of a tokamak device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so called Hybrid (Fusion-Fission) Reactors seem to be a realistic alternative to the drawbacks of both a pure Fusion and/or a pure Fission reactor; this alternative could also guarantee a "substantial" destruction of the transuranic nuclear waste or production of nuclear combustible. So far, several different hypothesis have been proposed for this type of reactor, all of them based on very advanced and hypothetic fusion scenarios. In the present paper we propose two possible compact (R = 2.5-2.9 m; a = 0.73-0.8 m) high toroidal field (BT = 8.5-7.0 T; Ip = 8-6.8 MA) Tokamaks (based or not on superconductors) to perform a robust and "economic" experiment, propaedeutic to the definitive design of the reactor, where the problems connected with the integration of a Tokamak device with a Fission device can be tested on a realistic base. On both solutions the total fusion power will be of the order of 100 MW and the14 MeV neutron density power of the order of 0.5-1 MW/m2.

Botrugno, A.; Crisanti, F.; Brolatti, G.; Ciotti, M.; Cucchiaro, A.; Manzano, J.; Orsitto, F.; Pizzuto, A.

2012-06-01

168

Spatial and Energy Profiling of D-D Fusion Reactions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Group utilizes highly transparent, concentric spherical electrodes to create a potential well that is used to accelerate charged particles towards the center of the well. The cathode is placed at a high voltage (10-100 kV) to accelerate deuterium ions to speeds that allow fusion to occur with background gas (2 mTorr), ions

David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski; John Santarius

2010-01-01

169

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

170

Embedded D-³He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-³He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-³He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2\\/3 of

B. B. Cipiti; G. L. Kulcinski

2003-01-01

171

Microfluidic control of cell pairing and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step is the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device to trap and properly pair thousands of cells. Using this

Alison M Skelley; Oktay Kirak; Heikyung Suh; Rudolf Jaenisch; Joel Voldman

2009-01-01

172

Somatic and stem cell pairing and fusion using a microfluidic array device  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable excitement about the prospect of tissue repair and renewal through cell replacement therapies. Nonetheless,\\u000a many of these techniques may require the reprogramming of somatic and stem cells through cell fusion. Previous fusion methods\\u000a often suffer from random cell contacts, poor fusion yields, or complexity of design. We have developed a simplified cell-electrofusion\\u000a chip that possesses a dense

Ya QuNing; Ning Hu; Haiwei Xu; Jun Yang; Bin Xia; Xiaolin Zheng; Zheng Qin Yin

173

Device configuration-management system  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Chamber System, a major component of the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, contains several hundred devices which report status to the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for control and monitoring purposes. To manage the large number of diversity of devices represented, a device configuration management system was required and developed. Key components of this software tool include the MFTF Data Base; a configuration editor; and a tree structure defining the relationships between the subsystem devices. This paper will describe how the configuration system easily accomodates recognizing new devices, restructuring existing devices, and modifying device profile information.

Nowell, D.M.

1981-01-01

174

A 2D (r-theta) 3v Monte Carlo Model of a Discharge-Type RC-IEC Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code (called McPlasma) self-consistently models the discharge characteristics of the radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (RC-IEC) fusion device using a Monte Carlo numerical approach. Predicted fusion-neutron production rates agree with experimental measurements from IEC devices of similar geometry (spherical instead of cylindrical). In addition, voltage-current-pressure relationships (discharge characteristics) are similar to experimentally observed relations from spherical discharge IEC

Robert Stubbers; George Miley

2002-01-01

175

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

176

NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

1978-01-01

177

Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the understanding and validate the models of the in vessel build-up of the T inventory in ITER and future D-T devices. So far, research in these areas is largely supported by post-mortem analysis of wall tiles. However, access to samples will be very much restricted in the next-generation devices (such as ITER, JT-60SA, W7-X, etc) with actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFC) and increasing duty cycle. This has motivated the development of methods to measure the deposition of material and retention of plasma fuel on the walls of fusion devices in situ, without removal of PFC samples. For this purpose, laser-based methods are the most promising candidates. Their feasibility has been assessed in a cooperative undertaking in various European associations under EFDA coordination. Different laser techniques have been explored both under laboratory and tokamak conditions with the emphasis to develop a conceptual design for a laser-based wall diagnostic which is integrated into an ITER port plug, aiming to characterize in situ relevant parts of the inner wall, the upper region of the inner divertor, part of the dome and the upper X-point region.

Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

2013-09-01

178

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known radical and ion scavenger techniques of application in amorphous hydrogenated carbon film deposition studies are investigated in relation to the mechanism of tritium and deuterium co-deposition in carbon-dominated fusion devices. A particularly successful scheme results from the injection of nitrogen into methane/hydrogen plasmas for conditions close to those prevailing in the divertor region of present fusion devices. A complete suppression of the a-C : H film deposition has been achieved for N2/CH4 ratios close to one in methane (5%)/hydrogen DC plasma. The implications of these findings in the tritium retention control in future fusion reactors are addressed.

Tabars, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V. J.; Islyaikin, A.; Maffiotte, C.

2002-08-01

179

Magnetically-Channeled SIEC Array (MCSA) Fusion Device for Interplanetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radical new Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) concept, the Magnetically-Channeled Spherical-IEC Array (MCSA) fusion propulsion system, was proposed earlier for use in the high performance Space Ship II fusion propulsion ship (Burton, 2003). This ship was designed for a fast manned round trip mission to Jupiter. The MCSA fusion power plant represents a key enabling technology needed for this mission. The details of the proposed MCSA design are presented here, along with a discussion of some possible experiments that could be performed to confirm key physics aspects.

Miley, G. H.; Stubbers, R.; Webber, J.; Momota, H.

2004-02-01

180

Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices  

SciTech Connect

Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

Not Available

1988-01-01

181

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

182

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in

A. L. Wehmeyer; R. F. Radel; G. L. Kulcinski

2005-01-01

183

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1\\/5 for

Kai Masuda; Kenji Taruya; Takahiro Koyama; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

184

Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

2000-06-01

185

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01

186

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

SciTech Connect

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1/5 for the same discharge current and voltage. Although the gas pressure region that was achieved still remains the region where the fusion reaction between the ion beam and background gas is dominant, the neutron yield normalized by the gas pressure in the triple-grid system shows higher value than the conventional single-grid system.

Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

187

Embedded D-{sup 3}He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-{sup 3}He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-{sup 3}He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2/3 of the total D-{sup 3}He reaction rate can be due to embedded fusion reactions, reactions occurring within the cathode due to ion implantation. Therefore, the cathode surface sees a large, high-energy proton flux. Using a solid molybdenum cathode, and taking advantage of the embedded reactions, about 1 nCi of the medical isotope {sup 94m}Tc was created via {sup 94}Mo(p,n){sup 94m}Tc in a proof of principle experiment. This represents the first time the IEC concept has been used to produce a radioisotope using D-{sup 3}He fusion.

Cipiti, B.B.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

188

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (?1 m), high-current (?1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields in between plasma shots to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ?5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-12-15

189

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (1 m), high-current (1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes 5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G.

2013-12-01

190

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented. PMID:24387430

Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

2013-12-01

191

Simultaneous Measurements of Neutrons and Energetic Protons from D-D and D-3He Fusion Reactions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device can produce copious amount of neutrons and protons from D-D and D-3 He fusion reactions using D2 and 3He fuels. In order to measure the reaction rate of D-3He, a proton counting system is constructed using a silicon diode detector. When used with a metallic foil and an electron deflection magnet, the present

K. Masuda; S. Ogawa; T. Takamatsu; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

192

Fast Scintillation Probes For Investigation Of Pulsed Neutron Radiation From Small Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the design as well as laboratory/performance tests results taken by means of the fast scintillation probes. The design of each scintillation probe is based on photomultiplier tube hybrid assembly, which--besides photomultiplier itself--also includes high-voltage divider optimized for recording of fast radiation bursts. Plastic scintillators with short-time response are applied as hard X-ray and neutron radiation detectors. Heavy-duty probe's housing provides efficient shielding against electromagnetic interference and allows carrying out pulsed neutron measurements in a harsh electromagnetic environment. The crucial parameters of scintillation probes have been examined during laboratory tests in which our investigations have been aimed mainly to determine: a time response, an anode radiant sensitivity and an electron transit time dependence on high-voltage supply. During the performance tests, the relative calibration of probes set has been done. It allowed to carry out very accurate measurements of neutron emission anisotropy and investigations of neutron radiation scattering by different materials. The usefulness of presented scintillation probes - embedded in the neutron time-of-flight diagnostic system was proven during experimental campaigns conducted on the plasma-focus PF1000 device.

Tomaszewski, Krzysztof J. [ACS Ltd., Advanced Diagnostics Laboratory, Hery 23 St., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

2008-04-07

193

Electrically conducting first wall for the Fusion Engineering Device-A (FED-A) tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The first wall of the FED-A tokamak device must satisy two conflicting requirements. These are long eddy-current-decay time (low electrical resistance) and high neutron transparency. The trade-off between these requirements results in a baseline copper alloy shell design that satisfies the requirements for FED-A: a minimum eddy-current-decay time of 0.55 and a tritium-breeding ratio of 1.2. Aluminum alloys come close to meeting the requirements and would probably work. Stainless steel will not work in this application because shells thin enough to satisfy temperature and stress limits are not thick enough to permit long eddy-current-decay time and avoid disruption-induced melting. The baseline first-wall design is a rib-stiffened, double-wall construction. The total wall thickness is 1.5 cm, including a water-coolant channel of 0.5 cm. The first wall is divided into twelve 30/sup 0/ sectors. Flange rings at the ends of each sector are bolted together to form the torus. Structural support is provided at the top center of each sector.

Cramer, B.A.; Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.; Lee, V.D.; Wiffen, F.W.; Gohar, Y.

1983-01-01

194

Recent developments in environmental aspects of D 3He fuelled fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress on fusion safety has stimulated worldwide research in the late 1980s for fuel cycles other than DT. With advanced cycles, such as DD, D3He, p-11B, and 3He3He, it is not necessary to breed and fuel large amounts of tritium. The D3He fuel cycle in particular is not completely aneutronic due to the side DD reactions. Neutron wall loadings,

Laila El-Guebaly; Massimo Zucchetti

2007-01-01

195

Time of flight technique for neutron spectroscopy in pulsed nuclear fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of scintillator-photomultiplier detectors for time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy in pulsed fusion machines is studied. A study of the scintillator response as a function of the neutron energy is made; the corresponding effect on the spectrum shape is deduced. The feasibility to use this technique with a good approximation is discussed. The application of the method in two very different dense plasma (DPF) experiments is shown. .

Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Pouzo, J.; Castillo, F.; Herrera, J. J. E.

2001-04-01

196

Experimental study of potential structure in a spherical IEC fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) concept is designed to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward towards the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid. The converging ions create a high-density plasma core where a high fusion rate occurs. In addition, under proper conditions, the ion and electron flows create a space-charge induced double potential well (a

Yibin Gu; George H. Miley

2000-01-01

197

Development of a new concept ion source for high performance inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic potential well. It consists of two spherical grids inside the vacuum chamber. An insulated high voltage feed-through supplies power to the inner grid cathode, and a small amount of deuterium or tritium gas (0.1-1.0 Pa) is fed into the chamber. When the voltage is

Y. Taniuchi; Y. Matsumura; K. Taira; M. Utsumi

2010-01-01

198

Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He^3He Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally,

Gabriel Becerra; John Santarius; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

199

Experimental study of proton rate density in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) is to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward into the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid to create a space-charge double-potential well (a negative-potential well nested inside a positive-potential well) which confines the high-energy ions in the dense central core region such that appreciable nuclear fusion reactions are

Yibin Gu

1998-01-01

200

A bioresorbable osteosynthesis device can induce an earlier sternal fusion after median sternotomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We examined the impact of the bioresorbable osteosynthesis sternal pin (Super Fixsorb 30) on sternal healing after median sternotomy. METHODS Sixty-three patients who underwent aortic surgery through median sternotomy between January 2006 and March 2009 were analysed. Sternal pins were utilized in 36 patients in addition to the standard closure of the sternum with Ethibond sutures (Group A), and 27 patients received no pins with the standard Ethibond sternal closure (Group B). The occurrence of transverse sternal dehiscence, anteriorposterior displacement and complete fusion of the sternum were evaluated by a computed tomography scan. The cross-sectional cortical bone density area (CBDA) of the sternum was examined to evaluate the osteoconductivity of the sternal pin over a 12-month period. RESULTS There was no sternal displacement (0%) observed in Group A at discharge. Meanwhile, five displacements (18.5%) were observed in Group B (P=0.007). The complete sternal fusion rates at 12 months postoperatively were 100% in Group A, and 21.6% in Group B (P<0.001). A significant increase in the CBDA was observed in Group A (P<0.001; between CBDA at discharge and 12 months postoperatively). CONCLUSIONS The Super Fixsorb 30 sternal pin reduced an anteriorposterior sternal displacement and facilitated an earlier sternal fusion. The pin may have the potential to promote osteogenesis.

Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Usui, Akihiko; Oshima, Hideki; Mizutani, Shinnichi; Araki, Yoshimori; Okada, Noritaka; Ueda, Yuichi

2012-01-01

201

Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

2013-10-29

202

Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices  

DOEpatents

In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

Hamilton, G.W.

1981-10-26

203

Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices.  

PubMed

A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK. PMID:22938292

Plyusnin, V V; Jakubowski, L; Zebrowski, J; Duarte, P; Malinowski, K; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Rabinski, M; Sadowski, M J

2012-08-01

204

Charge-injection-device performance in the high-energy-neutron environment of laser-fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are being used to image x rays in laser-fusion experiments on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System. The CID cameras are routinely used up to the maximum neutron yields generated ({approx}10{sup 14} DT). The detectors are deployed in x-ray pinhole cameras and Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes. The neutron fluences ranged from {approx}10{sup 7} to {approx}10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2} and useful x-ray images were obtained even at the highest fluences. It is intended to use CID cameras at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a supporting means of recording x-ray images. The results of this work predict that x-ray images should be obtainable on the NIF at yields up to {approx}10{sup 15}, depending on distance and shielding.

