Sample records for fusion devices including

  1. Ceramics for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

  2. Dusty plasmas in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Naples 80126, Napoli, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    Recent results from the theory of dusty plasmas are considered in the parameter regime close to the walls, divertor of magnetic confinement fusion devices, in an attempt to establish the effects that can be important to plasma operation and performance. The dust charge and dust-dust interaction potential are considered and it is shown that long-range attraction of negatively charged dust particles is possible. The ion-dust scattering and drag force are calculated in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and it is shown that scattering through waves can enhance the drag force on dust particles by orders of magnitude, which can be important for dust transport and removal. The effects of charged dust on wave propagation and scattering of radiation are discussed and it is shown that an instability due to dust charge fluctuations, leading to stochastic heating of dust particles, can effectively grow for submicron dust particles.

  3. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  4. Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

  5. Eddy current analysis in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1988-06-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, particularly tokamaks and reversed field pinch (RFP) experiments, time-varying magnetic fields are in intimate contact with electrically conducting components of the device. Induced currents, fields, forces, and torques result. This note reviews the analysis of eddy current effects in the following systems: Interaction of a tokamak plasma with the eddy currents in the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) systems; Eddy currents in a complex but two-dimensional vacuum vessel, as in TFTR, JET, and JT-60; Eddy currents in the FWBS system of a tokamak reactor, such as NET, FER, or ITER; and Eddy currents in a RFP shell. The cited studies are chosen to be illustrative, rather than exhaustive. 42 refs.

  6. Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

    1983-06-01

    This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

  7. Particle simulation of transport in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Morse, E.C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Electronics Research Lab.); Cohen, B.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-10-17

    Our research in the area of transport processes in fusion devices has recently been centered on the development of particle simulation models of transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a diverted tokamak. As part of this research, we have been involved in the development of a suitable boundary condition for the plasma current at a floating plate that allows use of long time- and space-scale implicit simulation techniques. We have also been involved in a comparison of results from our particle-in-cell (PIC) code and a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code for the study of particle confinement in an auxiliary heated mirror plasma. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  9. D-3He fusion in an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; S. Krupakar Murali; G. Piefer

    1999-01-01

    Advanced fusion fuels, D and 3He, have been successfully fused in an inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. It is thought that this is the first known fusion of helium-3 with deuterium on a steady state basis. The detection of 14.7 MeV protons has confirmed the reaction of D-3He fusion, and has produced a continuous, charged particle

  10. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

  11. Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

  12. Super-X divertors and high power density fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Valanju, P. M.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S. M. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); Canik, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The Super-X Divertor (SXD), a robust axisymmetric redesign of the divertor magnetic geometry that can allow a fivefold increase in the core power density of toroidal fusion devices, is presented. With small changes in poloidal coils and currents for standard divertors, the SXD allows the largest divertor plate radius inside toroidal field coils. This increases the plasma-wetted area by 2-3 times over all flux-expansion-only methods (e.g., plate near main X point, plate tilting, X divertor, and snowflake), decreases parallel heat flux and hence plasma temperature at plate, and increases connection length by 2-5 times. Examples of high-power-density fusion devices enabled by SXD are discussed; the most promising near-term device is a 100 MW modular compact fusion neutron source 'battery' small enough to fit inside a conventional fission blanket.

  13. Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science.After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

  14. Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racene, Diana

    2003-08-01

    The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

  15. Multilayer mirror based monitors for impurity controls in large fusion reactor type devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Regan; M. J. May; V. Soukhanovskii; M. Finkenthal; H. W. Moos

    1995-01-01

    Multilayer mirror (MLM) based monitors are compact, high throughput diagnostics capable of extracting XUV emissions (the wavelength range including the soft-X-ray and the extreme ultraviolet, 10 Å to 304 Å) of impurities from the harsh environment of large fusion reactor type devices. For several years the Plasma Spectroscopy Group at Johns Hopkins University has investigated the application of MLM based

  16. Mixed SOC diffusive dynamics as a paradigm for transport in fusion devices

    E-print Network

    Martín-Solís, José Ramón

    Mixed SOC diffusive dynamics as a paradigm for transport in fusion devices R. S´ancheza , D-organized criticality (SOC), is extended to include the interplay among the many transport mechanisms existing in real scales of the scale invariance condition inherent to the standard SOC model. At the same time, it might

  17. Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices. PMID:25694931

  18. A new recombination model for device simulation including tunneling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. M. Hurkx; D. B. M. Klaassen; M. P. G. Knuvers

    1992-01-01

    A recombination model for device simulation that includes both trap-assisted tunneling (under forward and reverse bias) and band-to-band tunneling (Zener tunneling) is presented. The model is formulated in terms of analytical functions of local variables, which makes it easy to implement in a numerical device simulator. The trap-assisted tunneling effect is described by an expression that for weak electric fields

  19. On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1 , L. E. Zakharov2 It is shown that lithium walls resulting in zero recycling conditions at the edge of magnetic fusion device strong impact of fully absorbing lithium walls on the performance of magnetic fusion devices have been

  20. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  1. Interfacing between concrete and steel construction and fusion research devices

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby, E.

    1981-01-01

    In 1976 Giffels Associates, Inc. an architect/engineer organization, was retained by the United States Department of Energy to provide Title I and Title II design services and Title III construction inspection services for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor now being installed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey. Construction of the complex required to house and serve the reactor itself, designed by others, now commencing. During building construction several problems occurred with respect to the interface between the building design, construction and the fusion device (reactor). A brief description of some of these problems and related factors is presented, which may be of benefit to those persons active in continuing fusion research and experimental work.

  2. Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Blair P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    2002-01-15

    The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization and secondary electron emission processes and is used to give preliminary results for the ionized gas physics behavior and neutron generation in the C-Device for a range of pressure calibration factors.

  3. Modification of plasma-surface interactions in fusion devices by wall coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    Changing composition and structure of the near surface region of wall materials in fusion devices can modify substantially the plasma-surface infraction and hence influence the performance of fusion plasmas. Main aspects are the control of the plasma impurity production and of hydrogen recycling. Important mechanisms are reviewed and examples from major fusion devices are discussed. 72 refs., 15 figs.

  4. April 28, 2005 Itty-Bitty and Shrinking, Fusion Device Has Big Ideas

    E-print Network

    and slams them together to produce helium. Unlike earlier claims of tabletop fusion - "cold fusion," in 1989April 28, 2005 Itty-Bitty and Shrinking, Fusion Device Has Big Ideas By KENNETH CHANG Correction nuclear fusion - the same process that powers the sun - in a footlong cylinder just five inches

  5. Conference report on the 3rd international symposium on lithium application for fusion devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, Centro Ricerche di Frascati (Italy); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science and Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki (Japan); Hu, J. S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mirnov, S. V. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shimada, M. [JAEA-International Fusion Research Centre, IFERC Obuchi (Japan); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Tabares, F. L. [National Institute for Fusion, As EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9–11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma–Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  6. Conference report on the 3rd international symposium on lithium application for fusion devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-02-01

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9–11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy),more »T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma–Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.« less

  7. Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

    2006-01-01

    An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

  8. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

    1983-12-07

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10/sup 10/ to 10/sup 11/ rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/.

  9. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof Institution...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof by...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...

  10. 78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation AGENCY...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of certain claims...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of one or...

  11. 78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission is soliciting...devices, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint names as respondents...

  12. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof, DN...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof....

  13. Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Yamamoto; Ryousaku Kusaba; Takayuki Shirouzu; Nobuyuki Inoue

    2001-01-01

    The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the

  14. Behavior of traces of refractory minerals (including monazite) in the lithium metaborate fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.

    1983-01-01

    In the analysis of rocks using the LiBO/sub 2/ fusion - acid dissolution procedure, traces of various elements may escape detection if the minerals in which they occur resist fusion, or are converted by the fusion to some form that is insoluble in the quenching liquid used. To check for such behavior, 20 to 100 mg samples of 12 chemically resistant minerals were fused. Nine (cassiterite, ilmenite, rutile, wolfamite, magnetite, zircon, corundum, beryl, columbite-tantalite) gave melts which dissolved to give clear, stable solutions in 3% HNO/sub 3/ containing, in some cases, appropriate additives. Chromite produced a chromium carbide which could not be dissolved, but whose formation could be prevented by including NaBO/sub 3/ in the fusion mixture. The melt obtained with monazite required 6N HCl for dissolution. Molybdenite (MoS/sub 2/) was not attacked by any of the fusions tried.

  15. Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Damideh; A. Sadighzadeh; A. Koohi; A. Aslezaeem; A. Heidarnia; N. Abdollahi; F. Abbasi Davani; R. Damideh

    Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific\\u000a character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an\\u000a outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen\\u000a boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of

  16. Novel fusion device mimics the planets A novel device built by MIT and Columbia University researchers suggests that nature's

    E-print Network

    Novel fusion device mimics the planets A novel device built by MIT and Columbia University a different approach--an approach inspired by the planets. "Satellites that went past Jupiter in the 1980s is the planet's strong magnetic field. The Levitated Dipole Experiment, or LDX, is intended to recreate Jupiter

  17. Various Phenomena on PSI 4. PSI in Fusion Devices 4.3 Hydrogen Recycling and Tritium Inventory in Current Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Kan

    Most of magnetically confined fusion devices have installed carbon as the main plasma facing material (PFM). This carbon is typically used in combination with low-Z or high-Z materials to reduce/compensate the high erosion rate caused by high heat/particle loadings. While the use of carbon has resulted in good plasma performance, its use has also generated new problems, one of which is the formation of mixed material layers consisting mainly of the constituents of the PFMs, often including sizable quantities of hydrogen isotopes from the plasma. In this paper, the present status and current objectives of the use of carbon first-walls are discussed from the viewpoint of fuel recycling and inventory.

