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1

Ceramics for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

2

Ceramics for Fusion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, alth...

F. W. Clinard

1984-01-01

3

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device...component spinal device made from a variety of materials, including titanium and polymers. The device is inserted into the...

2013-04-01

4

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...premarket approval) for intervertebral body fusion devices that include any therapeutic biologic (e.g., bone morphogenic protein). Intervertebral body fusion devices that contain any therapeutic biologic require premarket approval....

2009-04-01

5

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...premarket approval) for intervertebral body fusion devices that include any therapeutic biologic (e.g., bone morphogenic protein). Intervertebral body fusion devices that contain any therapeutic biologic require premarket approval....

2010-04-01

6

Fusion Engineering Device Design Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magn...

C. A. Flanagan D. Steiner G. E. Smith

1981-01-01

7

Spinal fusion methods and devices  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods, devices and compositions for fusing adjacent vertebrae, and otherwise localizing bone growth, are provided. In one form of the invention, a method for fusing adjacent vertebrae includes preparing a disc space for receipt of an intervertebral disc implant in an intervertebral disc space between adjacent vertebrae, inserting the implant into the intervertebral disc space and providing an osteoinductive composition that includes an osteoinductive factor in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier is advantageously substantially impermeable to efflux of the osteoinductive factor and is released as the carrier is resorbed or biodegraded. Preferred carriers include a hardened, resorbable carrier, such as a calcium phosphate cement that retains at least about 50% of the osteoinductive factors greater than about 2 days. Preferred osteoinductive factors are growth factors and include bone morphogenetic proteins and LIM mineralization proteins. In alternative forms of the invention, the method may be performed without utilization of a load-bearing spinal implant by disposing the osteoinductive composition in the disc space. The method is advantageously performed on lumbar vertebrae by a posterior approach. Intervertebral fusion devices and methods for their preparation are also provided.

2012-07-24

8

Physics of Dust in Magnetic Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant amount of dust will be produced in the next generation magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. The dust inventory must be controlled as it can pose a safety hazard and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. Questions regarding dust in magnetic fusion devices therefore may be divided into dust safety, dust production, dust motion (dynamics), characteristics of dust, dust-plasma interactions, and most important of all, can dust be controlled in ways so that it will not become a severe problem for magnetic fusion energy production? The answer is not apparent at this time, which has motivated this work. Although dust safety and dust chemistry are important, our discussions primarily focus on dust physics. We describe theoretical frameworks, mostly due to dust research under a nonfusion context, that have already been established and can be used to answer many dust-related questions. We also describe dust measurements in fusion devices, numerical methods and results, and laboratory experiments related to the physics of fusion dust. Although qualitative understanding of dust in fusion has been or can be achieved, quantitative understanding of most dust physics in magnetic fusion is still needed. In order to find an effective way to deal with dust, future research activities include better dust diagnosis and monitoring, basic dusty plasma experiments emulating fusion conditions (for example, by using a mockup facility), numerical simulations bench-marked by experimental data, and development of a new generation of wall materials for fusion, which may include wall materials with engineered nanostructures.

Wang, Zhehui; Skinner, Charles H.; Luca Delzanno, Gian; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Lapenta, Gianni M.; Pigarov, Alexander Yu.; Shukla, Padma K.; Smirnov, Roman D.; Ticos, Catalin M.; West, W. Phil

2008-03-01

9

Transport of dust particles in fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large production rates and spreading of dust throughout the device volume are very important safety issues for next-step fusion projects (both: magnetic and inertial). A physical model for dust transport includes the dynamics dust-plasma, dust-turbulence, and dust-surface interactions. The dynamics is strongly coupled to heating, charging, erosion, evaporation, and thermo-chemical properties of dust particles. Recent developments in the model and

A. Yu. Pigarov; S. I. Krasheninnikov

2006-01-01

10

Fusion protein including of CD4  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel recombinant polypeptides are disclosed herein that include a CD4 polypeptide ligated at its C-terminus with a portion of an immunoglobulin comprising a hinge region and a constant domain of a mammalian immunoglobulin heavy chain. The portion or the IgG is fused at its C-terminus with a polypeptide comprising a tailpiece from the C-terminus of the heavy chain of an IgA antibody ara tailpiece from a C-terminus of the heavy chain of an IgM antibody. Also disclosed herein are methods for using these CD4 fusion proteins.

2008-05-06

11

Dusty plasmas in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Recent results from the theory of dusty plasmas are considered in the parameter regime close to the walls, divertor of magnetic confinement fusion devices, in an attempt to establish the effects that can be important to plasma operation and performance. The dust charge and dust-dust interaction potential are considered and it is shown that long-range attraction of negatively charged dust particles is possible. The ion-dust scattering and drag force are calculated in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and it is shown that scattering through waves can enhance the drag force on dust particles by orders of magnitude, which can be important for dust transport and removal. The effects of charged dust on wave propagation and scattering of radiation are discussed and it is shown that an instability due to dust charge fluctuations, leading to stochastic heating of dust particles, can effectively grow for submicron dust particles.

De Angelis, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Naples 80126, Napoli, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2006-01-15

12

ORNL developments support French fusion device  

SciTech Connect

Two devices developed by ORNL are incorporated into a French project directed toward developing fusion energy as a power source for the future. An ORNL pellet injector has been fueling the Tore Supra tokamak-a new doughnut shaped superconducting magnetic fusion device in Cadarache, France-since January, 1990. A radio frequency antenna built at ORNL will use high-power radio waves to help heat the atomic particles confined in the French tokamak.

Not Available

1990-01-01

13

Fusion neutron research at Novosibirsk including experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews the characteristic features of a volumetric neutron source based on the gas dynamic trap and the results of current experiments at GDT device on modeling of the operational regimes of the neutron source. Some limiting factors in the current experiments and possible next steps towards more comprehensive modeling in a future experimental device are discussed.

Ivanov, A. A.

2012-06-01

14

Edge turbulence measurements in toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews measurements of edge plasma turbulence in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with an emphasis on recent results in tokamaks. The dominant feature of edge turbulence is a high level of broadband density fluctuations with a relative amplitude deltan\\/n ~ 5 100%, accompanied by large potential and electron temperature fluctuations. The frequency range of this turbulence is ~10 kHz

S. J. Zweben; J. A. Boedo; O. Grulke; C. Hidalgo; B. La Bombard; R. J. Maqueda; P. Scarin; J. L. Terry

2007-01-01

15

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25

16

Magnetic systems for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

Henning, C.D.

1985-02-01

17

Magnetic systems for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

Henning, C. D.

1985-02-01

18

Fusion Engineering Device. Volume III. Test plan  

SciTech Connect

The description of the test plan begins with a statement of the key objectives and the presentation of a timetable for meeting those objectives. In so doing, it is convenient to regard the operating history of the devices as consisting of a number of distinct stages for resolving the outstanding physics and engineering questions. These states are identified and related to the overall test plan. succeeding chapters relate the test plan to other elements of the design process. Chapter 2 describes how the basic ingredients of the device mission are to be fulfilled. Chapter 2 ddescribes how the basic ingredients of the device mission are to be fulfilled. This narrative revolves around the three themes that are central to the mission statement: the demonstration o integrated machine operation, the production of sustained fusion energy, and the extraction of fusion power. Chapter 3 describes the impact of the testing program on FED design and operation, with the primary focus being upon nuclear system testing.

Not Available

1981-10-01

19

Device for studying flicker fusion frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the PIM-3Ts device for measuring the flicker fusion frequency (FFF) in the blue, green, and red regions and the technique for working with it. Preliminary results show that the FFF is highest for green irritants and lowest for red ones. Our trials had a preliminary character and were carried out mainly to check the operation of the device. However, some of our results can, in our opinion, be of interest to specialists involved in the physiology and physics of vision.

Seredenko, M. M.; Pol'Shchikov, G. V.; Murashko, M. P.

1995-07-01

20

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. The application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements are reviewed. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in Tokamaks are

H. F. Dylla

1981-01-01

21

Pressure measurements in magnetic fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance--diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks

H. F. Dylla

1982-01-01

22

Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

1986-05-01

23

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. The application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements are reviewed. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in Tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H. F.

1981-11-01

24

Pressure measurements in magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance--diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H.F.

1982-02-01

25

Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

Barrett, R.J.; Bussell, G.T.

1985-01-01

26

Parametric Study of Axisymmetric Fusion Devices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different axisymmetric magnetic mirror fusion machines are examined in order to optimize the ratio the fusion power produced by them to the power injected into them to maintain the plasma. These three devices were chosen to study the continuum between a simple mirror and a tandem mirror. This allowed the evolutionary process leading from the simple to the tandem mirror to be examined in detail. The Kelley mirror, which corresponds to the middle step, was examined in depth for the first time. A computer code that models the plasma in these machines was written to investigate the steady state operation of these machines. The balance equations are solved by using an ordinary differential equation solver, LSODE ^{11}, to numerically solve the system of differential equations. Unlike previous methods, this technique allowed for a quick, inexpensive, and exhaustive examination of parameter space and has the added advantage that the steady state solutions obtained are numerically stable, which is not always the case with fixed point iteration. Furthermore, this computer model also permitted investigation of the use of polarized fuels, which has not been done before in mirror machines. The computer model was used to examine parameter space to optimize Q for each of the three machines. When feasible, a comparison with a Fokker-Planck code was made for the optimal Q case for each machine. It was found that the computer model compared favorably with the Fokker -Planck code, HYBRIDII^{22}. HYBRIDII used 54 minutes of Cray-1 computing time for a tandem mirror case to reach steady state, while the computer model obtained a steady state solution in one and a half minutes. Finally, the possible roles these devices might fill was discussed. It was found that none of the devices appeared suited for the role of a pure fussion electrical power plant. However, the Kelley machine and tandem machine appeared to be strong candidates for the role of a hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Also, the neutron flux from all three devices was large enough for them to be considered as sources of high energy neutrons for material testing. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Ducar, William Scott

1987-09-01

27

Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt.  

PubMed

Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base. PMID:19690360

Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos

2009-08-18

28

Conceptual design report for a fusion engineering device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design requirements, trade studies, design descriptions, conceptual designs, and cost estimates have been completed for the Fusion Engineering Device sector handling machine, movable manipulator system, subcomponent handling machine, and limiter blade handling machine. This information will be used by the Fusion Engineering Design Center to begin to determine the cost and magnitude of the effort required to perform remote maintenance on the Fusion Engineering Device. The designs presented are by no means optimum, and the costs estimates are rough order of magnitude.

Watts, K. D.; Masson, L. S.; McPherson, R. S.

1982-10-01

29

New Superconductors for Near Term Fusion Devices*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high density plasma regimes that have been observed and investigated by the Alcator and Frascati Torus programs, and more recently by the LHD helical device, lend themselves to be exploited in the near term for demonstrating D-T ignition using compact, high field experiments like Ignitor. The same plasma regimes can be relied upon in the attempt to devise useful neutron sources for a variety of applications. The relevant machine does not need to be optimized for ignition but to produce the highest usable neutron fluence. Thus, in order to improve the machine duty cycle the adoption of the recently discovered superconducting material MgB2 to supplement the copper material in the high field magnet systems (hybrid solution) has been considered. The MgB2 solution has the advantage of employing gas-He as coolant, like the copper material needed for the highest field regions, although at lower temperature (<˜ 10 K), and it is not subject to large temperature excursions during the current pulse. A significant fraction of the volume taken up by copper is replaced by structural material (e.g. steel) that can carry the relevant stresses to less critical regions of the magnets. The largest poloidal (vertical) field coils of Ignitor (5 m diameter) are being re-designed to be made exclusively of MgB2 superconducting cables, a first for a fusion device. *Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the D.O.E.

Berta, S.; Coppi, B.; Grasso, G.; Penco, R.

2010-11-01

30

Ecrh and Eccd in Next Generation Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for ECRH and ECCD in next generation fusion devices (reactor-grade tokamaks, satellite tokamaks, stellarators and spherical tori) are discussed. Based on a review of recent progress in the field, areas of future research in ECRH&CD technology and physics are discussed. In technology, these include development and application of steady state frequency tunable gyrotrons and fast switches for EC waves while in physics, the application to MHD control should be enlarged, synergy with LHCD exploited for current profile control and schemes for access of overdense plasmas have to be developed further. An important element will be feedback controlled deposition of the EC waves.

Zohm, H.

2009-04-01

31

D-3He fusion in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fusion fuels, D and 3He, have been successfully fused in an inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. It is thought that this is the first known fusion of helium-3 with deuterium on a steady state basis. The detection of 14.7 MeV protons has confirmed the reaction of D-3He fusion, and has produced a continuous, charged particle

R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; S. Krupakar Murali; G. Piefer

1999-01-01

32

The IEC Device as a Low Cost Student Experiment with a Burning Fusion Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device [1] provides a low cost experiment for student laboratories. Yet it provides a steady-state confined fusing plasma for study. Thus, student experiments can range from traditional studies of plasma properties (density, temperature) on to fusion products including D-D alpha, neutron and proton detection. Operational behavior (plasma break-down, i.e. V-i-p characteristics) can also provide interesting experiments. A typical IEC student device will be described along with outlines of several student experiments that have been done on these devices. [1] G. H. Miley, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, 25, 4, 733-739 (1997)

Miley, George H.

2001-04-01

33

Nuclear Analysis for Near Term Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

A Next Step Options (NSO) study was initiated to consider the logical steps that might be undertaken to restructure the U.S. Fusion Sciences Program. Most of the effort was concentrated on designing the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), which is in the preconceptual design phase. It utilizes 16 cryogenically cooled wedged copper TF coils with beryllium copper in the inner legs and OFHC copper in the outer legs. We provided significant contributions in the areas of neutronics, shielding and activation analyses. The design went through different changes. Early in the year 2002 the baseline design changed from a major radius of 2 m to a major radius of 2.14 m and an aspect ratio of 3.6. In addition the fusion power during the DT pulses changed from 200 MW to 150 MW. We spent significant part of the effort calculating the nuclear performance parameters for the final baseline design. While pulses producing a total of 5 TJ of DT fusion energy and 0.5 TJ of DD fusion energy were considered in the previous designs, a detailed experimental plan was developed that results in higher total fusion energy. We assessed the impact on the peak magnet insulator dose. Multi-dimensional calculations were performed also to determine the impact of plasma shape and profile on he peak radiation effects in the TF coils. We performed multi-dimensional calculations for one of the most critical diagnostics ports to assess streaming and determine the nuclear environment at the sensitive components. The radwaste level and volume was quantified for the different components of FIRE.

Sawan, M.E.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Henderson, D.L.

2007-04-02

34

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.  

PubMed

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

2013-03-01

35

Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device  

SciTech Connect

The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science.After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken, 509-5292 (Japan)

2006-12-01

36

Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science. After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

Motojima, Osamu

2006-12-01

37

Equivalent circuits for switched-capacitor networks including recharging devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equivalent circuits for switched-capacitor (SC) networks including recharging devices are derived. Parasitic effects, like stray capacitances and nonideal op amps, are taken into account. As a result, the equivalent time-invariant network is split up into a frequency dependent impedance network and a purely (negative) resistive network which corresponds directly to the capacitor network of the SC-filter and allows for the

JOSEF A. NOSSEK; HANS WEINRICHTER

1980-01-01

38

Negative Ion Studies in an IEC Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of negative ions in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion devices has made substantial progress since their discovery [1]. Modeling of negative ion formation and energy spectrum evolution has been undertaken by incorporating a negative ion physics module in a 1-D integral transport simulation of an IEC device [2]. Study of negative ion current focusing by the IEC device electrostatic potential structure has been undertaken by measuring the negative ion current azimuthal profile about the equator of the IEC device at various radii. This data set also allows for an extrapolation of total negative ion current produced in an IEC device at the studied parameters.[4pt] [1] D.R. Boris, et al., Phys. Rev. E. 80, 036408 (2009).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013503 (2010).

Alderson, E. C.; Santarius, J. F.; Emmert, G. A.; Kulcinski, G. L.

2011-11-01

39

Interfacing between concrete and steel construction and fusion research devices  

SciTech Connect

In 1976 Giffels Associates, Inc. an architect/engineer organization, was retained by the United States Department of Energy to provide Title I and Title II design services and Title III construction inspection services for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor now being installed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey. Construction of the complex required to house and serve the reactor itself, designed by others, now commencing. During building construction several problems occurred with respect to the interface between the building design, construction and the fusion device (reactor). A brief description of some of these problems and related factors is presented, which may be of benefit to those persons active in continuing fusion research and experimental work.

Willoughby, E.

1981-01-01

40

Real-Time Decision Fusion for Multimodal Neural Prosthetic Devices  

PubMed Central

Background The field of neural prosthetics aims to develop prosthetic limbs with a brain-computer interface (BCI) through which neural activity is decoded into movements. A natural extension of current research is the incorporation of neural activity from multiple modalities to more accurately estimate the user's intent. The challenge remains how to appropriately combine this information in real-time for a neural prosthetic device. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we propose a framework based on decision fusion, i.e., fusing predictions from several single-modality decoders to produce a more accurate device state estimate. We examine two algorithms for continuous variable decision fusion: the Kalman filter and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Using simulated cortical neural spike signals, we implemented several successful individual neural decoding algorithms, and tested the capabilities of each fusion method in the context of decoding 2-dimensional endpoint trajectories of a neural prosthetic arm. Extensively testing these methods on random trajectories, we find that on average both the Kalman filter and ANNs successfully fuse the individual decoder estimates to produce more accurate predictions. Conclusions Our results reveal that a fusion-based approach has the potential to improve prediction accuracy over individual decoders of varying quality, and we hope that this work will encourage multimodal neural prosthetics experiments in the future.

White, James Robert; Levy, Todd; Bishop, William; Beaty, James D.

2010-01-01

41

Plasma-facing materials for thermo-nuclear fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma facing materials and components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by plasma wall interaction\\u000a processes. These components, in particular the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor are subject to intense quasi-stationary\\u000a thermal loads during plasma operation. While the resulting thermal loads to the first wall will remain below 1 MW·m?2, special attention has

L. Singheiser; T. Hirai; J. Linke; G. Pintsuk; M. Rödig

2009-01-01

42

Thermal fatigue properties of coated materials for fusion device applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adherence of plasma sprayed coatings of TiC, VC, TiBâ and B on substrates of Cu, 316 SS, Mo, Ta and Poco AXF-5Q artificial graphite has been evaluated in a pulsed electron beam, thermal fatigue environment. The materials are candidates for application as limiter and armor components of tokamak fusion devices. Up to 500 cycles of heating at power densities

A. W. Mullendore; J. B. Whitley; D. M. Mattox

1981-01-01

43

On the interpretation of tungsten emission spectra in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic spectra emitted by fusion plasmas are generally contaminated by ions originating from plasma erosion of material walls. These ions may be present in several charge states and the radiation they emit falls in the x-ray to vacuum ultraviolet regions, making them atomic fingerprints used as a diagnostic tool. This work reports on recent achievements on the interpretation of specific tungsten spectra from the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX) Upgrade tokamak and the Large Helical Device (LHD) stellarator.

Madeira, T. I.; Amorim, P.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J. P.

2013-09-01

44

Plasma-sprayed materials for magnetic fusion energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma spray technology is being evaluated as a means to address important fabrication and maintenance problems associated with plasma-interactive components in magnetic fusion devices (e.g., limiters, divertors, and some first wall surfaces). Low-oxygen vacuum plasma sprayed copper has been tested as a ductile, high thermal conductivity interlayer to limit thermal stress and prevent cracking when brazing pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles

M. F. Smith; C. D. Croessmann; F. M. Hosking; R. D. Watson; J. A. Koski

1991-01-01

45

A laser device for fusion of nasal mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype device has been created to fuse septal tissue membranes as an alternative to sutures or staples through the controlled application of laser heating and pressure to induce protein denaturation and subsequent tissue fusion, through renaturation and intertwining, across the interface. Lasers have been used to close wounds in controlled laboratory tests over the last 15 years. Many encouraging results have been obtained; however, no commercial delivery systems are currently available. This is due primarily to two factors: requiring an inordinate amount of experience on the part of the operator, and attempting to achieve general applicability for multiple tissue systems. The present device overcomes these barriers as it is tailored for the particular application of septal laser fusion, namely for the coaptation of mucoperichondrial membranes. The important parameters involved in fusing biological tissues are identified. The development of the device followed from computational modeling based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport and on engineering firstprinciples. Experiments were designed and analyzed using orthogonal arrays, employing a subset of the relevant parameters, i.e., laser irradiance, dwell time and spot size, for a range of wavelengths. The in vitro fusion experiments employed 1cm by 1cm sections of equine nasal mucosa having a nominal thickness of 1mm.

Sooklal, Valmiki; McClure, Jesse; Hooper, Luke; Larson, Michael

2010-02-01

46

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03

47

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

48

Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization and secondary electron emission processes and is used to give preliminary results for the ionized gas physics behavior and neutron generation in the C-Device for a range of pressure calibration factors.

Bromley, Blair P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

2002-01-15

49

75 FR 20860 - Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Investigation...display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by reason of infringement...display devices, including digital televisions or monitors that infringe one or...

2010-04-21

50

75 FR 74080 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof...display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules, and components thereof...display devices, including monitors, televisions, and modules, and components...

2010-11-30

51

75 FR 63856 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-741] In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors...United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors...United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including...

2010-10-18

52

77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components...electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components...electronics devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and...

2012-06-08

53

78 FR 38361 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-06-26

54

77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components...Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components...electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and...

2012-05-08

55

78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint...

2013-07-03

56

78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation  

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...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of...

2013-08-05

57

78 FR 32689 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof Notice...Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof, DN 2958...communications devices, including mobile phones and components thereof. The...

2013-05-31

58

Surface conditioning of fusion devices plasma assisted thin film deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditioning of the plasma facing surfaces of a fusion device is a necessary prerequisite for the generaton of pure, hot and stable fusion plasmas. Thin layers of carbon or of boron containing carbon deposited plasmachemically on the entire inner surfaces of a tokamak have proven to be a very effective technique for wall prehandling. Radiofrequency assisted dc glow discharges (RG-discharges) in a throughflow of appropriate gases are a flexible tool to produce the reactive species for plasma assisted deposition of thin films. The presence of a well defined cathode sheath yields sufficient homogeneity of the deposits even in the complex geometry of fusion devices. The low operation pressure of RG-discharges (<~10-3 mbar) leads to a high kinetic energy of the ionic species impinging on the surface, which is significant for film properties such as gas content, hardness, and adhesion to the substrate. The carbonization technique, i.e. the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)-layers and the boronization which leads to boron containing a-C/B:H films as they have been developed for the Jülich tokamak TEXTOR are shortly described. The specific properties of the RG-discharges for film deposition are outlined and some material properties for plasma surface interaction are discussed. The reductioon in the impurity concentration of tokamak discharges following carbonization and boronization will be addressed.

Winter, J.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weinhold, P.; Esser, H. G.; von Seggern, J.; Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.

1990-02-01

59

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

60

Behavior of traces of refractory minerals (including monazite) in the lithium metaborate fusion  

SciTech Connect

In the analysis of rocks using the LiBO/sub 2/ fusion - acid dissolution procedure, traces of various elements may escape detection if the minerals in which they occur resist fusion, or are converted by the fusion to some form that is insoluble in the quenching liquid used. To check for such behavior, 20 to 100 mg samples of 12 chemically resistant minerals were fused. Nine (cassiterite, ilmenite, rutile, wolfamite, magnetite, zircon, corundum, beryl, columbite-tantalite) gave melts which dissolved to give clear, stable solutions in 3% HNO/sub 3/ containing, in some cases, appropriate additives. Chromite produced a chromium carbide which could not be dissolved, but whose formation could be prevented by including NaBO/sub 3/ in the fusion mixture. The melt obtained with monazite required 6N HCl for dissolution. Molybdenite (MoS/sub 2/) was not attacked by any of the fusions tried.

Feldman, C.

1983-01-01

61

Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10/sup 10/ to 10/sup 11/ rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/.

Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

1983-12-07

62

Wall reflection issues for optical diagnostics in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The problem of light reflection has been raised as a high priority issue for optical diagnostics in next step fusion devices where metallic wall environment will generate significant perturbations in the diagnostics measurements. Tore Supra is a large size tokamak equipped with water-cooled stainless-steel panels used to sustain the plasma long shot radiations. These panels are highly reflective and affect significantly optical systems. In particular, we show that the infrared imaging diagnostic, which surveys the plasma facing component surface temperature for safety purposes, can give incorrect information due to reflected light coming from the bottom limiter. In the visible range, motional Stark effect and Zeff measurements experience important drifts during the plasma heating phases due to parasitic light coming from the limiter, but also from the plasma itself when the viewing lines are facing the reflecting walls. In the next step fusion devices such as ITER, the possibility to use optical measurements needs to be accessed by a modeling of the diagnostic light in its machine environment and the development of new techniques of online correction.

Lotte, Ph.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Martin, V.; Travere, J. M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2010-10-15

63

Mirror Fusion Test Facility: an intermediate device to a mirror fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) now under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory represents more than an order-of-magnitude step from earlier magnetic-mirror experiments toward a future mirror fusion reactor. In fact, when the device begins operating in 1986, the Lawson criteria of ntau = 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/.s will almost be achieved for D-T equivalent operation, thus signifying scientific breakeven. Major steps have been taken to develop MFTF-B technologies for tandem mirrors. Steady-state, high-field, superconducting magnets at reactor-revelant scales are used in the machine. The 30-s beam pulses, ECRH, and ICRH will also introduce steady-state technologies in those systems.

Karpenko, V.N.

1983-03-30

64

Strained-layer semiconductor devices including subsurface-patterned active layers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for patterning subsurface features in a semiconductor device, wherein the semiconductor device includes an internal strained layer. The method comprises creating a pattern of semiconductor material over the semiconductor device, the ...

B. W. Dodson

1991-01-01

65

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the

Yasushi Yamamoto; Ryousaku Kusaba; Takayuki Shirouzu; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

66

Deaths in custody: are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER devices) or excited delirium?  

PubMed

Deaths have occurred after law-enforcement incidents involving applications of electronic control devices (ECDs) (including TASER devices). An "excited delirium" syndrome (reported in the literature prior to the development of ECDs currently in use), however, includes several factors that may be related to such deaths in custody. In this review, potential detrimental effects of ECDs are compared with possible changes due to excited delirium. Although extreme (i.e., long-duration or repeated) exposures to ECDs can result in significant hyperkalaemia, acidaemia, and myoglobinemia in animal models, limited applications (such as those normally used in law-enforcement situations) would appear to have only transient effects. In addition, the hyperthermia observed in patients with excited delirium does not seem to be directly exacerbated by ECD applications. ECD use is unlikely to be a common cause of ventricular fibrillation, but other events that are generally associated with excited delirium (e.g., drug use) may be related to subsequent ventricular fibrillation or asystole. Metabolic or respiratory acidosis may only be serious consequences of long-duration or repeated ECD applications. On the basis of current available information, factors other than ECDs themselves may be more important when death occurs after the use of ECDs. PMID:20083043

Jauchem, James R

2008-08-09

67

Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific\\u000a character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an\\u000a outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen\\u000a boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of

V. Damideh; A. Sadighzadeh; A. Koohi; A. Aslezaeem; A. Heidarnia; N. Abdollahi; F. Abbasi Davani; R. Damideh

68

78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction to Notice of Receipt...Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof, DN 2958; the Commission...