Marshall, F. J.; DeHaas, T.; Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2010-10-15

205

An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.  

PubMed

A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol. PMID:15296258

Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

2004-06-01

206

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10⁶ neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase

Takanori Higashi; Takahito Tomizawa; Mitsugu Daino; Yasushi Yamamoto

2003-01-01

207

Electromechanical analysis of the technology demonstrator for the IGNITEX fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas Ignition Experiment (IGNITEX) device is a single turn coil tokamak designed to produce and control an ignited plasma using ohmic heating alone. The proposed high strength magnet system operates at a magnetic field on-axis of 20 T, using homopolar generators (HPGs), which meet the power supply requirements (150 MA, 10 V) inexpensively. In this paper, the electromechanical analysis

M. D. Driga; K. T. Hsieh; W. F. Weldon; M. D. Werst

1989-01-01

208

Plasma contamination and wall erosion in controlled thermonuclear fusion devices and reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the operation of thermonuclear devices and reactors, the surfaces ; of such major components as container walls, beam limiters, diverter walls, and ; beam-dump walls of the injector region will be exposed both to the primary plasma ; radiations and to secondary radiations from (n, $gamma$), (n,p), (n, $alpha$), ; and other nuclear reactions and from various secondary particle-

Kaminsky

1975-01-01

209

Proceedings of 1999 US/Japan Workshop (99FT-05) on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions For Next Fusion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on tech...

D. Stavros R. Nygren

2000-01-01

210

Real time measurements of strongly localized potential profile through Stark effects in the central core region of an inertial-electrostatic fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time measurements of the electric fields were made in the central cathode core region of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device by the laser-induced fluorescence method by use of Stark effects. Preliminary results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center and also the existence of energetic electrons in the localized region near potential peaks

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; K. Takiyama; Y. Yamamoto; K. Masuda; H. Toku; T. Koyama; Kenji Taruya; H. Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; H. Horiike; N. Inoue

1999-01-01

211

Measurement of the energy distribution of fast excited atoms by Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms resulted from charge-exchange reactions between accelerated ions and background atoms or molecules were measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device composed of a spherical vacuum chamber as an anode and a spherical hollow cathode grid concentrically placed in the chamber. Since ions generated between the cathode and the

Kai Masuda; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Ken Takiyama; Hisayuki Toku; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Akihiro Nagafuchi

2002-01-01

212

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

F.Q.L. Friesen, B. John, C.H. Skinner, A.L. Roquemore and C.I. Calle

2011-01-20

213

Liquid metals as alternative solution for the power exhaust of future fusion devices: status and perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying liquid metals as plasma facing components for fusion power-exhaust can potentially ameliorate lifetime issues as well as limitations to the maximum allowed surface heat loads by allowing for a more direct contact with the coolant. The material choice has so far been focused on lithium (Li), as it showed beneficial impact on plasma operation. Here materials such as tin (Sn), gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) are discussed as alternatives potentially allowing higher operating temperatures without strong evaporation. Power loads of up to 25 MW m?2 for a Sn/W component can be envisioned based on calculations and modeling. Reaching a higher operating temperature due to material re-deposition will be discussed. Liquids typically face stability issues due to j B forces, potential pressure and magnetohydrodynamic driven instabilities. The capillary porous system is used for stabilization by a mesh (W and Mo) substrate and replenishment by means of capillary action.

Coenen, J. W.; De Temmerman, G.; Federici, G.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Strohmayer, G.; Terra, A.; Unterberg, B.; Wegener, T.; Van den Bekerom, D. C. M.

2014-04-01

214

Evaluation of an electrostatic dust removal system with potential application in next-step fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass, and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 s. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

2011-05-01

215

Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600/sup 0/C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity.

Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

1980-01-01

216

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.

Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

1985-01-01

217

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 cu mm volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales 1 s).

Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

2011-01-01

218

An Embeddable Fusion Framework to Manage Context Information in Mobile Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conveniently fused and combined with data from external sources, information from sensors embedded in a mobile device may offer a dynamic view of the user's situation, sufficient to build adaptive context-aware services. In order to shorten the development cycle of these applications, an embeddable framework to acquire, fuse and reason on context information is hereby described. 'CASanDRA Mobile' is designed to work autonomously in resource-constrained devices, offering to application developers a transparent management of context information. Based on a service-oriented architecture implemented in mobile OSGi, it offers a scalable infrastructure of bundles which decouple context acquisition and automate context inference from application development. 'CASanDRA Mobile' aims at providing the user with full control on his private context data, by using privacy policies suitable to handle P2P context sharing. To exemplify how to use the framework features, the design procedure for a context-aware wellness application is described.

Bernardos, Ana M.; Madrazo, Eva; Casar, Jos R.

219

Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate\\u000a ions radially using voltage differences of 10100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid\\u000a with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects\\u000a the ion flow into the

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

220

Electromechanical analysis of the technology demonstrator for the IGNITEX fusion device  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Ignition Experiment (IGNITEX) device is a single turn coil tokamak designed to produce and control an ignited plasma using ohmic heating alone. The proposed high strength magnet system operates at a magnetic field on-axis of 20 T, using homopolar generators (HPGs), which meet the power supply requirements (150 MA, 10 V) inexpensively. In this paper, the electromechanical analysis of a scaled down prototype (1/10 scale in linear dimensions) of the IGNITEX toroidal field (TF) magnet is presented. The primary goal of the IGNITEX Technology Demonstrator (ITD) is to prove the operation of a single turn, 20 T, toroidal field coil powered by a homopolar generator power supply system of 60 MJ, 9 MA, current operating at the Center for Electromechanics. The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). In order to simulate the actual operating conditions of the full-scale device, the ITD coil will be precooled at liquid nitrogen temperature and driven by the six homopolar generators in parallel. Scaling relationships have shown that electromagnetic loading mechanical and thermal loading of the coil and their relative distribution will approximate well predicted levels of the full-scale IGNITEX device.

Driga, M.D.; Hsieh, K.T.; Weldon, W.F.; Werst, M.D.

1989-03-01

221

A new generation-recombination model for device simulation including the Poole-Frenkel effect and phonon-assisted tunnelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicon transistors (poly-Si TFTs) are very attractive devices for large scale integration (LSI) on glass with regards to reliability, compactness and low cost. The correct modelling of leakage currents in poly-Si TFTs is important for designers and technologists. Amongst other problems, a prevailing problem is the anomalous leakage current, which can degrade the pixel voltage in an active matrix

O. K. B Lui; P Migliorato

1997-01-01

222

Below the Knee Intervention Using Multidisciplinary Methods Including an Antegrade, Retrograde Approach Without the Use of a Sheath but With a Plaque Excision Device  

PubMed Central

Below the knee (BTK) interventions are increasing in patients with rest pain or critical limb ischemia, and these interventions are frequently successful in facilitating limb salvage. New intervention techniques and devices allow successful recanalization of occluded BTK arteries. Here, we report a case of successful recanalization of BTK arteries using multidisciplinary methods, including an antegrade approach and retrograde approach without the use of a sheath, but with simple balloon angioplasty, and plaque excision using Silverhawk atherectomy device.

An, Hye Mi; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lim, Chur Hoan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Weon; Kim, Wan

2012-01-01

223

Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He[sup 2+] and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe[sup 24+] induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D[sub He] in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity [chi]fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V[sub He] is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V[sub He]/D[sub He]. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D[sub He] and [chi]fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

1993-03-01

224

Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He{sup 2+} and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe{sup 24+} induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D{sub He} in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity {chi}fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V{sub He} is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V{sub He}/D{sub He}. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D{sub He} and {chi}fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

1993-03-01

225

Irradiation of samples for fusion prospective materials by the plasma focus device of Sofia University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first results for irradiation of tungsten, molybdenum and stainless steel samples with the 4 kJ plasma focus (PF) device at the University of Sofia. The samples were placed 4 cm above the anode of the PF machine and were exposed to a considerable number of shots. The working gas was deuterium with the pressure adjusted in the range of 13.3 mbar. Thus, the plasma streams and the fast-ion beam, which appear after the pinch phase, impinge the samples. The interaction of the pinch products with the targets causes substantial surface damage to the specimens. A mesh of partially melted cracks and re-crystallized regions are revealed on this surface and various chemical compounds are also present.

Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander

2014-05-01

226

A Compact SPICE Model for Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors Including Nonidealities and Its ApplicationPart II: Full Device Model and Circuit Performance Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a complete circuit-compatible compact model for single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) as an extension to Part 1 of this two-part paper. For the first time, a universal circuit-compatible CNFET model including the practical device nonidealities is implemented with HSPICE. In addition to the nonidealities included in the companion paper, this paper includes the elastic scattering in the

Jie Deng; H.-S. Philip Wong

2007-01-01

227

ECR heating power modulation as a means to ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed to ease the overcoming of the impurity radiation barrier during current drive in tokamaks, as well as in alternative fusion and plasmochemical systems with ECR plasma heating. The method is based on the fact that the dependence of the ionization rate on the electron temperature is strongly nonlinear and the dependence of the recombination rate on the latter is weaker. The result is that, during temperature oscillations, the effective temperature for ionization-recombination processes is higher than that in a steady state, so the ionization equilibrium is shifted and strongly emitting ions are stripped more rapidly. Thereby, ECR plasma heating in the initial discharge stage can be made more efficient by modulating the heating power at a low frequency. The evolution of the electron temperature in a homogeneous hydrogen plasma with a carbon impurity and in small ISX-scale tokamaks is simulated numerically, as well as the evolution of the electron and ion temperatures and of the current during discharge startup in the ITER device. Numerical simulations of the effect of modulation of the ECR heating power on the rate of heating of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon plasmas were also carried out. The assumption of coronal equilibrium is not used. It is shown that the low-frequency modulation of the heating power can substantially ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier.

Morozov, D. Kh.; Pshenov, A. A.; Mineev, A. B.

2010-06-01

228

In-line and following-up tests of perspective fusion-reactor materials in plasma focus devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of recent experiments, as performed with the PF-1000 and PF-6 Plasma-Focus facilities, which were aimed at investigation of the correlation between processes of the irradiation of different materials of fusion devices and results of this irradiation. Among the irradiated samples there were pure tungsten, tantalum, copper, aluminum, and alloys, based on these metals, various steels, carbon and carbon-based materials, which are designed for plasma facing components or constructional parts of future thermonuclear reactors of the inertial- and magnetic-confinement types. The corpuscular radiation consisted of high-energy ( E D>100 keV) deuterium ion beams and fast ( v str ? 107 cm/s) deuterium-plasma streams. They were investigated by a number of methods with spatial and temporal resolution. Particular attention was paid to the verification of diagnostic techniques, which might be used for time- and space-resolved studies of the interaction process. Correlation of these data with information obtained from subsequent analytical investigation of some of the irradiated specimens, as performed by means of a number of methods typical for material sciences, gives possibility to deduce physical mechanisms of the deuterium implantation and radiation damage of the investigated materials in dependence on the conditions of their irradiation.

Gribkov, V. A.; Dubrovsky, A. V.; Paduch, M.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Tomaszewski, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Strzyzewski, P.; Marchenko, A. K.; Tsarenko, A. V.; Masljaev, S. A.; Pimenov, V. N.

2006-12-01

229

Demonstration of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents in the MST toroidal magnetic fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate [1] clear examples of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents induced in the conducting shell of the MST RFP. The first theoretical work proposing a braking torque on tearing modes due to eddy currents in the tokamak and RFP was published about 15 years ago. Despite the long existence of the theory and the potential importance of this effect in fusion devices, there have been very few tests of the theory. The braking and locking observed in MST occurs with the growth to large amplitude of a single m = 1 tearing mode. The mode velocity decreases as the mode amplitude increases. In modeling the mode deceleration, we parametrize the plasma viscous momentum diffusivity in terms of the global momentum confinement time. The theory is used to predict both the momentum confinement time and the time evolution of the decelerating mode velocity. In both respects, the model is quite consistent with experimental data. [1] B.E. Chapman, R. Fitzpatrick, D. Craig et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2156 (2004).

Chapman, B. E.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Craig, D.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

2004-11-01

230

Utilization trends of cervical artificial disc replacement during the FDA investigational device exemption clinical trials compared to anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

While anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard surgical treatment for cervical disc disease, concerns regarding adjacent segment degeneration lead to the development of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). This study compares the utilization trends of CDA versus ACDF during the period of the Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption clinical trials from 2004 to 2007. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify CDA and ACDF procedures performed in the USA between 2004 and 2007. The prevalence of CDA and ACDF procedures was estimated and stratified by age, sex, diagnosis, census region, payor class, and hospital characteristics. The average length of hospital stay, total charges, and costs were also estimated. The number of CDA surgeries significantly increased annually from 2004 to 2007 and mostly took place at urban non-teaching hospitals. There were no regional differences between CDA and ACDF utilization. There was no difference between sex or admission type between CDA and ACDF patients. ACDF patients were older and had more diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CDA patients were more likely to be discharged home and had shorter hospital stays but had a higher rate of deep venous thrombosis than ACDF patients. Significantly more CDA patients had private insurance while more ACDF patients had Medicare. The average cost was higher for ACDF than CDA. While ACDF dominated surgical intervention for cervical disc disease during the trial period, CDA utilization increased at a significantly greater rate suggesting rapid early adoption. PMID:23972533

Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Koehler, Steven M; Lu, Young; Cho, Samuel; Hecht, Andrew C

2013-12-01

231

Advanced X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Magnetic Fusion Tokamak Devices  

SciTech Connect

An advanced X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is currently under development using a segmented position sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter (TDC) based delay-line readout electronics for burning plasma diagnostics. The proposed advanced XICS utilizes an eight-segmented position sensitive multi-wire proportional counter and supporting electronics to increase the spectrometer performance includes the photon count-rate capability and spatial resolution.

Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bog, M. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Taejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and space Science Institute, Taejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-12

232

Economic analysis of fusion breeders  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included.

Delene, J.G.

1985-01-01

233

Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.  

PubMed

Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15 rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised. PMID:24725181

Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-06-01

234

Dynamic simulator of RWM control for fusion devices: modelling and experimental validation on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new integrated simulator for experiments of resistive wall mode (RWM) closed-loop control and its benchmark against experimental data are presented. The numerical tool couples in a self-consistent way a full 3D finite element description of the machine boundaries (Cariddi code), a 2D toroidal model of RFP plasma stability (MARS-F code) and a realistic representation of the RFX-mod control system producing an overall dynamic model cast in the state variable space. In this way a full dynamic 'flight simulator' of RWM control experiments has been implemented where the interaction of proportional-integral-derivative controller gains and plasma equilibrium parameters can be explored. As an application of the new integrated tool, closed-loop RWM stability analyses have been benchmarked against experimental data. In this way it was possible to experimentally prove that the control simulator correctly reproduces closed-loop RWM growth rates under different control conditions. Time domain simulations were also run to assess the overall accuracy of the model including the presence of non-linear blocks. The achieved results are discussed in connection with the broader international effort towards an effective control of RWMs in both tokamak and RFP configurations.

Marchiori, G.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Liu, Y. Q.; Soppelsa, A.; Villone, F.

2012-02-01

235

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2009-04-01

236

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2010-04-01

237

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10{sup 6} neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase neutron production. Although the discharge currents are small, we can make steady discharges at less than 0.1 Pa. The neutron production rates per current are larger than those of glow discharge at higher pressure. We consider it should suggest the validity of reducing operating pressure in IECF devices.

Higashi, Takanori; Tomizawa, Takahito; Daino, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

238

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

1981-01-01

239

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

240

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure,

C. A. Danielson

1996-01-01

241

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

242

Simulations of effective heating in heavy-ion beam-fusion: High density plasmas in plasma focus devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the heating process during protonboron11 (PB11) fusion in a high density pinched plasma, we investigate the coalescence of two current loops, consisting of two ion species (protons, boron), using an electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell code. We found that the boron and protons can be heated up to energies of respectively MeV and 400 keV, in the direction

H. R. Yousefi; T. Haruki; J. I. Sakai; A. Lumanta; K. Masugata

2009-01-01

243

Biomechanical stability of a bioabsorbable self-retaining polylactic acid/nano-sized ?-tricalcium phosphate cervical spine interbody fusion device in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion sheep models  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stability provided by a novel, polylactic acid/nano-sized, ?-tricalcium phosphate, bioabsorbable, self-retaining cervical fusion cage (BCFC). Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torques (maximum 1.5 NM) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending (1.5 NM), and axial rotation (1.5 NM) on 32 sheep cervical spines (C2C5). The motion segment C3C4 was first tested intact; the following groups were tested after complete discectomy: autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft, MedtronicWego polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, Solis PEEK cage, and BCFC. The autologous bone graft group was tested with an anterior plate. The mean range of motion (ROM) was calculated from the load-displacement curves. Results BCFC significantly decreased ROM in lateral bending and axial rotation compared to other implants, and no significant difference in ROM between two types of PEEK cages and BCFC could be observed in flexion and extension. Anterior cervical plate (ACP) significantly decreased ROM in flexion and extension, but no significant difference in ROM between BCFC and bone graft plus ACP could be determined in lateral bending and axial rotation. Conclusion The BCFC device showed better stability to autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft and PEEK cages in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion models and thus may be a potential alternative to the current PEEK cages.

Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Che, Wu; Wang, Hui-Ren; Dong, Jian

2012-01-01

244

78 FR 66942 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and to help promote intervertebral body fusion. During the arthrodesis procedure, they...intended for use in motion-sparing, non-fusion procedures. Spinal sphere devices are...under the heading of ``Intervertebral Fusion Device with Bone Graft,...

2013-11-07

245

Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quic...

A. L. Roquemore D. K. Mansfield H. Kugel H. Schneider J. Timberlake M. B. Bell

2010-01-01

246

Robotic-Assisted Device in Posterior Spinal Fusion for a High Risk Thoraculombar Fracture in Ankylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Fractures in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are often difficult to treat and surgical treatment may be fraught with complications. We describe the use of a robotic-assisted device in the surgical treatment of an unstable L1 fracture in an elderly patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and AS. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged after 3 days. The use of a robotic-assisted device in spine surgery is particularly indicated in difficult high risk cases.

Suliman, Ali; Bernfeld, Benjamin; Bruskin, Alexander

2014-01-01

247

Inertial Fusion Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) discusses the NIF Inertial Fusion Energy program, an effort to use lasers to begin fusion. The page includes more details on the process of fusion, complete with helpful pictures, and a few possible applications of fusion technology.

2010-03-31

248

Usefulness of Leksell GammaPlan for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection: delineation of the cranial nerves and fusion of the neuroimaging data, including diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) software was initially designed for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but it can be successfully applied to planning of the open neurosurgical procedures as well. We present our initial experience of delineating the cranial nerves in the vicinity of skull base tumors, combined visualization of the implanted subdural electrodes and cortical anatomy to facilitate brain mapping, and fusion of structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging performed with the use of LGP before removal of intracranial neoplasms. Such preoperative information facilitated choosing the optimal approach and general surgical strategy, and corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Therefore, LGP may be helpful for planning open neurosurgical procedures in cases of both extraaxial and intraaxial intracranial tumors. PMID:23417477

Tamura, Manabu; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Noriko; Hayashi, Motohiro; Nakao, Naoyuki; Uematsu, Yuji; Itakura, Toru; Rgis, Jean; Mangin, Jean Franois; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

249

Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B)  

SciTech Connect

The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects.

Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

1985-03-04

250

Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1991-07-01

251

Recent results obtained by use of accelerators on plasma-edge properties in controlled-fusion devices and on properties of high-power neutral beams  

SciTech Connect

The study of plasma-wall interactions is of primary importance in present fusion devices. Measurements of incident fuel and impurity fluxes, retention and release of fuel atoms, and erosion of internal components are of particular interest. Accelerators in the megaelectronvolt range are being used both to measure the depth profile of fuel atoms implanted in samples placed in the plasma edge by use of nuclear reactions and to measure impurities and film thicknesses by use of elastic scattering reactions. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to determine flux and energy distributions of fuel atoms and to measure species composition and impurities in the beams of high power neutral beam injectors. Recent results obtained with these techniques are presented and areas of future study are discussed.

Langley, R.A.

1982-01-01

252

Ultrafine tungsten as a plasma-facing component in fusion devices: effect of high flux, high fluence low energy helium irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work discusses the response of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials to high-flux, high-fluence, low energy pure He irradiation. Ultrafine-grained tungsten samples were exposed in the Pilot-PSI (Westerhout et al 2007 Phys. Scr. T128 18) linear plasma device at the Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER) in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. The He flux on the tungsten samples ranged from 1.0 10232.0 1024 ions m?2 s?1, the sample bias ranged from a negative (2065) V, and the sample temperatures ranged from 6001500 C. SEM analysis of the exposed samples clearly shows that ultrafine-grained tungsten materials have a greater fluence threshold to the formation of fuzz by an order or magnitude or more, supporting the conjecture that grain boundaries play a major role in the mechanisms of radiation damage. Pre-fuzz damage analysis is addressed, as in the role of grain orientation on structure formation. Grains of (1?1?0) and (1?1?1) orientation showed only pore formation, while (0?0?1) oriented grains showed ripples (higher structures) decorated with pores. Blistering at the grain boundaries is also observed in this case. In situ TEM analysis during irradiation revealed facetted bubble formation at the grain boundaries likely responsible for blistering at this location. The results could have significant implications for future plasma-burning fusion devices given the He-induced damage could lead to macroscopic dust emission into the fusion plasma.

El-Atwani, O.; Gonderman, Sean; Efe, Mert; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas; Bystrov, Kirill; Klenosky, Daniel; Qiu, Tian; Allain, J. P.

2014-08-01

253

Two-frame flash x-radiography device for the study of particle beam fusion target implosions  

SciTech Connect

A two-frame flash x-radiography (FXR) system has been developed for studying the implosion hydrodynamics of particle beam driven, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This system consists of two micropoint flash x-ray sources, two gated x-ray cameras, and a mechanical framework for aligning these components with respect to the target. The tungsten micropoint sources yield a bremsstrahlung spectrum with an end-point energy of 600 keV, an x-ray dose of 8 mrad at 61 cm, a spot size of approx.100 ..mu..m, and an exposure time of approx.3 ns. A geometric magnification of 4 x was employed in this radiographic arrangement, with an overall system resolving power of 4 line pairs/mm. This system has been used successfully to observe relativistic electron beam (REB) driven, ablative pusher target implosions.

Fehl, D.L.; Chang, J.

1983-06-01

254

Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1994-03-01

255

Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

1988-11-01

256

Investigation of the Risks and Hazards with Devices Associated with Peritoneal Dialysis (Including Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis and Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis) and Sorbent Regenerated Dialysate Delivery Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was designed to identify the risks and hazards associated with devices used for peritoneal dialysis and sorbent-based dialysate regeneration and to recommend ways to control them. Two types of recommendations have been made, those pertaining to ...

R. A. Ward

1982-01-01

257

Code for the 3D simulation of nanoscale semiconductor devices, including drift-diffusion and ballistic transport in 1D and 2D subbands, and 3D tunneling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a three-dimensional device simulator, suitable for the study of a wide range of nanoscale devices, in which quantum confinement and carrier transport are taken into account. In particular, depending on the confinement, the 1D, 2D or 3D Schrdinger equation with density functional theory in the local density approximation is coupled with the Poisson equation in the three-dimensional domain.

G. Fiori; G. Iannaccone

2005-01-01

258

Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

1995-09-01

259

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion ... Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done: With ...

260

Outcomes of allogenic cages in anterior and posterior lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbody lumbar fusions provide a proven logical solution to diseases of the intervertebral discs by eliminating motion of the segment. Historically, there are many techniques to achieve spinal fusion in the lumbar spine. These include anterior, posterior, and foramenal approaches, often in combination with various internal fixation devices. The surgeon's choice of the approach and mechanical or biological implant is

M. E. Janssen; C. Lam; R. Beckham

2001-01-01

261

Review of 'cold fusion'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review describes the results from the following works: (1) to overview the chronological history of 'cold fusion' including the International Conferences on cold fusion (ICCF-3 and ICCF-4), (2) to overview the various theories which can explain the '...

1995-01-01

262

ChemTeacher: Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.

2011-01-01

263

Fusion ignition experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion ignition experiment (IGNITEX) is described, the original concept for which was proposed by Rosenbluth, Weldon and Woodson. In this concept, a single-turn-coil tokamak device produces a self-sustained fusion reaction of the type T (d, n) ?. The basic idea is to employ a very high magnetic field and a very high plasma current to heat the plasma ohmically

R. Carrera; E. Montalvo

1990-01-01

264

GEM gas detectors for soft X-ray imaging in fusion devices with neutron-gamma background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector has been built and characterized in a collaboration between ENEA, INFN and CEA to develop a soft X-ray imaging diagnostic for magnetic fusion plasmas. It has an active area of 55 cm2, 128 pixels and electronics in counting mode. Since burning plasma experiments will have a very large background of radiation, this prototype has been tested with contemporary X-ray, neutron and gamma irradiation, to study the detection efficiencies, and the discrimination capabilities. The detector has been preliminarily characterized under DD neutron irradiation (2.45 MeV) up to 2.2106 n/s on the detector active area, showing a detection efficiency of about 10-4, while the detection efficiency of X-rays is more than three orders of magnitude higher. The detector has been also tested under DT neutron flux (14 MeV) up to 2.8108 n/s on the whole detector, with a detection efficiency of about 10-5. The calibration of the ?-rays detection has been done by means of a source of 60Co (gamma rays of energy 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV) and the detection efficiency was found of the order of 10-4. Thanks to the adjustable gain of the detector and the discrimination threshold of the electronics, it is possible to minimize the sensitivity to neutrons and gamma, and discriminate the X-ray signals even with very high radiative background.

Pacella, Danilo; Romano, Afra; Gabellieri, Lori; Murtas, Fabrizio; Mazon, Didier

2013-08-01

265

Effect of alendronate on bone ingrowth into porous tantalum and carbon fiber interbody devices: an experimental study on spinal fusion in pigs.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported that bisphosphonates reduce the resorption of grafted bone and inhibit bone resorption at a bone-implant interface. However, it is not known whether bisphosphonates affect bone ingrowth into porous biomaterial or spine fusion interbody devices with an autograft. In this study, 18 pigs (9 in each group) underwent anterior intervertebral lumbar arthrodeses at L2-3, L4-5 and L6-7. Each level was randomly allocated to one of the 3 implants: a solid piece of porous tantalum (Hedrocel), a porous tantalum ring or a carbon fiber cage both packed with an autograft. Alendronate was given orally to one of the groups. The radiographic and histological findings in the two groups 3 months after operation were similar in these devices. Histological examination showed that the original graft was entirely replaced by new trabecular bone in both groups. On histomorphometric analysis, the bone volume fraction, both inside the central hole of porous tantalum ring and in the porous tantalum, was larger in the pigs given alendronate than in the controls, but the fraction inside and around the central hole of the carbon fiber cage was not affected by this treatment. Short-term alendronate treatment, in a relatively low dose, does not impair the formation of new bone, but increases bone ingrowth into the central hole of the porous tantalum ring and the pores of the porous tantalum in this porcine model. This may be an effective way to enhance early biologic fixation of porous intervertebral implants. PMID:14620983

Zou, Xuenong; Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Bnger, Mathias; Lind, Martin; Bnge, Cody

2003-10-01

266

Prospective clinical outcomes of revision fusion surgery in patients with pseudarthrosis after posterior lumbar interbody fusions using stand-alone metallic cages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextPosterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is a popular method of arthrodesis for surgical treatment of instabilities and degenerative conditions of the spine. With the introduction of threaded titanium cage devices, surgeons began performing PLIF procedures using these cages as stand-alone devices. Complications have been reported, however, including pseudarthrosis with persistent pain. Outcomes after revision surgical treatment for these patients

Ezequiel H. Cassinelli; Corey Wallach; Brett Hanscom; Molly Vogt; James D. Kang

2006-01-01

267

Nuclear Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion of very light (with only a couple of nucleons) and of heavier nuclei is discussed, respectively, as a source of nuclear energy and towards the extension of the periodic table to include superheavy elements. In particular, laser-induced nuclear fusi...