  18. Effects of the Cathode Grid Wires on Fusion Proton Measurements in Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

    2011-01-01

    Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

  19. Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kusaba, Ryousaku; Shirouzu, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the experiments designed to confirm these results using different electrode shapes, the effects of the anode shape are clearly observed.

  20. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ?107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  1. Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI

    SciTech Connect

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G. [Technical University of Crete, Science Department, 73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Department of Theoret. Physics, Univ. New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, FORTH, Heraklion (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); LOA Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA, Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2012-07-09

    In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

  2. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  3. Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

    2003-01-01

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

  4. Interobserver agreement using computed tomography to assess radiographic fusion criteria with a unique titanium interbody device.

    PubMed

    Slosar, Paul J; Kaiser, Jay; Marrero, Luis; Sacco, Damon

    2015-02-01

    The accuracy of using computed tomography (CT) to assess interbody fusion in patients with titanium implants has been questioned in the past. Radiologists have reported difficulty assessing fusion bone quality because of metal artifact and small graft windows. A new titanium interbody implant with a large footprint and a wide graft aperture has been developed. We conducted a study to determine the interobserver reliability of using CT to assess radiographic fusion variables with the new titanium interbody device. Patients underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion with the same titanium interbody implant. Reconstructed CT images were obtained randomly at 6, 9, or 12 months. Two independent radiologists reviewed the scans. Interobserver reliability was calculated using the ? statistic. Fifty-six spinal fusion levels (33 patients) were analyzed. The radiologists agreed on 345 of the 392 fusion data points reviewed (? = .88). Agreement for solid fusion formation was 0.77. This interbody device demonstrated minimal artifact and minimal subsidence, and trabecular bone was easily identified throughout the implant in the vast majority of cases reviewed. High interobserver agreement was noted across all radiographic variables assessed. PMID:25658078

  5. Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

    2012-07-01

    A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

  6. Particulate Contamination Within Fusion Devices and Complex (Dusty) Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Creel, J; Kong, J; Hyde, Truell W

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, dust particulate contamination has increasingly become an area of concern within the fusion research community. In a burning plasma machine design like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), dust contamination presents problems for diagnostic integration and may contribute to tritium safety issues. Additionally due to ITER design, such dust contamination problems are projected to become of even greater concern due to dust/wall interactions and possible instabilities created within the plasma by such particulates. Since the dynamics of such dust can in general be explained employing a combination of the ion drag, Coulomb force, and ion pre-sheath drifts, recent research in complex (dusty) plasma physics often offers unique insights for this research area. This paper will discuss the possibility of how experimental observations of the dust and plasma parameters within a GEC rf Reference Cell might be employed to diagnose conditions within fusion reactors, hopefully pr...

  7. Simulation of RF-fields in a fusion device

    SciTech Connect

    De Witte, Dieter; Bogaert, Ignace; De Zutter, Daniel [Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Ghent University (Belgium); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Van Eester, Dirk [Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-26

    In this paper the problem of scattering off a fusion plasma is approached from the point of view of integral equations. Using the volume equivalence principle an integral equation is derived which describes the electromagnetic fields in a plasma. The equation is discretized with MoM using conforming basis functions. This reduces the problem to solving a dense matrix equation. This can be done iteratively. Each iteration can be sped up using FFTs.

  8. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Testing of Medical Devices Including Those Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Herkert, Ralph M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic emissions from technologies that surround us can produce interference with implanted and externally worn medical devices. Electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) testing of medical devices at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) began almost four decades ago and continues to incorporate new devices and new sources of electromagnetic emissions as they are developed and become available. The GTRI Medical Device Test Center provides real-world exposure fields to identify interactions and help manufacturers prevent disruptions from the environments in which their devices must function. Methods Typically, the medical device is mounted in or on a torso simulator containing a saline solution that simulates the electrical characteristics of the body. The torso simulator and the device under test are then moved through the fields generated by production security and logistical system technologies using a computer-controlled positioning system. These tests are conducted with different orientations of the medical device to the electromagnetic source, simulating the way in which device wearers interact with these systems in representative situations. Results Particular E3 test results measured on specific devices in the GTRI Medical Device Test Center are proprietary; however, the results of tests to date with current medical devices used for the treatment of diabetes have been encouraging. These devices have included implantable and externally worn insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitoring systems from different manufacturers. Conclusion Since E3 tests of diabetes treatment devices to date in the test center have centered on devices from only a few of the many current manufacturers, further testing is warranted. In addition, increased functionality, which is being added to existing devices, will create new possibilities for interference in the future. PMID:19885264

  9. Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; B. B. Cipiti; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

    2006-01-01

    New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-an isotope of helium with

  10. Understanding plasma facing surfaces in magnetic fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Koel, B. E.; Roszell, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The plasma-material interface is recognized to be the most critical challenge in the realization of fusion energy. Liquid metals offer a self-healing, renewable interface that bypasses present issues with solid, neutron-damaged materials such as tungsten. Lithium in particular has dramatically improved plasma performance in many tokamaks through a reduction of hydrogen recycling. However the detailed chemical composition and properties of the top few nm that interact with the plasma are often obscure. Surface analysis has proven to be a key tool in semiconductor processing and a new laboratory has been established at PPPL to apply surface science techniques to plasma facing materials. We have shown that lithiated PFC surfaces in tokamaks will likely be oxidized during the intershot interval. Present work is focused on deuterium uptake of solid and liquid metals for plasma density control and sub-micron scale wetting of liquid metals on their substrates. The long-term goal is to provide a material database for designing liquid metal plasma facing components for tokamaks such as National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) and Fusion Nuclear Science Facility-ST (FNSF-ST). The plasma-material interface is recognized to be the most critical challenge in the realization of fusion energy. Liquid metals offer a self-healing, renewable interface that bypasses present issues with solid, neutron-damaged materials such as tungsten. Lithium in particular has dramatically improved plasma performance in many tokamaks through a reduction of hydrogen recycling. However the detailed chemical composition and properties of the top few nm that interact with the plasma are often obscure. Surface analysis has proven to be a key tool in semiconductor processing and a new laboratory has been established at PPPL to apply surface science techniques to plasma facing materials. We have shown that lithiated PFC surfaces in tokamaks will likely be oxidized during the intershot interval. Present work is focused on deuterium uptake of solid and liquid metals for plasma density control and sub-micron scale wetting of liquid metals on their substrates. The long-term goal is to provide a material database for designing liquid metal plasma facing components for tokamaks such as National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) and Fusion Nuclear Science Facility-ST (FNSF-ST). Support was provided through DOE-PPPL Contract Number is DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Effects of Grid Cathode Structure on a Low-Input-Power Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki TANIUCHI; Yoshihito MATSUMURA; Katsuyoshi TAIRA; Michiaki UTSUMI; Masami CHIBA; Toshiaki SHIRAKAWA; Masatoshi FUJII

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grid cathode structure on a low-input-power inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device were studied to achieve a high neutron production rate (NPR). An increase in geometric transparency of the grid cathode by decreasing the number of wire rings is known to mean that the recirculation ion current is increased. We expected that this increase would contribute to

  12. The Potential Profile and its Influence on the Neutron Yield of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

    2005-01-01

    We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

  13. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    SciTech Connect

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design.

  14. Progress Toward a Sono-Fusion Demonstration Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Rauen; Eugene Mallove

    2002-01-01

    New Energy Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing a commercial demonstration device, based on the pioneering work of Roger Stringham (First Gate Energies). Stringham has shown how to produce excess heat from ultrasonic, cavitating bubbles, typically using D_2O, in contact with various metals. NERL has improved the power and heat measurements, by employing Seebeck envelope calorimetry. Nerl has also improved

  15. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S....

  16. Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Alderson; John Santarius; Gil Emmert; David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to

  17. Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Petersson, P.; Likonen, J.; Possnert, G.; Widdowson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques.

  18. Evidences for and the models of self-similar skeletal structures in fusion devices, severe weather phenomena and space

    E-print Network

    Kukushkin, A B

    2005-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews (i) the evidences for self-similar structures of a skeletal form (namely, tubules and cartwheels, and their simplest combinations), called the Universal Skeletal Structures (USS), observed in the range 10-5 cm - 1023 cm. in the high-current electric discharges in various fusion devices, severe weather phenomena, and space, (ii) the models for interpreting the phenomenon of skeletal structures, including the hypothesis for a fractal condensed matter (FCM), assembled from nanotubular dust, and (iii) probable role of FCM, which might be responsible for the USS phenomenon, in tornado, ball lightning, and waterspout.

  19. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  20. Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic-Fusion Devices with Lithium-Conditioned Carbon Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Krstic, Predrag S. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Taylor, C. N. [Purdue University; Dadras, J. [UTK/Univ. California, Los Angeles; Maeda, S. [Kyoto University, Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Japan; Morokuma, K. [Kyoto University, Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Japan; Jakowski, J. [National Inst. Computational Sciences, UTK; Allouche, A. [PIM/CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2013-01-01

    Lithium wall conditioning has lowered hydrogenic recycling and dramatically improved plasma performance in many magnetic-fusion devices. In this Letter, we report quantum-classical atomistic simulations and laboratory experiments that elucidate the roles of lithium and oxygen in the uptake of hydrogen in amorphous carbon. Surprisingly, we show that lithium creates a high oxygen concentration on a carbon surface when bombarded by deuterium. Furthermore, surface oxygen, rather than lithium, plays the key role in trapping hydrogen.