2013-06-06

69

Non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical devices including the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electrochemical cell includes a cathode capable of reversibly releasing and receiving an alkali metal; an anode capable of reversibly releasing and receiving the alkali metal; and a non-aqueous electrolyte including one or more dissolved lithium salts, one or more nitriles, sulfur dioxide, and one or more other polar aprotic solvents. In some embodiments, the non-aqueous electrolyte is substantially free of one or more other polar aprotic solvents

2012-11-20

70

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the building in which the TV interface devices are installed...Distribute all over-the-air or cable signals. Note...provisions for general TV interface devices. ...switch is not required for a TV interface device that...receive standard over-the-air broadcast signals...

2009-10-01

71

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the building in which the TV interface devices are installed...Distribute all over-the-air or cable signals. Note...provisions for general TV interface devices. ...switch is not required for a TV interface device that...receive standard over-the-air broadcast signals...

2010-10-01

72

Open Device Control (OpenDC): Human Interface Device Framework for Interactive Applications Including Educational Contents in Ubiquitous Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a human interface device framework for interactive applications including educational contents in ubiquitous environments. Recently, mobile and portable devices such as iPad, iPhone and Android tablet PC have become common and popular. We should use these devices for providing learners with more attractive educational contents supporting various intuitive interfaces. Using the proposed framework, it becomes possible to

Kosuke Kaneko; Tomoyuki Nakamura; Yoshihiro Okada; Hiroyuki Matsuguma

2012-01-01

73

CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 16th IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Research using Small Fusion Devices'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common research topics that are being studied in small, medium and large devices such as H-mode like or improved confinement, turbulence and transport are reported. These included modelling and diagnostic developments for edge and core, to characterize plasma density, temperature, electric potential, plasma flows, turbulence scale, etc. Innovative diagnostic methods were designed and implemented which could be used to develop experiments in small devices (in some cases not possible in large devices due to higher power deposition) to allow a better understanding of plasma edge and core properties. Reports are given addressing research in linear devices that can be used to study particular plasma physics topics relevant for other magnetic confinement devices such as the radial transport and the modelling of self-organized plasma jets involved in spheromak-like plasma formation. Some aspects of the work presented are of interest to the astrophysics community since they are believed to shed light on the basis of the physics of stellar jets. On the dense magnetized plasmas (DMP) topic, the present status of research, operation of new devices, plasma dynamics modelling and diagnostic developments is reported. The main devices presented belong to the class of Z-pinches, mostly plasma foci, and several papers were presented under this topic. The physics of DMP is important both for the main-stream fusion investigations as well as for providing the basis for elaboration of new concepts. New high-current technology introduced in the DMP devices design and construction make these devices nowadays more reliably fitted to various applications and give the possibility to widen the energy range used by them in both directions—to the multi-MJ level facilities and down to miniature plasma focus devices with energy of just a few J.

Gribkov, V.; Van Oost, G.; Malaquias, A.; Herrera, J.

2006-10-01

74

Three dimensional modelling of ICRF launchers for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three dimensional (3-D) nature of antennas for fusion applications in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) requires accurate modelling to design and analyse new antennas. In this article, analysis and design tools for radiofrequency (RF) antennas are successfully benchmarked with experiment, and the 3-D physics of the launched waves is explored. The systematic analysis combines measured density profiles from a reflectometer system, transmission line circuit modelling, detailed 3-D magnetostatics modelling and a new 3-D electromagnetic antenna model including plasma. This analysis gives very good agreement with measured loading data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Bay-M antenna, thus demonstrating the validity of the analysis for the design of new RF antennas. The 3-D modelling is contrasted with 2-D models, and significant deficiencies are found in the latter. The 2-D models are in error by as much as a factor of 2 in real and reactive loading, even after they are corrected for the most obvious 3-D effects. Three dimensional effects play the most significant role at low parallel wavenumbers, where the launched power spectrum can be quite different from the predictions of 2-D models. Three dimensional effects should not be ignored for many RF designs, especially those intended for fast wave current drive

Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.

1996-02-01

75

AxiaLIF system: minimally invasive device for presacral lumbar interbody spinal fusion  

PubMed Central

Lumbar fusion is commonly performed to alleviate chronic low back and leg pain secondary to disc degeneration, spondylolisthesis with or without concomitant lumbar spinal stenosis, or chronic lumbar instability. However, the risk of iatrogenic injury during traditional anterior, posterior, and transforaminal open fusion surgery is significant. The axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) system is a minimally invasive fusion device that accesses the lumbar (L4–S1) intervertebral disc spaces via a reproducible presacral approach that avoids critical neurovascular and musculoligamentous structures. Since the AxiaLIF system received marketing clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004, clinical studies of this device have reported high fusion rates without implant subsidence, significant improvements in pain and function, and low complication rates. This paper describes the design and approach of this lumbar fusion system, details the indications for use, and summarizes the clinical experience with the AxiaLIF system to date.

Rapp, Steven M; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2011-01-01

76

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the experiments designed to confirm these results using different electrode shapes, the effects of the anode shape are clearly observed.

Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kusaba, Ryousaku; Shirouzu, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

77

Effects of the Cathode Grid Wires on Fusion Proton Measurements in Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2011-01-01

78

77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination...

2012-07-31

79

77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-01-25

80

77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-06-20

81

77 FR 20048 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors...006 patent to require a solid and not liquid material? ID at 220. Can the term ``plate'' include a liquid compensation layer sealed between...

2012-04-03

82

Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ?10K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

Winterberg, F.

2005-11-01

83

78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

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2013-05-17

84

78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

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2013-06-18

85

76 FR 13432 - In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice of Investigation...display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by reason of infringement...display devices, including digital televisions and monitors that infringe one or...

2011-03-11

86

Diagnosing the High Energy Deuterium Spectra in IEC Devices Using Doppler Shifted Fusion Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UW-Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is comprised of concentric spherical metallic grids within a cylindrical vacuum vessel. The central grid, which can be held at high negative potentials (˜ -100 to -200kV), is the device cathode, while the outer grid, held at ground potential, is the device anode. This configuration accelerates ions, created near the anode, toward the center of the device. A weakly ionized cold plasma, created by a filament assisted DC discharge outside the anode, is the ion source for the device. The fill gas for this device is typically deuterium, thus leading to D-D fusion rates on the order of 10^8 fusions/s. The high energy protons and tritons resultant from D-D fusion reactions have been observed using charged particle detectors. These detectors are capable of discerning the Doppler shift on D-D fusion products imparted by the center of mass energy of the deuterium reactants. From the fusion product spectra compiled by a multi-channel analyzer the energy spectra of the deuterium reactants can be calculated. Using this diagnostic the effect, on the deuterium spectra, of varying the parameters of fill gas pressure, cathode voltage, cathode current and grid geometry have been examined.

Boris, David

2008-11-01

87

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

Herman, Robin

1990-10-01

88

Strained-layer semiconductor devices including subsurface-patterned active layers  

DOEpatents

A method is described for patterning subsurface features in a semiconductor device, wherein the semiconductor device includes an internal strained layer. The method comprises creating a pattern of semiconductor material over the semiconductor device, the semiconductor material having a predetermined thickness which stabilizes areas of the strained semiconductor layer that lie beneath the pattern. Subsequently, a heating step is applied to the semiconductor device to cause a relaxation in areas of the strained layer which do not lie beneath the semiconductor material pattern, whereby dislocations result in the relaxed areas and impair electrical transport therethrough.

Dodson, B.W.

1991-02-08

89

Behavior of Traces of Refractory Minerals (Including Monazite) in the Lithium Metaborate Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the analysis of rocks using the LiBO sub 2 fusion - acid dissolution procedure, traces of various elements may escape detection if the minerals in which they occur resist fusion, or are converted by the fusion to some form that is insoluble in the quen...

C. Feldman

1983-01-01

90

Including sensor bias in shape from motion calibration and sensor fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape from motion data fusion brings a greater degree of autonomy and sensor integration to intelligent systems in which fusion by constant linear transformations is appropriate. To illustrate this, we apply shape from motion techniques to applications involving both similar and disparate sensory information vectors. First, nearly autonomous force\\/torque sensor calibration is demonstrated through fusion of the individual channels of

Richard M. Voyles; J. Daniel Morrow; Pradeep K. Khosla

1996-01-01

91

78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...847'') in a prominent place on the cover page and/or the first page. (See Handbook for Electronic Filing Procedures,...

2013-10-24

92

Safety considerations in the design of the Fusion Engineering Device  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris.

Barrett, R.J.

1983-01-01

93

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

94

Simulation of RF-fields in a fusion device  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the problem of scattering off a fusion plasma is approached from the point of view of integral equations. Using the volume equivalence principle an integral equation is derived which describes the electromagnetic fields in a plasma. The equation is discretized with MoM using conforming basis functions. This reduces the problem to solving a dense matrix equation. This can be done iteratively. Each iteration can be sped up using FFTs.

De Witte, Dieter; Bogaert, Ignace; De Zutter, Daniel [Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Ghent University (Belgium); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Van Eester, Dirk [Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium)

2009-11-26

95

ARRIBA: A novel in-situ plasma surface interaction diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and design of a novel plasma surface interactions diagnostic for fusion experiments is described. The Alpha Radioisotope Remote Ion Beam Analysis (ARRIBA) diagnostic is designed to provide in-situ, time and depth-resolved measurement of element concentrations and H/D/T fuel retention at any surface inside a magnetic fusion device, including those surfaces exposed to significant heat loads such as found in the divertor. simple JxB activated mechanical system retracts and flips a cylindrical material sample (f˜10mm) during a plasma discharge, such that one end of the cylinder becomes exposed to the plasma. The opposite end is protected from plasma exposure by the tile and is mechanically positioned for surface analysis. Surface analysis is accomplished using non-destructive ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: Rutherford backscattering (RBS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis and Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD). We will describe initial laboratory tests of an ARRIBA prototype and issues of radiological safety, engineering design, and diagnostic performance. The use of ARRIBA to measure H/D/T retention in ITER is also explored.

Harrison, Soren; Whyte, Dennis

2006-10-01

96

Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device  

SciTech Connect

A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

2012-07-01

97

Microfluidic device for high-yield pairing and fusion of stem cells with somatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro cell fusion has significant potential as a biotechnology tool with applications ranging from antibody production to cellular reprogramming. However due to low fusion efficiency of the conventional electro fusion methodology the true potential of the technique has not been reached. In this paper, we report a new method which takes cell fusion efficiency two orders magnitude higher than the conventional electro fusion method. The new method, based on one-toone pairing, fusion and selection of fused cells was developed using a microfabricated device. The device was composed of two microfluidic channels, a micro slit array and a petri dish integrated with electrodes. The electrodes positioned in each channel were used to generate electric field lines concentrating in the micro slits. Cells were introduced into channels and brought in to contact through the micro slit array using dielectrophoresis. The cells in contact were fused by applying a DC pulse to electrodes. As the electric field lines were concentrated at the micro slits the membrane potential was induced only at the vicinity of the micro slits, namely only at the cell-cell contact point. This mechanism assured the minimum damage to cells in the fusion as well as the ability to control the strength and location of induced membrane potential. We introduced mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to the microfluidic channels and demonstrated high-yield fusion (> 80%). Post-fusion study showed the method can generate viable hybrids of stem cells and embryonic fibroblasts. Multinucleated hybrid cells adhering on the chip surface were routinely obtained by using this method and on-chip culturing.

Gel, Murat; Hirano, Kunio; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Tada, Takashi; Washizu, Masao

2011-12-01

98

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-an isotope of helium with

S. Krupakar Murali; B. B. Cipiti; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2006-01-01

99

FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets  

SciTech Connect

The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasisteady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies. The emphasis on reliable nuclear testing capability demands that the plasma physics characteristics and technological features of the fusion machine be chosen as close to mid-1980s state of the art as possible, with the important exception that FED-R requires high-duty-factor operation. The outboard nuclear test region is at least 80-cm deep with approximately 60 m/sup 2/ of exposure area. The neutron wall loading is 0.4 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage I operation (Q/sub p/ = 1.5) and 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage II (Q/sub p/ = 2.5). The toroidal field coils are fabricated of water-cooled copper plates with demountable joints and operate steady state with a power dissipation of 180 MW in Stage I and 280 MW in Stage II.

Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S.

1983-06-01

100

Effects of Grid Cathode Structure on a Low-Input-Power Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grid cathode structure on a low-input-power inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device were studied to achieve a high neutron production rate (NPR). An increase in geometric transparency of the grid cathode by decreasing the number of wire rings is known to mean that the recirculation ion current is increased. We expected that this increase would contribute to

Yasuyuki TANIUCHI; Yoshihito MATSUMURA; Katsuyoshi TAIRA; Michiaki UTSUMI; Masami CHIBA; Toshiaki SHIRAKAWA; Masatoshi FUJII

2010-01-01

101

The Potential Profile and its Influence on the Neutron Yield of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

2005-01-01

102

CCDEF - A simplified coupled-channel code for fusion cross sections including static nuclear deformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross sections for heavy-ion fusion and the corresponding spin-distributions for the compound nuclei can be strongly affected by the presence of static deformations, as well as by couplings to collective vibrations and other reaction channels. Fusion cross sections and spin distributions for deformed, interacting nuclei are constructed in the sudden limit by averaging the coupled-channel results over all relative orientations

J. Fernández-Niello; C. H. Dasso; S. Landowne

1989-01-01

103

Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to

Eric Alderson; John Santarius; Gil Emmert; David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

104

Multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) for organelle targeting via a stepwise membrane fusion process.  

PubMed

A single cell contains a variety of organelles. Included among these organelles are the nucleus that regulates the central dogma, mitochondria that function as an energy plant, the Golgi apparatus that determines the destination of endogenous protein, and others. If it were possible to prepare a nano craft that could specifically target a specific organelle, this would open a new field of research directed toward therapy for various diseases. We recently developed a new concept of "Programmed Packaging," by which we succeeded in creating a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) as a nonviral gene-delivery system. Our attempts to target certain organelles (nucleus and mitochondria) are described here, mainly focusing on the construction of a tetra-lamellar MEND (T-MEND), and on methods for screening the organelle-specific fusogenic envelope. The critical structural elements of the T-MEND include an organelle-specific membrane-fusogenic inner envelope and a cellular membrane-fusogenic outer envelope. The resulting T-MEND can be utilized to overcome intracellular membrane barriers, since it involves stepwise membrane fusion. To deliver cargos into a target organelle in our strategy, the carriers must fuse with the organelle membrane. Therefore, we screened a series of lipid envelopes that have the potential for fusing with an organelle membrane by monitoring the inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and identified the optimal lipid conditions for nuclear and mitochondrial membrane fusion. Finally, we describe the delivery of a bioactive molecule targeted to the nucleus and mitochondria in living cells, demonstrating that this system can be useful for targeting various organelles. PMID:22568912

Yamada, Yuma; Akita, Hidetaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

2012-01-01

105

Migration path for structured documentation systems including standardized medical device data.  

PubMed

A standardized end-to-end solution has been implemented with the aim of supporting the semantic integration of clinical content in institution spanning applications. The approach outlined is a proof-of-concept design. It has shown that the standards chosen are suitable to integrate device data into forms, to document the results consistently and finally enable semantic interoperability. In detail the implementation includes a standardized device interface, a standardized representation of data entry forms and enables the communication of structured data via HL7 CDA. Because the proposed method applies a combination of standards semantic interoperability and the possibility of a contextual interpretation at each stage can be ensured. PMID:22874149

Kock, Ann-Kristin; Ingenerf, Josef; Halkaliev, Stoyan; Handels, Heinz

2012-01-01

106

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed

K. W. Hill; K. M. Young; L. C. Johnson

1990-01-01

107

Edge-plasma models and characteristics for magnetic fusion energy devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the models and resulting characteristics of the plasma adjacent to material surfaces that comprise the divertor and first wall of magnetic fusion energy devices under normal operation conditions. This thin edge-plasma region begins a short distance inside of the so-called separatrix, which divides the core domain of confined magnetic field lines from the scrape-off layer

T. D. Rognlien; M. E. Rensink

2002-01-01

108

Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic-Fusion Devices with Lithium-Conditioned Carbon Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium wall conditioning has lowered hydrogenic recycling and dramatically improved plasma performance in many magnetic-fusion devices. In this Letter, we report quantum-classical atomistic simulations and laboratory experiments that elucidate the roles of lithium and oxygen in the uptake of hydrogen in amorphous carbon. Surprisingly, we show that lithium creates a high oxygen concentration on a carbon surface when bombarded by deuterium. Furthermore, surface oxygen, rather than lithium, plays the key role in trapping hydrogen.

Krstic, P. S.; Allain, J. P.; Taylor, C. N.; Dadras, J.; Maeda, S.; Morokuma, K.; Jakowski, J.; Allouche, A.; Skinner, C. H.

2013-03-01

109

Development of ultrahigh vacuum technology for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ultrahigh vacuum technology for high-energy particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices provided essential contributions to the progress in these two scientific endeavors over the last four decades. Storage rings were first proposed as an efficient means of producing intense high-energy particle beams by G. K. O'Neill in 1956. The milestone demonstrations of the importance of this invention

H. F. Dylla

1994-01-01

110

Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic-Fusion Devices with Lithium-Conditioned Carbon Walls  

SciTech Connect

Lithium wall conditioning has lowered hydrogenic recycling and dramatically improved plasma performance in many magnetic-fusion devices. In this Letter, we report quantum-classical atomistic simulations and laboratory experiments that elucidate the roles of lithium and oxygen in the uptake of hydrogen in amorphous carbon. Surprisingly, we show that lithium creates a high oxygen concentration on a carbon surface when bombarded by deuterium. Furthermore, surface oxygen, rather than lithium, plays the key role in trapping hydrogen.

Krstic, Predrag S. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Taylor, C. N. [Purdue University; Dadras, J. [UTK/Univ. California, Los Angeles; Maeda, S. [Kyoto University, Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Japan; Morokuma, K. [Kyoto University, Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Japan; Jakowski, J. [National Inst. Computational Sciences, UTK; Allouche, A. [PIM/CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2013-01-01

111

Tungsten as material for plasma-facing components in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of tungsten (W) as material for plasma-facing components (PFM) in fusion devices is reviewed with respect to its plasma and material compatibility under burning plasmas conditions. Fusion-relevant plasma operation with W walls is characterised by the need to operate at high edge densities, no or moderate density peaking, and external tools to control the W transport in the plasma core. Several surface and material issues related with the high particle fluencies in fusion devices needs further R&D but are not considered from present view to seriously limit the use of W as PFM. Reliable control of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) and disruptions is indispensable for the application of W, both to control the W transport in the edge and to avoid target melting in uncontrolled events which can seriously detoriate the operational performance of the device. For DEMO and reactors, the behaviour of W under large neutron fluencies has to be further clarified and measures must be developed to mitigate degradation of material properties by neutron damage.

Philipps, V.

2011-08-01

112

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

1990-05-01

113

Design of an Ion Source for {sup 3}He Fusion in a Low Pressure IEC Device  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in helicon ion sources and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device performance at UW-Madison have enabled low pressure (< 50 {mu}torr, 6.7 mPa) operating conditions that should allow the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reaction to be observed in an IEC device. An ion source capable of delivering a {approx} 10 mA {sup 3}He ion beam into an IEC device with minimal neutral gas flow has been designed and tested. Furthermore, a new IEC device that has never been operated with deuterium has been constructed to avoid D-{sup 3}He protons from obstructing the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He reaction product spectrum, and to minimize Penning ionization of deuterium by excited helium, which in the past is suspected to have limited the ionized density of He. These developments make it possible to study beam-background {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reactions with > 300 mA recirculating ion currents.

Piefer, Gregory R.; Santarius, John F.; Ashley, Robert P.; Kulcinski, Gerald L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

114

Separation and isolation of fusion protein using a new native preparative PAGE device.  

PubMed

A human serum albumin and Thymosin ?1 (HSA-T?1) fusion protein was designed and over-expressed in Pichia pastoris. To purify the fusion protein, a new native preparative electrophoresis system that involved a modified device with a sample receiving chamber, and an assay method with Coomassie Blue G-250 tracing the collection of the protein of interest. In this device, two gels were run in parallel: native vertical collecting polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and native vertical tracing PAGE. Samples mixed with or without Coomassie Blue G-250 loading buffer were separately loaded to the two aforementioned gels, and the fractions were collected until the tracing protein band combined with dye reached 1 cm from the sample-receiving chamber at the bottom of the gel. Approximately nine fractions were collected at regular intervals of 15 min. HSA-T?1 fusion protein with 95% relative homogeneity was harvested and manifested similar immunological activities as synthetic T?1 after a single-step purification of this preparative PAGE. As a result, this system offers a new, rapid and simple method for the purification of the protein of interest. PMID:22718746

Jian-Hua, Zhang Xin-Guo Chen; Lu-Yin, Yan; Li, Tang; Min, Wang; Dai-Shuang, Cheng

2012-06-19

115

In vitro corrosion resistance of porous NiTi intervertebral fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous titanium-nickel (PTN) intervertebral fusion devices, produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, represent an alternative to traditional long-term implants in the orthopaedic field. PTN promotes tissue ingrowth and has succeeded short-term and long-term biocompatibility in vivo testing. In this in vitro study, the PTN morphology was characterized using microfocus computer tomography (?CT) in order to calculate the active PTN surface. Potentiodynamic polarization testing was then performed to evaluate the in vitro corrosion resistance of PTN devices in Hanks' based salt solution. Direct coupling experiments of PTN with Ti6Al4V were also performed in order to establish the galvanic corrosion resistance of PTN intervertebral implants in the presence of potential Ti6Al4V supplemental fixation devices. Compared to the behaviour of other orthopaedic biomaterials and solid NiTi devices, PTN devices showed a level of corrosion resistance that is comparable to other NiTi devices and acceptable for the intended orthopaedic application. Further improvement of the corrosion resistance is still possible by specific electrochemical surface treatments.

Schrooten, Jan; Assad, Michel; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Leroux, Michel A.

2007-02-01

116

Detection of highly enriched uranium and tungsten surface damage studies using a pulsed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in this thesis examines two applications of a pulsed Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (EEC) fusion device: detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and tungsten surface damage studies. In order to complete this thesis, a pulsed IEC device was developed that is capable of generating converging ion pulses with widths ranging from 0.1 to 5 ms at frequencies between 1

Ross F. Radel

2007-01-01

117

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in suitcases, packages, or shipping containers.Steady-state D-D operation is possible using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. The University of Wisconsin IEC device has produced D-D neutrons at 1.8 x 10{sup 8} neutrons/second at a true cathode voltage of 166 kV and a meter current of 68 mA. These neutron production rates are approaching the levels required for the detection of explosives. In order to increase and optimize the neutron production rate in the IEC device, experiments were performed altering the cathode's size (diameter), geometry, and material composition. Preliminary results indicate that significant differences in neutron production rates are not achieved by altering the geometry or material composition of the cathode. However, the neutron production rate was found to increase approximately 20% by doubling the cathode's diameter from 10 cm to 20 cm. In addition, increasing the cathode voltage from 34 kV to 94 kV at a meter current of 30 mA increased the neutron production rate from 1.24 x 10{sup 6} n/s to 2.83 x 10{sup 7} n/s.

Wehmeyer, A.L.; Radel, R.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

118

Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOEpatents

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26

119

Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Testing of Medical Devices Including Those Used for the Treatment of Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Electromagnetic emissions from technologies that surround us can produce interference with implanted and externally worn medical devices. Electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) testing of medical devices at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) began almost four decades ago and continues to incorporate new devices and new sources of electromagnetic emissions as they are developed and become available. The GTRI Medical

Ralph M. Herkert

2008-01-01

120

On Fractal Properties of Equipotentials over a Real Rough Surface Faced to Plasma in Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a sheath region bounded by a corrugated surface of material conductor and a flat boundary held to a constant voltage bias. The real profile of the film deposited from plasma on a limiter in a fusion device was used in numerical solving of the Poisson's equation to find a profile of electrostatic potential. The rough surface influences the equipotential lines over the surface. We characterized a shape of equipotential lines by a fractal dimension. The long-range correlation in the potential field is imposed by the non-trivial fractal structure of the surface. Dust particles bounced in such irregular potential field can accelerate due to the Fermi acceleration.

Budaev, Viacheslav Petrovich; Yakovlev, Mikhail

121

[Development of new cell fusion technique by laser device and application to bio-medical field].  

PubMed

We developed a new cell fusion method which was sterile, noncontact, and selective technique under the microscope, using the micro-processing device by LASER. By this technique, we succeeded in fusing myeloma cell (SP2) and lymphocyte in mouse. We also defined the proliferation of the fused cells in HAT medium and the function of the fused cells in the Ouchterlony method, i.e. production of IgG. This method enable us to make hybridomas from very small number of cells and to fuse target cells selectively. This method is applicable to fuse cells which are difficult to be fused by conventional methods. PMID:9360406

Itagaki, H; Doi, H; Ohkohchi, N; Satomi, S

1997-10-01

122

One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation  

SciTech Connect

Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated efficiently with little energy loss through charge-exchange collision with background gas at low pressure. And when the pressure is lower than 0.05Pa, almost all injected ions reach to the cathode and it is expected that applying high geometrical transparency enhances accumulation of ion and enlarges neutron yield.

Noborio, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

123

Proposal for a time-of-flight Thomson backscattering technique for large fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The application of 180/sup 0/ Thomson scattering using ultrashort laser pulses for measuring electron temperature and density profiles in large fusion devices is proposed. Spatial resolution along the laser beam is achieved by high-speed detection allowing time-of-flight measurements. This LIDAR (light detection and ranging) technique uses a minimum number of window ports and reduces the number of optical components in the vicinity of the discharge vessel. As an example, the performance of such a system for the JET tokamak geometry is discussed on the basis of available laser and detection technology.

Salzmann, H.; Hirsch, K.

1984-04-01

124

Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels,\\u000a their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power\\u000a production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases\\u000a with increasing fusion reactivity.

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

125

Spatial profiling using a Time of Flight Diagnostic and applications of deuterim-deuterium fusion in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Research Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison utilizes IEC devices as small-scale neutron generators using D-D fusion to create 2.45 MeV neutrons for the purpose of detecting clandestine material. Detection of explosives in particular can be accomplished using thermal neutron capture methods to identify characteristic nitrogen signatures in explosive material. Research has been conducted to increase reliability of detection, decrease interrogation time, and increase the steady-state operational time. Efforts have also been made to increase the neutron production rate of the device. Optimization studies have varied the configuration and design of the electrodes and have resulted in system configurations with up to 50 percent higher neutron production rates than have previously been utilized. A new feedthrough design has been constructed that is intended to increase the maximum operating voltage from 175 kV with the previous feedthrough to 300 kV. Neutron production rates scale almost linearly with both current and voltage, so the IEC device will be capable of operation at higher neutron producing regimes than have ever before been achieved. The optimization efforts involve the use of several new diagnostic tools developed at UW, which are the Fusion Ion Doppler (FIDO) Diagnostic and the Time of Flight (TOF) Diagnostic. FIDO provides the energy spectra of the charged fusion products and reactants created in the IEC device. The FIDO Diagnostic was originally only capable of studying D-D fusion, but with recent advancements is now able to study both D-D and D-3He fusion. The TOF Diagnostic provides spatial information along with the energy resolution of where the fusion reactions are occurring in the IEC device. Development of the diagnostics has involved the implementation of timing electronics, alignment systems, data acquisition software, computational post-processing, and upgrades to the experimental facility. A significant rise in the concentration of fusion events was found outside of the anode, believed to be due in part from negative ions. The FIDO and TOF Diagnostics have proven to be valuable additions to the study of IEC devices and have greatly advanced IEC operation and theory.

Donovan, David C.