R. K. Gupta K. V. Subbaram

1978-01-01

268

First wall for polarized fusion reactors  

DOEpatents

A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

1985-01-29

269

General Atomics Fusion Group Educational Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the General Atomics Energy Group features a collection of educational resources on fusion. Both naturally occuring fusion and fusion as an energy source are included. Resources for teachers to use in the classroom are included.

2010-03-31

270

Modification of alloy surface composition by segregation processes as a means of impurity control in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating the use of surface segregation in alloys as a means of producing low Z coatings which are self-sustaining in a reactor environment, present no thermal barrier to the substrate, and avoid mechanical problems associated with the interface region. Several candidate materials have emerged from our calculations, including alloys of copper, vanadium and tungsten. The segregation calculations, light and heavy ion sputtering properties and thermodynamic properties of these materials are presented. Calculations indicate that as little as one atomic layer of low Z material significantly reduces the substrate erosion for both light and heavy ion sputtering. Experimental data on the degree of surface segregation and the rate at which the low Z component migrates to the surface are presented using dilute alloys of litium in copper as a reference system. The long term stability of the overlayer is limited primarily by the rate at which radiation-enhanced diffusion can replace the eroded surface material. The radiation-enhanced process proceeds much more quickly than the purely thermodynamic process and depends on the damage profile, which in turn depends on the mass and energy spectrum of the incident radiation.

Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; DeWald, A.B.

1983-01-01

271

An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)  

PubMed Central

Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45?cm for W or 62?cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90?cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120?cm for W or 150?cm for bothGP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).

Gryz, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

272

Prospects for fusion neutron NPLs  

SciTech Connect

To date, nuclear pumped lasers (NPLs) have been driven by neutrons from pulsed research fission reactors. However, future applications using either a Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) neutron source or an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) source appear attractive. One unique combination proposed earlier would use a neutron feedback NPL driver in an ICF power plant. 14-MeV D-T neutrons (and 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons) provide a unique opportunity for a neutron recoil pumped NPL. Alternatively, these neutrons can be thermalized to provide thermal-neutron induced reactions for pumping. Initial experience with a fusion-pumped NPL can possibly be obtained using the D-T burn experiments in progress/planning at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak devices or at the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) high-gain ICF target experimental facility. With neutron fluxes presently available, peak thermalized fluxes at a test laser in the shield region could exceed 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. Several low-threshold NPLs might be utilized in such an experiment, including the He-Ne-H{sub 2} NPL and the Ar-Xe NPL. Experimental set-ups for both the tokamak and the NIF will be described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Petra, M.; Miley, G.H.; Batyrbekov, E.; Jassby, D.L.; McArthur, D. [Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois, 100 NEL, 103 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2984 (United States)

1996-05-01

273

Prospects for fusion neutron NPLs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, nuclear pumped lasers (NPLs) have been driven by neutrons from pulsed research fission reactors. However, future applications using either a Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) neutron source or an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) source appear attractive. One unique combination proposed earlier would use a neutron feedback NPL driver in an ICF power plant. 14-MeV D-T neutrons (and 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons) provide a unique opportunity for a neutron recoil pumped NPL. Alternatively, these neutrons can be thermalized to provide thermal-neutron induced reactions for pumping. Initial experience with a fusion-pumped NPL can possibly be obtained using the D-T burn experiments in progress/planning at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak devices or at the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) high-gain ICF target experimental facility. With neutron fluxes presently available, peak thermalized fluxes at a test laser in the shield region could exceed 1014 n/cm2/sec. Several low-threshold NPLs might be utilized in such an experiment, including the He-Ne-H2 NPL and the Ar-Xe NPL. Experimental set-ups for both the tokamak and the NIF will be described.

Petra, M.; Miley, G. H.; Batyrbekov, E.; Jassby, D. L.; McArthur, D.

1996-05-01

274

Application of particle simulation codes to fusion reactor engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle simulation codes are useful for calculating the dynamics of systems of charged particles in magnetic fields. These codes can integrate ion and electron trajectories in applied or self-consistent electromagnetic fields. The codes have application to several areas of fusion reactor design, including plasma dynamic questions in the reactor plasma as well as in the design of devices for plasma

E. C. Morse; A. Drobot; A. Friedman; B. McNamara

1983-01-01

275

Sensor data fusion using Mahalanobis distance and single linkage algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-sensor data fusion fuses the output from two or more devices that contain sensor or sensor groups and retrieve one or more particular properties of the environment. Commonly used sensors for robotic control include video cameras, range finders, sonar sensors, infrared sensors, tactile sensors, torque sensors, and proximity sensors. Since the measurements obtained by the sensors are uncertain due to

G. V. S. Raju; Husheng Wang

1994-01-01

276

CONTROLLED FUSION AND PLASMA RESEARCH. A Literature Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1672 references are included concerning plasma physics, ; magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic confinement, experimental devices, and other ; subjects related to controlled fusion research. The references were taken from ; Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) for the period Jan. 1961 through May 1962. The ; information presented supplements that in the literature search which appears as ; TID3557 and the

Lanier; S. F. comp

1962-01-01

277

Multidimensional radiation analysis for the fusion ignition experiment IGNITEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional radiation analyses for the Fusion Ignition Experiment (IGNITEX) have been performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon code. The results of these analyses are presented, including heating rates and radiation levels at various regions in the device and levels of radiation streaming through penetrations. Results of the calculations show that the radiation environment in most regions inside the primary

G. A. Miller; N. E. Hertel; R. Carrera; T. A. Parish

1989-01-01

278

Activity of national institute for Fusion Science toward realization of helical fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) promotes academic approaches toward exploration of fusion science for steady-state helical reactor and realizes establishment of comprehensive understanding of toroidal plasmas as an inter university research organization and a key center of worldwide fusion research. Three key projects, Large Helical Device (LHD) project, simulation science project, and fusion engineering project are organized

A. Komori; O. Kaneko; S. Sakakibara; R. Horiuchi; A. Sagara; H. Yamada; Y. Takeiri

2011-01-01

279

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

280

EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics of mapping methods of magnetic field lines, 3D-plasma transport modelling efforts of ergodized plasmas and island divertors, and on the penetration of the external field including the resulting force transfer. We hope that the article series in Nuclear Fusion will stimulate interest in this fascinating subject of plasma physics.

Finken, K. H.

2006-04-01

281

Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCLTCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCLTCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3\\/4; L5\\/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

Sunny A. Abbah; Christopher X. L. Lam; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; James C. H. Goh; Hee-Kit Wong

2009-01-01

282

"5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices"  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "5. There are several types of smoke detector including point ionization smoke detectors point optical smoke detectors optical beam detectors and aspirating systems.Types of heat detector include point fixed heat detectors point rate of heat rise detectors combined detectors and beam-type heat detectors. Flame detectors may be used in applications where both smoke and heat detectors are unsuitable. Types of flame detector include ultraviolet flame detectors and infrared flame detectors. a. Compare the different types of fire detection devices" ?

283

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. ``Fusion for Neutrons'' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

284

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

285

Fusion Energy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

286

Status of fusion maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

Fuller, G.M.

1984-01-01

287

Cell fusions in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and\\u000a the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development\\u000a and progression. A large number of factors appear to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain\\u000a organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins

Lars-Inge Larsson; Bolette Bjerregaard; Jan Fredrik Talts

2008-01-01

288

Service-oriented Computation in Magnetic Fusion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion science seeks a new power source and is advanced by experiments on fusion devices located worldwide. Fundamental to\\u000a increasing understanding of fusion is the comparison of theory and experiment; measurements from fusion devices are analyzed\\u000a and compared with the output of simulations to test the validity of fusion models and to uncover new physical properties.\\u000a Integrating simulations with experimental

David Schissel

289

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

1996-11-01

290

Improvements of image fusion methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

2014-03-01

291

Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made

Heinrich Hora

2004-01-01

292

The axial transsacral approach to interbody fusion at L5-S1.  

PubMed

Lumbosacral interbody fusion may be indicated to treat degenerative disc disease at L5-S1, instability or spondylolisthesis at that level, and severe neural foraminal stenosis resulting from loss of disc space height. In addition, L5-S1 interbody fusion may provide anterior support to a long posterior fusion construct and help offset the stresses experienced by the distal-most screws. There are 3 well-established techniques for L5-S1 interbody fusion: anterior lumbar interbody fusion, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Each of these has advantages and pitfalls. A more recently described axial transsacral technique, utilizing the presacral corridor, may represent a minimally invasive approach to obtaining lumbosacral interbody arthrodesis. Biomechanical studies demonstrate that the stiffness of the axial rod is comparable to existing fixation devices, suggesting that, biomechanically, it may be a good implant for obtaining lumbosacral interbody fusion. Clinical studies have demonstrated good early results with the use of the axial transsacral approach in obtaining lumbosacral interbody fusion for degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, and below long posterior fusion constructs. The technique is exacting and complications can be major, including rectal perforation and fistula, loss of correction, and pseudarthrosis. PMID:24785490

Issack, Paul S; Kotwal, Suhel Y; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba

2014-05-01

293

Empirical analysis of generalised uncertainty measures with dempster shafer fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data fusion within the evidential reasoning framework is a well established, robust and conservative technique to fuse uncertain information from multiple sensors. A number of fusion methods within this formalism were introduced including Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) fusion, Dezert Samarandche fusion (DSmT), and Smets' transferable belief model (TBM) based fusion. However, the impact of fusion on the level of uncertainty within

Peter Pong; Subhash Challa

2007-01-01

294

Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

Not Available

1981-11-01

295

Fusion Research Activities, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research activities in plasma physics and controlled fusion during 1978 are summarized as well as the plans for continued activites during 1979. The research program includes investigations into plasma-neutral gas interaction and stability, magnetic c...

B. Lehnert

1979-01-01

296

Fusion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

2009-11-05

297

Sealing device  

DOEpatents

A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

2013-12-10

298

Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

2012-05-01

299

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

300

Hydrokinetic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrokinetic device is comprised of a fluid containing housing and unique relatively rotatable wheel means, including an impeller wheel connected to an input shaft and a turbine wheel connected to an output shaft. With the addition of a stator wheel, the device may provide torque multiplication between the shafts, or without the stator may be used to couple the

H. L. Cottrell; A. C. Mamo

1976-01-01

301

The evolution of the histone methyltransferase gene Su(var)3-9 in metazoans includes a fusion with and a re-fission from a functionally unrelated gene  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a common mechanism involved in gene silencing and the establishment of heterochromatin. The loci of the major heterochromatic H3K9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9 and the functionally unrelated ? subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 are fused in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examined the phylogenetic distribution of this unusual gene fusion and the molecular evolution of the H3K9 HMTase Su(var)3-9. Results We show that the gene fusion had taken place in the ancestral line of winged insects and silverfishs (Dicondylia) about 400 million years ago. We cloned Su(var)3-9 genes from a collembolan and a spider where both genes ancestrally exist as independent transcription units. In contrast, we found a Su(var)3-9-specific exon inside the conserved intron position 81-1 of the eIF2? gene structure in species of eight different insect orders. Intriguinly, in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we detected only sequence remains of this Su(var)3-9 exon in the eIF2? intron, along with an eIF2?-independent Su(var)3-9 gene. This reveals an evolutionary re-fission of both genes in aphids. Su(var)3-9 chromo domains are similar to HP1 chromo domains, which points to a potential binding activity to methylated K9 of histone H3. SET domain comparisons suggest a weaker methyltransferase activity of Su(var)3-9 in comparison to other H3K9 HMTases. Astonishingly, 11 of 19 previously described, deleterious amino acid substitutions found in Drosophila Su(var)3-9 are seemingly compensable through accompanying substitutions during evolution. Conclusion Examination of the Su(var)3-9 evolution revealed strong evidence for the establishment of the Su(var)3-9/eIF2? gene fusion in an ancestor of dicondylic insects and a re-fission of this fusion during the evolution of aphids. Our comparison of 65 selected chromo domains and 93 selected SET domains from Su(var)3-9 and related proteins offers functional predictions concerning both domains in Su(var)3-9 proteins.

Krauss, Veiko; Fassl, Anne; Fiebig, Petra; Patties, Ina; Sass, Heinz

2006-01-01

302

Modeling hydrogen isotope behavior in fusion plasma-facing components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we focus on understanding hydrogen isotope retention in plasma-facing materials in fusion devices. Three common simulation methods are usually used to study this problem that includes Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, and numerical/analytical methods. A system of partial differential equations describing deuterium behavior in tungsten under various conditions is solved numerically to explain recent data compared to other methods. The developed model of hydrogen retention in metals includes classic, intercrystalline and trapped-induced Gorsky effects. The bombardment and depth profile of 200 eV deuterium in single crystal tungsten are simulated and compared with recent work. The total deuterium retention at various temperatures and fluences are also calculated and compared with available data. The results are in reasonable agreement with data and therefore, this model can be used to estimate deuterium inventory and recovery in future fusion devices.

Hu, Alice; Hassanein, Ahmed

2014-03-01

303

Ceramics for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1986-01-01

304

Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

Thomas, E.W.