  1. Tungsten as material for plasma-facing components in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, V.

    2011-08-01

    The use of tungsten (W) as material for plasma-facing components (PFM) in fusion devices is reviewed with respect to its plasma and material compatibility under burning plasmas conditions. Fusion-relevant plasma operation with W walls is characterised by the need to operate at high edge densities, no or moderate density peaking, and external tools to control the W transport in the plasma core. Several surface and material issues related with the high particle fluencies in fusion devices needs further R&D but are not considered from present view to seriously limit the use of W as PFM. Reliable control of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) and disruptions is indispensable for the application of W, both to control the W transport in the edge and to avoid target melting in uncontrolled events which can seriously detoriate the operational performance of the device. For DEMO and reactors, the behaviour of W under large neutron fluencies has to be further clarified and measures must be developed to mitigate degradation of material properties by neutron damage.

  2. An in-situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science in magnetic fusion devices

    E-print Network

    Hartwig, Zachary Seth

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices such as fuel retention, material erosion and redeposition, and material mixing present significant scientific and engineering challenges, particularly for the ...

  3. Solid radiographic fusion with a nonconstrained device 5 years after cervical arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M; Getto, Katarzyna M; Agarwal, Nitin

    2014-12-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been gaining popularity as a surgical alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spontaneous fusion following a CDA is uncommon. A few anecdotal reports of heterotrophic ossification around the implant sites have been noted for the BRYAN, ProDisc-C, Mobi-C, PRESTIGE, and PCM devices. All CDA fusions reported to date have been in devices that are semiconstrained. The authors reported the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with left C-7 radiculopathy and neck pain for 10 weeks after an assault injury. There was evidence of disc herniation at the C6-7 level. He was otherwise healthy with functional scores on the visual analog scale (VAS, 4.2); neck disability index (NDI, 16); and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36; physical component summary [PSC] score 43 and mental component summary [MCS] score 47). The patient underwent total disc replacement in which the DISCOVER Artificial Cervical Disc (DePuy Spine, Inc.) was used. The patient was seen at regular follow-up visits up to 60 months. At his 60-month follow-up visit, he had complete radiographic fusion at the C6-7 level with bridging trabecular bone and no motion at the index site on dynamic imaging. He was pain free, with a VAS score of 0, NDI score of 0, and SF-36 PCS and MCS scores of 61 and 55, respectively. Conclusions This is the first case report that identifies the phenomenon of fusion around a nonconstrained cervical prosthesis. Despite this unwanted radiographic outcome, the patient's clinical outcome was excellent. PMID:25303618

  4. 77 FR 64827 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has terminated the above-captioned investigation with a finding of violation of section 337, and has issued a general exclusion order directed against infringing lighting control devices including dimmer switches and parts thereof, and cease and desist orders directed against respondents American Top Electric Corp. (``American......

  5. Accounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices

    E-print Network

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    Accounting for the Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Devices Pavel.S.A vinod.namboodiri@wichita.edu ABSTRACT In light of the increased awareness of global energy consumption the share of energy consumption due to these equipment over the years, these have rarely characterized

  6. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  7. Design of an Ion Source for {sup 3}He Fusion in a Low Pressure IEC Device

    SciTech Connect

    Piefer, Gregory R.; Santarius, John F.; Ashley, Robert P.; Kulcinski, Gerald L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Recent developments in helicon ion sources and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device performance at UW-Madison have enabled low pressure (< 50 {mu}torr, 6.7 mPa) operating conditions that should allow the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reaction to be observed in an IEC device. An ion source capable of delivering a {approx} 10 mA {sup 3}He ion beam into an IEC device with minimal neutral gas flow has been designed and tested. Furthermore, a new IEC device that has never been operated with deuterium has been constructed to avoid D-{sup 3}He protons from obstructing the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He reaction product spectrum, and to minimize Penning ionization of deuterium by excited helium, which in the past is suspected to have limited the ionized density of He. These developments make it possible to study beam-background {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reactions with > 300 mA recirculating ion currents.

  8. Migration path for structured documentation systems including standardized medical device data.

    PubMed

    Kock, Ann-Kristin; Ingenerf, Josef; Halkaliev, Stoyan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A standardized end-to-end solution has been implemented with the aim of supporting the semantic integration of clinical content in institution spanning applications. The approach outlined is a proof-of-concept design. It has shown that the standards chosen are suitable to integrate device data into forms, to document the results consistently and finally enable semantic interoperability. In detail the implementation includes a standardized device interface, a standardized representation of data entry forms and enables the communication of structured data via HL7 CDA. Because the proposed method applies a combination of standards semantic interoperability and the possibility of a contextual interpretation at each stage can be ensured. PMID:22874149

  9. Image fusion in neuroradiology: three clinical examples including MRI of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Rojas, G M; Raff, U; Quintana, J C; Huete, I; Hutchinson, M

    2007-01-01

    Image data fusion has been developed over the last decade as an important additional visual diagnostic tool to integrate the growing amount of imaging data obtained from different medical imaging modalities. The overwhelming amount of digital information calls for data consolidation to improve clinical treatment strategies based upon anatomical and physiological imaging. Three different low level image data fusion techniques are described and their characteristics are illustrated with some rare yet key examples. We used MR images to show neurodegeneration in the cerebral peduncle of the midbrain and found that image data fusion using colors can be a valuable tool to visually assess and quantify the loss of neural cells in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. PMID:17150328

  10. Development of accelerator based spatially resolved ion beam analysis techniques for the study of plasma materials interactions in magnetic fusion devices

    E-print Network

    Barnard, Harold Salvadore

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices pose significant scientific and engineering challenges for the development of steady-state fusion power reactors. Understanding PMI is crucial for the develpment ...

  11. Detection of highly enriched uranium and tungsten surface damage studies using a pulsed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross F. Radel

    2007-01-01

    The research in this thesis examines two applications of a pulsed Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (EEC) fusion device: detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and tungsten surface damage studies. In order to complete this thesis, a pulsed IEC device was developed that is capable of generating converging ion pulses with widths ranging from 0.1 to 5 ms at frequencies between 1

  12. Analysis of Fast Neutral Particles in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra Toledo, Gabriel E.

    A neutral particle analyzer was engineered specifically for inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion devices for the first time and particularly for studies with relevance to operation with helium-3, an advanced fusion fuel. For experiments with helium, this technique yields energy distributions of escaping fast neutral particles produced by atomic and molecular processes between energetic ions and background gas, as well as the line-of-sight-averaged energy distributions of fast ions. The setup uses a 10 nm carbon foil as a stripping target for incident fast neutral particles and cylindrical electrodes with a variable relative voltage for deflecting ions of a specific energy per unit charge into a continuous electron multiplier. The new diagnostic can be used to study neutral particles with kinetic energies between 5 and 170 keV, with a measured energy resolution of 2-4% between 5 and 30 keV. Initial neutral particle analysis experiments have been performed at cathode voltages up to 60 kV for IEC devices in the glow discharge, external-ion-source and filament-assisted source plasma configurations, with both helium-4 and deuterium gas. Comparisons between experimentally determined neutral-particle energy distributions and predictions by the VICTER and HeVICTER integral-transport numerical codes on spherically convergent ion flow in IEC devices show that the codes do not capture many details of the relevant physics. For helium-4 experiments in the external-ion-source mode, the energy distributions were confirmed to be significantly harder at 0.2 millitorr than at 5 millitorr, which is essential for the prospects of the configuration for increasing helium-3 fusion rates.

  13. Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmeyer, A.L.; Radel, R.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in suitcases, packages, or shipping containers.Steady-state D-D operation is possible using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. The University of Wisconsin IEC device has produced D-D neutrons at 1.8 x 10{sup 8} neutrons/second at a true cathode voltage of 166 kV and a meter current of 68 mA. These neutron production rates are approaching the levels required for the detection of explosives. In order to increase and optimize the neutron production rate in the IEC device, experiments were performed altering the cathode's size (diameter), geometry, and material composition. Preliminary results indicate that significant differences in neutron production rates are not achieved by altering the geometry or material composition of the cathode. However, the neutron production rate was found to increase approximately 20% by doubling the cathode's diameter from 10 cm to 20 cm. In addition, increasing the cathode voltage from 34 kV to 94 kV at a meter current of 30 mA increased the neutron production rate from 1.24 x 10{sup 6} n/s to 2.83 x 10{sup 7} n/s.

  14. One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Noborio, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated efficiently with little energy loss through charge-exchange collision with background gas at low pressure. And when the pressure is lower than 0.05Pa, almost all injected ions reach to the cathode and it is expected that applying high geometrical transparency enhances accumulation of ion and enlarges neutron yield.

  15. Spatial profiling using a Time of Flight Diagnostic and applications of deuterim-deuterium fusion in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, David C.

    2011-12-01

    The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Research Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison utilizes IEC devices as small-scale neutron generators using D-D fusion to create 2.45 MeV neutrons for the purpose of detecting clandestine material. Detection of explosives in particular can be accomplished using thermal neutron capture methods to identify characteristic nitrogen signatures in explosive material. Research has been conducted to increase reliability of detection, decrease interrogation time, and increase the steady-state operational time. Efforts have also been made to increase the neutron production rate of the device. Optimization studies have varied the configuration and design of the electrodes and have resulted in system configurations with up to 50 percent higher neutron production rates than have previously been utilized. A new feedthrough design has been constructed that is intended to increase the maximum operating voltage from 175 kV with the previous feedthrough to 300 kV. Neutron production rates scale almost linearly with both current and voltage, so the IEC device will be capable of operation at higher neutron producing regimes than have ever before been achieved. The optimization efforts involve the use of several new diagnostic tools developed at UW, which are the Fusion Ion Doppler (FIDO) Diagnostic and the Time of Flight (TOF) Diagnostic. FIDO provides the energy spectra of the charged fusion products and reactants created in the IEC device. The FIDO Diagnostic was originally only capable of studying D-D fusion, but with recent advancements is now able to study both D-D and D-3He fusion. The TOF Diagnostic provides spatial information along with the energy resolution of where the fusion reactions are occurring in the IEC device. Development of the diagnostics has involved the implementation of timing electronics, alignment systems, data acquisition software, computational post-processing, and upgrades to the experimental facility. A significant rise in the concentration of fusion events was found outside of the anode, believed to be due in part from negative ions. The FIDO and TOF Diagnostics have proven to be valuable additions to the study of IEC devices and have greatly advanced IEC operation and theory.