126

Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione

Robin Herman

1990-01-01

127

Two-dimensional modeling of a radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research was achieved by self-consistently modeling the discharge characteristics of the radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (RC-IEC) fusion device using a Monte Carlo numerical approach. The model (called MCP) is time-independent and spatially two-dimensional with three dimensions in energy and direction. Multiple particle species and collisions with background neutral gas are taken into account, and the electrostatic potential distribution is solved self-consistently with the particle production rate densities within the device. MCP determined the neutron source scaling, discharge characteristics (voltage-current-pressure relations), Star-mode light emission source, and the effects of gas rarification due to a non-uniform gas temperature distribution for an RC-IEC device. The neutron yields predicted by MCP are in good agreement with experimental measurements (within 50%) from spherical discharge-IEC devices. The calculations indicate that 73--94% of fusions in discharge-IEC devices are due to molecular fast neutrals, and that neutron yield scales linearly with current for uniform background gas densities. Calculations of the effect of a non-uniform gas temperature indicate that gas rarification due to elevated gas temperatures is a likely cause of the experimentally observed decrease in neutron yield scaling at high current levels. The predicted operating pressure for the elevated temperature case is higher than in the uniform cases, but the neutron yield decreases. The discharge characteristics predicted by MCP for the RC-IEC device are consistent with experimental results from similar spherical systems. As the pressure-distance product (the product of gas pressure and electrode separation distance) decreases, the operating voltage increases. Operating pressures range from 1.5 to 3.0 mTorr for voltages between 20kV and 60 kV. The space-charge dependent potentials calculated by MCP show that a virtual anode forms in the center of discharge-IEC devices that increases with increasing electric current. De-excitation of charge-exchange fast neutrals is estimated as the dominant source of light in Star-mode beams, and electron-impact excitation is estimated as the dominant light source in the Star-mode core. The spatial distribution of these reactions is also in agreement with experimental observations.

Stubbers, Robert Andrew

128

Self-organizing plasma behavior in multiple grid IEC fusion devices for propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, IEC, of charged particles for the purpose of producing fusion energy is a low mass alternative to more traditional magnetic and inertial confinement fusion schemes. Experimental fusion production and energy efficiency in IEC devices to date has been hindered by confinement limitations. Analysis of the major loss mechanisms suggests that the low pressure beam-beam interaction regime holds the most promise for improved efficiency operation. Numerical simulation of multiple grid schemes shows greatly increased confinement times over contemporary single grid designs by electrostatic focusing of the ion beams. An analytical model of this focusing is presented. With the increased confinement, beams self-organize from a uniform condition into bunches that oscillate at the bounce frequency. The bunches from neighboring beams are then observed to synchronize with each other. Analysis of the anisotropic collisional dynamics responsible for the synchronization is presented. The importance of focusing and density on the beam dynamics are examined. Further, this synchronization appears to modify the particle distribution so as to maintain the non-maxwellian, beam-like energy profile within a bunch. The ability of synchronization to modify and counter-act the thermalization process is examined analytically at the 2-body interaction level and as a conglomeration of particles via numerical simulation. Detailed description of the experiment under development at MIT to investigate the synchronization phenomenon is presented.

McGuire, Thomas; Dietrich, Carl; Sedwick, Raymond

2004-11-01

129

Physical modeling of temperature dependences of SOI CMOS devices and circuits including self-heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate and examine temperature and self-heating effects in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) devices and circuits, a physical temperature-dependence model is implemented into the SOISPICE fully depleted (FD) and nonfully depleted (NFD) SOI MOSFET models. Due to the physical nature of the device models, the temperature-dependence modeling, which enables a device self-heating option as well, is straightforward and requires no new parameters.

Glenn O. Workman; Jerry G. Fossum; Srinath Krishnan; Mario M. Pelella

1998-01-01

130

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2006-05-15

131

Confinement of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device and its influence on neutron production rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a one-dimensional particle code, low pressure and large current discharge in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been simulated, and confinement level of ions and the neutron yield through beam–beam fusion have been investigated.From the calculation of low-pressure operation, it is clear that the averaged life span of ions is extended but converges to a value corresponding

Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yukihisa Ueno; Satoshi Konishi

2006-01-01

132

Performance of a low-pressure, helicon driven IEC helium-3 fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the 3He(3He,2p)4He fusion reaction is interesting for many reasons ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics to fusion energy. While this reaction has been studied in particle accelerators, its behavior at low energy (< 1 MeV) is not fully characterized due to low accelerator beam currents (< 1 mA) and the low reaction cross-section. The spherical recirculation of ions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device offers the potential to explore these reactions at sub MeV energy levels, but with ion currents as high as 100 mA or more. Such a capability would improve counting statistics tremendously, and be a valuable tool for characterizing this reaction at these low energies. This dissertation focuses on the development of an IEC device toward this end, with the final goal of detecting 3He(3He,2p) 4He reactions. Many facets of IEC technology were enhanced to accomplish this, and these enhancements will also play a major role in the development of IEC devices for near-term applications. Some of the major enhancements were: (1) the maximum operating voltage was increased from 55 kV to 170 kV, (2) the lifetime of insulators was increased from about 1 month to 6 months, (3) a gas recycle system was developed that allowed the reuse of 3He gas after it flowed through the system, (4) an ion source was developed that allowed operation at 1/3 the previous minimum pressure with seven times the current, (5) the same ion source was developed to give independent control over the ion current, (6) a proton detection system was developed that reduced the noise level in the detection system by 2 orders of magnitude. These developments have allowed for the detection of 3He( 3He,2p)4He reactions at the rates of 144 +/- 44 reactions/sec at 124 kV, and 400 +/- 67 reactions/sec at 134 kV, with a maximum total reactivity of 1.1 * 103 reactions/sec. These results agree to within 50% of the theoretical prediction from the combination of beam-background and beam-embedded fusion, and represent the first time 3He-3He reactions have been observed in an IEC device.

Piefer, Gregory R.

133

Self-Similar Skeletal Structures in Fusion and Material Test Devices: Numerical Modeling and New Observational Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypotheses for self-assembling of a fractal condensed matter in electric discharges and the probable role of a skeletal matter in the long-lived filamentary structures in fusion devices is studied in two directions. First, we append previous collection of respective data with recent evidences for skeletal structuring in peripheral plasmas and dust deposits in fusion and material test devices. Second, we demonstrate, via numerical modelling, the possibility of coaxial tubular structuring formation in a system of electric current filaments composed of magnetized, electrically conducting thin rods (nanodust), with an accent on self-reduction of spatial dimensionality of structuring and on the role of magnetic in such systems.

Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

2009-07-01

134

On the use of a capacitive diaphragm gauge for dust detection in next-step fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The technology underlying a ceramic capacitive diaphragm gauge (CDG) manometer has been investigated for use as a microbalance for measurement of dust accumulation in next-step fusion devices such as ITER. Initial trials have confirmed in principle the use of CDG devices as dust microbalances and both the gauge head and electronics have been adapted to address the environmental constraints. Remote electronics, capable of controlling the gauge at a distance of 30 m, have been developed and a prototype device has been tested in the laboratory, where a sensitivity of 500 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and dynamic range of at least 10{sup 3} were demonstrated. The work shows that this approach is a promising contender to measure dust accumulation in next-step fusion devices.

Counsell, G.; Vere, A. P. C. de; St J Braithwaite, N.; Hillier, S.; Bjorkman, P. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); INFICON Ab, Dalkarbyvaegen 4, AX-22100 Mariehamn (Finland)

2006-09-15

135

Some characteristics of fusion neutrons produced by deuterium in loads of Z-pinch devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion neutrons from Z-pinch devices are observed and studied for last fifty years. Many experimental and theoretical papers were published in this field. Some problems are still under discussion, for example, a thermal or beam-target origin of neutrons, mechanism of acceleration of high-energy electrons and ions, correlation of hard x-rays with neutrons, a reason for asymmetry of emitted particles and radiation, development of diagnostic methods and interpretation of results. This paper presents an experimental results of neutrons produced at the implosion of an Al liner onto a CD2 fiber at the 3 MA fast Z-pinch S-300 in RRC Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. The velocity and energy of neutrons in the axial direction were estimated from the temporal position of the maximum of neutron signals at two different distances from the neutron source and the relationship between hard x-rays and neutrons is discussed.

Kubes, P.; Kravarik, J.; Klir, D.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Ivanov, M. I.; Hongchun, C.

2004-03-01

136

Measurement of Ion Energy Distribution in a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) Device  

SciTech Connect

In recent researches, an assisted glow discharge experiment using an external ion source has been tried to reduce operation gas pressure. As results, operating gas pressure has been successfully reduced from 1.5 Pa to 0.3 Pa, and the neutron production rate has increased.These results are considered to be due to an increase of ion energy. However, it is necessary to measure the ion energy distribution of the Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) device in order to confirm this. To do this, we have measured the distribution of the neutral particle beam energy (relative to ion energy distribution). These experimental results demonstrate that a decrease of operation gas pressure (from 1.7 Pa to 0.3 Pa) contributes to the increase in ion energy.

Ueno, Yukihisa; Tomizawa, Takahito; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

137

Analysis of fuel retention in plasma-facing components from controlled fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First wall components in controlled fusion devices undergo severe modification by various physical and chemical processes arising from plasma-wall interactions: material erosion, its transport in the plasma and re-deposition. The intention of this work is to give a concise overview of key issues in the characterization of plasma-facing materials and components in tokamaks. The importance of surface analysis in studies of fuel inventory and material migration is presented. Experimental procedures and analysis methods are briefly reviewed with emphasis on ion beam techniques which play a prominent role in studies of wall components exposed to hot plasmas. Practical aspects in the analytical approach are addressed and special instrumentation used in these studies is described.

Jet-Efda Contributors; Rubel, M.; Coad, J. P.; Likonen, J.; Philipps, V.; JET-EFDA Contributors1

2009-02-01

138

Effects of Grid Structures and Dielectric Materials of the Holder in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device modeling has been carried out. Finite element method is used in a 3D media\\u000a in order to identify the potential and electrical fields inside the device. The effects of different materials on the electrostatic\\u000a features are found. In addition, different geometric arrangements for cathode sphere (i.e. inner grid) are considered for\\u000a the determination of

E. KurtS; S. Arslan; M. E. Güven

139

Non-Maxwellian distributions in an IEC device for fusion break even  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the effect of non-Maxwellian distributions on the maximum sustainable ion density in the core of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Ref. 1 considered a negative potential well created by injecting radially monoenergetic electrons. It showed that potential well of 100 KV can be sustained with about 100 A of total injection current. Then Ref. 1 showed that purely monoenergetic, radially moving ions cannot be trapped in a well so created. On the other hand, Maxwellian radial ions can be trapped but there is an upper limit on the core ion density, n0. If break even balance of fusion yield/ injected (electron) power is considered, this limitation translates into a required electron injection current of the order of 10^14 A. Clearly, this number is impractical. Natural questions arise from the calculations presented in Ref. 1: Is it possible to find a non-Maxwellian ion distribution (sustainable by some means) such that the necessary electron injection current for creating a trapping potential can be lowered to reasonable numbers? If yes, is such ion distribution energetically viable for fusion break even? Ongoing work indicates positive answer to the first question. We will discuss the energetics of such scheme. [1] W. C. Elmore, J. L. Tuck, K. M. Watson, Phys. Fluids, vol. 2, 239 (1959).

Evstatiev, Evstati

2007-11-01

140

Verification of scattering parameter measurements in waveguides up to 325 GHz including highly-reflective devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-frequency (RF) scattering parameters (S-parameters) play an important role to characterise RF signal transmission and reflection of active and passive devices such as transmission lines, components, and small-signal amplifiers. Vector network analysers (VNAs) are employed as instrumentation for such measurements. During the last years, the upper frequency limit of this instrumentation has been extended up to several hundreds of GHz for waveguide measurements. Calibration and verification procedures are obligatory prior to the VNA measurement to achieve accurate results and/or to obtain traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Usually, verification is performed by measuring well-matched devices with known S-parameters such as attenuators or short precision waveguide sections (shims). In waveguides, especially above 110 GHz, such devices may not exist and/or are not traceably calibrated. In some cases, e.g. filter networks, the devices under test (DUT) are partly highly reflective. This paper describes the dependency of the S-parameters a) on the calibration procedure, b) on the applied torque to the flange screws during the mating process of the single waveguide elements. It describes further c) how highly-reflective devices (HRD) can be used to verify a calibrated VNA, and d) how a measured attenuation at several hundreds of GHz can be substituted by a well-known coaxial attenuation at 279 MHz, the intermediate frequency (IF) of the VNA, to verify the linearity. This work is a contribution towards traceability and to obtain knowledge about the measurement uncertainty of VNA instrumentation in the millimetre-wave range.

Schrader, T.; Kuhlmann, K.; Dickhoff, R.; Dittmer, J.; Hiebel, M.

2011-07-01

141

(Critical topics of plasma facing materials/plasma facing component data for the next step fusion devices)  

SciTech Connect

The Unites States-Japan Workshop P-165 brought together approximately 60 scientists and engineers to discuss critical topics of plasma facing materials and components for the next-step fusion device. In addition to the United States and Japanese participants, there were several guest attendees from Europe. The international makeup of the participants greatly enhanced the success of the workshop. The author jointly chaired a workshop session entitled Impact of Neutron Effects to Plasma Facing Materials and Plasma Facing Component (PFC) Feasibilities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER),'' and presented an overview paper on neutron effects and materials selection for the next-step plasma facing devices. The author presented his work on the effects of neutron irradiation on graphites and carbon-carbon (c/c) composite materials, which are strong candidate materials for PFC's in ITER. The workshop addressed many issues of current concern to the PFC/PFM community including: plasma erosion of PFM's; trapping/detrapping of hydrogen isotopes; large machine operating experience; and extent of the materials database.

Burchell, T.D.

1991-01-04

142

Model-order reduction of finite-element approximations of passive electromagnetic devices including lumped electrical-circuit models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for the development of reduced-order macromodels for multiport passive electromagnetic devices that include embedded lumped elements. The proposed methodology utilizes a discrete state-space model for the electromagnetic device, generated through the application of the finite-element method for the spatial discretization of Maxwell's curl equations. The incorporation of lumped resistors, inductors, and capacitors is effected through the

Hong Wu; Andreas C. Cangellaris

2004-01-01

143

Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices.  

PubMed

A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device. PMID:23214902

Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

2012-11-05

144

Experimental study of proton rate density in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) is to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward into the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid to create a space-charge double-potential well (a negative-potential well nested inside a positive-potential well) which confines the high-energy ions in the dense central core region such that appreciable nuclear fusion reactions are obtained. This experimental work has focused on creating the double-potential well at high perveance (I/V3/2) where there is a significant charge build-up in the center, and on proving the existence of the well from its characteristic radial proton rate density profile. Based on the spatial measurement of the D-D fusion protons by using a capillary proton collimator and the unfolding of this data, this work has been directed to evaluate the radial proton rate density profiles to explore the evolution of potential-well structure in the current and voltage (perveance) range where the double well is expected. Under the optimized operating conditions admitted by using the Star mode to improve focusing to 1.6× ballistic limit and double-grid setup to reduce the ion radial energy spread to <10%, the experiment has successfully created and, through identification of a distinct two-peak proton rate density profile, demonstrated the existence of the double- potential well. Experimental measurements of the two-peak proton rate density profiles have uniquely shown the emergence of the double potential well for perveances >0.34 mA/kV3/2. As the perveance increases, the feature of the double well becomes prominent. At 1.38 mA/kV3/2 (80 mA and 15 kV), the maximum negative potential well depth obtained from the measured proton rate density was calculated, using a beam-background fusion and charge-exchange model, to be ~22-27% of the applied voltage. Also, during the progress of this dissertation, two valuable SIEC derivatives-an SIEC wavelength tunable x- ray source (SIEC-TX) and an IEC linear neutron source device (C-device)-have been developed. The SIEC-TX generates x-rays by electron-electron interactions at relativistic velocity at the sphere center when the electrons are accelerated and focused by a spherical grid. The wavelength of the emitted x-rays shifts as the grid bias is changed. The C-device is a radically different cylindrical version of the SIEC that holds promise for applications requiring that geometry. The C- device is developed to produce a portable neutron line source. When stacked, they become a plane source.

Gu, Yibin

145

Diagnostic study of steady state advanced fuel (deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium) fusion in an IEC device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionized fusion fuels (D-D & D-3He) have been accelerated to fusion velocities using two concentric grids maintained at a high potential difference in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Though the gridded IEC device currently has a low efficiency (Q ? fusion power/input power ˜10-5), the energetic protons and neutrons generated within this device can be used for many near-term applications, such as medical isotope production, landmine detection, neutron activation analysis, etc. The present work is centered upon understanding the operation of the device and finding new ways to increase the overall efficiency. The steady state fusion of D-3He fuel in an IEC device was successfully studied. At a pressure of ˜2 mtorr the source of such reactions was identified to be principally beam-target reactions and was theoretically explained using the Monte Carlo - Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. The first simultaneous measurement of DD and D-3He protons was accomplished during the present thesis work that confirmed that D- 3He fusion reactions indeed occur in an IEC device. A new pressure independent diagnostic was invented to measure the average ion energy. That diagnostic uses the D-D proton energy spectra from a single loop cathode grid and the SRIM code predictions. A second diagnostic called the eclipse disc was co-invented to characterize the various fusion regimes in an IEC device. This diagnostic verified that a converged core fusion source exists for the DD reactions but the D-3He reactions that are principally embedded source reactions. A third diagnostic called the chordwire was invented to study the effects of various sources of electrons---thermionic, photo and field emission electrons, that decrease the efficiency of the device. This diagnostic also helped map the ion flux into the cathode in 2D, besides helping identify the high performance grid materials (W-25%Re and pure Re). Understanding the electron current contributions helped correct previous recirculation ion current equation in the literature. Sequential grid construction experiments where a new loop was added in a sequence (in various orientations) while monitoring the performance of the grid showed fusion rate saturation of the fusion rate with just a 3 loop grid. Hence, further increases in symmetry of the grid are deemed unnecessary. It was also found that the fusion occurred mostly in the microchannels that form in the regions where the cathode field is a minimum (i.e., in the open areas between the wires). This is an important conclusion because all earlier work had assumed a uniform spherical volume source of incoming ions and this work suggests otherwise. A new method of calibration was derived using the non-uniform volume source that takes into account the surface area of the detector visible to the protons that are born anywhere within the IEC chamber. As a consequence of the above research and valuable input from others in the IEC group, at UW Madison, there has been an increase in D-3 He rate by 5 orders of magnitude, in a span of 4 yrs, while those of the D-D reaction rate increased by 3 orders of magnitude.

Subramanian, Krupakar Murali

146

Properties of boron coatings used as plasma facing material of fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the boron films made by a d.c. glow discharge for a gas mixture of diborane and helium, numerous surface properties were intestigated and the characteristics of the boron film as a plasma facing material in fusion devices were evaluated. The ability of the boron film to getter the oxygen was estimated as about 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq m. The gettered oxygen in the boron film was observed in the surface to a depth of less than about 30 nm. The hydrogen concentration of the boron film made at room temperature was approximately 30%. The hydrogen in the film desorbed at about 573 K. This desorption temperature was considerably lower than that of graphite. These results directly indicate that the boron film coated on the graphite wall can largely reduce the particle recycling, in addition to the reduction in the oxygen impurity level in the plasma. After the oxygen gettering, the oxygen existed in the form of B-O bonds. It is also noted that the boron film absorbed both the oxygen and the carbon after exposure to the atmosphere.

Hino, T.; Iwamoto, K.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamashina, T.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Inoue, N.; Kubota, Y.; Natsir, N.; Motojima, O.

1994-12-01

147

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding  

PubMed Central

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration.

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

148

Thermal-fatigue properties of coated materials for fusion device applications  

SciTech Connect

The adherence of plasma sprayed coatings of TiC, VC, TiB/sub 2/ and B on substrates of Cu, 316 SS, Mo, Ta and Poco AXF-5Q artificial graphite has been evaluated in a pulsed electron beam, thermal fatigue environment. The materials are candidates for application as limiter and armor components of tokamak fusion devices. Up to 500 cycles of heating at power densities of 1.5 kW/cm/sup 2/ for 1.5 sec. were used. Materials were tested both in the as-sprayed (19 to 33% porosity) condition and after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to increase coating density. Some (e.g. TiC on Mo and Ta) showed good survivability in both the as-sprayed and HIP densified conditions. TiB/sub 2/ on Mo and Ta and VC on Poco graphite were improved while TiC + V on Mo and Ta were degraded by the HIP treatment.

Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Mattox, D.M.

1981-01-01

149

Analytical Study of Quantum Magnetic and Ion Viscous Effects on p11B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we studied the feasibility of proton-boron (p11B) fusion in plasmoids produced by plasma pinch devices like plasma focus facility as commercially sources of energy. In plasmoids fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1,500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss ( W/Pb = 5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, The effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhances the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss.

Abolhasani, S.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

2013-04-01

150

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research (e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)) indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets

S. K. Combs; L. R. Baylor; C. R. Foust

1993-01-01

151

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets

S. K. Combs; L. R. Baylor; C. R. Foust; M. J. Gouge; S. L. Milora; A. Frattolillo; M. Gasparotto; S. Migliori; F. Scaramuzzi; G. Angelone; M. Baldarelli; M. Capobianchi; C. Domma; G. Ronci

1993-01-01

152

Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.  

PubMed

Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

2013-05-08

153

A fusion-fission test experiment proposal, based on the standard H-mode scenario of a tokamak device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so called Hybrid (Fusion-Fission) Reactors seem to be a realistic alternative to the drawbacks of both a pure Fusion and/or a pure Fission reactor; this alternative could also guarantee a "substantial" destruction of the transuranic nuclear waste or production of nuclear combustible. So far, several different hypothesis have been proposed for this type of reactor, all of them based on very advanced and hypothetic fusion scenarios. In the present paper we propose two possible compact (R = 2.5-2.9 m; a = 0.73-0.8 m) high toroidal field (BT = 8.5-7.0 T; Ip = 8-6.8 MA) Tokamaks (based or not on superconductors) to perform a robust and "economic" experiment, propaedeutic to the definitive design of the reactor, where the problems connected with the integration of a Tokamak device with a Fission device can be tested on a realistic base. On both solutions the total fusion power will be of the order of 100 MW and the14 MeV neutron density power of the order of 0.5-1 MW/m2.

Botrugno, A.; Crisanti, F.; Brolatti, G.; Ciotti, M.; Cucchiaro, A.; Manzano, J.; Orsitto, F.; Pizzuto, A.

2012-06-01

154

In-line and following-up tests of perspective fusion-reactor materials in plasma focus devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of recent experiments, as performed with the PF-1000 and PF-6 Plasma-Focus facilities, which were\\u000a aimed at investigation of the correlation between processes of the irradiation of different materials of fusion devices and\\u000a results of this irradiation. Among the irradiated samples there were pure tungsten, tantalum, copper, aluminum, and alloys,\\u000a based on these metals, various steels, carbon

V. A. Gribkov; A. V. Dubrovsky; M. Paduch; M. J. Sadowski; M. Scholz; K. Tomaszewski; K. Malinowski; E. Skladnik-Sadowska; P. Strzyzewski; A. K. Marchenko; A. V. Tsarenko; S. A. Masljaev; V. N. Pimenov

2006-01-01

155

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

156

Characterization tests of an Apitron particulate control device. Final report. [Includes electrostatic augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2400-acfm pilot-scale Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter was evaluated on a slip-stream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler at the EPRI Arapahoe Test Facility in Denver, Colorado. Tests made over a range of operating conditions included determination of the dependence of collection efficiency and operating pressure drop on the air-to-cloth ratio, the level of electrostatic augmentation, and the type of filter

Kistler

1984-01-01

157

Increased hematocrit after applications of conducted energy weapons (including TASER(®) devices) to Sus scrofa.  

PubMed

Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed. PMID:21198623

Jauchem, James R

2010-12-23

158

CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices (Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14 17 May 2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices, held in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14-17 May 2007. The main topics of the meeting were overview and superconducting devices, long pulse operation and advanced tokamak, steady state fusion technology, heating and current drive, particle control and power exhaust and ITER-related issues.

Lee, G. S.; Na, Yong-Su; Becoulet, A.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C. E.; Komori, A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Mank, G.; Olstad, R. A.; Sarkar, B.; Sips, A. C. C.; van Houtte, D.; Vdovin, V. L.

2008-08-01

159

Characterization tests of an Apitron particulate control device. Final report. [Includes electrostatic augmentation  

SciTech Connect

A 2400-acfm pilot-scale Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter was evaluated on a slip-stream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler at the EPRI Arapahoe Test Facility in Denver, Colorado. Tests made over a range of operating conditions included determination of the dependence of collection efficiency and operating pressure drop on the air-to-cloth ratio, the level of electrostatic augmentation, and the type of filter fabric (woven glass fiber, felted Nomex, and felted Teflon). The test methods used were state-of-the-art techniques for measuring particle-collection efficiencies using inertial, optical, and electrical mobility measurements. The electrical resistivity of the fly ash and the electrostatic charge of individual particles of the fly ash were also measured. Particle collection efficiencies obtained with the Apitron were comparable to those of conventional fabric filters although the operating conditions were substantially different. High collection efficiencies (>99.9%) are common in conventional units; but for reverse-gas cleaning the air-to-cloth ratios are generally less than 2 acfm/ft/sup 2/. System pressure drops range from 3 to 10 in. w.c. In operating the Apitron with woven glass bags similar to those commonly used by conventional systems, collection efficiencies greater than 99% were obtained for air-to-cloth ratios of 4.5 to 9.1 acfm/ft/sup 2/. At an air-to-cloth ratio of 4.5 acfm/ft/sup 2/, the Apitron system pressure drop was in the range of 2 to 4 in. w.c. with electrostatic augmentation and 5 to 8 in. w.c. without electrostatic augmentation. Although the unit sometimes operated in back corona, the effects of electrostatic augmentation were beneficial more often than not. Operating pressure drops of the system were considerably reduced for all filter materials tested when the charger power was on.

Kistler, W.G.

1984-10-01

160

Utilization of alkaline phosphatase fusions to identify secreted proteins, including potential efflux proteins and virulence factors from Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The targeted genomic strategy of random fusions to a partial gene encoding a signal sequence-deficient fragment of bacterial alkaline phosphatase was utilized to screen for secreted proteins in Helicobacter pylori. The rationale for targeting extracytoplasmic proteins was based on the hypothesis that most virulence factors and vaccine candidates are secreted or exported proteins. In addition, extracytosolic proteins represent good potential

James E Bina; Francis Nano; Robert E. W Hancock

1997-01-01

161

Posterior Interspinous Fusion Device for One-Level Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease : Comparison with Pedicle Screw Fixation - Preliminary Report of at Least One Year Follow Up  

PubMed Central

Objective Transpedicular screw fixation has some disadvantages such as postoperative back pain through wide muscle dissection, long operative time, and cephalad adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The purposes of this study are investigation and comparison of radiological and clinical results between interspinous fusion device (IFD) and pedicle screw. Methods From Jan. 2008 to Aug. 2009, 40 patients underwent spinal fusion with IFD combined with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In same study period, 36 patients underwent spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation as control group. Dynamic lateral radiographs, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) scores were evaluated in both groups. Results The lumbar spine diseases in the IFD group were as followings; spinal stenosis in 26, degenerative spondylolisthesis in 12, and intervertebral disc herniation in 2. The mean follow up period was 14.24 months (range; 12 to 22 months) in the IFD group and 18.3 months (range; 12 to 28 months) in pedicle screw group. The mean VAS scores was preoperatively 7.16±2.1 and 8.03±2.3 in the IFD and pedicle screw groups, respectively, and improved postoperatively to 1.3±2.9 and 1.2±3.2 in 1-year follow ups (p<0.05). The K-ODI was decreased significantly in an equal amount in both groups one year postoperatively (p<0.05). The statistics revealed a higher incidence of ASD in pedicle screw group than the IFD group (p=0.029). Conclusion Posterior IFD has several advantages over the pedicle screw fixation in terms of skin incision, muscle dissection and short operative time and less intraoperative estimated blood loss. The IFD with PLIF may be a favorable technique to replace the pedicle screw fixation in selective case.