1985-02-01

305

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

306

Dynamic multi-sensor data fusion system for intelligent robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the authors is to develop an intelligent robot workstation capable of integrating data from multiple sensors. The investigation is based on a Unimation PUMA 560 robot and various external sensors. These include overhead vision, eye-in-hand vision, proximity, tactile array, position, force\\/torque, cross-fire, overload, and slip-sensing devices. The efficient fusion of data from different sources will enable the

REN C. LUO; MIN-HSIUNG LIN; RALPH S. SCHERP

1988-01-01

307

Stress analysis of superconducting magnets for magnetic fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting devices involve several factors that normally are not encountered in the structural analysis of more common systems. Several of these factors ae noted and methods for including them in an analysis are cited. To illustrate the state of the analysis art for superconducting magnets, in magnetic fusion reactors, two specific projects are illustrated. They are the Large Coil Program (LCP) and the Engineering Test Facility (ETF).

Akin, J.E.; Gray, W.H.; Baudry, T.V.

1980-01-01

308

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-02-22

309

Simulation Science for Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world fusion effort has recently entered a new age with the construction of ITER in Cadarache, France, which will be the first magnetic confinement fusion plasma experiment dominated by the self-heating of fusion reactions. In order to operate and control burning plasmas and future demo fusion reactors, an advanced ability for comprehensive computer simulations that are fully verified and validated against experimental data will be necessary. The ultimate goal is to develop the capability to predict reliably the behavior of plasmas in toroidal magnetic confinement devices on all relevant time and space scales. In addition to developing a sophisticated integrated simulation codes, directed advanced research in fusion physics, applied mathematics and computer science is envisaged. In this talk we review the basic strategy and main research efforts at the Department of Simulation Science of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS)- which is the Inter University Institute and the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research in Japan. We overview a simulation research at NIFS, in particular relation to experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility (see Motojima et al. 2003). Our main goal is understanding and systemizing the rich hierarchy of physical mechanisms in fusion plasmas, supported by exploring a basic science of complexity of plasma as a highly nonlinear, non-equilibrium, open system. The aim is to establish a simulation science as a new interdisciplinary field by fostering collaborative research in utilizing the large-scale supercomputer simulators. A concept of the hierarchy-renormalized simulation modelling will be invoked en route toward the LHD numerical test reactor. Finally, a perspective role is given on the ITER Broad Approach program at Rokkasho Center, as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy Agreement.

Skoric, M. M.; Sudo, S.

2008-07-01

310

Fusion development and technology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

Montgomery, D.B.

1992-01-01

311

STATs and macrophage fusion  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play a pivotal role in host defense against multiple foreign materials such as bacteria, parasites and artificial devices. Some macrophage lineage cells, namely osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), form multi-nuclear giant cells by the cellcell fusion of mono-nuclear cells. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells, and are formed in the presence of RANKL on the surface of bones, while FBGCs are formed in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 on foreign materials such as artificial joints, catheters and parasites. Recently, fusiogenic mechanisms and the molecules required for the cellcell fusion of these macrophage lineage cells were, at least in part, clarified. Dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), both of which comprise seven transmembrane domains, are required for both osteoclast and FBGC cellcell fusion. STAT6 was demonstrated to be required for the cellcell fusion of FBGCs but not osteoclasts. In this review, advances in macrophage cellcell fusion are discussed.

2013-01-01

312

A 2-D PIC/MC/Vlasov method for electrostatic fusion discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic plasma simulation is presented for an Electrostatic Fusion device operating at units and tens of mTorr. The simulation included particle-in-cell (PIC), Monte Carlo (MC) and Vlasov equation components. The simulation was designed to model these devices including previously neglected atomic physics interactions and to subsequently generate experimental Doppler spectra for verification. The large variation in plasma conditions in the different regions of these devices required a number of different mitigating techniques. A novel kinetic treatment of cold electrons is presented.

Fitzgerald, M.; Khachan, J.

2012-04-01

313

Laser fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons

W. A. Smit; P. Boskma

1980-01-01

314

Fusion driver study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual design of multimegajoule, repetitively pulsed CO2 laser system for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. System configurations consisting of 50-100 kJ modules operating at subatmospheric pressures with multiple pass optical extraction appear feasible with present or near term technology. Overall laser system efficiencies of greater than 10% at repetition rates in excess of 10 Hz are possible with the state of the art pulsed power technology. The synthesis of all the laser subsystems into a specific configuration for a Laser Fusion Driver depends upon the reactor chamber(s) layout, subsystem reliability and restrictions on overall dimensions of the fusion driver. A design is presented which stacks power amplifier modules in series in a large torus with centrally located reactor chamber. Cost estimates of the overall laser fusion driver are included.

Friedman, H. W.

1980-04-01

315

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

316

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion utilizing BMP-2 in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: neither safe nor cost effective  

PubMed Central

Background: With the rise of health care costs, there is increased emphasis on evaluating the cost of a particular surgical procedure for quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Recent data have shown that surgical intervention for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is as cost-effective as total joint arthroplasty. Despite these excellent outcomes, some argue that the addition of interbody fusion supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) enhances the value of this procedure. Methods: This review examines the current research regarding the cost-effectiveness of the surgical management of lumbar DS utilizing interbody fusion along with BMP. Results: Posterolateral spinal fusion with instrumentation for focal lumbar spinal stenosis with DS can provide and maintain improvement in self-reported quality of life. Based on the available literature, including nonrandomized comparative studies and case series, the addition of interbody fusion along with BMP does not lead to significantly better clinical outcomes and increases costs when compared with more routine posterolateral fusion techniques. Conclusions: To enhance the value of the surgical management for DS, costs must decrease or there should be substantial improvement in effectiveness as measured by clinical outcomes. To date, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interbody fusion devices along with BMP to treat routine cases of focal stenosis accompanied by DS, which are routinely adequately treated utilizing posterolateral fusion techniques.

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2013-01-01

317

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

318

Registration and Fusion of the Autofluorescent and Infrared Retinal Images  

PubMed Central

This article deals with registration and fusion of multimodal opththalmologic images obtained by means of a laser scanning device (Heidelberg retina angiograph). The registration framework has been designed and tested for combination of autofluorescent and infrared images. This process is a necessary step for consecutive pixel level fusion and analysis utilizing information from both modalities. Two fusion methods are presented and compared.

Kolar, Radim; Kubecka, Libor; Jan, Jiri

2008-01-01

319

Fusion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

320

Glow Discharge Characteristics in Relation to Anode Size in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device is a very simple and safe neutron source that uses a glow discharge for deuterium-deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristics of the device were studied experimentally. The relationship between gas pressure and applied voltage was examined by light changes of the device's anode size. The gas pressure ranges in which the device was able to

Hodaka Osawa; Shigehisa Yoshimura; Takehiro Tabata; Masami Ohnishi

2008-01-01

321

EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jlich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for ELM control and implications for ITER. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2011 in Jlich. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. We hope that this special issue of Nuclear Fusion will further stimulate interest in the fascinating and important subject of stochasticity in fusion plasmas.

Unterberg, Bernhard

2010-03-01

322

Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission  

SciTech Connect

A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P

2012-08-27

323

Component failure rate data base for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the small number and the innovative aspects of fusion devices, in general, not much information is available in the literature about availability and reliability of their components. To perform probabilistic safety assessment of fusion devices, analysts have to consider use of reliability data originating from different technological experiences. To set up all the available information and create a

T Pinna; L. C Cadwallader

2000-01-01

324

Oral delivery of modified transferrin fusion proteins  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Pharmaceutical compositions containing modified fusion proteins of transferrin and therapeutic proteins or peptides with increased serum half-life or increased serum stability are disclosed. Preferred fusion proteins include those modified so that the transferrin moiety exhibits no or reduced glycosylation, but does exhibit binding to iron and/or the transferrin receptor. Such fusion proteins may be administered orally.

2012-03-06

325

Collaborations in fusion research  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow`s standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today`s collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper.

Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

1995-01-01

326

Craniocervical fusions in children.  

PubMed

The surgical management of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) instability in pediatric patients presents unique challenges. As compared with the adult patient, the anatomical variations of the CVJ in the pediatric patient are significant, complicate the approach, and limit the use of internal fixation. Diminutive osseous and ligamentous structures and syndromic craniovertebral abnormalities complicate the issue. Advances in imaging analysis and instrumentation have improved the armamentarium for managing the pediatric patient who requires craniocervical stabilization. In this paper, the author's experience of performing more than 850 pediatric CVJ fusions is reviewed. This work includes the indications for atlantoaxial arthrodesis and occipitocervical fusion. Early atlantoaxial fusions were performed using interlaminar rib graft fusion, and more recently using either transarticular screw fixation in the older patient, or lateral mass screws at C-1 and rod fixation with either C-2 pars interarticular screw fixation or pedicle screw fixation. A C-2 translaminar screw fixation is also described. Occipitocervical fusions are performed with rib grafts in patients younger than 6 years of age. Subsequently, above that age, contoured loop fixation was performed, and in the past 8-10 years, screw and rod fixation was used. Abnormal spine growth was not observed in children who underwent craniocervical stabilization below the age of 5 years (clearly the bone grew with the patient). However, no deleterious effects were noted in the children treated with rigid instrumentation. The success rate for bone fusion alone was 98%. The author's success rate with rigid instrumentation is nearly 100%. A detailed review of the technique of fusion is presented, as well as the indications and means of avoidance of complications, their prevention, and management. PMID:22656246

Menezes, Arnold H

2012-06-01

327

Revisions to the JDL data fusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Directors of Laboratories {(JDL)} Data Fusion Group's Data Fusion Model is the most widely used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This model is modified to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi-sensor\\/multi-source systems. Proposed modifications include broadening of the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion

A. N. Steinberg; C. L. Bowman; F. E. White

1999-01-01

328

Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

Roth, R. J.

1976-01-01

329

Atomic data for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

1990-07-01

330

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

331

Detection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01

332

EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

Kikuchi, M.

2011-01-01

333

Polarized fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since more than 50 years it has been discussed to increase the gain of nuclear fusion reactors with the use of polarized fuel. For example, the total cross sections of the fusion reactions d + t ? 4He + n or 3He + d ? 4He + p are increased by a factor of about 1.5 if the spins of both incoming particles are aligned. But before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different types of reactors, a number of questions must be answered. In this contribution we give an overview on our various activities in this field of research.

Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Kochenda, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Rathmann, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Strher, H.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

2014-01-01

334

Splenogonadal fusion.  

PubMed

We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with a painless left scrotal mass of one year's duration. Clinical examination and diagnostic modalities indicated a solid left testicular mass. Exploration was done and a complete splenogonadal fusion was found. The ectopic splenic tissue was completely removed with preservation of the testis. Splenogonadal fusion is a rare and infrequently reported entity in the paediatric surgical literature. This was our first encounter with this condition. A review of the literature is briefly presented here. PMID:18924073

Alalayet, Y F; Mansoor, K; Shiba, N A; Khan, A M; Al Kasim, F

2008-10-01

335

Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for various applications, including protons for creating radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and neutrons for detecting clandestine materials. Most IEC devices worldwide, including the UW devices, presently operate primarily in a pressure range (1-10 mtorr) that allows ions to make only a few passes through the core before they charge exchange and lose substantial energy or they collide with cathode grid wires. It is believed that fusion rates can be raised by operating at a pressure where neutral gas does not impede ion flow, and a helicon ion source has been developed to explore operation at pressures of {approx}0.05 mtorr. The UW IEC research group uses proton detectors, neutron detectors, residual gas analyzers, and spectroscopic diagnostics. New diagnostic techniques have also been developed, including eclipse disks to localize proton production and chordwires to estimate ion fluxes using power balance.

Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Ashley, R.P.; Boris, D.R.; Cipiti, B.B.; Murali, S. Krupakar; Piefer, G.R.; Radel, R.F.; Radel, T.E.; Wehmeyer, A.L. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

2005-05-15

336

Solar energy refrigeration device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a refrigeration device using solar energy. This device includes a refrigeration fluid, such as water, which circulates between the solar energy heat exchanger containing zeolite, and an evaporator located in a cooling chamber through a condenser, then return to the exchanger through a three way valve. The device includes a second channel in the exchanger, which

A. Wiart; G. Paeye

1985-01-01

337

Data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Internet in recent years has made it possible and useful to access many different information systems anywhere in the world to obtain information. While there is much research on the integration of heterogeneous information systems, most commercial systems stop short of the actual integration of available data. Data fusion is the process of fusing multiple records

Jens Bleiholder; Felix Naumann

2008-01-01

338

Compliant Walled Combustion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion devices described herein comprise a compliant combustion chamber wall or segment. The compliant segment deforms during combustion in the combustion chamber. Some devices may include a compliant wall configured to stretch responsive to pressure ...

H. Prahlad J. Helm R. E. Pelrine S. Oh S. E. Stanford

2005-01-01

339

Some remarks on Kalman filters for the multisensor fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisensor data fusion has found widespread application in industry and commerce. The purpose of data fusion is to produce an improved model or estimate of a system from a set of independent data sources. There are various multisensor data fusion approaches, of which Kalman filtering is one of the most significant. Methods for Kalman filter based data fusion includes measurement

J. B. Gao; Chris J. Harris

2002-01-01

340

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

341

Intense fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

342

Beta > 1 Penning Discharge Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold target (fibre(s) or dust, R. Jones, Ind. J. Phys, 55B, 397, 1981 and Ind. J. Phys, 57B, 378, 1983) is heated by high voltage (Megavolt) pulsed power in Penning geometry. The plasma is thermalized by nonclassical processes and electron space charge ion heating (R. Jones, Il Nuovo Cimento, 40B, #2, 261, 1977) and heat is confined by both electrostatic and magnetic insulation while plasma pressure is supported by (wall) inertia (beta > 1). (R. Jones, BAPS, 37, #6, 1474, 1992) More effort needs to be devoted (worldwide) to the study of wall confined plasmas.

Jones, Robert

2010-11-01

343

Leak testing and repair of fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MFTF-B magnets. The leak-hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown), their associated piping, liquid nitrogen radiation shields, and piping. Additionally, during MFTF-B operation there will be warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking.

Kozman, T.A.

1983-06-17

344

Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; helium-3 to helium-4 ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of helium-3/helium-4.

Clayton, E. D.