  16. Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

    2009-01-01

    Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels,\\u000a their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power\\u000a production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases\\u000a with increasing fusion reactivity.

  17. Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Herman

    1990-01-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione

  18. Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

  19. Confinement of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device and its influence on neutron production rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yukihisa Ueno; Satoshi Konishi

    2006-01-01

    Using a one-dimensional particle code, low pressure and large current discharge in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been simulated, and confinement level of ions and the neutron yield through beam–beam fusion have been investigated.From the calculation of low-pressure operation, it is clear that the averaged life span of ions is extended but converges to a value corresponding

  20. Study of magnetic nanoparticles and overcoatings for biological applications including a sensor device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancharov, Stephanie G.

    I. A general introduction to the field of nanomaterials is presented, highlighting their special attributes and characteristics. Nanoparticles in general are discussed with respect to their structure, form and properties. Magnetic particles in particular are highlighted, especially the iron oxides. The importance and interest of integrating these materials with biological media is discussed, with emphasis on transferring particles from one medium to another, and subsequent modification of surfaces with different types of materials. II. A general route to making magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is explained, both as maghemite and magnetite, including properties of the particles and characterization. A novel method of producing magnetite particles without a ligand is then presented, with subsequent characterization and properties described. III. Attempts to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with a view to creating biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles are presented, using a gold overcoating method. Methods of synthesis and characterization are examined, with unique problems to core-shell structures analyzed. IV. Solubility of nanoparticles in both aqueous and organic media is discussed and examined. The subsequent functionalization of the surface of maghemite and magnetite nanoparticles with a variety of biomaterials including block copolypeptides, phospholipids and carboxydextran is then presented. These methods are integral to the use of magnetic nanoparticles in biological applications, and therefore their properties are examined once tailored with these molecules. V. A new type of magnetic nanoparticle sensor-type device is described. This device integrates bio-and DNA-functionalized nanoparticles with conjugate functionalized silicon dioxide surfaces. These techniques to pattern particles to a surface are then incorporated into a device with a magnetic tunnel junction, which measures magnetoresistance in the presence of an external magnetic field. This configuration thereby introduces a new way to detect magnetic nanoparticles via their magnetic properties after conjugation via biological entities.

  1. Multi-sensor fusion for enhanced contextual awareness of everyday activities with ubiquitous devices.

    PubMed

    Guiry, John J; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

  2. Effects of Grid Structures and Dielectric Materials of the Holder in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. KurtS; S. Arslan; M. E. Güven

    An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device modeling has been carried out. Finite element method is used in a 3D media\\u000a in order to identify the potential and electrical fields inside the device. The effects of different materials on the electrostatic\\u000a features are found. In addition, different geometric arrangements for cathode sphere (i.e. inner grid) are considered for\\u000a the determination of

  3. A discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Specogna, Ruben

    2014-03-01

    All thermonuclear controlled fusion devices under construction or design have such high performances to require a special care in the dimensioning of various components, specifically from the electromagnetic point of view. To this purpose, it is fundamental to develop models which are both accurate (i.e. able to describe the physical phenomena) and predictive (i.e. useful not only to explain what happens in running experiments, but also to reliably extrapolate to other range of parameters). The dynamics of fusion plasmas is often conveniently described by Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) equations, which predict that some unstable evolution modes may exist. On the other hand, the complexity of the intrinsically 3D model of the interactions between a realistic unstable plasma, the surrounding passive structures (important to guarantee a good MHD stability) and the active conductors (coils) require the numerical solution of challenging electromagnetic problems. In this work a discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in the frequency domain is developed; the magnetic fields produced by a typical active coil system is calculated in the presence of 3D conductive structures.

  4. Analysis of the mechanism and source of contamination of diagnostic windows in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsenya, V. S.

    1998-10-01

    Sputtering by charge exchange (CX) atoms of the diagnostic duct wall was suggested as the mechanism of the appearance of deposits on diagnostic windows of fusion devices, or on the "first mirrors" (FM) in ITER. The rate of deposit growth was estimated as a balance between the deposition rate of wall material, D, and sputtering of the deposit, S. For these estimation the dependencies of the sputtering yield on the projectile energy and incidence angle were used. It was found that the duct length to its diameter ratio, L/ d, is an important parameter. The D value exceeds several times S value if L/ d > 2, but D/ S is less than 1 in the case of a short duct, L/ d ? 1, and also in the case of a very long duct, L/ d?10. Based on such a mechanism, the duct structure with diaphragms made of refractory metals was proposed to decrease significantly the rate of deposit growth.

  5. Measurement of Ion Energy Distribution in a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) Device

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Yukihisa; Tomizawa, Takahito; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    In recent researches, an assisted glow discharge experiment using an external ion source has been tried to reduce operation gas pressure. As results, operating gas pressure has been successfully reduced from 1.5 Pa to 0.3 Pa, and the neutron production rate has increased.These results are considered to be due to an increase of ion energy. However, it is necessary to measure the ion energy distribution of the Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) device in order to confirm this. To do this, we have measured the distribution of the neutral particle beam energy (relative to ion energy distribution). These experimental results demonstrate that a decrease of operation gas pressure (from 1.7 Pa to 0.3 Pa) contributes to the increase in ion energy.

  6. (Critical topics of plasma facing materials/plasma facing component data for the next step fusion devices)

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.

    1991-01-04

    The Unites States-Japan Workshop P-165 brought together approximately 60 scientists and engineers to discuss critical topics of plasma facing materials and components for the next-step fusion device. In addition to the United States and Japanese participants, there were several guest attendees from Europe. The international makeup of the participants greatly enhanced the success of the workshop. The author jointly chaired a workshop session entitled Impact of Neutron Effects to Plasma Facing Materials and Plasma Facing Component (PFC) Feasibilities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER),'' and presented an overview paper on neutron effects and materials selection for the next-step plasma facing devices. The author presented his work on the effects of neutron irradiation on graphites and carbon-carbon (c/c) composite materials, which are strong candidate materials for PFC's in ITER. The workshop addressed many issues of current concern to the PFC/PFM community including: plasma erosion of PFM's; trapping/detrapping of hydrogen isotopes; large machine operating experience; and extent of the materials database.

  7. Application of parallel heat exchangers in helium refrigerators for mitigating effects of pulsed load from fusion devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Dutta; Parthasarathi Ghosh; Kanchan Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Tokamaks and Stellarators generate heat loads that are pulsating in nature. The helium refrigerators employed for cooling these fusion devices are, however, designed for a steady heat load. Unless they are appropriately adapted and controlled, process parameters under pulsed load may vary to such an extent which may lead of plant instability. In this paper, performance of a J–T stage

  8. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Testing of Medical Devices Including Those Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph M. Herkert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Electromagnetic emissions from technologies that surround us can produce interference with implanted and externally worn medical devices. Electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) testing of medical devices at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) began almost four decades ago and continues to incorporate new devices and new sources of electromagnetic emissions as they are developed and become available. The GTRI Medical

  9. Magnetically-Channeled SIEC Array (MCSA) Fusion Device for Interplanetary Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Miley; R. Stubbers; J. Webber; H. Momota

    2004-01-01

    A radical new Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) concept, the Magnetically-Channeled Spherical-IEC Array (MCSA) fusion propulsion system, was proposed earlier for use in the high performance Space Ship II fusion propulsion ship (Burton, 2003). This ship was designed for a fast manned round trip mission to Jupiter. The MCSA fusion power plant represents a key enabling technology needed for this mission.

  10. On the mechanism of contamination of diagnostic windows in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsenya, V. S.

    1999-01-01

    The sputtering by charge exchange (CX) atoms off the diagnostic duct wall was suggested as the mechanism of deposit growth on diagnostic windows of fusion devices, or on the "first mirrors" in ITER. The rate of deposit growth was estimated as a balance between the deposition rate of wall material, D, and sputtering of the deposit already existing, S. For estimation, the dependencies of the sputtering yield on the projectile energy and incidence angle were used. It was found that the duct length to its diameter ratio, L/d, is an important parameter for deposit growth. The D value exceeds several times S value if L/d>2, but D/S is less than one in the case of a short duct, L/d?1, and also in the case of the very long duct, L/d?10. Based on such a mechanism, a duct structure with diaphragms made of refractory metal was proposed to decrease significantly the rate of deposit growth.

  11. Overview of the European neutral beam program for the next step fusion device (invited)(abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, C.