Kim, Ho Jung; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Suck Jun; Kang, Tae Hoon; Yang, Moon Sool

2012-01-01

162

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

163

Microfluidic control of cell pairing and fusion.  

PubMed

Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step is the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device to trap and properly pair thousands of cells. Using this device, we paired different cell types, including fibroblasts, mouse embryonic stem cells and myeloma cells, achieving pairing efficiencies up to 70%. The device is compatible with both chemical and electrical fusion protocols. We observed that electrical fusion was more efficient than chemical fusion, with membrane reorganization efficiencies of up to 89%. We achieved greater than 50% properly paired and fused cells over the entire device, fivefold greater than with a commercial electrofusion chamber and observed reprogramming in hybrids between mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:19122668

Skelley, Alison M; Kirak, Oktay; Suh, Heikyung; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Voldman, Joel

2009-01-04

164

A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices  

SciTech Connect

A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

2010-10-11

165

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known radical and ion scavenger techniques of application in amorphous hydrogenated carbon film deposition studies are investigated in relation to the mechanism of tritium and deuterium co-deposition in carbon-dominated fusion devices. A particularly successful scheme results from the injection of nitrogen into methane/hydrogen plasmas for conditions close to those prevailing in the divertor region of present fusion devices. A complete suppression of the a-C : H film deposition has been achieved for N2/CH4 ratios close to one in methane (5%)/hydrogen DC plasma. The implications of these findings in the tritium retention control in future fusion reactors are addressed.

Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V. J.; Islyaikin, A.; Maffiotte, C.

2002-08-01

166

Using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Nuclear Fusion Device as a Pulsed Neutron Source: Optimizing the Pulse Shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed neutron sources may prove to be valuable for detecting illicit nuclear materials in items being smuggled across borders or checkpoints. Work already accomplished by Sorebo et al. [1] at the U. of Wisconsin demonstrated the basic detection concept by successfully detecting delayed ^235U fission neutrons using neutron pulses generated by an IEC fusion device. Numerical studies imply the detection of the much more copious prompt induced-fission neutrons would be preferable; the experimental detection of prompt neutrons represents a challenge: the prompt, fission-produced neutron and interrogating neutron pulses may overlap. After IEC device operation and past work by Sorebo et al. are reviewed, efforts to produce a properly shaped interrogating neutron pulse are described. Efforts drawing, in part, on techniques used in hard-switched power inverters are highlighted.[4pt] [1] J.H. Sorebo, G.L. Kulcinski, R.F. Radel, and J.F. Santarius, ``Special Nuclear Materials Detection Using IEC Fusion Pulsed Neutron Source,'' Fusion Science and Technology 56, 540 (2009).

Bonomo, Richard

2010-11-01

167

Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices  

SciTech Connect

Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

Not Available

1988-01-01

168

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01

169

Proceedings of the Japan-U.S. Workshop P-118 on Vacuum Technologies for Fusion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion community does not appreciate vacuum technologies to the same extent as accelerator community does. This is because, in the case of accelerators, in particular storage ring systems, the requirement of attaining ultrahigh vacuum in order to avoid co...

A. Miyahara

1989-01-01

170

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

171

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1\\/5 for

Kai Masuda; Kenji Taruya; Takahiro Koyama; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

172

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in

A. L. Wehmeyer; R. F. Radel; G. L. Kulcinski

2005-01-01

173

Dust particles in controlled fusion devices: morphology, observations in the plasma and influence on the plasma performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and release of particle agglomerates, i.e. debris and dusty objects, from plasma facing components and the impact of such materials on plasma operation in controlled fusion devices has been studied in the Extrap T2 reversed field pinch and the TEXTOR tokamak. Several plasma diagnostic techniques, camera observations and surface analysis methods were applied for in situ and ex situ investigation. The results are discussed in terms of processes that are decisive for dust transfer: localized power deposition connected with wall locked modes causing emission of carbon granules, brittle destruction of graphite and detachment of thick flaking co-deposited layers. The consequences for large next step devices are also addressed.

Rubel, M.; Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J. A.; Sergienko, G.; Biel, W.; Drake, J. R.; Hedqvist, A.; Huber, A.; Philipps, V.

2001-08-01

174

CORSICA: A comprehensive simulation of toroidal magnetic-fusion devices. Final report to the LDRD Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, our group began exploring the requirements for a comprehensive simulation code for toroidal magnetic fusion experiments. There were several motivations for taking this step. First, the new machines being designed were much larger and more expensive than current experiments. Second, these new designs called for much more sophisticated control of the plasma shape and position, as well as the distributions of energy, mass, and current within the plasma. These factors alone made it clear that a comprehensive simulation capability would be an extremely valuable tool for machine design. The final motivating factor was that the national Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) had recently received High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge funding to model turbulent transport in tokamaks, raising the possibility that first-principles simulations of this process might be practical in the near future. We felt that the best way to capitalize on this development was to integrate the resulting turbulence simulation codes into a comprehensive simulation. Such simulations must include the effects of many microscopic length- and time-scales. In order to do a comprehensive simulation efficiently, the length- and time- scale disparities must be exploited. We proposed to do this by coupling the average or quasistatic effects from the fast time-scales to a slow-time-scale transport code for the macroscopic plasma evolution. In FY93-FY96 we received funding to investigate algorithms for computationally coupling such disparate-scale simulations and to implement these algorithms in a prototype simulation code, dubbed CORSICA. Work on algorithms and test cases proceeded in parallel, with the algorithms being incorporated into CORSICA as they became mature. In this report we discuss the methods and algorithms, the CORSICA code, its applications, and our plans for the future.

Crotinger, J.A.; LoDestro, L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Tarditi, A.; Casper, T.A.; Hooper, E.B.

1997-03-21

175

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

SciTech Connect

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1/5 for the same discharge current and voltage. Although the gas pressure region that was achieved still remains the region where the fusion reaction between the ion beam and background gas is dominant, the neutron yield normalized by the gas pressure in the triple-grid system shows higher value than the conventional single-grid system.

Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

176

Embedded D-{sup 3}He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-{sup 3}He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-{sup 3}He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2/3 of the total D-{sup 3}He reaction rate can be due to embedded fusion reactions, reactions occurring within the cathode due to ion implantation. Therefore, the cathode surface sees a large, high-energy proton flux. Using a solid molybdenum cathode, and taking advantage of the embedded reactions, about 1 nCi of the medical isotope {sup 94m}Tc was created via {sup 94}Mo(p,n){sup 94m}Tc in a proof of principle experiment. This represents the first time the IEC concept has been used to produce a radioisotope using D-{sup 3}He fusion.

Cipiti, B.B.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

177

Carbon Particles Emission, Brittle Destruction and Co-deposit Formation: Experience from Electron Beam Experiments and Controlled Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite erosion leading to the formation of carbon clusters and dust particles under high power deposition has been studied using an electron beam facility and in various types of controlled fusion devices with carbon walls. It is shown that brittle destruction of graphite takes place in both systems and it results in the production of debris of a sub-millimeter to millimeter size. In electron beam experiments fine grain graphites and carbon fiber composite have been subjected to intense transient heat loads with deposited energy densities of up to several tens of MJ m-2 in order to simulate plasma disruptions (5 ms pulse duration) or vertical displacement events (100-1000 ms pulse duration). In a reversed field pinch the brittle destruction has been caused by a pronounced mode activity (and related power loads to the wall, over 1 GW m-2) at the very edge of the plasma during wall locking phase of discharges. Particles or dust generated during the thermal load tests and in fusion devices have been collected and analyzed using optical and various electron microscopy methods.

Linke, J.; Rubel, M.; Malmberg, J. A.; Drake, J. R.; Duwe, R.; Penkalla, H. J.; Rödig, M.; Wessel, E.

178

Protein assembly onto patterned microfabricated devices through enzymatic activation of fusion pro-tag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a versatile approach for covalent surface-assembly of proteins onto selected electrode patterns of pre-fabricated devices. Our approach is based on electro- assembly of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan scaffold as a stable thin film onto patterned conductive surfaces of the device, which is followed by covalent assembly of the target protein onto the scaffold surface upon enzymatic activation of the

Angela T. Lewandowski; Hyunmin Yi; Xiaolong Luo; Gregory F. Payne; Reza Ghodssi; Gary W. Rubloff; William E. Bentley

2008-01-01

179

Fusion research by magnetic confinement devices in Japan (Plenary paper, ICOPS 2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remarkable progress in the past decade in tokamak magnetic confinement devices has made it possible to plan and design an experimental reactor, called the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), by the international collaboration. Data on plasma behavior obtained by the world-wide tokamak devices have been accumulated and analyzed in a coordinated manner which constitute a sound basis for the prediction

Shinzaburo Matsuda

2004-01-01

180

Fast Scintillation Probes For Investigation Of Pulsed Neutron Radiation From Small Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design as well as laboratory/performance tests results taken by means of the fast scintillation probes. The design of each scintillation probe is based on photomultiplier tube hybrid assembly, which-besides photomultiplier itself-also includes high-voltage divider optimized for recording of fast radiation bursts. Plastic scintillators with short-time response are applied as hard X-ray and neutron radiation detectors. Heavy-duty probe's housing provides efficient shielding against electromagnetic interference and allows carrying out pulsed neutron measurements in a harsh electromagnetic environment. The crucial parameters of scintillation probes have been examined during laboratory tests in which our investigations have been aimed mainly to determine: a time response, an anode radiant sensitivity and an electron transit time dependence on high-voltage supply. During the performance tests, the relative calibration of probes set has been done. It allowed to carry out very accurate measurements of neutron emission anisotropy and investigations of neutron radiation scattering by different materials. The usefulness of presented scintillation probes-embedded in the neutron time-of-flight diagnostic system was proven during experimental campaigns conducted on the plasma-focus PF1000 device.

Tomaszewski, Krzysztof J.

2008-04-01

181

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research (e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)) indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to approximately 1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (greater than 2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community--ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to approximately 1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.

182

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to {approximately}1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (>2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the US Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community -- ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to {approximately}1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R. [and others

1993-11-01

183

Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He^3He Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally,

Gabriel Becerra; John Santarius; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

184

Development of a new concept ion source for high performance inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic potential well. It consists of two spherical grids inside the vacuum chamber. An insulated high voltage feed-through supplies power to the inner grid cathode, and a small amount of deuterium or tritium gas (0.1-1.0 Pa) is fed into the chamber. When the voltage is

Y. Taniuchi; Y. Matsumura; K. Taira; M. Utsumi

2010-01-01

185

Fusion of gait and fingerprint for user authentication on mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-modal biometric authentication approach using gait signals and fingerprint images as biometric traits is proposed. The individual comparison scores derived from the gait and fingers are normalized using four methods (min-max, z-score, median absolute deviation, tangent hyperbolic) and then four fusion approaches (simple sum, user-weighting, maximum score and minimum core) are applied. Gait samples are obtained by using

Mohammad O. Derawi; Davrondzhon Gafurov; Rasmus Larsen; Christoph Busch; Patrick Bours

2010-01-01

186

An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.  

PubMed

A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol. PMID:15296258

Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

2004-06-01

187

Charge-injection-device performance in the high-energy-neutron environment of laser-fusion experiments.  

PubMed

Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are being used to image x rays in laser-fusion experiments on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System. The CID cameras are routinely used up to the maximum neutron yields generated (?10(14)?DT). The detectors are deployed in x-ray pinhole cameras and Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes. The neutron fluences ranged from ?10(7) to ?10(9)?neutrons/cm(2) and useful x-ray images were obtained even at the highest fluences. It is intended to use CID cameras at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a supporting means of recording x-ray images. The results of this work predict that x-ray images should be obtainable on the NIF at yields up to ?10(15), depending on distance and shielding. PMID:21034031

Marshall, F J; DeHaas, T; Glebov, V Yu

2010-10-01

188

Charge-injection-device performance in the high-energy-neutron environment of laser-fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are being used to image x rays in laser-fusion experiments on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System. The CID cameras are routinely used up to the maximum neutron yields generated (~1014 DT). The detectors are deployed in x-ray pinhole cameras and Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes. The neutron fluences ranged from ~107 to ~109 neutrons/cm2 and useful x-ray images were obtained even at the highest fluences. It is intended to use CID cameras at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a supporting means of recording x-ray images. The results of this work predict that x-ray images should be obtainable on the NIF at yields up to ~1015, depending on distance and shielding.

Marshall, F. J.; Dehaas, T.; Glebov, V. Yu.

2010-10-01

189

Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

Plyusnin, V. V.; Jakubowski, L.; Zebrowski, J.; Duarte, P.; Malinowski, K.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J.

2012-08-01

190

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10⁶ neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase

Takanori Higashi; Takahito Tomizawa; Mitsugu Daino; Yasushi Yamamoto

2003-01-01

191

Measurement of the energy distribution of fast excited atoms by Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms resulted from charge-exchange reactions between accelerated ions and background atoms or molecules were measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device composed of a spherical vacuum chamber as an anode and a spherical hollow cathode grid concentrically placed in the chamber. Since ions generated between the cathode and the

Kai Masuda; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Ken Takiyama; Hisayuki Toku; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Akihiro Nagafuchi

2002-01-01

192

Protein assembly onto patterned microfabricated devices through enzymatic activation of fusion pro-tag.  

PubMed

We report a versatile approach for covalent surface-assembly of proteins onto selected electrode patterns of pre-fabricated devices. Our approach is based on electro-assembly of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan scaffold as a stable thin film onto patterned conductive surfaces of the device, which is followed by covalent assembly of the target protein onto the scaffold surface upon enzymatic activation of the protein's "pro-tag." For our demonstration, the model target protein is green fluorescent protein (GFP) genetically fused with a pentatyrosine pro-tag at its C-terminus, which assembles onto both two-dimensional chips and within fully packaged microfluidic devices in situ and under flow. Our surface-assembly approach enables spatial selectivity and orientational control under mild experimental conditions. We believe that our integrated approach harnessing genetic manipulation, in situ enzymatic activation, and electro-assembly makes it advantageous for a wide variety of bioMEMS and biosensing applications that require facile "biofunctionalization" of microfabricated devices. PMID:17625789

Lewandowski, Angela T; Yi, Hyunmin; Luo, Xiaolong; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary W; Bentley, William E

2008-02-15

193

Development of Carbon Based Plasma Facing Components for Steady State Operation of the Fusion Devices in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a series of multi-element doped graphite materials has been developed for PFC (plasma facing components) in China. Detailed investigation of the composition and full characterization of the microstructure of the doped graphite were carried out in the last several years and are now still in progress. These research activities were mainly concentrated on multi-element (B, Si, Ti) doped graphite and thick gradient SiC coatings. Investigations on the applicability of doped graphite as PFC under high heat flux, and further evaluation under HT-7 limiter plasma irradiation have been carefully investigated. From a 0.3 m2 poloidal limiter to a 1.2 m2 new belt limiter plus two poloidal limiters with actively water-cooled, this changes to the new carbon limiter in the HT-7 device turned out to be very successful. The plasma performance has been significantly improved and the longest discharge duration has been more than 60 s. These results have demonstrated that new carbon armoured PFCs will be an attractive choice making them competitive with other candidate PFC for the first wall of steady state fusion devices.

Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Li, H.; Quo, Q. G.

194

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.

Hamilton, W.R.; Rothe, K.E.

1985-01-01

195

Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate\\u000a ions radially using voltage differences of 10–100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid\\u000a with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects\\u000a the ion flow into the

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

196

Visualization and Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Tokamak Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of tokamak fusion nuclear science facilities, which could achieve net electricity generation, have involved searching a rich parameter space for optimal reactor characteristics using a 0-D systems code. Large amounts of data were generated, on the order of one hundred million different sets of reactor parameters. The systems code has been interfaced with PPPL's visualization program called ElVis and tools have been developed to handle large amounts of data. This work has motivated further development of ElVis, allowing it to accommodate the systems code output data. ElVis enables a user to make arbitrary plots of different reactor parameters. The data manipulation and graphing capability has enabled the review of a large number of viable operating points, the observation of trends and the identification of desirable operating points. This will enable a study of the impact of enhanced physics and technology on the operation of a power plant that produces net electricity. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466.

Kastner, Robert; Kessel, Charles; Hawryluk, R. J.; Feibush, Eliot; Milano, Matthew; Phillips, Ben

2010-11-01

197

Below the Knee Intervention Using Multidisciplinary Methods Including an Antegrade, Retrograde Approach Without the Use of a Sheath but With a Plaque Excision Device  

PubMed Central

Below the knee (BTK) interventions are increasing in patients with rest pain or critical limb ischemia, and these interventions are frequently successful in facilitating limb salvage. New intervention techniques and devices allow successful recanalization of occluded BTK arteries. Here, we report a case of successful recanalization of BTK arteries using multidisciplinary methods, including an antegrade approach and retrograde approach without the use of a sheath, but with simple balloon angioplasty, and plaque excision using Silverhawk atherectomy device.

An, Hye Mi; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lim, Chur Hoan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Weon; Kim, Wan

2012-01-01

198

Mirror fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress reported in the mirror fusion energy program covers (1) fusion, plasma theory, and computation; (2) magnetic mirror system and tandem mirror experiments; (3) superconducting magnetic development; (4) fusion reactor materials; (5) experiments in the mirror fusion test facility; and (6) design and construction of the facility. Topics covered include fiber optic communication links; desorption of deuterium and contaminants; neutral beam injection; operating point for the Yin-Yang cell; and reverse field pinch.

Harrison, M. A.; McGregor, C. K.

1980-07-01

199

Irradiation creep at temperatures of 400 {degrees}C and below for application to near-term fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

To study irradiation creep at 400{degrees}C and below, a series of six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys was irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor; and, after an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa, the specimens were moved to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the 19 dpa accumulated. Irradiation temperatures of 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C were studied with internally pressurized tubes of type 316 stainless steel, PCA, HT 9, and a series of four laboratory heats of: Fe-13.5Cr-15Ni, Fe-13.5Cr-35Ni, Fe-1 3.5Cr-1 W-0.18Ti, and Fe-16Cr. At 330{degrees}C, irradiation creep was shown to be linear in fluence and stress. There was little or no effect of cold-work on creep under these conditions at all temperatures investigated. The HT9 demonstrated a large deviation from linearity at high stress levels, and a minimum in irradiation creep with increasing stress was observed in the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys.

Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T.; Mansur, L.K. [and others

1996-12-31

200

Three-dimensional modeling of the thermoelectric MHD problem of the LIMIT liquid lithium divertor for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowing liquid lithium is a promising technique for the continuous heat removal from plasma-facing components in fusion devices. In ITER-like conditions, the divertor has to handle stationary fluxes of the order 10 MW/m^2; heat fluxes even bigger occur during H-mode-related instabilities and disruptions. The Lithium-Metal Infused Trenches (LIMIT) concept, proposed at University of Illinois, offers a viable and self-adaptive solution, thanks to the use of a thermoelectric MHD drive of liquid lithium inside elongated metal trenches. We present a 3D finite-element-based model for the solution of the TEMHD. The continuity of mass, momentum, energy and current are solved together with the generalized constitutive laws of thermoelectricity. The numerical results show that TE currents are generated at the interface between the two metals; under the action of the toroidal magnetic field, the resulting JxB force pushes the liquid lithium along the channels. The force acts mainly at the interface, where the Hartmann and the fluid boundary layers are present, developing early turbulence and fluid bi-shaped macrostructures on the velocity field. The stability of the method is discussed, together with further developments toward turbulent average of the convective noise.

Curreli, Davide; Xu, Wenyu; Lindquist, Kyle; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David N.

2012-10-01

201

Evaluation of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Mirror Fusion Devices. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following four task-reports are included: (1) cost analysis of potassium vapor topping cycle and conventional steam cycle, (2) heat transport and energy conversion system analysis and conceptual cost estimate, (3) plant arrangement, and reactor contai...

1976-01-01

202

Economic analysis of fusion breeders  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included.

Delene, J.G.

1985-01-01

203

Fusion technology status and requirements  

SciTech Connect

Fusion technologies are defined, grouped into nuclear, system, and plasma production technologies, and studied. Plasma production study includes magnets, cryogenics, radio-frequency systems, neutral beam systems, plasma fueling, plasma direct recovery, and vacuums. Typical systems are schematicized, MFTF vacuum and cryogenic systems, or a Large Coil Program magnet, for example. A typical beamline, the Poloidal Divertor Experiment, is schematicized. The fusion technology requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration plant are studied. Possible improvements and opportunities of each system are listed. Finally, engineering feasibility determines that a Fusion Engineering Device must be built to integrate optional systems.

Thomassen, K.I.

1982-06-01

204

Testing of low-Z-coated limiters in tokamak fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive testing on a laboratory scale has been used to select those coatings most suitable for this environment. From this testing which included pulsed electron beam heating, low energy ion bombardment and arcing, chemical vapor deposited coating of TiB and TiC on Poco graphite substrates have been selected and tested as limiters in ISX. Both limiter materials gave clean, stable,

J. B. Whitely; A. W. Mullendore; R. A. Langley

1980-01-01

205

The effect of self-shielding of resonance cross-sections on lotus fusion-fission device  

SciTech Connect

The LOTUS Swiss fusion fission hybrid test facility was used to investigate the influence of the self-shielding of resonance cross sections on the tritium breeding and on the thorium ratios. Nucleonic analyses were performed using some deterministic codes and the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the self-shielding of resonance cross sections results in a decrease of the thorium capture rate and in an increase of the tritium breeding of about 6%. Therefore for hybrid blanket calculations it is important to define an adequate energy group structure with many groups within the resonances of the fissile-fertile material and the self-shielding should be included in neutronics calculations.

Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.

1985-07-01

206

Advanced X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Magnetic Fusion Tokamak Devices  

SciTech Connect

An advanced X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is currently under development using a segmented position sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter (TDC) based delay-line readout electronics for burning plasma diagnostics. The proposed advanced XICS utilizes an eight-segmented position sensitive multi-wire proportional counter and supporting electronics to increase the spectrometer performance includes the photon count-rate capability and spatial resolution.

Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bog, M. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Taejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and space Science Institute, Taejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-12

207

Theoretical and Experimental Modeling of Runaway Electron Damage on Plasma Facing Materials and Components in Magnetic Fusion Devices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to extend the theoretical and experimental knowledge of runaway electron damage-impact-bombardment on plasma facing components and materials in magnetic fusion devices. The emphasis of this work involved computational modeling and experimental studies to investigate runaway electron energy deposition and thermal response in plasma facing materials. The goals were: (1) to develop a computational model to study and analyze runaway electron damage, (2) to characterize runaway electron parameters, and (3) to perform experiments to analyze runaway electron damage. These goals were accomplished by first assembling the PTA code package. PTA is a unique application of _{P}ATRAN, the Integrated _ {T }IGER Series (ITS), and _ {A}BAQUS for modeling high energy electron impact on magnetic fusion materials and components. The PTA code package provides a three-dimensional, time dependent, computational code package which predicts material response from runaway electron bombardment under most runaway electron conditions (i.e. electron energy, incident angle, energy density, and deposition time). As part of this research, PTA was used to study energy deposition and material response in several design applications, to analyze damaged material, and to analyze several experiments. Runaway electron characterization was determined through parametric studies, analysis of damaged materials, and analysis of experimental results. Characterization provided information on electron energy, incident angle, current, deposition time, and volume of material impacted by runaway electrons. Finally an experiment was performed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study runaway electron damage. The experiment provided information on the runaway electron energy and current in ATF, as well as supplemented the existing experimental knowledge of runaway electron damage. The most significant contributions from this research were: the development of the PTA code package, the characterization of runaway electron parameters, and the supplement of experimental data on runaway electron damage. A recommendation of a particular material for application in a runaway electron environment is design dependent. The selection must consider runaway electron energy, incident electron angle, energy density, material stopping power, material thickness, material thermomechanical properties, component design criteria, and incident angle with respect to the magnetic field and the magnetic field intensity.

Niemer, Keyes Arthur

208

Dynamic simulator of RWM control for fusion devices: modelling and experimental validation on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new integrated simulator for experiments of resistive wall mode (RWM) closed-loop control and its benchmark against experimental data are presented. The numerical tool couples in a self-consistent way a full 3D finite element description of the machine boundaries (Cariddi code), a 2D toroidal model of RFP plasma stability (MARS-F code) and a realistic representation of the RFX-mod control system producing an overall dynamic model cast in the state variable space. In this way a full dynamic 'flight simulator' of RWM control experiments has been implemented where the interaction of proportional-integral-derivative controller gains and plasma equilibrium parameters can be explored. As an application of the new integrated tool, closed-loop RWM stability analyses have been benchmarked against experimental data. In this way it was possible to experimentally prove that the control simulator correctly reproduces closed-loop RWM growth rates under different control conditions. Time domain simulations were also run to assess the overall accuracy of the model including the presence of non-linear blocks. The achieved results are discussed in connection with the broader international effort towards an effective control of RWMs in both tokamak and RFP configurations.

Marchiori, G.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Liu, Y. Q.; Soppelsa, A.; Villone, F.

2012-02-01

209

Targeted Biopsy in the Detection of Prostate Cancer using an Office-Based MR-US Fusion Device  

PubMed Central

Purpose Targeted biopsy of lesions identified on MRI may enhance detection of clinically relevant prostate cancers (CaP). We evaluate CaP detection rates in 171 consecutive men using MR-US fusion prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent targeted biopsy either for active surveillance (N=106) or persistently elevated PSA but negative prior conventional biopsy (N=65). Before biopsy, each man had a multiparametric MRI at 3.0-Tesla. Lesions on MRI were outlined in 3D and assigned increasing cancer suspicion levels (image grade 1–5) by a uroradiologist. The Artemis biopsy tracking system was used to fuse the stored MRI with real-time ultrasound (US), generating a 3D prostate model on-the-fly. Working from the 3D model, transrectal biopsy of target lesions and 12 systematic biopsies were performed under local anesthesia in the clinic. Results 171 subjects (median age 65) underwent targeted biopsy. At biopsy, median PSA = 4.9 ng/ml and prostate volume = 48 cc. A targeted biopsy was three times more likely to identify cancer than a systematic biopsy (21% vs. 7%). CaP was found in 53% of men, 38% of whom had Gleason ?7. 38% of men with Gleason ?7 cancers were detected only on targeted biopsies. Targeted biopsy findings correlated with level of suspicion on MRI. 15 of 16 men (94%) with an image grade 5 target (highest suspicion) had CaP, including 7 with Gleason ?7. Conclusions Prostate lesions identified on MRI can be accurately targeted using MR-US fusion biopsy by a urologist in clinic. Biopsy findings correlate with level of suspicion on MRI.

Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.

2013-01-01

210

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2009-04-01

211

Phylogenetic analysis of Amphioxus genes of the proprotein convertase family, including aPC6C, a marker of epithelial fusions during embryology  

PubMed Central

The proprotein convertases (PCs) comprise a family of subtilisin-like endoproteases that activate precursor proteins (including, prohormones, growth factors, and adhesion molecules) during their transit through secretory pathways or at the cell surface. To explore the evolution of the PC gene family in chordates, we made a phylogenetic analysis of PC genes found in databases, with special attention to three PC genes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative to the vertebrates. Since some vertebrate PC genes are essential for early development, we investigated the expression pattern of the C isoform of the amphioxus PC6 gene (aPC6C). In amphioxus embryos and larvae, aPC6C is expressed at places where epithelia fuse. Several kinds of fusions occur: ectoderm-to-ectoderm during neurulation; mesoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the preoral ciliated pit; and endoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the mouth, pharyngeal slits, anus, and external opening of the club-shaped gland. Presumably, at all these sites, aPC6C is activating proteins favoring association between previously disjunct cell populations.