1989-09-01

345

Electrochromic device  

DOEpatents

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

Schwendemanm, Irina G. (Wexford, PA) [Wexford, PA; Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA; Boykin, Cheri M. (Kingsport, TN) [Kingsport, TN; Knowles, Julianna M. (Apollo, PA) [Apollo, PA

2011-03-15

346

Fusion reactor nucleonics: status and needs  

SciTech Connect

The national fusion technology effort has made a good start at addressing the basic nucleonics issues, but only a start. No fundamental nucleonics issues are seen as insurmountable barriers to the development of commercial fusion power. To date the fusion nucleonics effort has relied almost exclusively on other programs for nuclear data and codes. But as we progress through and beyond ETF type design studies the fusion program will need to support a broad based nucleonics effort including code development, sensitivity studies, integral experiments, data acquisition etc. It is clear that nucleonics issues are extremely important to fusion development and that we have only scratched the surface.

Lee, J.D.; Engholm, B.A.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haight, R.C.

1980-01-01

347

Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program  

SciTech Connect

The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall. It will address the origins and structure of the plasma electric field, rotation, the L-H transition, and the wide variety of pedestal relaxation mechanisms. The Whole Device Model will predict the entire discharge evolution given external actuators (i.e., magnets, power supplies, heating, current drive and fueling systems) and control strategies. Based on components operating over a range of physics fidelity, the WDM will model the plasma equilibrium, plasma sources, profile evolution, linear stability and nonlinear evolution toward a disruption (but not the full disruption dynamics). The plan assumes that, as the FSP matures and demonstrates success, the program will evolve and grow, enabling additional science problems to be addressed. The next set of integration opportunities could include: 1) Simulation of disruption dynamics and their effects; 2) Prediction of core profile including 3D effects, mesoscale dynamics and integration with the edge plasma; 3) Computation of non-thermal particle distributions, self-consistent with fusion, radio frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) sources, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and short-wavelength turbulence.

Jeffrey Brooks

2011-09-30

348

Dynamic stabilization versus fusion for treatment of degenerative spine conditions  

PubMed Central

Study design:?Comparative effectiveness review. Study rationale:?Spinal fusion is believed to accelerate the degeneration of the vertebral segment above or below the fusion site, a condition called adjacent segment disease (ASD). The premise of dynamic stabilization is that motion preservation allows for less loading on the discs and facet joints at the adjacent, non-fused segments. In theory, this should decrease the rate of ASD. However, clinical evidence of this theoretical decrease in ASD is still lacking. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature comparing dynamic stabilization with fusion. Clinical question:?In patients 18 years or older with degenerative disease of the cervical or lumbar spine, does dynamic stabilization lead to better outcomes and fewer complications, including ASD, than fusion in the short-term and the long-term? Methods:?A systematic search and review of the literature was undertaken to identify studies published through March 7, 2011. PubMed, Cochrane, and National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases as well as bibliographies of key articles were searched. Two individuals independently reviewed articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which were set a priori. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results:?No significant differences were identified between fusion and dynamic stabilization with regard to VAS, ODI, complications, and reoperations. There are no long-term data available to show whether dynamic stabilization decreases the rate of ASD. Conclusions:?There are no clinical data from comparative studies supporting the use of dynamic stabilization devices over standard fusion techniques.

Chou, Dean; Lau, Darryl; Skelly, Andrea; Ecker, Erika

2011-01-01

349

Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C.; Piefer, G. R.

2010-06-01

350

Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {l_brace}Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]{r_brace}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 8123 Forsythia Street, Suite 140, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

2010-06-15

351

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-08-19

352

Discharge Characteristics of Anode Size in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device is a very simple and safe neutron source using the glow discharge in deuterium gas and deuterium - deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristic is studied experimentally. The gas pressure - applied voltage characteristics are examined altering the device's anode size. The gas pressure range that the device is able to work is differed

H. Osawa; S. Yoshimura; Takehiro TABATA; M. Ohnishi

2006-01-01

353

High-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new high-speed vision device and its application to a grasp system is proposed, and we discuss a processing architecture for grasping based on visual and tactile feedback designed with real-time control in mind. First, we describe a high-speed vision chip that serves as a robotic eye that includes a general-purpose parallel processing array along with a photo-detector all on a single silicon chip. Next, we present a grasping algorithm based on real-time visual and tactile feedback, and a high-speed sensory-motor fusion system for robotic grasping. We then describe a grasping experiment using high-speed vision, and finally, based on these results, the effectiveness of high-speed sensory-motor fusion for robotic grasping is discussed.

Namiki, Akio; Komuro, Takashi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

2002-11-01

354

Atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect

This book attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and also a self-contained source from which to start a systematic study of the field. Presents an overview of fusion energy research, general principles of magnetic confinement, and general principles of inertial confinement. Discusses the calculation and measurement of atomic and molecular processes relevant to fusion, and the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear research devices. Topics include recent progress in theoretical methods for atomic collisions; current theoretical techniques for electron-atom and electronion scattering; experimental aspects of electron impact ionization and excitation of positive ions; the theory of charge exchange and ionization by heavy particles; experiments on electron capture and ionization by multiply charged ions; Rydberg states; atomic and molecular processes in high temperature, low-density magnetically confined plasmas; atomic processes in high-density plasmas; the plasma boundary region and the role of atomic and molecular processes; neutral particle beam production and injection; spectroscopic plasma diagnostics; and particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments.

Joachain, C.J.; Post, D.E.

1983-01-01

355

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-01

356

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much less than external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional 'sling shot' that is 'loaded' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R. A.

357

Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particle-in-cell calculation code was made to simulate the operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device. The computation includes the effects of ionization by electron impact. Several techniques to save computational time are introduced in this program code. One of them is time-dependent fine space meshes used in the regions where the particles concentrate. Several superparticles that have

Masami Ohnishi; Hodaka Osawa; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kai Masuda; Yasushi Yamamoto

2001-01-01

358

Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felthonored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomablewould this paper follow the brilliant work of Dr Todd Evans, another significant mentor of mine, as winner of this prestigious award? Then, it happened. The paper covers several key topics related to high beta tokamak physics. For me, the greatest satisfaction in receiving this award is because it was the first Nuclear Fusion Award to recognize research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) located at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The achievement of record stability parameters in a mega-Ampere class spherical torus (ST) device reported in the paper represents a multi-year effort, contributed to by the entire research team. Research to maintain such plasmas for an indefinite period continues today. Understanding RWM stabilization physics is crucial for this goal, and leveraging the high beta ST operating space uniquely tests theory for application to future STs and to tokamaks in general, including advanced operational scenarios of ITER. For instance, the RWM was found to have significant amplitude in components with the toroidal mode number greater than unity. This has important implications for general active RWM control. Evidence that the RWM passive stabilization physics and marginal stability criterion are indeed more complex than originally thought was shown in this paper. Present work shows the greater complexity has a direct impact on how we should extrapolate RWM stabilization to future devices. The paper also reported the qualitative observation of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), followed by a companion paper by our group in 2006 reporting the quantitative observation of this effect and comparison to theory. The physics of this interesting and important phenomenon was introduced to me by Professor J. Callen (who has given an overview talk at this conference including this subject) and Professor Kerchung Shaing of the University of Wisconsin, to whom I am quite indebted. The paper also reported the first measurement of resonant field amplification at high beta in the NSTX, following work of the Columbia University group at DIII-D during that period. My greatest hope

Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

2011-01-01

359

Articulating feedstock delivery device  

DOEpatents

A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

Jordan, Kevin

2013-11-05

360

Tungsten Spectroscopy for Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten is one of very few candidate materials for plasma facing components in future fusion devices. Therefore, investigations have been started at fusion devices and EBITs to provide atomic data for W in fusion plasmas. Usually the influx of impurities is deduced from the intensity of spectral lines from neutrals or ions in a low ionisation state. For this purpose the appropriate ionisation rates and excitation rates have to be known. At the moment, a WI transition (7S-7P) at 400.9 nm is used, but an extension of the method to other lines is under investigation. In the core of present day plasmas ionisation states up to W56+ can be reached and in a reactor states up to around W68+ will be present. In order to extract information on the local W concentrations over the whole plasma radius atomic data (wavelength, excitation, ionisation, recombination) for all the charge states up to the maximum ionisation state are necessary. Similarly, a high sensitivity has to be achieved since the central W concentrations should stay below 10-4. For an unambiguous identification of the transitions EBIT measurements are of great advantage, but due to the lower electron density compared to fusion plasmas, investigations there are indispensable.

Neu, R.; Ptterich, T.; Dux, R.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.

2007-04-01

361

Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

Leonid E. Zakharov

2011-06-03

362

Numerical Study on Glow Discharge of IEC Fusion  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for the neutron source that has the ability to produce the neutrons of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8}/s by the glow discharge. It works more efficiently at the condition of the high voltage and the low pressure. It, however, is difficult to keep the continuous operation at the low-pressure because the glow discharge is apt to be unstable. We have made the three-dimensional Monte Carlo PIC code including atomic processes to investigate the glow discharge. The study reveals the spatial position where the ionization occurs and numerically reproduces the discharge called 'star mode'.

Osawa, Hodaka; Tabata, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan)

2005-05-15

363

Electrospray device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrospray device includes an electrospray emitter adapted to receive electrospray fluid; an extractor plate spaced from the electrospray emitter and having at least one aperture; and a power supply for applying a first voltage between the extractor plate and emitter for generating at least one Taylor cone emission through the aperture to create an electrospray plume from the electrospray fluid, the extractor plate as well as accelerator and shaping plates may include a porous, conductive medium for transporting and storing excess, accumulated electrospray fluid away from the aperture.

Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Martin, Roy (Inventor); Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Roy, Thomas (Inventor); Spence, Douglas (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Zwahlen, Jurg (Inventor)

2011-01-01

364

Current Status of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) Fusion Neutron\\/Proton Source Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact fusion neutron\\/proton source, i.e., IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) fusion device is introduced with its principle, function, application and research history. 1. What is IEC? An IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device is an extremely compact, and simple configuration device as is shown in Fig. 1, running by electrical discharge on D-D\\/D- T\\/D-3He fuel gases. It basically consists of a

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

365

BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of references, mostly to articles covering original research, allows the interested reader to go deeper into the various subjects. There are a few quite relevant areas which are essentially not covered in the book (plasma diagnostics; fuelling). The discussion of particle and power exhaust is limited to tokamaks and is somewhat scarce. Other points which I did not find fully satisfactory are: the index is too selective and does not really allow easy access to any specific subject. Cross references between different sections treating related topics are not always given. There are quite a lot of typographical errors which as far as cross references are concerned may be disturbing. A list of the symbols used would be a helpful supplement, especially since some of them appear with different meanings. There are apparent imperfections in the structure of certain chapters. While the English is sometimes unusual, this generally does not affect the readability. Overall, the book can be warmly recommended to all interested in familiarizing themselves with the physics of magnetic fusion.

Engelmann, F.

2007-07-01

366

Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made a comeback even for magnetic confinement plasma, after this beam fusion concept was revealed by the basically nonlinear processes of the well-known alternative of inertial confinement fusion using laser or particle beams. After reviewing the main streams of both directions some results are reportedas an example of possible alternativesabout how experiments with skin layer interaction and avoiding relativistic self-focusing of clean PW ps laser pulses for IFE may possibly lead to a simplified fusion reactor scheme without the need for special compression of solid deuterium tritium fuel.

Hora, Heinrich

2004-10-01

367

Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion  

SciTech Connect

The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

2006-01-05

368

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

369

Gasdynamic mirror fusion propulsion experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger L/D ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high L/D ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more like a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with ``loss cone'' microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000. .

Emrich, William J.

2001-02-01

370

Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

1989-01-01

371

Semiconductor devices  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In an embodiment, a semiconductor device is provided. The semiconductor device may include a substrate having a main processing surface, a first source/drain region comprising a first material of a first conductivity type, a second source/drain region comprising a second material of a second conductivity type, wherein the second conductivity type is different from the first conductivity type, a body region electrically coupled between the first source/drain region and the second source/drain region, wherein the body region extends deeper into the substrate than the first source/drain region in a first direction that is perpendicular to the main processing surface of the substrate, a gate dielectric disposed over the body region, and a gate region disposed over the gate dielectric, wherein the gate region overlaps with at least a part of the first source/drain region and with a part of the body region in the first direction.

2013-03-26

372

Quantum Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantum semiconductor devices are playing an increasingly important role in advanced microelectronic applications, including multiple-state logic and memory devices. To model quantum devices, the classical hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices can ...

C. L. Gardner

1995-01-01

373

Quantum Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantum semiconductor devices are playing an increasingly important role in advanced microelectronic applications, including multiple state logic and memory devices. To model quantum devices, the classical hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices can ...

C. L. Gardner

1995-01-01

374

U. S. Fusion Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems.

John A. Schmidt; Dan Jassby; Scott Larson; Maria Pueyo; Paul H. Rutherford

2000-10-12

375

Alternate Applications of Fusion - Production of Radioisotopes  

SciTech Connect

A major effort to find near-term, non-electric applications of fusion energy has shown that the production of radioisotopes is attractive. The use of the D{sup 3}He fusion reaction to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes is described. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is particularly well suited to produce low levels of high-energy (14.7 MeV) protons, which in turn, can produce short-lived PET isotopes. The IEC device at University of Wisconsin has been modified to investigate the potential of this process to be commercially attractive.

Kulcinski, G.L.; Weidner, J.; Cipiti, B.; Ashley, R.P.; Santarius, J.F.; Murali, S.K.; Piefer, G.; Radel, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

376

Multi Sensor Data Fusion (Multisensor Data Fusion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of development of multisensor data fusion is presented as the MUltiSensor Image Processing (MUSIP) project, which developed a proof of concept software demonstrator for the fusion and analysis of remotely sensed images within a knowledge...