    1992-04-01

    Neutral beam injection systems (NBI) are capable of injecting powers greater than 20 MW, with pulse length of 5 s. These systems, based on acceleration and neutralization of positive deuterium ions, provide heating and current drive capability and are highly reliable and available. For possible application to a ``next step'' fusion device (ITER or NET), a large extrapolation of neutral deuterium energy is necessary to sustain a noninductively driven toroidal current. For good electrical efficiency of these injectors, the choice of acceleration and neutralization of deuterium negative ions beams is an attractive option. A conceptual European design for ITER/NET is proposed with a pure D- ion source (15 A) biased at a high voltage of -1 MV, a multistage electrostatic accelerator with multihole apertures, a grounded gas neutralizer and an electrostatic deflection beam dump. Special supplies are being studied in order to energize the accelerator (1 MV-15 A) with low stored energy and fast switch off time during a fault in the accelerator. By using nine similar injectors, a neutral power of 75 MW can be installed to drive the ITER current. The expected efficiency is better than 40%. A scalable model (4-A D-, 1 MV) to produce a power of 2-MW D0 can be in operation in 1995. The main areas of uncertainty (D- source, electron trapping, large power accelerator, breakdowns, and power supplies) will be studied with this scalable model. When this first phase has been achieved, the final-size injector will be built.

  12. Fusion research at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL fusion program which includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes is outlined. The study includes: systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the Tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (RF) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of the environment impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices.

  13. A fusion-fission test experiment proposal, based on the standard H-mode scenario of a tokamak device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrugno, A.; Crisanti, F.; Brolatti, G.; Ciotti, M.; Cucchiaro, A.; Manzano, J.; Orsitto, F.; Pizzuto, A.

    2012-06-01

    The so called Hybrid (Fusion-Fission) Reactors seem to be a realistic alternative to the drawbacks of both a pure Fusion and/or a pure Fission reactor; this alternative could also guarantee a "substantial" destruction of the transuranic nuclear waste or production of nuclear combustible. So far, several different hypothesis have been proposed for this type of reactor, all of them based on very advanced and hypothetic fusion scenarios. In the present paper we propose two possible compact (R = 2.5-2.9 m; a = 0.73-0.8 m) high toroidal field (BT = 8.5-7.0 T; Ip = 8-6.8 MA) Tokamaks (based or not on superconductors) to perform a robust and "economic" experiment, propaedeutic to the definitive design of the reactor, where the problems connected with the integration of a Tokamak device with a Fission device can be tested on a realistic base. On both solutions the total fusion power will be of the order of 100 MW and the14 MeV neutron density power of the order of 0.5-1 MW/m2.

  14. Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

  15. Model-order reduction of finite-element approximations of passive electromagnetic devices including lumped electrical-circuit models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wu; Andreas C. Cangellaris

    2004-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the development of reduced-order macromodels for multiport passive electromagnetic devices that include embedded lumped elements. The proposed methodology utilizes a discrete state-space model for the electromagnetic device, generated through the application of the finite-element method for the spatial discretization of Maxwell's curl equations. The incorporation of lumped resistors, inductors, and capacitors is effected through the

  16. Design of a Realtime Industrial-Ethernet Network Including Hot-Pluggable Asynchronous Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dopatka; R. Wismuller

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to design a realtime Industrial-Ethernet network with the feature to add asynchronous sending devices like laptops or personal computers to the network without affecting the realtime performance. The idea is based on the modification of switching engines with usage of standard cabling and network interface cards. Although the implementation is similar to Siemens ProfiNet

  17. An enhanced bacterial foraging algorithm approach for optimal power flow problem including FACTS devices considering system loadability.

    PubMed

    Belwin Edward, J; Rajasekar, N; Sathiyasekar, K; Senthilnathan, N; Sarjila, R

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining optimal power flow solution is a strenuous task for any power system engineer. The inclusion of FACTS devices in the power system network adds to its complexity. The dual objective of OPF with fuel cost minimization along with FACTS device location for IEEE 30 bus is considered and solved using proposed Enhanced Bacterial Foraging algorithm (EBFA). The conventional Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) has the difficulty of optimal parameter selection. Hence, in this paper, BFA is enhanced by including Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm for better performance. A MATLAB code for EBFA is developed and the problem of optimal power flow with inclusion of FACTS devices is solved. After several run with different initial values, it is found that the inclusion of FACTS devices such as SVC and TCSC in the network reduces the generation cost along with increased voltage stability limits. It is also observed that, the proposed algorithm requires lesser computational time compared to earlier proposed algorithms. PMID:23759251

  18. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    DOEpatents

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  19. Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices.

    PubMed

    Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

    2012-11-01

    A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device. PMID:23214902

  20. Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

    2005-01-01

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

  1. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  2. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    SciTech Connect

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  3. High-throughput deterministic single-cell encapsulation and droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage in a single microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, Rogier M; Kemna, Evelien W M; Wolbers, Floor; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device capable of successive high-yield single-cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage. Deterministic single-cell encapsulation is realized using Dean-coupled inertial ordering of cells in a Yin-Yang-shaped curved microchannel using a double T-junction, with a frequency over 2000 Hz, followed by controlled droplet pairing with a 100% success rate. Subsequently, droplet fusion is realized using electrical actuation resulting in electro-coalescence of two droplets, each containing a single HL60 cell, with 95% efficiency. Finally, volume reduction of the fused droplet up to 75% is achieved by a triple pitchfork structure. This droplet volume reduction is necessary to obtain close cell-cell membrane contact necessary for final cell electrofusion, leading to hybridoma formation, which is the ultimate aim of this research. PMID:23856757

  4. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  5. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  6. Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

  7. Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Wehmeyer; R. F. Radel; G. L. Kulcinski

    2005-01-01

    Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in

  8. Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Masuda; Kenji Taruya; Takahiro Koyama; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

    2001-01-01

    Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1\\/5 for

  9. Prospects for High Resolution Neutron Spectroscopy on high power fusion devices in view of the recent diagnostic developments at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, Goeran; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Sjsoetrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J. [INF, Uppsala University, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala (Sweden); Gorini, G.; Ognissanto, F.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Angelone, M. [Association EURATOM-ENEA, Via E. Fermi, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Popovichev, S. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-12

    An evaluation of three different candidate techniques for a 14-MeV High Resolution Neutron Spectrometer for a high power fusion device is presented. The performance is estimated for a modelled neutron emission for ITER plasma scenario 4. As performance indicators we use the estimated time-resolution achieved in measurements of three plasma parameters, namely, the ion temperature, the intensity of neutron emission due to neutral beam--thermal plasma interactions and the intensity of the so-called alpha knock-on neutron tail. It is found that only the MPR technique can deliver results on all three parameters with reasonable time resolution.

  10. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) – 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the I

  11. CORSICA: A comprehensive simulation of toroidal magnetic-fusion devices. Final report to the LDRD Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crotinger, J.A.; LoDestro, L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Tarditi, A.; Casper, T.A.; Hooper, E.B.

    1997-03-21

    In 1992, our group began exploring the requirements for a comprehensive simulation code for toroidal magnetic fusion experiments. There were several motivations for taking this step. First, the new machines being designed were much larger and more expensive than current experiments. Second, these new designs called for much more sophisticated control of the plasma shape and position, as well as the distributions of energy, mass, and current within the plasma. These factors alone made it clear that a comprehensive simulation capability would be an extremely valuable tool for machine design. The final motivating factor was that the national Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) had recently received High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge funding to model turbulent transport in tokamaks, raising the possibility that first-principles simulations of this process might be practical in the near future. We felt that the best way to capitalize on this development was to integrate the resulting turbulence simulation codes into a comprehensive simulation. Such simulations must include the effects of many microscopic length- and time-scales. In order to do a comprehensive simulation efficiently, the length- and time- scale disparities must be exploited. We proposed to do this by coupling the average or quasistatic effects from the fast time-scales to a slow-time-scale transport code for the macroscopic plasma evolution. In FY93-FY96 we received funding to investigate algorithms for computationally coupling such disparate-scale simulations and to implement these algorithms in a prototype simulation code, dubbed CORSICA. Work on algorithms and test cases proceeded in parallel, with the algorithms being incorporated into CORSICA as they became mature. In this report we discuss the methods and algorithms, the CORSICA code, its applications, and our plans for the future.

  12. Embedded D-{sup 3}He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, B.B.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2003-09-15

    The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-{sup 3}He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-{sup 3}He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2/3 of the total D-{sup 3}He reaction rate can be due to embedded fusion reactions, reactions occurring within the cathode due to ion implantation. Therefore, the cathode surface sees a large, high-energy proton flux. Using a solid molybdenum cathode, and taking advantage of the embedded reactions, about 1 nCi of the medical isotope {sup 94m}Tc was created via {sup 94}Mo(p,n){sup 94m}Tc in a proof of principle experiment. This represents the first time the IEC concept has been used to produce a radioisotope using D-{sup 3}He fusion.

  13. Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1/5 for the same discharge current and voltage. Although the gas pressure region that was achieved still remains the region where the fusion reaction between the ion beam and background gas is dominant, the neutron yield normalized by the gas pressure in the triple-grid system shows higher value than the conventional single-grid system.