Bertrand, Stephanie; Camasses, Alain; Paris, Mathilde; D. Holland, Nicholas; Escriva, Hector

2006-01-01

212

Phylogenetic analysis of Amphioxus genes of the proprotein convertase family, including aPC6C, a marker of epithelial fusions during embryology.  

PubMed

The proprotein convertases (PCs) comprise a family of subtilisin-like endoproteases that activate precursor proteins (including, prohormones, growth factors, and adhesion molecules) during their transit through secretory pathways or at the cell surface. To explore the evolution of the PC gene family in chordates, we made a phylogenetic analysis of PC genes found in databases, with special attention to three PC genes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative to the vertebrates. Since some vertebrate PC genes are essential for early development, we investigated the expression pattern of the C isoform of the amphioxus PC6 gene (aPC6C). In amphioxus embryos and larvae, aPC6C is expressed at places where epithelia fuse. Several kinds of fusions occur: ectoderm-to-ectoderm during neurulation; mesoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the preoral ciliated pit; and endoderm-to-ectoderm during formation of the mouth, pharyngeal slits, anus, and external opening of the club-shaped gland. Presumably, at all these sites, aPC6C is activating proteins favoring association between previously disjunct cell populations. PMID:16763672

Bertrand, Stéphanie; Camasses, Alain; Paris, Mathilde; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector

2006-05-06

213

A 2D (r-theta) 3v Monte Carlo Model of a Discharge-Type RC-IEC Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer code (called McPlasma) self-consistently models the discharge characteristics of the radially-convergent cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (RC-IEC) fusion device using a Monte Carlo numerical approach. Predicted fusion-neutron production rates agree with experimental measurements from IEC devices of similar geometry (spherical instead of cylindrical). In addition, voltage-current-pressure relationships (discharge characteristics) are similar to experimentally observed relations from spherical discharge IEC devices. McPlasma is time-independent and spatially two-dimensional with three dimensions in energy and direction. Multiple particle species and collisions with background neutral gas are taken into account, and the electrostatic potential distribution is solved self-consistently with the particle production rate densities within the device. McPlasma demonstrates greater predictive capability than previous models used for analyzing IEC discharges and requires no tuning or tweaking to achieve accurate results. Code methodology and results from benchmark and scale-up cases will be presented.

Stubbers, Robert; Miley, George

2002-11-01

214

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10{sup 6} neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase neutron production. Although the discharge currents are small, we can make steady discharges at less than 0.1 Pa. The neutron production rates per current are larger than those of glow discharge at higher pressure. We consider it should suggest the validity of reducing operating pressure in IECF devices.

Higashi, Takanori; Tomizawa, Takahito; Daino, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

215

Primary stabilizing effect of interbody fusion devices for the cervical spine: an in vitro comparison between three different cage types and bone cement.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion cages are small hollow implants that are inserted into the intervertebral space to restore physiological disc height and to allow bony fusion. They sometimes cause clinical complications due to instability, subsidence or dislocation. These are basic biomechanical parameters, which influence strongly the quality of a fusion device; however, only few data about these parameters are available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the primary stabilizing effect of four different cervical fusion devices in in vitro flexibility tests. Twenty-four human cervical spine segments were used in this study. After anterior discectomy, fusion was performed either with a WING cage (Medinorm AG, Germany), a BAK/C cage (Sulzer SpineTech, USA), an AcroMed cervical I/F cage (DePuy AcroMed International, UK) or bone cement (Sulzer, Switzerland). All specimens were tested in a spine tester in the intact condition and after implantation of one of the four devices. Alternating sequences of pure lateral bending, flexion-extension and axial rotation moments (+/- 2.5 Nm) were applied continuously and the motions in each segment were measured simultaneously. In general, all tested implants had a stabilizing effect. This was most obvious in lateral bending, where the range of motion was between 0.29 (AcroMed cage) and 0.62 (BAK/C cage) with respect to the intact specimen (= 1.00). In lateral bending, flexion and axial rotation, the AcroMed cervical I/F cages had the highest stabilizing effect, followed by bone cement, WING cages and BAK/C cages. In extension, specimens fused with bone cement were most stable. With respect to the primary stabilizing effect, cages, especially the AcroMed I/F cage but also the WING cage and to a minor extent the BAK/C cage, seem to be a good alternative to bone cement in cervical interbody fusion. Other characteristics, such as the effect of implant design on subsidence tendency and the promotion of bone ingrowth, have to be determined in further studies. PMID:11057535

Wilke, H J; Kettler, A; Claes, L

2000-10-01

216

Fusion-driven transmutations of nuclear waste—a misconception or an incentive for promotion of fusion energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-driven system of transmutation of nuclear waste is presented. The main positive aspect of this fusion power option, thanks to energy release from fission, is the prospect of a radical reduction of necessary plasma energy gain, Q, to levels achievable in relatively simple mirror devices. Further advantages of the system include lower FW load and homogeneous heating distribution. The

Stefan Taczanowski; Gra?yna Doma?ska; Jerzy Cetnar

1998-01-01

217

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

218

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

219

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure,

C. A. Danielson

1996-01-01

220

Fusion reactor theory and conceptual design. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and conceptual aspects of fusion reactor physics and designs. A variety of fusion reactors is discussed, including Tokamak, experimental, commercial, tandem mirror, and superconducting magnetic. Topics also include fusion reactor materials, Tokamak devices, blanket design, divertors, fusion plasma production, superconducting magnets, and cryogenic systems. (Contains a minimum of 159 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-11-01

221

The effect of self-shielding of resonance cross-sections on lotus fusion-fission device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LOTUS Swiss fusion fission hybrid test facility was used to investigate the influence of the self-shielding of resonance cross sections on the tritium breeding and on the thorium ratios. Nucleonic analyses were performed using some deterministic codes and the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the self-shielding of resonance cross sections results in a decrease of the thorium

S. Pelloni; E. T. Cheng

1985-01-01

222

Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an "old" technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients.  

PubMed

Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age. The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis. In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing interest in minimally invasive surgery and the unsatisfactory results reported in the literature (mainly due to the high incidence of morbidity and complications), a new titanium lumbar interbody cage (I-FLY) has been developed to achieve solid bone fusion by means of a stand-alone posterior device. The head of the cage is blunt and tapered so that it can be used as a blunt spreader, and the core is small, which facilitates self-positioning. From 2003 to 2007, 119 patients were treated for chronic lumbar discopathy (Modic grade III and Pfirrmann grade V) with I-FLY cages used as stand-alone devices. All patients were clinically evaluated preoperatively and after 1 and 2 years by means of a neurological examination, visual analogue score (VAS) and Prolo Economic and Functional Scale. Radiological results were evaluated by polyaxial computed tomography (CT) scan and flexion-extension radiography. Fusion was defined as the absence of segmental instability on flexion-extension radiography and Bridwell grade I or II on CT scan. Patients were considered clinical "responders" if VAS evaluation showed any improvement over baseline values and a Prolo value >7 was recorded. At the last follow-up examination, clinical success was deemed to have been achieved in 90.5% of patients; the rate of bone fusion was 99.1%, as evaluated by flexion-extension radiography, and 92.2%, as evaluated by CT scan. Morbidity (nerve root injury, dural lesions) and complications (subsidence and pseudoarthrosis) were minimal. PLIF by means of the stand-alone I-FLY cage can be regarded as a possible surgical treatment for chronic low-back pain due to high-degree DDD. This technique is not demanding and can be considered safe and effective, as shown by the excellent clinical and radiological success rates. PMID:21404031

Costa, Francesco; Sassi, Marco; Ortolina, Alessandro; Cardia, Andrea; Assietti, Roberto; Zerbi, Alberto; Lorenzetti, Martin; Galbusera, Fabio; Fornari, Maurizio

2011-03-15

223

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section 886...Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for...

2010-04-01

224

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section 886...Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for...

2011-04-01

225

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section 886...Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for...

2013-04-01

226

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880 Section 886...Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device intended for...

2012-04-01

227

An accurate and efficient self-consistent approach for calculating electron transport through molecular electronic devices: including the corrections of electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent ab initio approach for calculating electron transport through molecular electronic devices is developed. It is based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the Green's function technique employing a finite basis of local orbitals. The device is rigorously separated into the extended molecule region and the electrode region. In the DFT part calculating the Hamiltonian matrix of the extended molecule from its density matrix, the electrostatic correction induced by electrodes and the exchange-correlation correction due to the spatial diffuseness of localized basis functions are included. Our approach is efficient and accurate, with a controllable error to deal with such open systems. A one-dimensional infinite gold monatomic chain, whose electronic structure can be known from conventional DFT calculations with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), is employed to validate the accuracy of our approach. With both corrections, our result for the gold chain at equilibrium is in excellent agreement with the PBC DFT result. We find that, for the gold chain, the exchange-correlation correction is more significant than the electrostatic correction.

Zhang, Jiaxing; Hou, Shimin; Li, Rui; Qian, Zekan; Han, Rushan; Shen, Ziyong; Zhao, Xingyu; Xue, Zengquan

2005-12-01

228

Usefulness of Leksell GammaPlan for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection: delineation of the cranial nerves and fusion of the neuroimaging data, including diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) software was initially designed for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, but it can be successfully applied to planning of the open neurosurgical procedures as well. We present our initial experience of delineating the cranial nerves in the vicinity of skull base tumors, combined visualization of the implanted subdural electrodes and cortical anatomy to facilitate brain mapping, and fusion of structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging performed with the use of LGP before removal of intracranial neoplasms. Such preoperative information facilitated choosing the optimal approach and general surgical strategy, and corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Therefore, LGP may be helpful for planning open neurosurgical procedures in cases of both extraaxial and intraaxial intracranial tumors. PMID:23417477

Tamura, Manabu; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Noriko; Hayashi, Motohiro; Nakao, Naoyuki; Uematsu, Yuji; Itakura, Toru; Régis, Jean; Mangin, Jean François; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

229

Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fusion power plant is described that utilizes a new version of the tandem mirror device including spinning liquid walls. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an axisymmetric equilibrium code predicting an average beta of 60%. The geometry allows...

R. W. Moir T. D. Rognlien

2006-01-01

230

Thick Co-Deposits and Dust in Controlled Fusion Devices with Carbon Walls: Fuel Inventory and Growth Rate of Co-Deposited Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results regarding the formation of co-deposits, fuel accumulation and overall material transport at the TEXTOR tokamak are described. Two categories of brittle flaking co-deposits were identified: (i) smooth stratified layers of a thickness of up to 50 mm and a fuel content of up to 16 at.% , (ii) granular and columnar structures reaching 1 mm in thickness and con-taining around 0.5 at.% of fuel species. They were formed on the blades of the toroidal belt pump limiter (˜15000 s of plasma operation) and on the neutral-iser plates of this limiter (˜90000 s), respectively. A comparison is made to the fuel inventory measured in other controlled fusion devices with carbon walls.

Rubel, M.; Philipps, V.; Tanabe, T.; Wienhold, P.; Freisinger, M.; Linke, J.; von Seggern, J.; Wessel, E.

231

Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

1988-11-01

232

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system.

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

233

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-06-04

234

The origin of convective structures in the scrape-off layer of linear magnetic fusion devices investigated by fast imaging  

SciTech Connect

A fast imaging camera is used to unveil the spatio-temporal properties of radially convective events in the CSDX linear plasma device [M. J. Burin et al., Phys. Plasmas, 12, 052320 (2005)]. The exposure time is set to 1 {mu}s and the time between frames to 10 {mu}s. The time series from a Langmuir probe and from a pixel in the 50000-frame movie are compared and cross-correlated. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is found for spatial scales greater than 2.5 mm. The fluctuations inside the main plasma column are found to change between different poloidal mode numbers as a function of time. Accordingly, the power spectra determined in these linear devices reflect the sum over these modes. Outside the main plasma column, avaloids are observed to remain attached to the main plasma, hence their behavior does not become independent of the dynamics inside the main plasma column. Avaloid properties, assessed from imaging, agree with Langmuir probes done on various devices, except that the radial length is found to be much larger than previously determined because the blob-shape assumption is not valid. The link between fluctuations inside and outside the main plasma column indicates that the nonlinear evolution of the m=1 poloidal mode number is responsible for the creation of avaloids.

Antar, G. Y.; Yu, J. H.; Tynan, G. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2007-02-15

235

Outcomes of allogenic cages in anterior and posterior lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbody lumbar fusions provide a proven logical solution to diseases of the intervertebral discs by eliminating motion of the segment. Historically, there are many techniques to achieve spinal fusion in the lumbar spine. These include anterior, posterior, and foramenal approaches, often in combination with various internal fixation devices. The surgeon's choice of the approach and mechanical or biological implant is

M. E. Janssen; C. Lam; R. Beckham

2001-01-01

236

Code for the 3D simulation of nanoscale semiconductor devices, including drift-diffusion and ballistic transport in 1D and 2D subbands, and 3D tunneling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a three-dimensional device simulator, suitable for the study of a wide range of nanoscale devices, in which quantum confinement and carrier transport are taken into account. In particular, depending on the confinement, the 1D, 2D or 3D Schrödinger equation with density functional theory in the local density approximation is coupled with the Poisson equation in the three-dimensional domain.

G. Fiori; G. Iannaccone

2005-01-01

237

Radial electric field formation by the gyrocenter shifts of the charge exchange reactions at the boundary of fusion device  

SciTech Connect

As an important future energy source nuclear fusion researchers have been trying to solve the problem of radial electric field formation: the key factor of H-mode (high confinement mode) phenomena. Although a profound analysis has been developed on the turbulence suppression by ExB flow (E is the electric field and B is the magnetic field) as a basic mechanism of H-mode transition, the origin of the electric field and its relation with the neutrals are not fully explained. In this paper a novel model of radial electric field formation achieved by gyrocenter shifts during the charge exchange reactions and ion elastic scatterings with the neutrals is analyzed. From this analysis the formula of radial current density by the poloidal momentum sink at the reactions of charge exchange with boundary neutrals is developed with an example calculation for a given plasma condition similar to the experiment. The profile and absolute value of the saturated radial electric field are in agreement with the experimental results. An H-mode transition scenario is discussed by the gyrocenter shift model.

Lee, K.C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2006-06-15

238

Trends in Diagnostic Ultrasound Acoustic Output From Data Reported to the US Food and Drug Administration for Device Indications That Include Fetal Applications.  

PubMed

Objectives- A survey was conducted of acoustic output data received by the US Food and Drug Administration for diagnostic ultrasound devices whose indications for use include fetal applications to assess trends in maximum available acoustic output over time. Methods- Data were collected from 124 regulatory submissions received between 1984 and 2010. Data collection excluded transducers not indicated for diagnostic fetal imaging. The output parameters of ultrasonic power, mean center frequency, and bone thermal index (TIB) were extracted or computed from the submissions for 3 periods: 1984-1989, 1992-1997, and 2005-2010. The data were stratified according to the following imaging modes: M-mode, B/M-mode, pulsed wave Doppler, color flow Doppler, and continuous wave Doppler. Results- Ultrasonic power and maximum TIB values have increased roughly an order of magnitude from pre-1991 to post-1991 periods; the center frequency has decreased somewhat (4.2 to 3.4 MHz). The percentage of Doppler-mode transducers has increased substantially over time, with the majority of the diagnostic fetal imaging transducers currently designed to operate in Doppler modes; this increase is particularly important, since Doppler modes generate much higher TIB levels than B/M-modes. Color flow Doppler ultrasound currently operates at the highest mean ultrasonic power level (with a 14-fold increase over time). Conclusions- The observed trends in increased acoustic output for both Doppler and non-Doppler modes underscore the widely recognized importance of adherence to the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle and prudent use in fetal ultrasound imaging. PMID:24154895

Cibull, Sarah L; Harris, Gerald R; Nell, Diane M

2013-11-01

239

Fusion - High performance computing in magnetic fusion energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining energy from nuclear fusion requires heating the fuel to about 100 times the temperature of the sun to produce a plasma, and holding the hot plasma long enough for fusion reactions to produce a net energy gain. In a magnetic fusion device, this plasma is maintained in a largely self-organized state that far from equilibrium the mathematical description of

Donald B. Batchelor

2006-01-01

240

JET's contribution to fusion science and ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

JET is the largest fusion device in the world and is the only tokamak device that can operate with deuterium-tritium plasmas, can confine the 3.5 MeV fusion alphas and can operate with beryllium, one of the wall materials for the next step fusion device ITER. JET has largely contributed to progress in fusion research over the past 20 years. Highlights

J. Ongena

2006-01-01

241

Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume 2: Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasbility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. Aspects considered include: (1) source conditions; (2) systems integration; (3) materials and

M. A. Abdou; R. D. Boyd; J. R. Easor; W. B. Gauster; J. D. Gordon; R. F. Mattas; G. D. Morgan; M. A. Ulrickson; R. D. Watson; W. G. Wolfer

1984-01-01

242

Balloon-assisted endoscopic retroperitoneal gasless (BERG) technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: The objective of this study was to determine the utility of balloon-assisted endoscopic retroperitoneal gasless\\u000a (BERG) exposure for anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with a variety of interbody fusion devices. Methods: Between January\\u000a 1998 and February 2002, 46 individuals underwent (ALIF) with a variety of devices, including cylindrical cages, femoral ring\\u000a allografts, and Synmesh (Synthes, Philadelphia, PA, USA) cages.

R. M. Vazquez; G. T. Gireesan

2003-01-01

243

ACCF\\/AHA\\/HFSA 2011 Survey Results: Current Staffing Profile of Heart Failure Programs, Including Programs That Perform Heart Transplant and Mechanical Circulatory Support Device Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThere have been no published recommendations about staffing needs for a heart failure (HF) clinic or an office setting focused on heart transplant. The goal of this survey was to understand the current staffing environment of HF, transplant, and mechanical circulatory support device (MCSD) programs in the United States and abroad. This report identifies current staffing patterns but does not

Mariell Jessup; Nancy M. Albert; David E. Lanfear; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Barry M. Massie; Mary Norine Walsh; Mark J. Zucker

2011-01-01

244

Study of the feasibility of applying laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ characterization of deposited layers in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a feasibility study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the development of an in-situ diagnostic for the characterization of deposition layers on plasma-facing components in fusion devices. Preferentially, LIBS would be applied in the presence of a toroidal magnetic field and under high vacuum conditions. The impact of the laser-energy densities on the laser-induced plasma parameters and correspondingly on the number of emitted photons and on the reproducibility of the LIBS method has been studied in laboratory experiments and in TEXTOR on fine-grain graphite (EK98) as well as on bulk W samples coated with carbon and metallic-containing deposits. The effect of magnetic fields and of ambient pressures in the range from 2×10-4 Pa to 10 Pa on the carbon plasma plume produced by the LIBS technique has been studied on TEXTOR between plasma pulses. The possibility of applying this method to ITER is discussed.

Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Philipps, V.; Leyte-Gonzales, R.; Gierse, N.; Zlobinski, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Kotov, V.; Mertens, P.; Samm, U.; Sergienko, G.

2011-12-01

245

Development of an irradiation creep correlation for 20% cold-worked AISI 316 in fusion environments: DAFS contribution  

SciTech Connect

A correlation has been developed describing the anticipated irradiation creep behavior of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 in fusion environments. It incorporates low temperature fast breeder and thermal reactor data to extend the existing breeder correlation to the temperature range of the proposed Fusion Energy Device. It also includes a dependence on displacement rate not currently incorporated in the corresponding breeder correlation.

Doran, D.G.

1980-01-01

246

The role of nuclear data for fusion technology studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear data are of fundamental importance in studies of nuclear technology. In these studies, experiments to measure cross sections and decay properties and simulations of the design of fission power plants, fusion devices and accelerators are included. The large amount of data required is stored in computer readable formats in data libraries and the most common of these are the

Robin A. Forrest

2011-01-01

247

Activity of national institute for Fusion Science toward realization of helical fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) promotes academic approaches toward exploration of fusion science for steady-state helical reactor and realizes establishment of comprehensive understanding of toroidal plasmas as an inter­ university research organization and a key center of worldwide fusion research. Three key projects, Large Helical Device (LHD) project, simulation science project, and fusion engineering project are organized

A. Komori; O. Kaneko; S. Sakakibara; R. Horiuchi; A. Sagara; H. Yamada; Y. Takeiri

2011-01-01

248

Trends in fusion reactor safety research  

SciTech Connect

Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

1991-01-01

249

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

250

Superconductors for fusion: Achievements, open issues, roadmap to future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need of superconducting magnets for fusion reactors has been obvious since over 30 years. In last century, a dozen of fusion devices have been built with superconducting magnets. In the last years the Chinese and Korean tokamaks started operation. Four devices are under construction (SST1, W7-X, ITER, JT60SA).The size, i.e. the energy stored in the magnetic field, has driven the R&D for conductors, from the multi-filamentary composite of Tore Supra, to the monolithic conductors of T15 and the Large Helical Device (LHD), to the cable-in-conduit conductors, which dominate the fusion magnets of the last 15 years. The large electro-magnetic forces on the windings also drove the selection of cooling, from the bath cooling of Tore Supra and LHD to the force flow of supercritical helium in all the other devices.The state of the art on conductor design and performance is reviewed and three open issues in the superconducting magnet technology for fusion are highlighted (performance degradation in Nb3Sn, self field limitation in large NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), change of length upon heat treatment of ITER conductors).A projection in the future of superconductors for fusion is attempted, including the role of HTS.

Bruzzone, P.

2010-11-01

251

EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics of mapping methods of magnetic field lines, 3D-plasma transport modelling efforts of ergodized plasmas and island divertors, and on the penetration of the external field including the resulting force transfer. We hope that the article series in Nuclear Fusion will stimulate interest in this fascinating subject of plasma physics.

Finken, K. H.

2006-04-01

252

An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)  

PubMed Central

Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45?cm for W or 62?cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90?cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120?cm for W or 150?cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).

Gryz, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

253

Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4-Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application specific. Often fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces to silicon or silicon dioxide to silicon surfaces is preferred, though Si3N4-Si3N4 bonding is indeed possible and practical for many devices as will be shown in this paper. We present an overview of existing knowledge on Si3N4-Si3N4 bonding and new results on bonding of thin and thick Si3N4 layers. The new results include high temperature bonding without any pretreatment, along with improved bonding ability achieved by thermal oxidation and chemical pretreatment. The bonded wafers include both unprocessed and processed wafers with a total silicon nitride thickness of up to 440 nm. Measurements of bonding strength, void characterization, oxidation rate and surface roughness are also presented. Bonding strengths for stoichiometric low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4-Si3N4 direct fusion bonding in excess of 2 J cm-2 are found. The stoichiometry is verified indirectly through refractive index and intrinsic stress measurements. The importance of surface oxide in Si3N4-Si3N4 fusion bonding is investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik V.; Hansen, Ole

2011-12-01

254

Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL–TCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCL–TCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3\\/4; L5\\/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

Sunny A. Abbah; Christopher X. L. Lam; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; James C. H. Goh; Hee-Kit Wong

2009-01-01

255

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

256

Integrated Plasma Control in Next-Generation Devices Using DIII-D Modeling and Simulation Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive set of software tools for integrated plasma control, developed and validated on the DIII-D tokamak, has been applied to several nextgeneration fusion device designs including KSTAR, EAST, and ITER. These devices will require elements of integrated plasma control in order to achieve high reliability advanced tokamak or burning plasma operation. Plasma Control Systems (PCS) based on the DIII-D

R. D. Deranian; J. R. Ferron; D. A. Humphreys

2005-01-01

257

Cell fusions in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and\\u000a the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development\\u000a and progression. A large number of factors appear to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain\\u000a organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins

Lars-Inge Larsson; Bolette Bjerregaard; Jan Fredrik Talts

2008-01-01

258

Nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of nuclear fusion as an energy source and research progress in this area are summarized. The current state of the art is described. Laser fusion, inertial confinement fusion, and magnetic fusion (the tokamak) are explained, the latter in some detail. Remaining problems and planned future reactors are considered. They are the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear

T. K. Fowler

1989-01-01

259

Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices  

PubMed Central

The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

2009-01-01

260

Effect of superbanana diffusion on fusion reactivity in stellarators  

SciTech Connect

Fusion reactivity is usually obtained using a Maxwellian distribution. However, energy-dependent radial diffusion can modify the energy distribution. Superbanana diffusion is energy-dependent and occurs in nonaxisymmetric magnetic confinement devices, such as stellarators, because of ripple-trapped particles which can take large steps between collisions. In this paper, the D-T fusion reactivity is calculated using a non-Maxwellian energy distribution obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, including radial superbanana diffusion as well as energy scattering. The ions in the tail of the distribution, with energies larger than thermal, which are most needed for fusion, are depleted by superbanana diffusion. In this paper, it is shown that the D-T fusion reactivity is reduced by tail ion depletion due to superbanana diffusion, by roughly a factor of 0.5 for the parameters used in the calculation.

Hinton, Fred L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

2012-08-15

261

Status of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion reactor level plasma parameters have been achieved in experimental devices during the last decade. Energy breakeven is expected in the larger plasma confinement devices that have recently begun or are about to begin operation with the goal of demonstrating that magnetic fusion systems are scientifically feasible. The present status of research in torodial and mirror systems is reviewed. Specifically,

1983-01-01

262

Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made

Heinrich Hora

2004-01-01

263

Cell fusion assays for yeast mating pairs.  

PubMed

Yeast mating provides an accessible genetic system for the discovery of fundamental mechanisms in eukaryotic cell fusion. Although aspects of yeast mating related to pheromone signaling and polarized growth have been intensively investigated, fusion itself is poorly understood. This chapter describes methods for measuring the overall efficiency of yeast cell fusion and for monitoring various stages of the fusion process including cell wall remodeling, plasma membrane fusion, and nuclear fusion. PMID:18979244

Grote, Eric

2008-01-01

264

What have fusion reactor studies done for you today  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Wisconsin examines the fusion program and puts into perspective what return is being made on investments in fusion reactor studies. Illustations show financial support for fusion research from the four major programs, FY'82 expenditures on fusion research, and the total expenditures on fusion research since 1951. Topics discussed include the estimated number of scientists conducting fusion research,

Kulchinski

1985-01-01

265

Fusion at the crossroads towards ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision to build ITER in Europe, at Cadarache, as a joint enterprise of all major partners in international fusion research\\u000a opens a new era for fusion and is expected to focus a strong world-wide effort towards ITER and ITER-related R&D in fusion\\u000a physics and technology.\\u000a \\u000a ITER, the unique Next Step device in magnetic fusion, aims at demonstrating the scientific

H. Bruhns

2006-01-01

266

Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an “old” technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age.\\u000a The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis.\\u000a In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing

Francesco Costa; Marco Sassi; Alessandro Ortolina; Andrea Cardia; Roberto Assietti; Alberto Zerbi; Martin Lorenzetti; Fabio Galbusera; Maurizio Fornari

2011-01-01

267

Nuclear Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

Veres, G.