T. K. Pike C. Boesswetter

1991-01-01

377

Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume 2: Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasbility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. Aspects considered include: (1) source conditions; (2) systems integration; (3) materials and processes; (4) thermal hydraulic; (5) thermomechanical response; (6) electromagnetic response; (7) instrumentation and control; and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented and primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

Abdou, M. A.; Boyd, R. D.; Easor, J. R.; Gauster, W. B.; Gordon, J. D.; Mattas, R. F.; Morgan, G. D.; Ulrickson, M. A.; Watson, R. D.; Wolfer, W. G.

1984-06-01

378

Background: Energy's holy grail. [The quest for controlled fusion  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues.

Not Available

1993-01-22

379

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1987--1988 report to the President  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on several fronts: the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasmas theory, RF heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics, and intermediate-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices), major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields, experiments on the medium-scale TARA tandem mirror, including the development of novel MHD stabilization techniques in axisymmetric geometry, and a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter-wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements.

1988-06-01

380

Simulating fusion algorithms with gaming platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss issues in testing various cognitive fusion algorithms for situation management. We provide a proof-of-principle discussion and demo showing how gaming technologies and platforms could be used to devise and test various fusion algorithms, including input, processing, and output, and we look at how the proof-of-principle could lead to more advanced test beds and methods for high-level fusion in

Lundy Lewis; Chris Wright; Nolan DiStasio

2010-01-01

381

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than

Kirkpatrick

2001-01-01

382

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than

Ronald C. Kirkpatrick

2002-01-01

383

Overview of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Devlopment and Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication gives a comprehensive introduction to controlled fusion research. Topics covered in the discussion include the following: (1) fusion system engineering and advanced design, (2) plasma engineering, (3) magnetic systems, (4) materials, (5) ...

1978-01-01

384

Sequential fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification system such as an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system might yield better performance when fused sequentially than in parallel. Most fused systems have parallel architecture, but, the medical community often uses sequential tests due to costs constraints. We define the different types of sequential fusion and investigate their characteristics. We compare parallel fused systems with sequential fused systems. Another goal of this paper is to compare competing sequential fused systems to arrive at an optimal architecture design given the systems at hand. These systems may be legacy systems whose performances are well known. If these systems have known Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves/manifolds then we derive a formula that yields the ROC curve/manifold for the resultant sequentially fused system, thus, enabling one to make these comparisons. This formula is distribution free. We give an example to demonstrate the utility of our method, and show that one can play "what if" scenarios.

Oxley, Mark E.; Daly, Kathleen E.; Schubert-Kabban, Christine M.; Zitelli, David A.

2011-05-01

385

Spectral Line Shapes as a Diagnostic Tool in Magnetic Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectral line shapes and intensities are used for obtaining information on the various regions of magnetic fusion devices. Emission from low principal quantum numbers of hydrogen isotopes is analyzed for understanding the complex recycling mechanism. Line...

R. Stamm H. Capes A. Demura L. Godbert-Mouret M. Koubiti Y. Marandet M. Mattioli J. Rosato F. Rosmej K. B. Fournier

2006-01-01

386

Intraosseous Infusion Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for infusion or aspiration that includes a base and at least one needle positioned within the base, where the base includes one or more locators for positioning the infusion device in relation to one or more predetermined anatomical features. A d...

D. Nedder J. F. Stokes M. J. Turieo R. P. Maloney R. W. Etheredge

2005-01-01

387

Inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion for space power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion reactor power is a major candidate for missions beyond the moon. Attention is presently given to the IEC system concept for fusion, which offers high energy density in a comparatively small and simple device which may be capable of burning aneutronic fuels that are highly desirable for space applications. The IEC is also well suited for direct energy conversion.

George H. Miley; Jonathon H. Nadler; Timothy K. Hochberg; Olivier Barnouin; Yibin Gu

1991-01-01

388

Collective Thomson scattering capabilities to diagnose fusion plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) is a versatile technique for diagnosing fusion plasmas. In particular, experiments on diagnosing the ion temperature and fast ion velocity distribution have been executed on a number of fusion devices. In this article the main aim is to describe the technique, focusing on the measurements of fast ion dynamics in the tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade.

S. B. Korsholm; H. Bindslev; V. Furtula; F. Leipold; F. Meo; P. K. Michelsen; D. Moseev; S. K. Nielsen; M. Salewski; M. Stejner

2010-01-01

389

Fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-(sup 11)B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field- reversed configuration (FRC), an...

S. A. Cohen

1997-01-01

390

MICF: A fusion propulsion system for interstellar missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very promising propulsion device that could open up the solar system and beyond to human exploration is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) system. This scheme combines the favorable aspects of inertial and magnetic fusion into one where physical containment of the hot plasma is provided by a metal shell while its thermal energy is insulated from this

Terry Kammash; Brice N. Cassenti

2000-01-01

391

Use of bioabsorbable osteofixation devices in the hand.  

PubMed

Bioabsorbable internal fixation by means of pins, tacks, screws and miniplates offers an alternative to metallic osteofixation for the stabilization of small bone fractures, osteotomies, ligament injuries and fusions in the hand. The advantages of using them include avoidance of metallic-implant-related long-term complications and a secondary removal operation. Currently the most commonly used devices are made of poly L-lactide (PLLA) and copolymers of polylactides (P(L/DL)LA) and polyglycolide (PLGA). In areas of mechanical stress, the use of ultra-high-strength self-reinforced devices is recommended. Biomechanical studies on fresh frozen bones have shown that the fixation rigidity achieved with self-reinforced devices approaches that of metallic osteofixation methods. The reliability of modern implants has been confirmed in several experimental and clinical studies. PMID:15542222

Waris, E; Ashammakhi, N; Kaarela, O; Raatikainen, T; Vasenius, J

2004-12-01

392

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

French, Patrick D. (Aurora, CO)

1996-01-01

393

Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces objectives and status of Human sensing fusion project in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

Maenaka, Kazusuke

394

COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ???¢????????Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities???¢??????? [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP???¢????????s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

Chang, Choong Seock

2012-06-05

395

Feature Level Sensor Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes two practical fusion techniques (hybrid fusion and cued fusion) for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data at the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescree...

T. Peli M. Young R. Knox K. Ellis F. Bennett

1999-01-01

396

Electron cyclotron wave sources and applications for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in magnetic fusion research have come as often from the use of new technologies as from the invention of ideas and discovery of phenomena that are then applied to new experiments. The technologies needed for plasma production, heating, confinement, and control have largely been developed and are a major factor in the success of our current experiments. These include high vacuum techniques, normal and superconducting magnets, particle beams, pellet fueling devices, and rf sources in the ion cylotron and lower hybrid range of frequencies. One area where development is especially required, and where the potential impact on fusion research is large, is that of electron cyclotron wave (ECW) sources in the 100-600 GHz range. This journal issue is devoted to methods for ECW generation and transmission, and to applications including heating, current drive, profile shaping, and instability control. To help focus these articles the requirements(1) for a system to heat the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) were used to define the necessary technology. Somewhat lower frequencies, but similar power, is anticipated(2) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and for future large devices of that class, should they use ECW sources in them.

Thomassen, K. I.

1990-03-01

397

Conceptual exploration package for data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a software package designed to explore data fusion area applied to different contexts. This tool, called CEPfuse (Conceptual Exploration Package for Data Fusion) provides a good support to become familiar with all concepts and vocabulary linked to data fusion. Developed with Matlab 5.2, it's also a good tool to test, compare and analyze algorithms. Although the core of this package is evidential reasoning and identity information fusion, it has been conceived to develop all the interesting part of the Multi-Sensor Data Fusion system. Actually, because we concentrate our research work on identity information fusion, the principal included algorithms are Dempster- Shafer rules of combination, Shafer-Logan algorithms for hierarchical structures, and several decision rules.

Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Grenier, Dominic; Bosse, Eloi

2000-04-01

398

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies without requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma ``b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

Emrich, Bill

2000-10-01

399

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

400

A novel synthetic material for spinal fusion: a prospective clinical trial of porous bioactive titanium metal for lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of porous bioactive titanium metal for use in a spinal\\u000a fusion device, based on a prospective human clinical trial. A high-strength spinal interbody fusion device was manufactured\\u000a from porous titanium metal. A bioactive surface was produced by simple chemical and thermal treatment. Five patients with\\u000a unstable lumbar spine

Shunsuke FujibayashiMitsuru; Mitsuru Takemoto; Masashi Neo; Tomiharu Matsushita; Tadashi Kokubo; Kenji Doi; Tatsuya Ito; Akira Shimizu; Takashi Nakamura

401

High efficiency photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

1999-11-02

402

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ``International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)`` will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-09-01

403

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-01-01

404

Fusion safety codes: international modeling with MELCOR and ATHENAINTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years, the world fusion safety community has been involved in benchmarking their safety analyses codes against experiment data to support regulatory approval of a next step fusion device. This paper discusses the benchmarking of two prominent fusion safety thermal-hydraulic computer codes. The MELCOR code was developed in the US for fission severe accident safety analyses and

T Marshall; M. T Porfiri; L Topilski; B Merrill

2002-01-01

405

Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

2012-01-01

406

FUSIM: a software tool for simulating fusion transcripts  

PubMed Central

Background Gene fusions are the result of chromosomal aberrations and encode chimeric RNA (fusion transcripts) that play an important role in cancer genesis. Recent advances in high throughput transcriptome sequencing have given rise to computational methods for new fusion discovery. The ability to simulate fusion transcripts is essential for testing and improving those tools. Results To facilitate this need, we developed FUSIM (FUsion SIMulator), a software tool for simulating fusion transcripts. The simulation of events known to create fusion genes and their resulting chimeric proteins is supported, including inter-chromosome translocation, trans-splicing, complex chromosomal rearrangements, and transcriptional read through events. Conclusions FUSIM provides the ability to assemble a dataset of fusion transcripts useful for testing and benchmarking applications in fusion gene discovery.

2013-01-01

407

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential

Moses

2010-01-01

408

75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice...certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by...of authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices,...

2010-01-05

409

Fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

Not Available

1990-09-01

410

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-07-10

411

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, 1984-1985. Report to the President  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasma theory, rf heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of an innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experiment beginning in 1984; and (4) a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements). A review of these programs is given.

1985-07-01

412

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center: 1986-1987 Report to the President  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year, technical progress has been made in all Plasma Fusion Center (PFC) research programs. The Plasma Fusion Center is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion. Its research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, free electron lasers, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scall experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices), (2) major confinement results on the Alcator C tokamak, including pioneering investigations of the stability, heating, and confinement properties of plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields, (3) operation of the medium-scale TARA tandem mirror, an axisymmetric confinement configuration with inboard thermal barriers, and (4) a broad program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced millimeter wave source development, and system studies of fusion reactor design, operation, and technology requirements).

1987-07-01

413

End-Use Products of Fusion Energy: Alternatives and Their Implications to the Fusion Energy R and D Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the current magnetic fusion program were outlined and the efforts of the Department of Energy to find uses for the products of fusion energy were summarized. Various applications of the high-temperature electrolysis process and the sulfur iodine process in both Tokamak and tandem mirror-type reactors were included. Synthetic fuel production and its role in fusion were addressed. It was suggested that a fusion reactor will never be economically competitive with a fission reactor and that a hybrid may be a viable alternative to a pure fission reactor. Reasons for pursuing the fusion breeder were offered and work on fusion hybrids was reviewed.

414

Fission and Fusion Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

415

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

1988-01-01

416

Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1983-11-21

417

23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/C and ICC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

Hawryluk, R. J.

2011-09-01

418

Dynamics, transport and impact of dust in fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well established now that dust is commonly present in magnetic fusion devices. It is expected that dust formation will increase significantly due to increased power and prolonged plasma operation in ITER and future fusion reactors. In this work we investigate dynamics, transport and effects of dust in tokamak plasmas. Recent advancements in development of theoretical models and simulations with the DUSTT/UEDGE code of dust-plasma interactions in tokamaks are reported. These include studies of dynamics of non-spherical dust, effects of dust ablation cloud, and possible impact of dust and dust originated impurities on fusion plasmas. It is shown that naturally formed or deliberately injected dust can be a significant source of impurities in the plasmas that can have drastic impact on plasma profiles, instabilities, and radiation power losses. Using DUSTT/UEDGE code we assess dust effects on the plasmas, simulating controlled dust injection with different sizes and injection speeds in modern tokamaks and ITER. Possible applications of dust injection for power dissipation in SOL/divertor and during plasma quench are discussed.

Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Mendis, D. A.; Rognlien, T. D.

2011-11-01

419

Silicon carbide composites as fusion power reactor structural materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide was first proposed as a low activation fusion reactor material in the mid 1970s. However, serious development of this material did not begin until the early 1990s, driven by the emergence of composite materials that provided enhanced toughness and an implied ability to use these typically brittle materials in engineering application. In the decades that followed, SiC composite system was successfully transformed from a poorly performing curiosity into a radiation stable material of sufficient maturity to be considered for near term nuclear and non-nuclear systems. In this paper the recent progress in the understanding and of basic phenomenon related to the use of SiC and SiC composite in fusion applications will be presented. This work includes both fundamental radiation effects in SiC and engineering issues such as joining and general materials properties. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss the technological gaps remaining for the practical application of this material system in fusion power devices such as DEMO and beyond.

Snead, L. L.; Nozawa, T.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Y.; Shinavski, R.; Sawan, M.