  14. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (?1 m), high-current (?1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields – in between plasma shots – to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ?5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

  15. An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented. PMID:24387430

  16. High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R. [and others

    1993-11-01

    The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to {approximately}1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (>2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the US Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community -- ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to {approximately}1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

  17. Development of a new concept ion source for high performance inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Taniuchi; Y. Matsumura; K. Taira; M. Utsumi

    2010-01-01

    An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic potential well. It consists of two spherical grids inside the vacuum chamber. An insulated high voltage feed-through supplies power to the inner grid cathode, and a small amount of deuterium or tritium gas (0.1-1.0 Pa) is fed into the chamber. When the voltage is

  18. Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He^3He Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Becerra; John Santarius; Gerald Kulcinski

    2010-01-01

    Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally,

  19. Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takanori Higashi; Takahito Tomizawa; Mitsugu Daino; Yasushi Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10⁶ neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase

  20. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  1. 1st NIFS-CRC International Symposium and 1st Korea-Japan Workshop on Edge-Plasma and Surface Component Interactions in Steady State Magnetic Fusion Devices

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    -Plasma and Surface Component Interactions in Steady State Magnetic Fusion Devices May 20-22nd, 2007 PISCES-B mixed to prevent the release of Be dust. #12;PISCES PISCES A MBE effusion cell is used to provide a Be impurity disappears in C 1s spectra. · In Be 1s spectra, metallic peak shifts to a carbidic peak. · Carbide forms more

  2. Measurement of the energy distribution of fast excited atoms by Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Masuda; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Ken Takiyama; Hisayuki Toku; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Akihiro Nagafuchi

    2002-01-01

    Energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms resulted from charge-exchange reactions between accelerated ions and background atoms or molecules were measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device composed of a spherical vacuum chamber as an anode and a spherical hollow cathode grid concentrically placed in the chamber. Since ions generated between the cathode and the

  3. Integrated core–SOL–divertor modelling for ITER including impurity: effect of tungsten on fusion performance in H-mode and hybrid scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, R.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Köchl, F.; Belo, P.; Fable, E.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Polevoi, A. R.; Telesca, G.; contributors, JET

    2015-05-01

    The compatibility of two operational constraints—operation above the L–H power threshold and at low power to divertor—is examined for ITER long pulse H-mode and hybrid scenarios in integrated core–scrape off layer (SOL)–divertor modelling including impurities (intrinsic Be, He, W and seeded Ne). The core thermal, particle and momentum transport is simulated with the GLF23 transport model tested in the self-consistent simulations of temperatures, density and toroidal rotation velocity in JET hybrid discharges and extrapolated to ITER. The beneficial effect of toroidal rotation velocity on fusion gain is shown. The sensitivity studies with respect to operational (separatrix and pedestal density, Ne gas puff) and unknown physics (W convective velocity and perpendicular diffusion in SOL as well as W prompt re-deposition) parameters are performed to determine their influence on the operational window and fusion gain.

  4. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, F. QL. [Grinnell College, 1115 8th Avenue, Grinnell, IA 50112-1616

    2011-01-20

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  5. Evaluation of an electrostatic dust removal system with potential application in next-step fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, F. Q. L. [Grinnell College, 1115 8th Avenue, Grinnell, Iowa 50112-1616 (United States); John, B. [Swarthmore College, 500 College Ave., Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 (United States); Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Calle, C. I. [NASA Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 32899 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass, and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm{sup 3} volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 s. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  6. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 cu mm volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales 1 s).

  7. Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate\\u000a ions radially using voltage differences of 10–100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid\\u000a with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects\\u000a the ion flow into the

  8. Unified Theory of Bivacuum, Particles Duality, Fields & Time. New Bivacuum Mediated Interaction, Overunity Devices, Cold Fusion & Nucleosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Alex Kaivarainen

    2006-07-14

    New concept of Bivacuum is introduced, as a dynamic matrix of the Universe, composed from sub-quantum particles and antiparticles, forming vortical structures. These structures are presented by continuum of dipoles, each dipole containing a pair of correlated torus and antitorus: V(+) and V(-) of the opposite energy/mass, spin, charge and magnetic moments, compensating each other. The rest mass and charge of sub-elementary fermions or antifermions is a result of Bivacuum dipoles opposite symmetry shifts. Their fusion to triplets follows by elementary particles and antiparticles origination. The [corpuscle (C) - wave (W)] duality is a result of correlated beats between the 'actual' and 'complementary' states of sub-elementary fermions of triplets. It is shown, that Principle of least action, the 2d and 3d laws of thermodynamics can be a consequences of forced combinational resonance between positive and negative virtual pressure waves (VPW+/-) of Bivacuum and [C-W] pulsation of elementary particles. The quantum entanglement, mediated by virtual microtubules, composed from Bivacuum dipoles, connecting remote particles, is a result of such Bivacuum-matter interaction. The pace of time for any closed system is determined by pace of kinetic energy change of this system. The proposed mechanism of overunity devices can be provided by the electrons acceleration, induced by their resonant interaction with high frequency positive and negative VPW+/- in pull-in range conditions. The latter can be excited by pulsing currents and fields. The mechanism of overheating and cold fusion in electrolytic cells without violation of energy conservation is proposed also.

  9. Visualization and Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Tokamak Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Robert; Kessel, Charles; Hawryluk, R. J.; Feibush, Eliot; Milano, Matthew; Phillips, Ben

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies of tokamak fusion nuclear science facilities, which could achieve net electricity generation, have involved searching a rich parameter space for optimal reactor characteristics using a 0-D systems code. Large amounts of data were generated, on the order of one hundred million different sets of reactor parameters. The systems code has been interfaced with PPPL's visualization program called ElVis and tools have been developed to handle large amounts of data. This work has motivated further development of ElVis, allowing it to accommodate the systems code output data. ElVis enables a user to make arbitrary plots of different reactor parameters. The data manipulation and graphing capability has enabled the review of a large number of viable operating points, the observation of trends and the identification of desirable operating points. This will enable a study of the impact of enhanced physics and technology on the operation of a power plant that produces net electricity. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. What is a cochlear implant? A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to convey auditory information including speech

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    · What is a cochlear implant? A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to convey). The cochlear implant system consists of an internal device that is surgically implanted into the inner ear to be meaningful for them. A cochlear implant may provide sound information for these children. · How does

  11. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    DOEpatents

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  12. ECR heating power modulation as a means to ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, D. Kh.; Pshenov, A. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Mineev, A. B. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-15

    A method is proposed to ease the overcoming of the impurity radiation barrier during current drive in tokamaks, as well as in alternative fusion and plasmochemical systems with ECR plasma heating. The method is based on the fact that the dependence of the ionization rate on the electron temperature is strongly nonlinear and the dependence of the recombination rate on the latter is weaker. The result is that, during temperature oscillations, the effective temperature for ionization-recombination processes is higher than that in a steady state, so the ionization equilibrium is shifted and strongly emitting ions are stripped more rapidly. Thereby, ECR plasma heating in the initial discharge stage can be made more efficient by modulating the heating power at a low frequency. The evolution of the electron temperature in a homogeneous hydrogen plasma with a carbon impurity and in small ISX-scale tokamaks is simulated numerically, as well as the evolution of the electron and ion temperatures and of the current during discharge startup in the ITER device. Numerical simulations of the effect of modulation of the ECR heating power on the rate of heating of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon plasmas were also carried out. The assumption of coronal equilibrium is not used. It is shown that the low-frequency modulation of the heating power can substantially ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier.

  13. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of topology designed and conventional 3D printed bioresorbable PCL cervical interbody fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Borkowski, Sean L; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2015-09-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(?)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650N in compression, 395N in compression-shear, and 0.25Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices. PMID:26072198

  14. The effect of self-shielding of resonance cross-sections on lotus fusion-fission device

    SciTech Connect

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.

    1985-07-01

    The LOTUS Swiss fusion fission hybrid test facility was used to investigate the influence of the self-shielding of resonance cross sections on the tritium breeding and on the thorium ratios. Nucleonic analyses were performed using some deterministic codes and the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the self-shielding of resonance cross sections results in a decrease of the thorium capture rate and in an increase of the tritium breeding of about 6%. Therefore for hybrid blanket calculations it is important to define an adequate energy group structure with many groups within the resonances of the fissile-fertile material and the self-shielding should be included in neutronics calculations.

  15. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

  20. Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate ? is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for ? versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

  1. Experimental results on the irradiation of nuclear fusion relevant materials at the dense plasma focus ‘Bora’ device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Gribkov, V. A.; Niemela, J.; Tuniz, C.; Zanolli, C.; Chernyshova, M.; Demina, E. V.; Latyshev, S. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Talab, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Samples of materials counted as perspective ones for use in the first-wall and construction elements in nuclear fusion reactors (FRs) with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement (W, Ti, Al, low-activated ferritic steel ‘Eurofer’ and some alloys) were irradiated in the dense plasma focus (DPF) device ‘Bora’ having a bank energy of ?5 kJ. The device generates hot dense (T ? 1 keV, n ? 1019 cm?3) deuterium plasma, powerful plasma streams (v ? 3 × 107 cm s?1) and fast (E ? 0.1 … 1.0 MeV) deuterons of power flux densities q up to 1010 and 1012 W cm?2 correspondingly. ‘Damage factor’ F = q × ?0.5 ensures an opportunity to simulate radiation loads (predictable for both reactors types) by the plasma/ion streams, which have the same nature and namely those parameters as expected in the FR modules. Before and after irradiation we provided investigations of our samples by means of a number of analytical techniques. Among them we used optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand character and parameters of damageability of the surface layers of the samples. Atomic force microscopy was applied to measure roughness of the surface after irradiation. These characteristics are quite important for understanding mechanisms and values of dust production in FR that may relate to tritium retention and emergency situations in FR facilities. We also applied two new techniques. For the surface we elaborated the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single photon detection with high spectroscopic and angular resolutions. For bulk damageability investigations we applied an x-ray microCT system where x-rays were produced by a Hamamatsu microfocus source (150 kV, 500 µA, 5 µm minimum focal spot size). The detector was a Hamamatsu CMOS flat panel coupled to a fibre optic plate under the GOS scintillator. The reconstruction of three-dimensional data was run with Cobra 7.4 and DIGIX CT software while VG Studio Max 2.1, and Amira 5.3 were used for segmentation and rendering. We have also provided numerical simulation of the fast ion beam action. The paper contains results on the investigations of modifications of the elemental contents, structure and properties of the materials.