268

Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface  

SciTech Connect

The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-05-15

269

Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

2012-05-01

270

Fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion, which powers the sun and stars, is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless energy on earth. The potential of fusion has been recognized for over 65 years, but mastering fusion on earth has proved to be an enormous scientific and technical challenge. It involves heating a large volume of dilute gas, containing equal parts

CHRIS LLEWELLYN-SMITH; DAVID WARD

2005-01-01

271

The evolution of the histone methyltransferase gene Su(var)3-9 in metazoans includes a fusion with and a re-fission from a functionally unrelated gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a common mechanism involved in gene silencing and the establishment of heterochromatin. The loci of the major heterochromatic H3K9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9 and the functionally unrelated ? subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 are fused in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examined the phylogenetic distribution of this unusual gene fusion and

Veiko Krauss; Anne Fassl; Petra Fiebig; Ina Patties; Heinz Sass

2006-01-01

272

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

273

Thoracic and lumbar spine fusion: postoperative radiologic evaluation.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of 206 consecutive thoracic and lumbar fusions revealed a variety of surgical procedures performed for instability and malalignment after severe trauma. Stabilization procedures included insertion of 103 Harrington distraction and 15 Harrington compression rods, 84 Weiss spings, six Luque rods, and 10 miscellaneous plates and wires as single or multiple devices in combination with anterior and/or posterior fusions. Complications of surgical fusion included nine unhooked rods, six fatigue fractures of rods and springs, five overdistractions of vertebrae, four cases of severe kyphosis, and two failures of reduction. A meaningful postoperative radiologic evaluation can be accomplished only when indications for surgical techniques, their radiologic appearance, and possible complications are known. PMID:6603137

Foley, M J; Calenoff, L; Hendrix, R W; Schafer, M F

1983-08-01

274

Posterior instrumentation and fusion for unstable fractures and fracture-dislocations of the thoracic and lumbar spine. A comparative study of three fixation devices in 70 patients.  

PubMed

Acute unstable thoracic and lumbar spine fractures were treated with either Harrington rods and hooks, Luque rods with sublaminar wires, or A-O dynamic compression plates with pedicle screws. The results demonstrated failure of all three techniques to maintain the sagittal plane correction at 12 months' follow-up. Furthermore, in lumbar fractures, Harrington rods did not restore or maintain sagittal plane alignment as well as Luque rods or pedicle screws and plates. Lastly, the pedicle screw fixation system required a shorter segment fusion. PMID:8470006

Sasso, R C; Cotler, H B

1993-03-15

275

Ceramics for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1986-01-01

276

SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

2013-05-01

277

Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion power plant is described that utilizes a new version of the tandem mirror device including spinning liquid walls. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an axisymmetric equilibrium code predicting an average beta of 60%. The geometry allows a flowing molten salt, (flibe-LiâBeFâ), which protects the walls and structures from damage arising from neutrons and plasma particles. The free

R W Moir; T D Rognlien

2006-01-01

278

Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

Thomas, E.W.

1985-02-01

279

Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp41 Protein that Includes the Fusion Peptide: NMR Detection of Recombinant Fgp41 in Inclusion Bodies in Whole Bacterial Cells and Structural Characterization of Purified and Membrane-Associated Fgp41†  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a host cell begins with fusion of the HIV and host cell membranes and is mediated by the gp41 protein, a single-pass integral membrane protein of HIV. The N-terminal 175 residues are the ectodomain which lies outside the virus. This paper describes production and characterization of an ectodomain construct containing the 154 N-terminal gp41 residues including fusion peptide (FP) that binds to target cell membranes. The Fgp41 sequence was derived from one of the African clade A strains of HIV-1 which have been less studied than European/North American clade B strains. Fgp41 expression at ~100 mg/L culture was evidenced by an approach that included amino acid type 13CO and 15N labeling of recombinant protein and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of lyophilized whole cells. The approach did not require any protein solubilization or purification and may be a general approach for detection of recombinant protein. The purified Fgp41 yield was ~5 mg/L culture. SSNMR spectra of membrane-associated Fgp41 showed high helicity at residues C-terminal of the FP. This was consistent with “six-helix bundle” (SHB) structure which is the final gp41 state during membrane fusion. This observation plus negligible Fgp41-induced vesicle fusion supported a function for SHB gp41 of membrane stabilization and fusion arrest. SSNMR spectra of residues in the membrane-associated FP evidenced a mixture of molecular populations with either helical or ? sheet FP conformation. These and earlier SSNMR data strongly support the existence of these populations in the SHB state of membrane-associated gp41.

Vogel, Erica P.; Curtis-Fisk, Jaime; Young, Kaitlin M.; Weliky, David P.

2011-01-01

280

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of human immunodeficiency virus gp41 protein that includes the fusion peptide: NMR detection of recombinant Fgp41 in inclusion bodies in whole bacterial cells and structural characterization of purified and membrane-associated Fgp41.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a host cell begins with fusion of the HIV and host cell membranes and is mediated by the gp41 protein, a single-pass integral membrane protein of HIV. The 175 N-terminal residues make up the ectodomain that lies outside the virus. This work describes the production and characterization of an ectodomain construct containing the 154 N-terminal gp41 residues, including the fusion peptide (FP) that binds to target cell membranes. The Fgp41 sequence was derived from one of the African clade A strains of HIV-1 that have been less studied than European/North American clade B strains. Fgp41 expression at a level of ~100 mg/L of culture was evidenced by an approach that included amino acid type (13)CO and (15)N labeling of recombinant protein and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of lyophilized whole cells. The approach did not require any protein solubilization or purification and may be a general approach for detection of recombinant protein. The purified Fgp41 yield was ~5 mg/L of culture. SSNMR spectra of membrane-associated Fgp41 showed high helicity for the residues C-terminal of the FP. This was consistent with a "six-helix bundle" (SHB) structure that is the final gp41 state during membrane fusion. This observation and negligible Fgp41-induced vesicle fusion supported a function for SHB gp41 of membrane stabilization and fusion arrest. SSNMR spectra of residues in the membrane-associated FP provided evidence of a mixture of molecular populations with either helical or ?-sheet FP conformation. These and earlier SSNMR data strongly support the existence of these populations in the SHB state of membrane-associated gp41. PMID:21985645

Vogel, Erica P; Curtis-Fisk, Jaime; Young, Kaitlin M; Weliky, David P

2011-10-31

281

Fusion technology status and requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion technologies are grouped into nuclear (first wall components, blankets, fuel handling, shielding), plasma production (magnets, cryogenics, radio frequency, neutral beam, plasma fuelling, power supplies, energy storage, plasma direct recovery, vacuum), and systems (instrumentation, control, safety, environmental, maintenance, handling). The status of each of these technologies is discussed for major existing test facilities. The operating characteristics are listed for a fusion engineering device proposed to demonstrate net electric power production and the breeding of its own fuel.

Thomassen, K. I.

1982-01-01

282

Fusion development and technology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

Montgomery, D.B.

1992-01-01

283

Inertial fusion program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements for the Gemini System and the eight-beam system Helios are summarized and the 100- to 200-TW Antares target irradiation system is discussed. Other topics covered include: (1) phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion system; (2) frequency multiplexing

F. Skoberne

1981-01-01

284

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

285

Fusion Implementation  

SciTech Connect

If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

J.A. Schmidt

2002-02-20

286

"Polarized" Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

287

STATs and macrophage fusion  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play a pivotal role in host defense against multiple foreign materials such as bacteria, parasites and artificial devices. Some macrophage lineage cells, namely osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), form multi-nuclear giant cells by the cell–cell fusion of mono-nuclear cells. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells, and are formed in the presence of RANKL on the surface of bones, while FBGCs are formed in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 on foreign materials such as artificial joints, catheters and parasites. Recently, fusiogenic mechanisms and the molecules required for the cell–cell fusion of these macrophage lineage cells were, at least in part, clarified. Dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), both of which comprise seven transmembrane domains, are required for both osteoclast and FBGC cell–cell fusion. STAT6 was demonstrated to be required for the cell–cell fusion of FBGCs but not osteoclasts. In this review, advances in macrophage cell–cell fusion are discussed.

2013-01-01

288

Primary renal neoplasms with the ASPL-TFE3 gene fusion of alveolar soft part sarcoma: a distinctive tumor entity previously included among renal cell carcinomas of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The unbalanced translocation, der(17)t(X;17)(p11.2;q25), is characteristic of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). We have recently shown that this translocation fuses the TFE3 transcription factor gene at Xp11.2 to ASPL, a novel gene at 17q25. We describe herein eight morphologically distinctive renal tumors occurring in young people that bear the identical ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript as ASPS, with the distinction that the t(X;17) translocation is cytogenetically balanced in these renal tumors. A relationship between these renal tumors and ASPS was initially suggested by the cytogenetic finding of a balanced t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) in two of the cases, and the ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcripts were then confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The morphology of these eight ASPL-TFE3 fusion-positive renal tumors, although overlapping in some aspects that of classic ASPS, more closely resembles renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which was the a priori diagnosis in all cases. These tumors demonstrate nested and pseudopapillary patterns of growth, psammomatous calcifications, and epithelioid cells with abundant clear cytoplasm and well-defined cell borders. By immunohistochemistry, four tumors were negative for all epithelial markers tested, whereas four were focally positive for cytokeratin and two were reactive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (one diffusely, one focally). Electron microscopy of six tumors demonstrated a combination of ASPS-like features (dense granules in four cases, rhomboid crystals in two cases) and epithelial features (cell junctions in six cases, microvilli and true glandular lumens in three cases). Overall, although seven of eight tumors demonstrated at least focal epithelial features by electron microscopy or immunohistochemistry, the degree and extent of epithelial differentiation was notably less than expected for typical RCC. We confirmed the balanced nature of the t(X;17) translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization in all seven renal tumors thus analyzed, which contrasts sharply with the unbalanced nature of the translocation in ASPS. In summary, a subset of tumors previously considered to be RCC in young people are in fact genetically related to ASPS, although their distinctive morphological and genetic features justify their classification as a distinctive neoplastic entity. Finally, the finding of distinctive tumors being associated with balanced and unbalanced forms of the same translocation is to our knowledge, unprecedented. PMID:11438465

Argani, P; Antonescu, C R; Illei, P B; Lui, M Y; Timmons, C F; Newbury, R; Reuter, V E; Garvin, A J; Perez-Atayde, A R; Fletcher, J A; Beckwith, J B; Bridge, J A; Ladanyi, M

2001-07-01

289

Discriminant Analysis of Plasma Fusion Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discriminant analysis is a branch of statistics with applications in many fields. One of these (a relatively new one) is nuclear fusion research, where one is interested in various types of plasma discharges produced in toroidal devices. In many instances...

O. J. W. F. Kardaun J. W. P. F. Kardaun S. Itoh K. Itoh

1992-01-01

290

Data security on the national fusion grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

291

Security on the US Fusion Grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

292

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion utilizing BMP-2 in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: neither safe nor cost effective  

PubMed Central

Background: With the rise of health care costs, there is increased emphasis on evaluating the cost of a particular surgical procedure for quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Recent data have shown that surgical intervention for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is as cost-effective as total joint arthroplasty. Despite these excellent outcomes, some argue that the addition of interbody fusion supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) enhances the value of this procedure. Methods: This review examines the current research regarding the cost-effectiveness of the surgical management of lumbar DS utilizing interbody fusion along with BMP. Results: Posterolateral spinal fusion with instrumentation for focal lumbar spinal stenosis with DS can provide and maintain improvement in self-reported quality of life. Based on the available literature, including nonrandomized comparative studies and case series, the addition of interbody fusion along with BMP does not lead to significantly better clinical outcomes and increases costs when compared with more routine posterolateral fusion techniques. Conclusions: To enhance the value of the surgical management for DS, costs must decrease or there should be substantial improvement in effectiveness as measured by clinical outcomes. To date, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interbody fusion devices along with BMP to treat routine cases of focal stenosis accompanied by DS, which are routinely adequately treated utilizing posterolateral fusion techniques.

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2013-01-01

293

Glow Discharge Characteristics in Relation to Anode Size in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device is a very simple and safe neutron source that uses a glow discharge for deuterium-deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristics of the device were studied experimentally. The relationship between gas pressure and applied voltage was examined by light changes of the device's anode size. The gas pressure ranges in which the device was able to

Hodaka Osawa; Shigehisa Yoshimura; Takehiro Tabata; Masami Ohnishi

2008-01-01

294

Fusion yield measurements on JET and their calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power output of fusion experiments and fusion reactor-like devices is measured in terms of the neutron emission rates which relate directly to the fusion yield rate. Determination of such parameters requires a set of absolutely calibrated neutron detectors. At JET, the Fission Chamber neutron detectors were originally calibrated some 20 years ago by performing a set of in-situ calibrations

D. B. Syme; S. Popovichev; S. Conroy; I. Lengar; L. Snoj

295

Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion  

SciTech Connect

It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

2012-08-08

296

Measurement of magnetic field and velocity profiles in 3.6 kJ United Nations University/International Center For Theoretical Physics plasma focus fusion device  

SciTech Connect

A Mather-type small plasma focus device was operated in air filling in the pressure range of 0.5 to 1.0 Torr and capacitor bank charging voltage of 13{endash}15 kV. A strong focusing action was observed in this pressure range. Magnetic probe signals at various axial positions were used to estimate velocity of current sheet and axial magnetic field distribution profiles. It was observed that under the present experimental conditions the magnetic field remains constant at 0.72 T from {ital z}=0.0 cm to {ital z}=8.0 cm but falls rapidly to 0.52 T at about {ital z}=14.5 cm at a fixed radial distance of 2.65 cm. The magnetic field and velocity measurements indicate a current shedding effect{emdash}only 68.5{percent} of the total injected current flows into the focus region. The rapid drop of the magnetic field at {ital z}=8.0 cm suggests that further (initial shedding is at the insulator) current and mass shedding in the focus tube is significant after this value of {ital z}. Experimental values of velocity of the current sheet are compared with those of the snow plough theoretical model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Mathuthu, M.; Zengeni, T.G. [Physics Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe); Gholap, A.V. [Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

1996-12-01

297

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)|

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

298

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

299

Stellarator and Heliotron Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stellarators and tokamaks are the most advanced devices that have been developed for magnetic fusion applications. The two approaches have much in common; tokamaks have received the most attention because their axisymmetry justifies the use of simpler models and provides a more forgiving geometry. However, recent advances in treating more complicated three dimensional systems have made it possible to design

John L. Johnson

1999-01-01

300

Fusion relevant performance in JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of fusion relevant performance in a number of JET operational regimes. In most areas JET provides a suitable platform on which to base the design and predict the performance of a next step device. The main outstanding problem area is that of controlling impurity influxes and plasma exhaust, these are to be studied in a new

A. Gibson

1990-01-01

301

Automated targeting data fusion (ATDF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated all source data fusion primarily fuses analyst generated messages. The Automated Targeting Data Fusion (ATDF) effort created an application that rapidly associated very diverse information sources automatically. In recent military conflict situations, enormous amounts of multi-source data have been made available to war-fighters. These data include imagery, signals intelligence, acoustic information, input from human analysts, and other sources. The

Randy K. Young; Peter S. Wyckoff; James H. Wise

2003-01-01

302

Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission  

SciTech Connect

A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P

2012-08-27

303

Computational fusion magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Simple magnetohydrodynamic models provide the framework for much of our understanding of the macroscopic behavior of magnetically confined laboratory plasmas. In even the simplest of models, however, the many different time and spatial scales, the multidimensionality, and the nonlinearity of the equations make finding solutions difficult. In realistic geometries obtaining quantitative results to aid our understanding, to interpret experiment, and to design new devices, involves the development of large scale numerical codes. During the past decade considerable effort has been extended in the fusion community to develop equilibrium, linear stability, and nonlinear time evolution codes in two and three dimensions, some of which have had a considerable impact on the fusion program. An overview of the various types of codes and numerical methods is given. Emphasis is on the spectrum of linear perturbations and ideal MHD stability, boundary layer methods and resistive MHD stability, and modeling of nonlinear, time evolution resistive MHD phenomena in tokamak configurations.

Grimm, R.C.

1984-01-01

304

A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle

T. Kammash; T. Godfroy

1998-01-01

305

Key materials issues for near term fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials problems in near term fusion devices tend not to be dominated by structural alloys, but more by specialized components. Prevention of radiation damage to superconducting magnet materials (insulators, stabilizers and superconductors) tends to have a large impact on the size, and hence the cost of fusion devices. Other problems such as impurity control components, breeder materials, and coatings for

G. L. Kulcinski; J. M. Dupouy; E. Ishino

1986-01-01

306

Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices.  

PubMed

The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

2009-11-17

307

Tritium source terms for fusion power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess tritium control aspects of fusion reactors, to derive a preliminary estimate of the probable tritium releases and source terms under steady-state reactor operation, and to identify areas where advancement of fusion reactor tritium control technology will be required. Tritium release aspects of six fusion reactor conceptual designs were evaluated, including four Tokamaks,

T. J. Kabele; A. B. Jr. Johnson; L. K. Mudge

1976-01-01

308

Magnetic fusion energy materials technology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) materials technology program are to solve the materials problems of the fusion energy division of ORNL and to meet needs of the national MFE program, directed by the ERDA Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE). The principal areas of work include radiation effects, compatibility studies, materials studies related to the plasma-materials interaction,

J. L. Scott

1977-01-01

309

Cyclic thermal stresses in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we model and analyze cyclic thermal loads and stresses in two critical components of inertial and magnetic confinement fusion reactors (including fusion-fission hybrids); namely, in the solid wall adjacent to the fusion plasma (first wall) and in the fuel elements located in the high power density region of the blanket. We derive explicit expressions for the parametric dependencies of thermal stresses that provide a quantitative basis for tradeoff and comparative assessment studies of different fusion reactors.

Bohachevsky, I.O.; Kostoff, R.N.

1981-01-01

310

Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

2013-10-01

311

Spheromak path to fusion  

SciTech Connect

The spheromak attributes? - internally generated toroidal magnetic field without linked coils, dynamo-driven plasma current resulting from helicity injection, and compactness - lead to attractive reactor options ranging from ?conventional? steady-state designs, to high beta pulsed configurations, and to-the core of a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) device. The resolution of the physics issues associated with these attributes, discussed in later sections, will determine the size and viability of the reactors. Preliminary designs, however, have been made and illustrate the opportunities.

Hooper, E. B.; Ryutov, D. D.; Thomassen, K. I.

1999-01-05

312

Neutral Beam Injectors for the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program: Progress and Prognosis for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attainment of economic, safe fusion power has been described as the most sophisticated scientific problem ever attacked by mankind. The goal of the magnetic fusion program is to develop and demonstrate pure fusion central electric power stations for commercial applications. Neutral beam heating systems are a basic component of the tokamak and mirror experimental fusion plasma confinement devices. The

H. S. Staten

1979-01-01

313

EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

Kikuchi, M.

2011-01-01

314

Suction device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A suction device, particularly intended for use as a soft-solder suction device in soldering operations. The suction device includes a housing (1) having a cylindrical chamber (2) and a suction pipe (11) connected to one end of the chamber. Arranged for axial movement in the chamber is piston (4). The piston is arranged to move extremely rapidly through the chamber, from a starting position located adjacent the suction pipe, in response to the release of a force acting automatically upon the piston. This piston movement creates a subpressure, which results in an effective suction effect at the tip of the suction pipe (11). In order to enable the suction device to be held absolutely still when movement of the piston (4) is initiated, the piston is arranged to be operated electromagnetically. The electromagnetic force is initiated by means of a switch which is separate from the suction device and which is foot-operated or arranged to be operated by some other part of the body. In order to simplify cleaning of the suction device, and to extend the intervals at which consecutive cleaning operations need be carried out, the suction pipe (11) is provided with a conically tapering suction channel (12).

Popovic; Stojan (S-112 50 Stockholm, SE)

1987-04-28

315

A review of pulse fusion propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last forty years there has been considerable interest in both internal and external pulse propulsion systems. Over this time the nuclear devices being considered have grown considerably smaller than those initially examined. Now pellets are normally in the range from 15 cm down to 2 cm in diameter, and fusion devices are generally preferred. High energy density triggers

Brice N. Cassenti

2002-01-01

316

Inertial fusion program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy short pulse CO2 laser systems for fusion research are discussed. Improvements in the eight beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximately 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and X-ray radiation loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. High quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of X-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion fission hybrid concepts are presented.

Skoberne, F.; Sinoradzki, H. M.

1981-10-01

317

Decentralized multiplatform data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decentralized data fusion paradigm is the more general case of centralized fusion. Although centralized fusion is currently well understood and applied widely, a decentralized approach offers many (potential) advantages. These include significant improvements in modularity, fault tolerance, and scalability. In particular, decentralized techniques directly support the development of 'plug and play' systems, and can provide valuable insights into the relationship between system level performance and that of sensor sub-systems. There can also be a provable equivalence to optimal centralized algorithms. This paper describes the design of a preliminary, comprehensive demonstration of the concept of fully decentralized, modular sensing technology. The demonstrator will allow for multiple sensor platforms each equipped with one or more range-only, bearings-only, or range and bearing sensors providing limited view, asynchronous measurements of the target environment. This work builds on the latest developments in the information-based representations of the data fusion process, as these make explicit the value (or utility) of each data fusion decision.

Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.; Deaves, Rob H.; Greenway, Phil

1998-08-01

318

Inertial fusion program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements for the Gemini System and the eight-beam system Helios are summarized and the 100- to 200-TW Antares target irradiation system is discussed. Other topics covered include: (1) phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion system; (2) frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction; (3) experiments with targets designed accurate diagnostics; (4) the detection of expanding ions, neutron yield, and X-ray emission; (5) target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer; (6) implosion phenomena; (7) the development of a ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket; and (8) the formulation of capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors.

Skoberne, F.

1981-06-01

319

Fusion Reactor Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma kinetic temperature and density changes, each per an injected fuel density rate increment, control the energy supplied by a thermonuclear fusion reactor in a power production cycle. This could include simultaneously coupled control objectives for plasma current, horizontal and vertical position, shape and burn control. The minimum number of measurements required, use of indirect (not plasma parameters) system measurements, and distributed control procedures for burn control are to be verifiable in a time dependent systems code. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has the need to feedback control both the fusion output power and the driven plasma current, while avoiding damage to diverter plates. The system engineering of fusion reactors must be performed to assure their development expeditiously and effectively by considering reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental impact, health and safety, and cost.

Plummer, Dirk

2003-10-01

320

Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for various applications, including protons for creating radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and neutrons for detecting clandestine materials. Most IEC devices worldwide, including the UW devices, presently operate primarily in a pressure range (1-10 mtorr) that allows ions to make only a few passes through the core before they charge exchange and lose substantial energy or they collide with cathode grid wires. It is believed that fusion rates can be raised by operating at a pressure where neutral gas does not impede ion flow, and a helicon ion source has been developed to explore operation at pressures of {approx}0.05 mtorr. The UW IEC research group uses proton detectors, neutron detectors, residual gas analyzers, and spectroscopic diagnostics. New diagnostic techniques have also been developed, including eclipse disks to localize proton production and chordwires to estimate ion fluxes using power balance.

Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Ashley, R.P.; Boris, D.R.; Cipiti, B.B.; Murali, S. Krupakar; Piefer, G.R.; Radel, R.F.; Radel, T.E.; Wehmeyer, A.L. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

2005-05-15

321

A program toward a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

Near breakeven conditions have been attained in the JET tokamak (Fusion Technol. {bold 11}, 13 (1987)), with beryllium as the first-wall material. A fusion triple product ({ital n}{sub {ital D}}{tau}{sub {ital E}}{ital T}{sub {ital i}}) of 8--9{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} sec keV has been reached (within a factor of 8 of that required in a fusion reactor). However, this has only been achieved {ital transiently}. At high heating powers, an influx of impurities still limits the achievement of better performance and steady-state operation. In parallel, an improved quantitative understanding of fusion plasmas has emerged from the development of a particular plasma model. Good quantitative agreement is obtained between the model and JET data. The main predictions are also consistent with statistical scaling laws. With such a model, a predictive capability begins to emerge to define the parameters and operating conditions of a DEMO, including impurity levels. Present experimental results and model predictions suggest that impurity dilution is a major threat to a reactor. A divertor concept must be developed further to ensure impurity control before a DEMO can be constructed. A New Phase for JET is planned in which an axisymmetric pumped divertor configuration will be used to address the problems of impurity control, plasma fueling, and helium ash exhaust. It should demonstrate a concept of impurity control and the operational domain for such a device. A single Next Step facility (ITER) is a high risk strategy in terms of physics, technology, and management, since it does not provide a sufficiently sound foundation for a DEMO. A Next Step program is proposed, which could comprise several complementary facilities, each optimized with respect to specific clear objectives. In a minimum program, there could be two Next Step tokamaks, and a Materials Test Facility.

Rebut, P.; Watkins, M.L.; Gambier, D.J.; Boucher, D. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3EA, England (GB))

1991-08-01

322

Nuclear performance optimization of the molten salt fusion breeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion breeder program is investigating the potential of producing fissile fuels with fusion neutrons. This paper reports on refined nuclear analysis, including the treatment of resonance and spatial self-shielding, coupled with an optimization procedure, of a 1985 molten salt fusion breeder design. The blanket of this tandem mirror-based fusion breeder contains beryllium pebbles for neutron multiplication, molten salt in

J. D. Lee; B. R. Bandini

1986-01-01

323

Intense fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

324

Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; helium-3 to helium-4 ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of helium-3/helium-4.

Clayton, E. D.

1989-09-01

325

Discharge Characteristics of Anode Size in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device is a very simple and safe neutron source using the glow discharge in deuterium gas and deuterium - deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristic is studied experimentally. The gas pressure - applied voltage characteristics are examined altering the device's anode size. The gas pressure range that the device is able to work is differed

H. Osawa; S. Yoshimura; Takehiro TABATA; M. Ohnishi

2006-01-01

326

Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices  

DOEpatents

A beam limiter circumscribes the interior surface of a vacuum vessel to inhibit collisions of contained plasma and the vessel walls. The cross section of the material making up the limiter has a flatsided or slightly concave portion of increased width towards the plasma and portions of decreased width towards the interior surface of the vessel. This configuration is designed to prevent a major fraction of the material sputtered, vaporized and blistered from the limiter from reaching the plasma. It also allows adequate heat transfer from the wider to the narrower portions. The preferred materials for the beam limiter are solids of sintered, particulate materials of low atomic number with low vapor pressure and low sputtering and blistering yields.

Kaminsky, Manfred S. (Hinsdale, IL)

1976-01-01

327

Application of RGT graphite in fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of fine-grained recrystallized RGT graphite modified by titanium is considered. Thermally stabilized fine-grained RGT graphite modified by 10 at.% Ti has a density of 2.1 g cm, a heat conductivity of up to 800 W m K, a low porosity and a small retention of hydrogen isotopes. The paper presents the results of full-scale tests on RGT graphite samples carried out in the

O. I. Buzhinskij; V. G. Otroshchenko; W. P. West

2007-01-01

328

Leak testing and repair of fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MFTF-B magnets. The leak-hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown), their associated piping, liquid nitrogen radiation shields, and piping. Additionally, during MFTF-B operation there will be warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking.

Kozman, T.A.

1983-06-17

329

Hydrogen inventories in nuclear fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen retention in tokamaks is due to implantation into plasma-facing materials and trapping in deposited layers. In the limiter tokamak TEXTOR-94 hydrogen-rich deposited layers with thicknesses up to 1 mm are observed on recessed parts of the limiters, areas perpendicular to the magnetic field in the scrape-off layer (SOL), neutralizer plates of the pumped limiter and inside the pumping ducts.

M. Mayer; V. Philipps; P. Wienhold; H. G Esser; J von Seggern; M. Rubel

2001-01-01

330

Leak testing and repair of fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MPTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques are developed for testing and repairing leaks on the 42 MPTF-B magnets. The leak hunting techniques for the yin-yang magnet systems were applied to two helium circuits (the coil bundle and guard vacuum; both require helium flow for magnet cooldown). Additionally, during MPTF-B operation there are warm water plasma shields and piping that require leak checking.

Kozman, T. A.