2011-10-01

420

High Energy Space Propulsion based on Magnetized Target Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a new entry into the fusion propulsion arena that promises low-cost development and rapid deployment using existing facilities and technology. Plasma-jet driven MTF has a number of features which make it attractive as a space propulsion system. These features include, low system mass and volume, high Isp and thrust, and efficient fusion drivers leading to

F. Thio

1999-01-01

421

Electrical power distribution system operating experience review for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes safety research on electrical distribution systems applicable to fusion facilities. Electrical power has many uses in both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments; it is the most important support system for any fusion experiment. Electricity powers a wide variety of plant equipment, including vacuum pumps, magnets, coolant pumps, air handlers, compressors, and either plasma heating or target implosion

L. C Cadwallader

2002-01-01

422

Sub-barrier fusion in generalized boson models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interacting boson model with s and d bosons has been used to describe the nuclear structure effects in sub-barrier fusion. We generalize the previous formalism to include arbitrary kinds of bosons in the target nucleus and investigate whether g bosons have any discernible effect on fusion reactions. In particular, we compare the fusion cross sections, barrier distributions, and the

A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

1994-01-01

423

Sub-barrier fusion in generalized boson models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interacting boson model with {ital s} and {ital d} bosons has been used to describe the nuclear structure effects in sub-barrier fusion. We generalize the previous formalism to include arbitrary kinds of bosons in the target nucleus and investigate whether {ital g} bosons have any discernible effect on fusion reactions. In particular, we compare the fusion cross sections, barrier

A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

1994-01-01

424

Compact tokamaks as convenient neutron sources for fusion reactors materials testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage evaluations have been performed with the ACAB code for fusion-relevant materials in an Ignitor-like compact fusion device that could be used as a neutron source for materials testing. Values ranging from 1.610?26 to 2.410?25dpa per source neutron have been obtained, which translates into 16250dpa\\/y at full operating power and demonstrates the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion

F. Bombarda; B. Coppi; Z. S. Hartwig; M. Sassi; M. Zucchetti

2011-01-01

425

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review  

SciTech Connect

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

426

Electrophoresis device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (inventors)

1982-01-01

427

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

428

Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

429

Mobile device security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their small size, memory capability, and the case with which information can be downloaded and removed from a facility, mobile devices pose a risk to organizations when used and transported outside physical boundaries. Mobile devices, including Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, laptops, and smart phones can expose organizational data if not properly protected. This paper will cover

Benjamin Halpert

2004-01-01

430

Recently Approved Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... in this section do not include every new medical device that has been cleared or approved for sale in the US. You can find additional information at the links below: PMA Approvals : Monthly listings of all new or high-risk medical devices that were approved via the premarket approval (PMA) ...

431

Colon Hydrotherapy Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A colon hydrotherapy device that includes a multi-chambered housing, a specially designed nozzle for creating a water vortex within the subject's colon for removing impacted fecal matter, and an insertion rod for facilitating the insertion of the device i...

C. W. Waychoff

2004-01-01

432

Device control at CEBAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

CEBAF has undergone a major conversion of its accelerator control system from TACL to EPICS, affecting device control for the RF system, magnets, the machine protection system, the vacuum and valves, and the diagnostic systems including beam position monitors (BPMs), harps, and the camera and solenoid devices (beam viewers, faraday cups, optical transition radiation viewers, synchrotron radiation monitor, etc.). Altogether

S. Schaffner; D. Barker; V. Bookwalter; B. Bowling; K. Brown; L. Doolittle; T. Fox; S. Higgins; A. Hofler; G. Lahti; P. Letta; B. Montjar; N. Patavalis; J. Tang; W. Watson; D. Wetherholt; K. White; S. Witherspoon; M. Wise

1995-01-01

433

Solar cell device physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic physical principles and materials properties are reviewed which are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion. Specific photovoltaic configurations are discussed, including a brief background to establish the historical development of that particular device class, an in-depth development of the physical principles operative for that device class, and a survey of experimental work from the literature pertaining to that

S. Fonash

1981-01-01

434

Capillary interconnect device  

DOEpatents

An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

Renzi, Ronald F

2013-11-19

435

Automated drug preparation apparatus including serial dilution functionality  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An automated medication preparation system for preparing a prescribed dosage of medication in a drug delivery device includes a plurality of stations for receiving, handling and processing the drug delivery device so that the prescribed dosage of medication is delivered to the drug delivery device and a transporting device that receives and holds more than one drug delivery device and moves the drug delivery devices in a controlled manner from one station to another station. The system is configured so that two or more separate drug delivery devices can be acted upon at the same time.

2011-03-29

436

Radiation Effects on Superconducting Fusion Magnet Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion devices based on the magnetic confinement principle heavily rely on the existence and performance of superconducting magnets and have always significantly contributed to advancing superconductor and magnet technology to their limits. In view of the presently ongoing construction of the tokamak device ITER and the stellerator device Wendelstein 7X and their record breaking parameters concerning size, complexity of design, stored energy, amperage, mechanical and magnetic forces, critical current densities and stability requirements, it is deemed timely to review another critical parameter that is practically unique to these devices, namely the radiation response of all magnet components to the lifetime fluence of fast neutrons and gamma rays produced by the fusion reactions of deuterium and tritium. I will review these radiation effects in turn for the currently employed standard "technical" low temperature superconductors NbTi and Nb3Sn, the stabilizing material (Cu) as well as the magnet insulation materials and conclude by discussing the potential of high temperature superconducting materials for future generations of fusion devices, such as DEMO.

Weber, Harald W.

437

Multilevel image fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal-level image fusion has in recent years established itself as a useful tool for dealing with vast amounts of image data obtained by disparate sensors. In many modern multisensor systems, fusion algorithms significantly reduce the amount of raw data that needs to be presented or processed without loss of information content as well as provide an effective way of information integrations. One of the most useful and widespread applications of signal-level image fusion is for display purposes. Fused images provide the observer with a more reliable and more complete representation of the scene than would be obtained through single sensor display configurations. In recent years, a plethora of algorithms that deal with problem of fusion for display has been proposed. However, almost all are based on relatively basic processing techniques and do not consider information from higher levels of abstraction. As some recent studies have shown this does not always satisfy the complex demands of a human observer and a more subjectively meaningful approach is required. This paper presents a fusion framework based on the idea that subjectively relevant fusion could be achieved in information at higher levels of abstraction such as image edges and image segment boundaries are used to guide the basic signal-level fusion process. Fusion of processed, higher level information to form a blueprint for fusion at signal level and fusion of information from multiple levels of extraction into a single fusion engine are both considered. When tested on two conventional signal-level fusion methodologies, such multi-level fusion structures eliminated undesirable effects such as a fusion artifacts and loss of visually vital information that compromise their usefulness. Images produced by inclusion of multi-level information in the fusion process are clearer and of generally better quality than those obtained through conventional low-level fusion. This is verified through subjective evaluation and established objective fusion performance metrics.

Petrovic, Vladimir

2003-04-01

438

Tritium monitor for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, operation, and performance of a flow-through ion-chamber instrument designed to measure tritium concentrations in air containing /sup 13/N, /sup 16/N, and /sup 41/Ar produced by neutrons generated by D-T fusion devices. The instrument employs a chamber assembly consisting of two coaxial ionization chambers. The inner chamber is the flow-through measuring chamber and the outer chamber is used for current subtraction. A thin wall common to both chambers is opaque to the tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers by higher energy radiation are automatically subtracted, leaving only the current due to tritium.

Jalbert, R.A.

1982-08-01

439

Fusion power for space propulsion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

1972-01-01

440

Electronic Computers and Analog Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook presents a classification of electronic and analog computers and analog devices, including descriptions, basic technical features and fields of application of domestically-manufactured universal digital computers, digital control devices, dig...

V. I. Grubov V. S. Kirdan

1971-01-01

441

Alternative Approaches to Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of ...

R. J. Roth

1976-01-01

442

Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)  

MedlinePLUS

... sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) Most people are born with two kidneys, which ... as is the case for people with renal fusion abnormalities. The following information will help you talk ...

443

Fusion Metrics Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Fusion Metrics program, a multi-sensor testbed was developed and an associated multisensor fusion system was demonstrated in an initial data collection. In developing this testbed, algorithms developed in part in previous Air Force research program...

D. Fay P. Ilardi S. Haron

2009-01-01

444

Fusion ignition research experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The...

D. Meade

2000-01-01

445

C-terminal tyrosine residues modulate the fusion activity of the Hendra virus fusion protein  

PubMed Central

The paramyxovirus family includes important human pathogens such as measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus and the recently emerged, highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses. The viral fusion (F) protein plays critical roles in infection, promoting both the viral-cell membrane fusion events needed for viral entry as well as cell-cell fusion events leading to syncytia formation. We describe the surprising finding that addition of the short epitope HA tag to the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Hendra virus F protein leads to a significant increase in cell-cell membrane fusion. This increase was not due to alterations in surface expression, cleavage state, or association with lipid microdomains. Addition of a Myc tag of similar length did not alter Hendra F fusion activity, indicating that the observed stimulation was not solely a result of lengthening the CT. Three tyrosine residues within the HA tag were critical for the increase in fusion, suggesting C-terminal tyrosines may modulate Hendra fusion activity. The effects of HA tag addition varied with other fusion proteins, as parainfluenza virus 5 F-HA showed decreased surface expression and no stimulation in fusion. These results indicate that additions to the C-terminal end of the F protein CT can modulate protein function in a sequence specific manner, reinforcing the need for careful analysis of epitope tagged glycoproteins. In addition, our results implicate C-terminal tyrosine residues in modulation of the membrane fusion reaction promoted by these viral glycoproteins.

Popa, Andreea; Pager, Cara Teresia; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

2011-01-01

446

A commercial lunar helium 3 fusion power infrasructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential scenario of a commercial aneutronic fusion power economy based on Helium 3 is reviewed with recent developments in fusion grade plasma containment considered. The Spherical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is a type of fusion reactor with immediate commercial applications as a small non-power reactor. Further development and growth to power reactor fusion reaction rates using Deuterium and Helium 3 offers the potential practical solution to fusion power. Recovery of the lunar Helium 3 inventory for export to power utility customers will require the build-up of a cis-lunar industrial infrastructure. Space transport capacity will be obliged to grow rapidly to support several thousand tons of cargo delivery to the lunar surface per year. A highly reusable, low operations cost cis-lunar transport infrastructure and lunar surface industrial activity will be made more practical by the availability of IEC fusion power units that are intrinsically low mass and compatible with space transport.

Sved, J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Miley, G. H.

1995-01-01

447

Analytical Devices in the Chemical Industry Pavilion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specifications and operation of Soviet gas-analyzing devices are presented. Devices include coulometers, a dielcometer, an oxygen analyzer, gas analyzers, liquid analyzers, gas chromatographs, and spectrophotometers.

A. Amannazarov

1976-01-01

448

Explosive pulse power for fusion applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explosive pulse power systems, powered by flux compression generators and including a variety of high current power conditioning components, such as high current opening switches, are attractive for powering fusion physics experiments which require 10's M...

R. E. Reinovsky I. R. Lindemuth S. P. Marsh E. A. Lopez

1992-01-01

449

Visual Impairment, Including Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments where we live and move, including approaching hazards. When a child has a ...

450

A hidden Markov model for multimodal biometrics score fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are strong evidences of that multimodal biometric score fusion can significantly improve human identification performance. Score level fusion usually involves score normalization, score fusion, and fusion decision. There are several types of score fusion methods, direct combination of fusion scores, classifier-based fusion, and density-based fusion. The real applications require achieving greater reliability in determining or verifying person's identity. The goal of this research is to improve the accuracy and robustness of human identification by using multimodal biometrics score fusion. The accuracy means high verification rate if tested on a closed dataset, or a high genuine accept rate under low false accept rate if tested on an open dataset. While the robustness means the fusion performance is stable with variant biometric scores. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) for multiple score fusion, where the biometric scores include multimodal scores and multi-matcher scores. The state probability density functions in a HHM model are estimated by Gaussian mixture model. The proposed HMM model for multiple score fusion is accurate for identification, flexible and reliable with biometrics. The proposed HMM method are tested on three NIST-BSSR1 multimodal databases and on three face-score databases. The results show the HMM method is an excellent and reliable score fusion method.

Zheng, Yufeng

2011-05-01

451

Energy from inertial fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in drivers, reactors and targets has made smaller, more flexible power plants feasible and has reduced the potential costs of developing them. Fusion is potentially a safe, clean energy source not limited by political boundaries. Magnetic and inertial fusion share this promise, but there are differences between them. An inertial fusion power plant is based on different physics and

William J. Hogan; Roger Bangerter; Gerald L. Kulcinski

1992-01-01

452

Slow liner fusion  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

Shaffer, M.J.

1997-08-01

453

JDL level 0 and 1 algorithms for processing and fusion of hard sensor data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current trend in information fusion involves distributed methods of combining both conventional "hard" sensor data and human-based "soft" information in a manner that exploits the most useful and accurate capabilities of each modality. In addition, new and evolving technologies such as Flash LIDAR have greatly enhanced the ability of a single device to rapidly sense attributes of a scene in ways that were not previously possible. At the Pennsylvania State University we are participating in a multi-disciplinary university research initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate issues related to fusing hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. We are developing level 0 and level 1 methods (using the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model) for fusion of physical ("hard") sensor data. Techniques include methods for data alignment, tracking, recognition, and identification for a sensor suite that includes LIDAR, multi-camera systems, and acoustic sensors. The goal is to develop methods that dovetail on-going research in soft sensor processing. This paper describes various hard sensor processing algorithms and their evolving roles and implementations within a distributed hard and soft information fusion system.

Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Iyer, Ganesh M.; Agumamidi, Rachana R.; Pisupati, Soumya V.; Graham, Jake

2011-05-01

454

Heat tube device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

Khattar, Mukesh K. (inventor)

1990-01-01

455

Device for cutting protrusions  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05

456

Deformability-based microfluidic cell pairing and fusion.  

PubMed

We present a microfluidic cell pairing device capable of sequential trapping and pairing of hundreds of cells using passive hydrodynamics and flow-induced deformation. We describe the design and operation principles of our device and show its applicability for cell fusion. Using our device, we achieved both homotypic and heterotypic cell pairing, demonstrating efficiencies up to 80%. The platform is compatible with fusion protocols based on biological, chemical and physical stimuli with fusion yields up to 95%. Our device further permits its disconnection from the fluidic hardware enabling its transportation for imaging and culture while maintaining cell registration on chip. Our design principles and cell trapping technique can readily be applied for different cell types and can be extended to trap and fuse multiple (>2) cell partners as demonstrated by our preliminary experiments. PMID:24898933

Dura, Burak; Liu, Yaoping; Voldman, Joel

2014-08-01

457