  2. RC ITER: An Opportunity to Study Burning Plasmas and Develop Fusion Technology in a Reactor Relevant Device

    E-print Network

    D1 RC ITER: An Opportunity to Study Burning Plasmas and Develop Fusion Technology in a Reactor the availability and integration of technologies essential for a fusion reactor (such as superconducting magnets and remote maintenance); · Test components for a reactor (such as systems to exhaust power and particles from

  3. Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Takanori; Tomizawa, Takahito; Daino, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10{sup 6} neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase neutron production. Although the discharge currents are small, we can make steady discharges at less than 0.1 Pa. The neutron production rates per current are larger than those of glow discharge at higher pressure. We consider it should suggest the validity of reducing operating pressure in IECF devices.

  4. Fusion reactor theory and conceptual design. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical and conceptual aspects of fusion reactor physics and designs. A variety of fusion reactors is discussed, including Tokamak, experimental, commercial, tandem mirror, and superconducting magnetic. Topics also include fusion reactor materials, Tokamak devices, blanket design, divertors, fusion plasma production, superconducting magnets, and cryogenic systems. (Contains a minimum of 159 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Danielson

    1996-01-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure,

  6. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  7. Construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of fusion protein including porin A and porin B of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Song, Qifa; Wan, Mufen

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide a rational research basis for clinical detection and genetic engineering vaccine, plasmid pET-28a (+) encoding both Porin gene PIA and PIB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was constructed and a fusion protein in E. coli DE3 expressed. The fragments of PIA and PIB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a (+) with double restriction endonuclease cut to construct recombinant pET-PIB-PIA. The recombinant was verified with restriction endonuclease and sequenced and transformed into E. coli DE3 to express the fusion protein PIB-PIA after induced with IPTG. The results showed PIA-PIB fusion DNA fragment was proved correct through sequencing. A 67 kD (1 kD= 0.992 1 ku) fusion protein had been detected by SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that the fusion protein was successively expressed. PMID:15641680

  8. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  9. Fusion facility siting considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussell, G. T.

    1985-02-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. An important consideration in this regard is site selection. Major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion are examined.

  10. US-Japan workshops: Q-111, Development of Plasma Facing Components and Materials for Next Large Fusion Devices, and Q-112, Vacuum and First Wall Technology for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. B.; Miyahara, A.

    This report contains papers on the following topics: plasma facing components (PFC) recent experiments on large devices; PFC materials for future plasma devices; neutron effects on carbon materials; innovative concepts for power and particle control; status of high z materials for PFC's; alternate low z plasma facing materials; erosion and hydrogen studies; engineering issues for PFC's; vacuum vessel design for large devices; and testing facilities and test results.

  11. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  13. Biomechanical stability of a bioabsorbable self-retaining polylactic acid/nano-sized ?-tricalcium phosphate cervical spine interbody fusion device in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion sheep models

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Che, Wu; Wang, Hui-Ren; Dong, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stability provided by a novel, polylactic acid/nano-sized, ?-tricalcium phosphate, bioabsorbable, self-retaining cervical fusion cage (BCFC). Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torques (maximum 1.5 NM) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending (±1.5 NM), and axial rotation (±1.5 NM) on 32 sheep cervical spines (C2–C5). The motion segment C3–C4 was first tested intact; the following groups were tested after complete discectomy: autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft, Medtronic–Wego polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, Solis PEEK cage, and BCFC. The autologous bone graft group was tested with an anterior plate. The mean range of motion (ROM) was calculated from the load-displacement curves. Results BCFC significantly decreased ROM in lateral bending and axial rotation compared to other implants, and no significant difference in ROM between two types of PEEK cages and BCFC could be observed in flexion and extension. Anterior cervical plate (ACP) significantly decreased ROM in flexion and extension, but no significant difference in ROM between BCFC and bone graft plus ACP could be determined in lateral bending and axial rotation. Conclusion The BCFC device showed better stability to autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft and PEEK cages in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion models and thus may be a potential alternative to the current PEEK cages. PMID:23226018

  14. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  15. Recent results obtained by use of accelerators on plasma-edge properties in controlled-fusion devices and on properties of high-power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of plasma-wall interactions is of primary importance in present fusion devices. Measurements of incident fuel and impurity fluxes, retention and release of fuel atoms, and erosion of internal components are of particular interest. Accelerators in the megaelectronvolt range are being used both to measure the depth profile of fuel atoms implanted in samples placed in the plasma edge by use of nuclear reactions and to measure impurities and film thicknesses by use of elastic scattering reactions. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to determine flux and energy distributions of fuel atoms and to measure species composition and impurities in the beams of high power neutral beam injectors. Recent results obtained with these techniques are presented and areas of future study are discussed.

  16. Low-loss fusion splicing of single-mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber suitable for construction of a patch cord for measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Murawski, Michal; Stasiewicz, Karol; Marc, Pawel

    2009-10-01

    The optimization of the fused splice between two identical PCFs as well as SMF•28 with different MFD PCFs made using the filament fusion with continuum laser illumination is reported. For identical PCFs splice loss of 0.15+/-0.04 dB @ 1.55 ?m has been obtained. The SMF with PCF (MFD = 6.0 ?m) splice losses are lower than 0.40 dB in comparison with the reported dependences in spectral range 1.51-1.63?m. Moreover, the splice SMF with extremely small core PCF is also presented. The discussed data has shown that such SMF-PCF splice is suitable for construction of a patch cord for measurement devices.

  17. Fusion Engineering and Design 23 (1993) 99-113 99 North-Holland

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    1993-01-01

    Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186, USA The operating conditions of a compact, high-neutron-wall-loading fusion throughout the fusion reactor device. Electrical insulator-material issues of concern include irradiation-I reactor is a compact, high-power- density reactor (major radius 3.9 m, plasma minor radius 0.6 m, neutron

  18. The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

    1993-07-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

  19. ChemTeacher: Fusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.

  20. TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

  1. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  2. General Atomics Fusion Group Educational Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the General Atomics Energy Group features a collection of educational resources on fusion. Both naturally occuring fusion and fusion as an energy source are included. Resources for teachers to use in the classroom are included.

  3. Fusion Energy: Visions of the Future

    E-print Network

    Scale, Terrapower, Areva Nat'l Ignition Facility, Iter, General Fusion TriAlpha, Polywell, LPP #12;DeuteriumFusion Energy: Visions of the Future Dec. 10-11, 2013 FOCUS FUSION Cheap, Clean, Safe & Unlimited Energy #12;Controlled Nuclear Fusion With a Dense Plasma Focus Device Running on Aneutronic Fuel What

  4. The project is to design a power supply that will drive a piezoelectric device. The requirements for this power supply include: 1-20 Watts output power, 120VAC input voltage,

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    The project is to design a power supply that will drive a piezoelectric device. The requirements for this power supply include: 1-20 Watts output power, 120VAC input voltage, reach piezoelectric device's resonant frequency and be impedance matched. Furthermore, the power supply circuit should be simple

  5. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  6. Study of elementary processes of plasma-wall interaction in fusion devices by means of an inductively coupled hydrogen plasma in interaction with graphite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartry, Gilles

    2008-10-01

    In controlled fusion devices, the interaction of hydrogen plasma with graphite like walls leads to carbon erosion and hydrocarbon redeposition. When using tritium, which is a radioactive element, hydrocarbon redeposition in the reactor becomes a real safety issue. Therefore carbon erosion must be understood and limited. Our aim is to better understand fundamental mechanisms of hydrogen interaction with graphite. In this aim, we use an ultra-high vacuum set-up equipped with hydrogen guns (atomic and ionic species), with a versatile ICP source working as a plasma source or as an atomic source, and with two mains surface diagnostics: High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. We will present a model for H adsorption process on graphite surface, and particularly will compare ``hot'' and ``cold'' H atom adsorption. We will deal with H(D) abstraction by D(H) atoms. Finally, we will examine ion interaction with graphite both in beams and in plasmas in order to better understand ion-neutral synergetic effects.

  7. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-01

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that transient measurements can overestimate the electron diffusion length in cells which have a low collection efficiency. The model should provide a useful general framework for exploring new cell descriptions, architectures and other factors influencing device performance. PMID:21327204

  8. Coatings and claddings for the reduction of plasma contamination and surface erosion in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    For the successful operation of plasma devices and future fusion reactors it is necessary to control plasma impurity release and surface erosion. Effective methods to obtain such controls include the application of protective coatings to, and the use of clad materials for, certain first wall components. Major features of the development programs for coatings and claddings for fusion applications will be described together with an outline of the testing program. A discussion of some pertinent test results will be included.

  9. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Panayotis, Stephanie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Jacquot, Jonathan [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Green, David L [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  10. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

    2014-11-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>?1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher. PMID:25430306

  11. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C. C., E-mail: kleppercc@ornl.gov; Isler, R. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Martin, E. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Shannon, S. C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>?1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  12. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  13. Fusion Energy Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

  14. Research on fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-19

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  15. Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunny A. Abbah; Christopher X. L. Lam; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; James C. H. Goh; Hee-Kit Wong

    2009-01-01

    A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL–TCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCL–TCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3\\/4; L5\\/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

  16. Service-oriented Computation in Magnetic Fusion Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schissel

    Fusion science seeks a new power source and is advanced by experiments on fusion devices located worldwide. Fundamental to\\u000a increasing understanding of fusion is the comparison of theory and experiment; measurements from fusion devices are analyzed\\u000a and compared with the output of simulations to test the validity of fusion models and to uncover new physical properties.\\u000a Integrating simulations with experimental

  17. Effect of superbanana diffusion on fusion reactivity in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Fred L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion reactivity is usually obtained using a Maxwellian distribution. However, energy-dependent radial diffusion can modify the energy distribution. Superbanana diffusion is energy-dependent and occurs in nonaxisymmetric magnetic confinement devices, such as stellarators, because of ripple-trapped particles which can take large steps between collisions. In this paper, the D-T fusion reactivity is calculated using a non-Maxwellian energy distribution obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, including radial superbanana diffusion as well as energy scattering. The ions in the tail of the distribution, with energies larger than thermal, which are most needed for fusion, are depleted by superbanana diffusion. In this paper, it is shown that the D-T fusion reactivity is reduced by tail ion depletion due to superbanana diffusion, by roughly a factor of 0.5 for the parameters used in the calculation.