1983-06-01

331

Leak Testing and Repair of Fusion Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The leak testing, reporting and vacuum leak repair techniques of the MFTF yin-yang number one magnet system, the world's largest superconducting magnet system, are discussed. Based on this experience, techniques will be developed for testing and repairing...

T. A. Kozman

1983-01-01

332

Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program  

SciTech Connect

The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall. It will address the origins and structure of the plasma electric field, rotation, the L-H transition, and the wide variety of pedestal relaxation mechanisms. The Whole Device Model will predict the entire discharge evolution given external actuators (i.e., magnets, power supplies, heating, current drive and fueling systems) and control strategies. Based on components operating over a range of physics fidelity, the WDM will model the plasma equilibrium, plasma sources, profile evolution, linear stability and nonlinear evolution toward a disruption (but not the full disruption dynamics). The plan assumes that, as the FSP matures and demonstrates success, the program will evolve and grow, enabling additional science problems to be addressed. The next set of integration opportunities could include: 1) Simulation of disruption dynamics and their effects; 2) Prediction of core profile including 3D effects, mesoscale dynamics and integration with the edge plasma; 3) Computation of non-thermal particle distributions, self-consistent with fusion, radio frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) sources, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and short-wavelength turbulence.

Jeffrey Brooks

2011-09-30

333

Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {l_brace}Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]{r_brace}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 8123 Forsythia Street, Suite 140, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

2010-06-15

334

New unorthodox semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including

K. Board

1985-01-01

335

Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume 1: Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term

R. W. Conn; W. B. Gauster; D. Heifetz; E. S. Marmar; K. L. Wilson

1984-01-01

336

Experiences with a Barista Robot, FusionBot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the implemented service robot, called FusionBot. The goal of this research is to explore and demonstrate the utility of an interactive service robot in a smart home environment, thereby improving the quality of human life. The robot has four main features: 1) speech recognition, 2) object recognition, 3) object grabbing and fetching and 4) communication with a smart coffee machine. Its software architecture employs a multimodal dialogue system that integrates different components, including spoken dialog system, vision understanding, navigation and smart device gateway. In the experiments conducted during the TechFest 2008 event, the FusionBot successfully demonstrated that it could autonomously serve coffee to visitors on their request. Preliminary survey results indicate that the robot has potential to not only aid in the general robotics but also contribute towards the long term goal of intelligent service robotics in smart home environment.

Limbu, Dilip Kumar; Tan, Yeow Kee; Wong, Chern Yuen; Jiang, Ridong; Wu, Hengxin; Li, Liyuan; Kah, Eng Hoe; Yu, Xinguo; Li, Dong; Li, Haizhou

337

High temperature surface effects of He + implantation in ICF fusion first wall materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first wall armor of the inertial confinement fusion reactor chambers must withstand high temperatures and significant radiation damage from target debris and neutrons. The resilience of multiple materials to one component of the target debris has been investigated using energetic (20–40keV) helium ions generated in the inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. The materials studied include:

Samuel J. Zenobia; R. F. Radel; B. B. Cipiti; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

338

New unorthodox semiconductor devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of new semiconductor devices, including a number of structures which rely entirely upon new phenomena, are discussed. Unipolar two-terminal devices, including impurity-controlled barriers and graded composition barriers, are considered, as are new transistor structures, including the hot-electron camel transistor, the planar-doped barrier transistor, the thermionic emission transistor, and the permeable base transistor. Regenerative switching devices are addressed, including the metal-tunnel insulator-semiconductor switch, the polysilicon switch, MIS, and MISIM switching structures, and the triangular-barrier switch. Heterostructure devices are covered, including the heterojunction bipolar transistor, the selectively doped heterojunction transistor, heterojunction lasers, and quantum-well structures.

Board, K.

1985-12-01

339

Current Status of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) Fusion Neutron\\/Proton Source Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact fusion neutron\\/proton source, i.e., IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) fusion device is introduced with its principle, function, application and research history. 1. What is IEC? An IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device is an extremely compact, and simple configuration device as is shown in Fig. 1, running by electrical discharge on D-D\\/D- T\\/D-3He fuel gases. It basically consists of a

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

340

Numerical Study on Glow Discharge of IEC Fusion  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for the neutron source that has the ability to produce the neutrons of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8}/s by the glow discharge. It works more efficiently at the condition of the high voltage and the low pressure. It, however, is difficult to keep the continuous operation at the low-pressure because the glow discharge is apt to be unstable. We have made the three-dimensional Monte Carlo PIC code including atomic processes to investigate the glow discharge. The study reveals the spatial position where the ionization occurs and numerically reproduces the discharge called 'star mode'.

Osawa, Hodaka; Tabata, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan)

2005-05-15

341

Magnetic fusion energy program: Annual report 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses activities in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion energy research at Sandia National Laboratories. Topic covered are: facilities equipment; project and device support; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; compact ignition tokamak; International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor; joint European torus; TEXTOR; tore supra; DIII-D, ASDEX and ASDEX upgrade; alternate concepts (mirror machines and ZT-40M); high-heat flux materials and components development; and plasma

B. L. Doyle; J. B. Whitley; K. L. Wilson

1988-01-01

342

Varian's involvement with magnetic fusion energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the history, accomplishments, and spinoffs of over two decades of interaction between the U.S. Fusion Energy Research Program`s plasma heating scientists and Varian`s Electron Device organization; an interaction which has been mutually benficial and, as with other U.S., Industry interaction with the U.S. Fusion Research Program, has produced valuable benfits to the country`s economy

Armand Staprans

1995-01-01

343

Tritium in fusion: R and D in the EU  

SciTech Connect

Tritium as one of the two fuel components for fusion power plays a special role in any fusion device. Due to its volatile character, radioactivity and easy incorporation as HTO it needs to be controlled with special care and due to its scarcity on earth it has to be produced in-situ in future fusion power plants. The paper discusses the present tritium R and D activities in fusion ongoing in the EU and presents the various processes/techniques envisaged for controlling tritium in future fusion reactors focusing mainly on the issues of breeding blankets and the fuel cycle in DEMO. (authors)

Laesser, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Antipenkov, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Bekris, N. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 43DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L. V.; Caldwell-Nichols, C. J.; Cristescu, I.; Day, Ch [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Gasparotto, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glugla, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Dell'Orco, G. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gabriel, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-surYvette (France); Gastaldi, O.; Grisolia, Ch [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Knipe, S. [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Magielsen, A. J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Murdoch, D.; Pearce, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Perevezentsev, A. [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Piazza, G.; Poitevin, Y. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ricapito, I. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Salavy, J. F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-surYvette (France); Sedano, L. A. [CIEMAT, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zmitko, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-07-15

344

Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

1980-08-01

345

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Methods of spinal arthrodesis continue to evolve in efforts to treat back pain. The latest techniques include approaching\\u000a from the anterior, posterior, lateral, and posterolateral. The transforaminal interbody lumbar fusion (TLIF) developed by\\u000a Harms [1] is a modification of the posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The procedure varies primarily in the access\\u000a to the spine, being a unilateral, posterolateral approach

Burak M. Ozgur; Scott C. Berta; Samuel A. Hughes

346

BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of references, mostly to articles covering original research, allows the interested reader to go deeper into the various subjects. There are a few quite relevant areas which are essentially not covered in the book (plasma diagnostics; fuelling). The discussion of particle and power exhaust is limited to tokamaks and is somewhat scarce. Other points which I did not find fully satisfactory are: the index is too selective and does not really allow easy access to any specific subject. Cross references between different sections treating related topics are not always given. There are quite a lot of typographical errors which as far as cross references are concerned may be disturbing. A list of the symbols used would be a helpful supplement, especially since some of them appear with different meanings. There are apparent imperfections in the structure of certain chapters. While the English is sometimes unusual, this generally does not affect the readability. Overall, the book can be warmly recommended to all interested in familiarizing themselves with the physics of magnetic fusion.

Engelmann, F.

2007-07-01

347

Personal Healthcare Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives an overview on state-of-the-art devices for personal healthcare. Due to the expected large impact on health economy and on the biomedical engineering device industry, a discussion of the ongoing demographic changes that will presumably push the future development of personal healthcare devices is included. Finally, some trends in ongoing research and suggestions for open problems are presented.

Steffen Leonhardt

348

Preloaded latching device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latching device is disclosed which is lever operated sequentially to actuate a set of collet fingers to provide a radial expansion and to actuate a force mechanism to provide a compressive gripping force for attaching first and second devices to one another. The latching device includes a body member having elongated collet fingers which, in a deactuated condition, is

Clarence J. Wesselski; Kornel Nagy

1992-01-01

349

Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion  

SciTech Connect

The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

2006-01-05

350

Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made a comeback even for magnetic confinement plasma, after this beam fusion concept was revealed by the basically nonlinear processes of the well-known alternative of inertial confinement fusion using laser or particle beams. After reviewing the main streams of both directions some results are reported—as an example of possible alternatives—about how experiments with skin layer interaction and avoiding relativistic self-focusing of clean PW ps laser pulses for IFE may possibly lead to a simplified fusion reactor scheme without the need for special compression of solid deuterium tritium fuel.

Hora, Heinrich

2004-10-01

351

Diagnostics for magnetic confinement fusion research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant progress towards the development of an attractive fusion energy source based on magnetic or inertial plasma confinement has been achieved within the international fusion energy program. High-level diagnostics capabilities are required to characterize fusion plasmas and to achieve a sound physics basis to design a fusion power plant. A large variety of different measuring techniques is used, most of them based on the detection of electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of wavelengths or of particles emitted from the plasma. Active probing by laser and particle beams permits to measure local plasma parameters directly, whereas passive measurements and imaging methods require unfolding and tomographic reconstruction techniques in order to obtain the spatial source distribution. Most diagnostics systems are limited in the accessible parameter range, in accuracy, temporal and spatial resolution, energy resolution and hardiness in a harsh environment, so that redundancy and complementarity of different methods is desirable. A considerable synergy exists between plasma diagnostics for fusion and astrophysics research. In particular, novel imaging detectors developed for the observation of astrophysical objects may be applied to fusion devices, too. An overview of diagnostics requirements, measuring techniques and selected results are presented with an emphasis of imaging diagnostics in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.

Weller, Arthur

2010-11-01

352

Driven reconnection in magnetic fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Error fields (i.e. small non-axisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field due to coil misalignments, etc.) are a fact of life in magnetic fusion experiments. What effects do error fields have on plasma confinement? How can any detrimental effects be alleviated? These, and other, questions are explored in detail in this lecture using simple resistive magnetohydrodynamic (resistance MHD) arguments. Although the lecture concentrates on one particular type of magnetic fusion device, namely, the tokamak, the analysis is fairly general and could also be used to examine the effects of error fields on other types of device (e.g. Reversed Field Pinches, Stellerators, etc.).

Fitzpatrick, R.

1995-11-01

353

Alternate Applications of Fusion - Production of Radioisotopes  

SciTech Connect

A major effort to find near-term, non-electric applications of fusion energy has shown that the production of radioisotopes is attractive. The use of the D{sup 3}He fusion reaction to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes is described. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is particularly well suited to produce low levels of high-energy (14.7 MeV) protons, which in turn, can produce short-lived PET isotopes. The IEC device at University of Wisconsin has been modified to investigate the potential of this process to be commercially attractive.

Kulcinski, G.L.; Weidner, J.; Cipiti, B.; Ashley, R.P.; Santarius, J.F.; Murali, S.K.; Piefer, G.; Radel, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

354

Colorado School of Mines fusion gamma ray diagnostic project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of our fusion gamma ray project continues to be the development of fusion gamma ray spectrometry as a diagnostic of high temperature fusion plasmas. The three broad areas in support of this purpose are: measurement of gamma ray producing reactions at low energies; development of gamma ray spectrometers capable of measuring the gamma ray yields from current and proposed fusion plasma devices; and determination of appropriate plasma parameters from measured fusion gamma ray yields at present fusion plasma devices. This report summarizes the progress made in these three areas. The recently completed measurement of the radiative capture of protons by the nuclei Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, and B-11 is summarized. Preliminary results of the investigation of the radiative capture of deuterons by Li-6 and B-10 as well as additional data taken on the reaction D(d,gamma)He-4 at very low energies are also presented.

Cecil, F. E.

1991-02-01

355

Distributed multi-sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McQ has developed a broad based capability to fuse information in a geographic area from multiple sensors to build a better understanding of the situation. The paper will discuss the fusion architecture implemented by McQ to use many sensors and share their information. This multi sensor fusion architecture includes data sharing and analysis at the individual sensor, at communications nodes that connect many sensors together, at the system server/user interface, and across multi source information available through networked services. McQ will present a data fusion architecture that integrates a "Feature Information Base" (FIB) with McQ's well known Common Data Interchange Format (CDIF) data structure. The distributed multi sensor fusion provides enhanced situation awareness for the user.

Scheffel, Peter; Fish, Robert; Knobler, Ron; Plummer, Thomas

2008-03-01

356

Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

1989-01-01

357

Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)|

Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

1989-01-01

358

Solar and Fusion Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The poster describes work I have published with co-authors in theoretical and experimental studies of plasmas: both in the laboratory, with relevance to magnetically confined fusion, and naturally occurring, in the Sun's atmosphere (the corona). In the case of fusion plasmas, recent work on recombining plasmas in a linear plasma device, the ULS, is described, which develops understanding of the processes by which detachment is obtained in a tokamak divertor. Results of experimental studies of recombining plasmas are presented, interpreted through 1D plasma models and collisional-radiative models. In the case of the solar corona, we discuss coronal heating by magnetic reconnection. The question of how the solar corona is heated to temperatures of millions of degrees is a major outstanding problem in astrophysics. Some recent results of numerical simulation of forced magnetic reconnection are presented, focusing on the energy release, and we describe how relaxation theory can be used to calculate heating by multiple reconnection events. The presence of high-energy charged particles is an important diagnostic of magnetic reconnection, and models of particle acceleration by reconnecting fields are also presented.

Browning, Philippa [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

2005-10-17

359

Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

Lee, J.D.

1981-01-01

360

Advanced Concepts for Inertial Fusion Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote a step-change in our perception of a fusion power plant, we are studying inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors with advanced, direct energy conversion systems and the advanced ICF targets necessary to drive them. Targets include close-coupled, indirectly-driven, tritium-lean assemblies with 1- or 2-sided illumination, DT spark-plugs, and main fuel of D_1-xTx (x<<0.5), DD or D^3He. The energetic fusion

L. J. Perkins; B. G. Logan; M. Tabak; D. C. Callahan-Miller; R. W. Moir; G. J. Caporaso; J. F. Latkowski

1998-01-01

361

Neutron Dosimetry for Radiation Damage in Fission and Fusion Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to ...

D. L. Smith

1979-01-01

362

Spectral Line Shapes as a Diagnostic Tool in Magnetic Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectral line shapes and intensities are used for obtaining information on the various regions of magnetic fusion devices. Emission from low principal quantum numbers of hydrogen isotopes is analyzed for understanding the complex recycling mechanism. Line...

R. Stamm H. Capes A. Demura L. Godbert-Mouret M. Koubiti Y. Marandet M. Mattioli J. Rosato F. Rosmej K. B. Fournier

2006-01-01

363

Thick Deposits and Overlays for Fusion-Reactor Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coatings and/or claddings on the interior surfaces of magnetically confined fusion devices may be necessary to control the plasma-materials interactions which affect the reactor operation. Such interactions are: (1) machine conditioning, (2) impurity inje...

D. M. Mattox

1983-01-01

364

A data fusion framework for context-aware mobile services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of some context-aware services, in which the central element comes to be the user and its mobile device plunged in a rich and heterogeneous sensing environment, has driven us to face the design of context-aware systems as a multisensor data fusion process. In this paper we propose a fusion framework that describes the information flows and identifies the

Ana M. Bernardos; Paula Tarrío; José R. Casar

2008-01-01

365

CONFERENCE REPORT: Workshop on Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. The Workshop on Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas primarily concentrated on the diagnostic designs being prepared for ITER, but many of the challenges being addressed would be common with any ignited D-T fusion device. This short report gives some impression of the status of the diagnostics at this point in their design, towards the end of the EDA period.

Varenna, et al.

1998-03-01

366

Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems  

SciTech Connect

Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices.

Hurley, C.A.

1980-09-03

367

Overview of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1988 Symposium on Fusion Technology, steady progress has been made in the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. The large US tokamaks have reached new levels of plasma performance with associated improvements in the understanding of transport. The technology support for ongoing and future devices is similarly advancing with notable advances in magnetic, rf heating tubes, pellet injector, plasma

F. W. Wiffen; R. J. Dowling; W. A. Marton; S. A. Eckstrand

1990-01-01

368

A review of pulse fusion propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last forty years there has been considerable interest in both internal and external pulse propulsion systems. Over this time the nuclear devices being considered have grown considerably smaller than those initially examined. Now pellets are normally in the range from 15 cm down to 2 cm in diameter, and fusion devices are generally preferred. High energy density triggers (such as lasers, particle beams or antiprotons) have been considered for detonating the fusion fuel. When antiprotons are considered it is more efficient to annihilate the antiprotons in a fissionable material, and then use the energy from the fission reaction to drive the fusion reaction in the pellet, than to use the annihilation energy directly. Finally, fissionable material can be used to boost the performance of a fusion system. The early concepts, which used critical mass devices, do not satisfy the ban on nuclear weapons in space, and are only rarely considered today. Concepts based on inertial confinement fusion are heavier than those that use antiprotons for the trigger since the mass associated with the lasers, or particle beams and their power supplies are considerably heavier than the traps used for antiprotons. Hence, from a performance, and even a political, point of view the antiproton-triggered approach is the most desirable, but it also requires more development. Not only is the trigger lighter but an external pulse propulsion rocket does not necessarily need radiators to reject excess heat and, hence, can be even lighter. Propulsion systems based on critical mass devices are clearly feasible, so the primary problem is to reduce the size of the explosive devices so that a critical mass is not required. If pulse nuclear fusion propulsion can become a reality then the performance is enough to complete manned missions to the inner planets in weeks and the outer planets in months. .

Cassenti, Brice N.

2002-01-01

369

Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces objectives and status of “Human sensing fusion project” in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

Maenaka, Kazusuke

370

On image fusion and segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the increase in spatial resolution for digital images has been hailed as a significant progress, methods for their automated analyses (i.e. land cover mapping, change analysis, GIS integration) are still in the process of being developed. Object (or segment) based preprocessing techniques seem to be an adequate methodology because inter-class variances can be minimized and the image interpretation techniques of the human eye be mimicked. A number of papers has proven the validity of an segment based image analysis for automated processing, however, the question of appropriate data fusion techniques within this context has hardly been addressed. In this paper, we will investigate techniques for the combination of image fusion and segment based image analysis. The examples include (i) color preserving iconic fusion with subsequent segmentation and classification; (ii) 'cookie cutter' approach for the integration of high resolution RGB and low resolution hyperspectral image data for urban class material detection; and (iii) decision based integration of panchromatic high resolution data with multispectral images for the identification of settlement areas. We will show that the combination of segment based image analysis and fusion techniques at iconic, feature and decision level does indeed improve the final analysis and can be seen as a first step to a an automated result driven processing line. It has to be noted that there is no general theory for segment based image fusion although the feature level fusion seems to be the most promising path for a combination of the two processing paradigms.

Ehlers, Manfred

2006-09-01

371

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

French, Patrick D. (Aurora, CO)

1996-01-01

372

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

French, P.D.

1996-06-11

373

Recently Approved Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... products listed here include some of the newest medical technology available. For each product, you can find information about what the device is, how it works, when it can be used, and when it ... do not include every new medical device that has been cleared or approved for ...

374

Intraosseous Infusion Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for infusion or aspiration that includes a base and at least one needle positioned within the base, where the base includes one or more locators for positioning the infusion device in relation to one or more predetermined anatomical features. A d...

D. Nedder J. F. Stokes M. J. Turieo R. P. Maloney R. W. Etheredge

2005-01-01

375

Magnetic fusion 1985: what next  

SciTech Connect

Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

Fowler, T.K.

1985-03-01

376

Fusion safety codes: international modeling with MELCOR and ATHENA–INTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years, the world fusion safety community has been involved in benchmarking their safety analyses codes against experiment data to support regulatory approval of a next step fusion device. This paper discusses the benchmarking of two prominent fusion safety thermal-hydraulic computer codes. The MELCOR code was developed in the US for fission severe accident safety analyses and

T Marshall; M. T Porfiri; L Topilski; B Merrill

2002-01-01

377

Mechanisms of tissue fusion during development  

PubMed Central

Tissue fusion events during embryonic development are crucial for the correct formation and function of many organs and tissues, including the heart, neural tube, eyes, face and body wall. During tissue fusion, two opposing tissue components approach one another and integrate to form a continuous tissue; disruption of this process leads to a variety of human birth defects. Genetic studies, together with recent advances in the ability to culture developing tissues, have greatly enriched our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in tissue fusion. This review aims to bring together what is currently known about tissue fusion in several developing mammalian organs and highlights some of the questions that remain to be addressed.

Ray, Heather J.; Niswander, Lee

2012-01-01

378

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-01-01

379

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ``International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)`` will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-09-01

380

Prospective, randomized, multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study of lumbar total disc replacement with the CHARITÉ artificial disc versus lumbar fusion: Five-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextThe CHARITÉ artificial disc, a lumbar spinal arthroplasty device, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2004 based on two-year safety and effectiveness data from a multicenter, prospective, randomized investigational device exemption (IDE) study. No long-term, randomized, prospective study on the CHARITÉ disc or any other artificial disc has been published to date.

Richard D. Guyer; Paul C. McAfee; Robert J. Banco; Fabian D. Bitan; Andrew Cappuccino; Fred H. Geisler; Stephen H. Hochschuler; Richard T. Holt; Louis G. Jenis; Mohamed E. Majd; John J. Regan; Scott G. Tromanhauser; Douglas C. Wong; Scott L. Blumenthal

2009-01-01

381

Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

2012-01-01

382

Lateral transpsoas fusion: indications and outcomes.  

PubMed

Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures. PMID:23213303

Patel, Vishal C; Park, Daniel K; Herkowitz, Harry N

2012-11-06

383

Spherical torus approach to magnetic fusion development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low aspect ratio tokamak or spherical torus (ST) approach offers the two key elements needed to enable magnetic confinement fusion to make the transition from a government-funded research program to the commercial marketplace: a low cost, low power, small size market entry vehicle and a strong economy of scale in larger devices. Within the ST concept, a very small

R. D. Stambaugh; V. S. Chan; P. A. Anderson

1996-01-01

384

Apparatus for initiating deuterium--tritium fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is described for initiation of a nuclear fusion reaction ; between D and T, in a controlled manner. It comprises a cylindrical shell made ; of steel, or some other suitable material, having a high gloss on its bore, into ; which may be injected streams of radiant energy from a laser device. The laser ; beams are directed

Pedrick

1973-01-01

385

Nuclear fusion by cylindrical ion implosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of investigations on ion-implosion fusion undertaken at the Institute of Nuclear Research, Swierk, Poland, in the early 1960s is presented. Since then several experiments on production of intense radially convergent ion beams have been carried out by means of cylindrical devices equipped with coaxial electrodes consisting of thin metal rods, placed symmetrically and parallel to the axis

M. Gryzinski; J. Appelt; J. Baranowski; M. Bielik; E. Gorski; A. Horodenski; L. Jakubowski; A. Jerzykiewicz; J. Kurzyna; J. Langner

1979-01-01

386

Socio-economic Aspects of Fusion  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper, we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production.

J.A. Schmidt

2004-10-21

387

SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket

R. W. Conn; S. I. Abdel-Khalik; G. A. Moses

1977-01-01

388

SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion ractors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket

R. W. Conn; S. I. Abdel-Khalik; G. A. Moses

1977-01-01

389

75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice...certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by...of authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices,...

2010-01-05

390

Fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

Not Available

1990-09-01

391

Progress in controlled fusion research described  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some comments on controlled fusion by a Soviet scientist are presented. His thoughts on the problem of thermonuclear power engineering are: Two approaches to the solution of the problem of fusion can be seen. One of them involves the use of strong magnetic field and superconductivity. This approach is being pursued with tokamak devices by scientist of the Department of Plasma Physics and Stationary Controlled Fusion Systems. The second approach is the method of microexplosions, which is being developed at the USSR Academy of Sciences. The tokamak concept, which has now spread to laboratories throughout the world and, it is generally agreed, is the most fully studied aspect of the complex problem of controlled fusion, was formulated and advanced in the USSR.

Sorin, L.

1986-01-01

392

Progress in magnetic fusion energy research  

SciTech Connect

Remarkable scientific progress has been made in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program since its inception 40 years ago. A formalized international collaborative effort of design and development for a 1,000-MW experimental reactor (ITER) has been entered into by the United States, Russia, Japan, and the European Community. In the United States, a national project to build a superconducting steady-state advanced Tokamak (SSAT) to improve the reactor prospects of fusion is underway. [The device has been newly renamed the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX).] Despite this very encouraging progress, the outlook for fusion as an energy source remains unclear with both economic and technological attractiveness yet to be determined. However, with only limited options for long-term energy supplies, and with environmental consequences yet to play a more dominant role in the choices, the world can ill afford not to develop the potential of fusion in the decades to come.

Thomassen, K.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-03-01

393

High efficiency photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

1999-11-02

394

Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1983-11-21

395

23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

Richard J. Hawryluk

2011-01-05

396

Magnetized target fusion for advanced space propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetized target fusion (MTF) concept is an approach to thermonuclear fusion which is intermediate between the two extremes of inertial and magnetic confinement fusion. A magnetic field is used to suppress electron thermal conduction, but the fusion plasma is heated by compression and inertially confined during the fusion burn phase by an imploding liner or shell. Because the major energy loss mechanisms are suppressed, the work rate required to achieve fusion ignition is greatly reduced, which translates to a greatly reduced requirement for power input to the target. This allows electrical pulsed power machines (and possibly other devices) to be used as drivers. The potential advantages that such a relaxation of driver requirements may offer need to be explored. Thio proposed to dynamically form an MTF target plasma and compress it with a dynamically formed spherical liner, which compresses and heats the target plasma to fusion ignition conditions. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of MTF and the feasibility and technical challenges of Thio's novel approach to advanced space propulsion. .

Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

2001-02-01

397

Lateral lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Since its inception in the year 2001 the minimally invasive trans-psoas Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF) approach has gained significant favor among spine surgeons. It is now routinely utilized to treat an array of spinal pathologies including degenerative disc disease, low grade spondylolisthesis, and adult spinal deformity. The intent of this video is to provide a step by step account of the basic procedural details when performing the LLIF procedure for a single level broad based degenerated lumbar disc with herniation. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/dZFMqmCz6Q8. PMID:23829851

Kanter, Adam S; Gandhoke, Gurpreet S

2013-07-01

398

Silicon carbide composites as fusion power reactor structural materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide was first proposed as a low activation fusion reactor material in the mid 1970s. However, serious development of this material did not begin until the early 1990s, driven by the emergence of composite materials that provided enhanced toughness and an implied ability to use these typically brittle materials in engineering application. In the decades that followed, SiC composite system was successfully transformed from a poorly performing curiosity into a radiation stable material of sufficient maturity to be considered for near term nuclear and non-nuclear systems. In this paper the recent progress in the understanding and of basic phenomenon related to the use of SiC and SiC composite in fusion applications will be presented. This work includes both fundamental radiation effects in SiC and engineering issues such as joining and general materials properties. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss the technological gaps remaining for the practical application of this material system in fusion power devices such as DEMO and beyond.

Snead, L. L.; Nozawa, T.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Y.; Shinavski, R.; Sawan, M.

2011-10-01

399

Technical Issues on the Control of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Steady-State Magnetic Fusion Devices 3.Innovation Concepts for Plasma-Facing Components 3.2 A New Cooling Concept of Free Surface Flow Balanced with Surface Tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cooling concept of free surface flow is proposed as an alternative candidate for the first wall of the self-cooling molten-salt Flibe blanket in the helical-type fusion reactor FFHR. Numerical analyses on capillary flow show that a free surface balanced between surface tension and the forces of wall shear stress and gravity is feasible even in helical systems, where a spiral flow is formed and drastically enhances the heat transfer from the coolant channel wall.

Kunugi, Tomoaki; Sagara, Akio

400

Compact tokamaks as convenient neutron sources for fusion reactors materials testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage evaluations have been performed with the ACAB code for fusion-relevant materials in an Ignitor-like compact fusion device that could be used as a neutron source for materials testing. Values ranging from 1.6×10?26 to 2.4×10?25dpa per source neutron have been obtained, which translates into 16–250dpa\\/y at full operating power and demonstrates the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion

F. Bombarda; B. Coppi; Z. S. Hartwig; M. Sassi; M. Zucchetti

2011-01-01

401

Fusion by 1990: the Sandia ion beam program can do it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental results at Sandia National Laboratories demonstrate that light ion beam accelerator devices can deliver considerably more than the power necessary for achieving high-gain fusion energy - millions of joules at power densities of 10,000 trillion watts\\/cmâ. This means that commercial fusion energy with an inertial-confinement fusion device can be realized by the 1990s, despite the general curtailment of

2009-01-01

402

Molecular mechanisms of flavivirus membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Flaviviruses comprise a number of important human pathogens including yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. They are small enveloped viruses that enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and release their nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm by fusing their membrane with the endosomal membrane. The fusion event is triggered by the acidic pH in the endosome and is mediated by the major envelope protein E. Based on the atomic structures of the pre- and post-fusion conformations of E, a fusion model has been proposed that includes several steps leading from the metastable assembly of E at the virion surface to membrane merger and fusion pore formation trough conversion of E into a stable trimeric post-fusion conformation. Using recombinant subviral particles of tick-borne encephalitis virus as a model, we have defined individual steps of the molecular processes underlying the flavivirus fusion mechanisms. This includes the identification of a conserved histidine as being part of the pH sensor in the fusion protein that responds to the acidic pH and thus initiates the structural transitions driving fusion. PMID:19882217

Stiasny, Karin; Fritz, Richard; Pangerl, Karen; Heinz, Franz X

2009-11-01

403

Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the

Fish

1977-01-01

404

Electrical power distribution system operating experience review for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes safety research on electrical distribution systems applicable to fusion facilities. Electrical power has many uses in both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments; it is the most important support system for any fusion experiment. Electricity powers a wide variety of plant equipment, including vacuum pumps, magnets, coolant pumps, air handlers, compressors, and either plasma heating or target implosion

L. C Cadwallader

2002-01-01

405

Synergism in inertial confinement fusion - A total direct energy conversion package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutrons and ions produced by nuclear fusion reactions are presently suggested to be useful in inertial confinement fusion reactor designs encompassing two different energy-conversion devices: a nuclear-pumped laser, which employs neutrons from the fusion reaction, and a photon-generating material incorporating a photovoltaic converter, which makes use of the ionic-fusion products. Studies have indicated that, in addition to the ability

M. A. Prelas; E. J. Charlson

1989-01-01

406

Mitochondrial Fusion Is Essential for Steroid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Although the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics (a balance in fusion/fission events and changes in mitochondria subcellular distribution) to key biological process has been reported, the contribution of changes in mitochondrial fusion to achieve efficient steroid production has never been explored. The mitochondria are central during steroid synthesis and different enzymes are localized between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum to produce the final steroid hormone, thus suggesting that mitochondrial fusion might be relevant for this process. In the present study, we showed that the hormonal stimulation triggers mitochondrial fusion into tubular-shaped structures and we demonstrated that mitochondrial fusion does not only correlate-with but also is an essential step of steroid production, being both events depend on PKA activity. We also demonstrated that the hormone-stimulated relocalization of ERK1/2 in the mitochondrion, a critical step during steroidogenesis, depends on mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, we showed that the SHP2 phosphatase, which is required for full steroidogenesis, simultaneously modulates mitochondrial fusion and ERK1/2 localization in the mitochondrion. Strikingly, we found that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, a central protein for mitochondrial fusion, is upregulated immediately after hormone stimulation. Moreover, Mfn2 knockdown is sufficient to impair steroid biosynthesis. Together, our findings unveil an essential role for mitochondrial fusion during steroidogenesis. These discoveries highlight the importance of organelles’ reorganization in specialized cells, prompting the exploration of the impact that organelle dynamics has on biological processes that include, but are not limited to, steroid synthesis.

Cooke, Mariana; Soria, Gaston; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Podesta, Ernesto J.

2012-01-01

407

Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement, including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a national and international center for information exchange by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; and (3) to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results obtained by the Institute contribute to the progress of nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power as a basic energy source. Close collaborative relationships have been developed with other university and national laboratory fusion groups, both in the US and abroad. In addition to its primary focus on mainstream fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in fusion-sidestream fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, space plasmas and astrophysics, statistical mechanics, fluid dynamics, and accelerator physics. Important research discoveries are briefly described.

Hazeltine, R. D.

1994-07-01

408

Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic and inertial confinement, alternative approaches-such as Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters and ultrafast laser-plasma interactions-also provide insight into basic processes and technological applications. However, attempts to produce fusion in a room temperature solid-state setting, including `cold' fusion and `bubble' fusion, have met with deep scepticism. Here we report that gently heating a

B. Naranjo; J. K. Gimzewski; S. Putterman

2005-01-01

409

Comparison and analysis of fusion algorithms of high resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion techniques have been developed quickly in recent years and become an important remote sensing research topic. This paper systematically discusses the technique used in pixel level image fusion including IHS transform, YIQ transform, HLS transform, HSV transform, PCA transform, HPF transform and wavelet transform image fusion method. Then a fusion experiment of IKONOS image is made to compares the different merging methods from spectral quality and the spatial quality in order to choose the suitable method for the high resolution image.

Dong, Guangjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Dai, Chenguang

2008-03-01

410

Modern magnetic mirrors and their fusion prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the most important findings from recent experiments on modern magnetic mirrors, apart from tandem mirrors and rotating plasma devices. These modern magnetic mirrors are represented by a multiple mirror device GOL-3 and a gas dynamic trap, experiments on which are carried out in Novosibirsk. Both devices are characterized by axial symmetry and improved axial confinement of plasma compared with conventional mirror machines. Recent findings from experiments enable us to more practically consider applications of the gas dynamic trap as a high-flux 14 MeV neutron source for fusion materials testing, and possibly as a driver for fusion-fission hybrids. They also indicate that effective axial plasma confinement in a multiple mirror can be obtained with a smaller plasma density compared with theory and ? < 1. This is beneficial from the point of view of the technical realization of a multiple mirror reactor.

Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kruglyakov, E. P.

2010-12-01

411

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review  

SciTech Connect

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

412

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

413

Tritium monitor for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, operation, and performance of a flow-through ion-chamber instrument designed to measure tritium concentrations in air containing /sup 13/N, /sup 16/N, and /sup 41/Ar produced by neutrons generated by D-T fusion devices. The instrument employs a chamber assembly consisting of two coaxial ionization chambers. The inner chamber is the flow-through measuring chamber and the outer chamber is used for current subtraction. A thin wall common to both chambers is opaque to the tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers by higher energy radiation are automatically subtracted, leaving only the current due to tritium.

Jalbert, R.A.

1982-08-01

414

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

415

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

[Title 21 CFR 886.1880] [Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) - April 1, 1996 Edition] [Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS] [Chapter I - FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,] [Part 886 - OPHTHALMIC DEVICES] [Subpart B - Diagnostic Devices] [Sec. 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.] [From the...

1996-04-01

416

Fusion Decay Power: Validation of Code and Nuclear Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of activation inventories is a key input to virtually all aspects of the safety and environmental assessment of fusion power devices. For the licensing of such devices, regulatory authorities will require proof that the calculations of activation, and calculations to which activation quantities are inputs, are either correct or conservative. Validation of decay power code predictions by means

J-Ch Sublet

417

Surface micromachined structures fabricated with silicon fusion bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface micromachining technique has been developed which makes use of silicon fusion bonding. Many of the same types of micromechanical devices previously fabricated from polycrystalline have been fabricated from single-crystal silicon. Bridges and beams suspended near the substrate surface, complex thermally isolated designs, diaphragms suspended over shallow vacuum cavities, vertically and laterally resonant structures, fluid control devices, and fully

Kurt Petersen; Dale Gee; F. Pourahmade; R. Craddock; J. Brown; L. Christel

1991-01-01

418

Quick stop device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick stop device for abruptly interrupting the cutting of a workpiece by a cutter is disclosed. The quick stop device employs an outer housing connected to an inner workpiece holder by at least one shear pin. The outer housing includes an appropriate shank designed to be received in the spindle of a machine, such as a machine tool. A

Roger L. Hipwell; Andrew J. Hazelton

1996-01-01

419

Nonimaging radiant energy direction device  

DOEpatents

A raidant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

1980-01-01

420

C-terminal tyrosine residues modulate the fusion activity of the Hendra virus fusion protein  

PubMed Central

The paramyxovirus family includes important human pathogens such as measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus and the recently emerged, highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses. The viral fusion (F) protein plays critical roles in infection, promoting both the viral-cell membrane fusion events needed for viral entry as well as cell-cell fusion events leading to syncytia formation. We describe the surprising finding that addition of the short epitope HA tag to the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Hendra virus F protein leads to a significant increase in cell-cell membrane fusion. This increase was not due to alterations in surface expression, cleavage state, or association with lipid microdomains. Addition of a Myc tag of similar length did not alter Hendra F fusion activity, indicating that the observed stimulation was not solely a result of lengthening the CT. Three tyrosine residues within the HA tag were critical for the increase in fusion, suggesting C-terminal tyrosines may modulate Hendra fusion activity. The effects of HA tag addition varied with other fusion proteins, as parainfluenza virus 5 F-HA showed decreased surface expression and no stimulation in fusion. These results indicate that additions to the C-terminal end of the F protein CT can modulate protein function in a sequence specific manner, reinforcing the need for careful analysis of epitope tagged glycoproteins. In addition, our results implicate C-terminal tyrosine residues in modulation of the membrane fusion reaction promoted by these viral glycoproteins.

Popa, Andreea; Pager, Cara Teresia; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

2011-01-01

421

Assessment of fusion gene status in sarcomas using a custom made fusion gene microarray.  

PubMed

Sarcomas are relatively rare malignancies and include a large number of histological subgroups. Based on morphology alone, the differential diagnoses of sarcoma subtypes can be challenging, but the identification of specific fusion genes aids correct diagnostication. The presence of individual fusion products are routinely investigated in Pathology labs. However, the methods used are time-consuming and based on prior knowledge about the expected fusion gene and often the most likely break-point. In this study, 16 sarcoma samples, representing seven different sarcoma subtypes with known fusion gene status from a diagnostic setting, were investigated using a fusion gene microarray. The microarray was designed to detect all possible exon-exon breakpoints between all known fusion genes in a single analysis. An automated scoring of the microarray data from the 38 known sarcoma-related fusion genes identified the correct fusion gene among the top-three hits in 11 of the samples. The analytical sensitivity may be further optimised, but we conclude that a sarcoma-fusion gene microarray is suitable as a time-saving screening tool to identify the majority of the correct fusion genes. PMID:23967081

Løvf, Marthe; Thomassen, Gard O S; Mertens, Fredrik; Cerveira, Nuno; Teixeira, Manuel R; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

2013-08-13

422

78 FR 60291 - Investigational Device Exemptions for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemptions for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain...IDEs) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain...facilitate early feasibility studies of medical devices, using appropriate risk...

2013-10-01

423

Commentaries on Criticisms of Magnetic Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides brief commentaries on a representative set of the criticisms of magnetic fusion which have been published over the years and includes annexes which summarize technical information in support for the commentaries.

W. M. Stacey

1999-01-01

424

Cluster-impact fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

Echenique, P. M.; Manson, J. R.; Ritchie, R. H.

1990-03-01

425

Comparison of two interbody fusion cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in a cadaveric model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Brantigan cage and Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) cage have different geometrical characteristics, clinical observations suggest that they are equally effective in restoring disc height and stability across the involved spinal segments. This study was designed to compare their performance as posterior lumbar interbody fusion devices at two levels in fresh ligamentous cadaver lumbar spines (L2–S1). After mounting in

Shih-Tien Wang; Vijay K. Goel; Chong-Yau Fu; Shinichiro Kubo; Woosung Choi; Chien-Lin Liu; Tain-Hsiung Chen

2006-01-01

426

Reactor applications of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a DT tokamak fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system is made based on the CFAR concept, and it was found that performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low

H. A. Hoffman; B. G. Logan; R. B. Campbell

1988-01-01

427

Immunology Devices Panel  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... of marketed and investigational in vitro devices for use in clinical laboratory medicine including oncology, immunology, and allergy and makes ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/medicaldevices

428

Drop Foot Corrective Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drop foot corrective device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is presented. The invention consists essentially of an apparatus including a legband positionable to girdle the ...

B. C. Deis

1978-01-01

429

Fusion processor simulation (FPSim)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fusion Processor Simulation (FPSim) is being developed by Rome Laboratory to support the Discrimination Interceptor Technology (DITP) and Advanced Sensor Technology (ASTP) Programs of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The purpose of the FPSim is to serve as a test bed and evaluation tool for establishing the feasibility of achieving threat engagement timelines. The FPSim supports the integration, evaluation, and demonstration of different strategies, system concepts, and Acquisition Tracking & Pointing (ATP) subsystems and components. The environment comprises a simulation capability within which users can integrate and test their application software models, algorithms and databases. The FPSim must evolve as algorithm developments mature to support independent evaluation of contractor designs and the integration of a number of fusion processor subsystem technologies. To accomplish this, the simulation contains validated modules, databases, and simulations. It possesses standardized engagement scenarios, architectures and subsystem interfaces, and provides a hardware and software framework which is flexible to support growth, reconfigurration, and simulation component modification and insertion. Key user interaction features include: (1) Visualization of platform status through displays of the surveillance scene as seen by imaging sensors. (2) User-selectable data analysis and graphics display during the simulation execution as well as during post-simulation analysis. (3) Automated, graphical tools to permit the user to reconfigure the FPSim, i.e., 'Plug and Play' various model/software modules. The FPSim is capable of hosting and executing user's software algorithms of image processing, signal processing, subsystems, and functions for evaluation purposes.

Barnell, Mark D.; Wynne, Douglas G.; Rahn, Brian J.

1998-07-01

430

Orthotic Devices Using Lightweight Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potential applications of high strength, lightweight composite technology in the orthotic field were studied. Several devices were designed and fabricated using graphite-epoxy composite technology. Devices included shoe plates, assistive walker devices, a...

E. Harrison

1983-01-01

431

Investigation of Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Devices for Spintronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spintronic devices are being developed as an alternative to conventional semiconductor devices for many applications including information storage, communications and information processing. Hybrid unipolar devices comprising ferromagnetic metals and semi...

B. Wessels

2010-01-01

432

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), are derived from water and the metal lithium, a relatively abundant resource. The fuels are virtually inexhaustible and they are available worldwide. Deuterium from one gallon of seawater would provide the equivalent energy of 300 gallons of gasoline, or over a half ton of coal. This energy is released when deuterium and tritium nuclei are fused together to form a helium nucleus and a neutron. The neutron is used to breed tritium from lithium. The energy released is carried by the helium nucleus (3.5 MeV) and the neutron (14 MeV). The energetic helium nucleus heats the fuel, helping to sustain the fusion reaction. Once the helium cools, it is collected and becomes a useful byproduct. A fusion power plant would produce no climate-changing gases.

Moses, E

2010-06-09

433

Altered lipid content inhibits autophagic vesicular fusion.  

PubMed

The autophagic/lysosomal system includes a variety of vesicular compartments that undergo dynamic fusion events. However, the characteristics and factors modulating these interactions remain, for the most part, unknown. To gain insights on the properties that govern lysosomal fusion events, we have established an in vitro fusion assay using different lysosomal/autophagic compartments isolated from mouse liver. We have found that autophagosome/lysosome fusion is a temperature-dependent process (fusion increment of 0.2+/-0.01%/degrees C), which requires ATP (1-3 mM), GTP (1-2 mM), Ca(2+) (0.2-2 mM), and an acidic lysosomal pH (pH 5.2). Furthermore, changes in membrane lipid composition, induced either in vitro, by treatment with 25 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, or in vivo, by subjecting animals to a high-fat-diet challenge (60% kcal in fat) reduce autophagosome/lysosome fusion up to 70% of that observed in untreated fractions or from animals under a normal regular diet. These findings reveal a novel role for lipids in autophagic fusion and provide a mechanism for the reduced macroautophagic rates observed during exposure to a chronic lipid challenge. Changes in the intracellular lipid content (i.e., metabolic disorders) may thus have pronounced effects on the fusion step of macroautophagy and affect the overall activity of this intracellular proteolytic pathway. PMID:20375270

Koga, Hiroshi; Kaushik, Susmita; Cuervo, Ana Maria

2010-04-07

434

Design of Central Control System for Large Helical Device (LHD).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's largest superconducting fusion machine, LHD (Large Helical Device), is under construction in Japan, aiming at steady state operations. Its basic control system consists of UNIX computers, FDDI/Ethernet LAN's, VME multiprocessors, and VxWorks r...

K. Yamazaki H. Kaneko S. Yamaguchi K. Y. Watanabe Y. Taniguchi

1993-01-01

435

Drift mode calculations for the Large Helical Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for a case for the Large Helical Device (LHD) (A.Iiyoshi, et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1998, Nucl.Fusion 39, 1245 (1999)). T...

G. Rewoldt L. P. Ku W. M. Tang H. Sugama N. Nakajima

2000-01-01

436

Proton Detector Calibration in a Gridded Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work [S. Krupakar Murali, J. F. Santarius, and G. L. Kulcinski, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 122702, (2008)] indicates that fusion reactions in an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device primarily occur in microchannels. Since microchannels form discretely all around the cathode, the proton calibration procedure necessitated the estimation of fusion reactivity within the microchannels. Unlike neutron detectors that see a point

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

437

INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major milestone on the path to fusion energy was reached in June 2005 on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of all parties to the ITER negotiations, agreeing on future arrangements and on the construction site at Cadarache in France. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting fusion activities since the late 1950s; it took over the auspices of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities in 1988, and of the ITER Engineering and Design Activities in 1992. The Agency continues its support to Member States through the organization of consultancies, workshops and technical meetings, the most prominent being the series of International Fusion Energy Conferences (formerly called the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research). The meetings serve as a platform for experts from all Member States to have open discussions on their latest accomplishments as well as on their problems and eventual solutions. The papers presented at the meetings and conferences are routinely published, many being sent to the journal it Nuclear Fusion, co-published monthly by Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. The journal's reputation is reflected in the fact that it is a world-renowned publication, and the International Fusion Research Council has used it for the publication of a Status Report on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in 1978 and 1990. This present report marks the conclusion of the preparatory phases of ITER activities. It provides background information on the progress of fusion research within the last 15 years. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), which initiated the report, was fully aware of the complexities of including all scientific results in just one paper, and so decided to provide an overview and extensive references for the interested reader who need not necessarily be a fusion specialist. Professor Predhiman K. Kaw, Chairman, prepared the report on behalf of the IFRC, reflecting members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has been widely and expertly disseminated. We further acknowledge the efforts of the Chairman of

Burkart, Werner

2005-10-01

438

Fusion pumped light source  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

439

Fusion pumped light source  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the lasing medium. 3 figs.

Pappas, D.S.

1988-09-01

440

Including Your Child  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, recently released by the US Department of Education, deal with special needs children and their parents. Including Your Child is a booklet for parents that deals with the first eight years of life for children with special needs. Its eight brief sections discuss the importance of the family, help and support systems, expectations, how to plan to meet expectations, inclusion, and outreach. It also contains a developmental progress chart and several sections of resource information.

441

Ongoing Atomic Physics Research for Fusion Diagnostics at the NIST EBIT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive x-ray spectroscopy on fusion devices uses well-known emission lines for measuring the plasma rotation and ion temperature profile, impurity surveys, and estimating electron temperature and Zeff. These measurements require the use of well-known diagnostic lines from injected impurity elements such as argon and krypton and from intrinsic impurities, particularly tungsten. Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBITs), which use electromagnetic traps with a precise electron beam energy to ionize a known charge state of an atom, are ideally suited to study fusion-relevant impurity ions in a controlled environment and generate wavelengths, relative intensities, and cross-sections. The ongoing work at the NIST EBIT is presented on tokamak-relevant impurities in the x-ray and EUV region including studies of diagnostic elements such as krypton and xenon and intrinsic impurity elements such as tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, and gold.

Podpaly, Yuri; Gillaspy, John; Ralchenko, Yuri; Reader, Joseph; Curry, John

2012-10-01

442

ITER at Cadarache: An Example of Licensing a Fusion Facility  

SciTech Connect

The existing regulatory framework in France provides a full and coherent licensing basis to permit ITER to be build and operated at Cadarache. The specific sitting studies including the submission of the first step of licensing documentation for ITER offers an early assessment of fusion power plants.The regulatory procedure begins with the release of a Safety Objectives Report, which has already been sent to the Safety Authorities in the beginning of 2002. This report is presenting a description of the plant, the radioactive inventory and the identification of the main risks and associated safety functions.This document includes a preliminary evaluation of the environmental impact associated with normal operation and representative accidental events. The results of this analysis are given. For example the consequences in term of additional doses are estimated to be about 1 {mu}Sv per year for the closest inhabitants around the Cadarache site during normal operation.The licensing of ITER will be the first experience of licensing a major magnetic fusion device on a scale similar to that of a power plant. Thus there are lessons to be learnt and precedents that will be set.

Marbach, G. [DSM/DRFC CEA Cadarache (France); Jacquinot, J. [DSM/DRFC CEA Cadarache (France); Taylor, N. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association (United Kingdom)

2003-09-15

443

Discriminant analysis of plasma fusion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discriminant analysis is a branch of statistics with applications in many fields. One of these (a relatively new one) is nuclear fusion research, where one is interested in various types of plasma discharges produced in toroidal devices. In many instances, one has a small number, say 2 or 3, of different types of discharges under investigation. For instance, L-mode and H-mode discharges (L stands for Low confinement, and H for High confinement), or: H-mode discharges without ELM's, with 'small' ELM's, and with 'large' (giant) ELM's. The abbreviation ELM's stands for Edge Localized Modes, which are detected by light recording instruments. They enhance the outward transport of the plasma, including the plasma impurities, but if they are large, they produce a heavy heat load on material contacts of the plasma with the wall. There are typically 4 or 5 continuous variables, for instance plasma current Ip, magnetic field B(sub t), plasma electron density n(sub e), input heating power P(inj), that influence the type of discharge ('shot') that will occur. In addition, there may be a few (2 or 3) discrete variables that are physically expected to be important. Finally, there are a number of wall conditioning aspects, which influence the type of shots that will be produced. In the framework of the ITER project, a collaborative effort between Europe, GUS, Japan and the USA, an international fusion reactor device is being designed which is due to operate at the beginning of the next century. In this context, a database (ITERH.DB1) has been assembled containing plasma confinement data of about 1000 H-mode discharges from 6 different tokamaks. These data have been released for general use by plasma physicists and other interested scientists. We will use part of these data to illustrate various discriminant analysis techniques. Several discriminant analysis methods have been applied and compared to predict the type of ELM's in H-mode discharges: (1) quadratic discriminant analysis (linear discriminant analysis being a special case), (2) discrimination by non-parametric (kernel-) density estimates, and (3) discrimination by a produce multinomial model on a discretized scale. Practical evaluation was performed using SAS in the first two cases, and INDEP, a standard FORTRAN program, initially developed for medical applications, in the last case. We summarize the approach and its results.

Kardaun, O. J. W. F.; Kardaun, J. W. P. F.; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

1992-06-01

444

Vacuum microelectronic devices [and prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review\\/tutorial paper, we cover the history, physics, and current status of vacuum microelectronic devices. First we overview the performance requirements of vacuum microelectronic devices necessary for them to replace, or fill voids left by, solid state devices. Next we discuss the physical characteristics of micro-field-emission sources important to device applications. These characteristics include fundamental features, such as current-voltage

IVOR BRODIE; PAUL RICHARD SCHWOEBEL

1994-01-01

445

Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the

S. Krupakar Murali; G. A. Emmert; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

446

BRAKE DEVICE  

DOEpatents

A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

O' Donnell, T.J.

1959-03-10

447

Electrochromic devices  

DOEpatents

An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

Allemand, Pierre M. (Tucson, AZ); Grimes, Randall F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Ingle, Andrew R. (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Kennedy, Steve R. (Tuscon, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Boulton, Jonathan M. (Tucson, AZ)

2001-01-01

448

A fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-¹¹B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field-reversed configuration (FRC), anchored in a gas-dynamic trap (GDT). The plasma outflow on the open magnetic-field lines is cooled by radiation in the GDT, then channeled through a magnetic

1997-01-01

449

Inherent characteristics of fusion power systems: Physics, engineering, and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance scaling of fusion power sources shows that Maxwellian, magnetic, local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (MM\\/LTE) devices require much larger sizes and B fields than do electron-driven, inertial-electrostatic-confinement (EXL\\/IEC) systems for the same output. Basic economics analyses show that systems of either type must be small in size to be economically viable. This requires operation at high fusion power density and first-wall thermal fluxes;

R. W. Bussard; N. A. Krall

1994-01-01

450

A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to

Robert J. Goldston

2010-01-01

451

Collective Thomson scattering capabilities to diagnose fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) is a versatile technique for diagnosing fusion plasmas. In particular, experiments on diagnosing the ion temperature and fast ion velocity distribution have been executed on a number of fusion devices. In this article the main aim is to describe the technique, focusing on the measurements of fast ion dynamics in the tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. Other potential applications such as measurements of bulk ion temperature, bulk ion rotation, and fuel ion ratio measurements will be mentioned.

Korsholm, S. B.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.

2010-11-01

452

Fusion Rates of Instrumented Lumbar Spinal Arthrodesis according to Surgical Approach: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Lumbar spine fusion rates can vary according to the surgical technique. Although many studies on spinal fusion have been conducted and reported, the heterogeneity of the study designs and data handling make it difficult to identify which approach yields the highest fusion rate. This paper reviews studies that compared the lumbosacral fusion rates achieved with different surgical techniques. Methods Relevant randomized trials comparing the fusion rates of different surgical approaches for instrumented lumbosacral spinal fusion surgery were identified through highly sensitive and targeted keyword search strategies. A methodological quality assessment was performed according to the checklist suggested by the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Qualitative analysis was performed. Results A literature search identified six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the fusion rates of different surgical approaches. One trial compared anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) plus adjunctive posterior transpedicular instrumentation with circumferential fusion and posterolateral fusion (PLF) with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Three studies compared PLF with circumferential fusion. One study compared three fusion approaches: PLF, PLIF and circumferential fusion. Conclusions One low quality RCT reported no difference in fusion rate between ALIF with posterior transpedicular instrumentation and circumferential fusion, and PLIF and circumferential fusion. There is moderate evidence suggesting no difference in fusion rate between PLF and PLIF. The evidence on the fusion rate of circumferential fusion compared to PLF from qualitative analysis was conflicting. However, no general conclusion could be made due to the scarcity of data, heterogeneity of the trials included, and some methodological defects of the six studies reviewed.

Lee, Choon Sung; Lee, Dong-Ho; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Hee Sang

2011-01-01

453

PLASMA DEVICE  

DOEpatents

A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

1961-12-26

454