  18. Information fusion, application to data and model fusion for ultrasound image segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Solaiman; R. Debon; F. Pipelier; J.-M. Cauvin; C. Roux

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, information fusion constitutes a challenging research topic. The authors' study proposes to achieve the fusion of several knowledge sources. This, in order to detect the esophagus inner wall from ultrasound medical images. After a brief description of information fusion concepts, the authors propose a system architecture including both model and data fusion. The data fusion is accomplished using fuzzy

  19. What have fusion reactor studies done for you today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kulchinski

    1985-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin examines the fusion program and puts into perspective what return is being made on investments in fusion reactor studies. Illustations show financial support for fusion research from the four major programs, FY'82 expenditures on fusion research, and the total expenditures on fusion research since 1951. Topics discussed include the estimated number of scientists conducting fusion research,

  20. Robotics and local fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Emmerman

    2005-01-01

    Teams of robots or mixed teams of warfighters and robots on reconnaissance and other missions can benefit greatly from a local fusion station. A local fusion station is defined here as a small mobile processor with interfaces to enable the ingestion of multiple heterogeneous sensor data and information streams, including blue force tracking data. These data streams are fused and

  1. Environmental aspects of fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Coffman; J. M. Williams

    1975-01-01

    Potential environmental impacts of commercial fusion reactors are discussed and compared with those of fission reactors. It is shown that the environmental impact of fusion reactors will be quite small, with the main contribution coming from thermal discharges. Some attractive safety and environmental characteristics of fusion reactors are described, including an effectively infinite low-cost fuel supply, their inherent incapacity for

  2. Channel aware decision fusion in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao Chen; Ruixiang Jiang; Teerasit Kasetkasem; Pramod K. Varshney

    2004-01-01

    Information fusion by utilizing multiple distributed sensors is studied in this work. Extending the classical parallel fusion structure by incorporating the fading channel layer that is omnipresent in wireless sensor networks, we derive the likelihood ratio based fusion rule given fixed local decision devices. This optimum fusion rule, however, requires perfect knowledge of the local decision performance indices as well

  3. Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report

    E-print Network

    Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report Summary for NRC BPAC Panel (Focus on MFE of a demonstration power plant in approximately 35 years. The plan should recognize the capabilities of all fusion facilities around the world, and include both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE

  4. Therapeutic strategy using extracorporeal life support, including appropriate indication, management, limitation and timing of switch to ventricular assist device in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Naoyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Toshiro; Fukuda, Naoto; Moriguchi, Masahiko; Nishinari, Makoto; Nishii, Mototsugu; Kono, Ken; Soma, Kazui; Izumi, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    The appropriate indication for, management of and limitations to extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and the timing of a switch to a ventricular assist device (VAD) remain controversial issues in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with cardiogenic shock or cardiopulmonary arrest. To evaluate and discuss these issues, we studied patients with AMI treated with ECLS and compared deceased and discharged patients. Thirty-eight patients with AMI who needed ECLS [35 men (92.1 %), aged 59.9 ± 13.5 years] were enrolled in this study. Of these 38 patients, 34 subsequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and four subsequently received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Fourteen patients (36.8 %) were discharged from the hospital. The outcome was not favorable for those patients with deteriorating low output syndrome (LOS) and the development of leg ischemia, hemolysis and multiple organ failure during ECLS. Levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatinine (Cr) and amylase after the patient had been put on ECLS and fluctuation of the cardiac index, blood pressure, arterial blood gas analysis and CK-MB and Cr levels during ECLS were indicators to switch from the ECLS to VAD. In the case of patients with no complication associated with ECLS, 4.6-5.6 days after initiation of ECLS was assumed to be the threshold to decide whether to switch from ECLS to VAD. Patients with AMI who suddenly developed refractory pulseless ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation without deteriorating LOS and who underwent successful PCI or CABG, and who prevented the complications associated with ECLS, showed a high probability of recovering with ECLS. PMID:24162152

  5. Real-time sensor validation and fusion for distributed autonomous sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Li, Xiangshang; Buckles, Bill P.

    2004-04-01

    Multi-sensor data fusion has found widespread applications in industrial and research sectors. The purpose of real time multi-sensor data fusion is to dynamically estimate an improved system model from a set of different data sources, i.e., sensors. This paper presented a systematic and unified real time sensor validation and fusion framework (RTSVFF) based on distributed autonomous sensors. The RTSVFF is an open architecture which consists of four layers - the transaction layer, the process fusion layer, the control layer, and the planning layer. This paradigm facilitates distribution of intelligence to the sensor level and sharing of information among sensors, controllers, and other devices in the system. The openness of the architecture also provides a platform to test different sensor validation and fusion algorithms and thus facilitates the selection of near optimal algorithms for specific sensor fusion application. In the version of the model presented in this paper, confidence weighted averaging is employed to address the dynamic system state issue noted above. The state is computed using an adaptive estimator and dynamic validation curve for numeric data fusion and a robust diagnostic map for decision level qualitative fusion. The framework is then applied to automatic monitoring of a gas-turbine engine, including a performance comparison of the proposed real-time sensor fusion algorithms and a traditional numerical weighted average.

  6. Robotics and local fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerman, Philip J.

    2005-05-01

    Teams of robots or mixed teams of warfighters and robots on reconnaissance and other missions can benefit greatly from a local fusion station. A local fusion station is defined here as a small mobile processor with interfaces to enable the ingestion of multiple heterogeneous sensor data and information streams, including blue force tracking data. These data streams are fused and integrated with contextual information (terrain features, weather, maps, dynamic background features, etc.), and displayed or processed to provide real time situational awareness to the robot controller or to the robots themselves. These blue and red force fusion applications remove redundancies, lessen ambiguities, correlate, aggregate, and integrate sensor information with context such as high resolution terrain. Applications such as safety, team behavior, asset control, training, pattern analysis, etc. can be generated or enhanced by these fusion stations. This local fusion station should also enable the interaction between these local units and a global information world.

  7. The "Fusion EXPO" in Brussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, Jef; van Oost, Guido; Paris, Pierre

    1997-11-01

    From the 22nd of october until the 28th of november, a fusion exhibit is being organized in the capital of Europe, Brussels. The aim of the exhibit is threefold : (i) give a feeling for the problem of our future energy supply (ii) show that fusion is possibly one of the most interesting of the very few options we have for our long term energy supply and (iii) to increase public awareness on fusion research. The exhibit deals mainly with magnetic fusion, with some part devoted to inertial fusion. Large photographs of different European fusion devices, maquettes of JET, Tore Supra etc..., parts of existing magnetic fusion experiments (antennas, limiters, etc...) should give the public an idea of what fusion research means in terms of real life. Especially school classes are invited and will be given guided tours of the exhibit. In particular also the members of the European Parliament are invited to the exhibit, and a special symposiom on fusion research will be organized to inform them on the need of this kind of research and the important benefits fusion has to offer over all other known energy sources. The poster will give a visual overview of the exhibit, next to providing some practical experience gathered until then. New materials for public use and especially prepared for this exhibit will be on display.

  8. Fusion Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  9. H-1NF: The Australian National Plasma Fusion Facility: Results and Upgrade Plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Blackwell; J. Howard; M. J. Hole; D. G. Pretty; J. W. Read; H. Punzmann; S. T. A. Kumar; M. McGann; R. L. Dewar; C. A. Nuehrenberg

    2009-01-01

    The H-1 National Plasma Fusion Research Facility will be upgraded to support the development of world-class diagnostic systems for application to international facilities in preparation for ITER. The upgrade will include new heating systems and deliver access to new magnetic configurations relevant to development of edge and divertor plasma diagnostics for next generation devices. The Facility plan will be presented,

  10. SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

  11. Sealing device

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  12. Dynamic multi-sensor data fusion system for intelligent robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REN C. LUO; MIN-HSIUNG LIN; RALPH S. SCHERP

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the authors is to develop an intelligent robot workstation capable of integrating data from multiple sensors. The investigation is based on a Unimation PUMA 560 robot and various external sensors. These include overhead vision, eye-in-hand vision, proximity, tactile array, position, force\\/torque, cross-fire, overload, and slip-sensing devices. The efficient fusion of data from different sources will enable the

  13. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystalQ1

    E-print Network

    Gimzewski, James

    in a room temperature solid-state setting, including `cold' fusion5 and `bubble' fusion6 , have met.............................................................. Observation of nuclear fusion driven ............................................................................................................................................................................. While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic1 and inertial2 confinement, alternative

  14. Fusion product spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, T.L.; Hale, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain , , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements.

  15. Review And Status Report On Laser Tissue Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dew, D. K.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to overcome some of the problems associated with conventional wound closure, i.e. suture or mechanical device closure, the laser has been used for "tissue welding" ,(sealing and fusion), of wound edges. Early attempts at laser tissue fusion were centered on microvascular anastomosis and recent studies have extended to include most soft tissues. It has been demonstrated in animal studies, that the process of healing after laser wound closure is very similar in most tissues. Within the past year alone, the experimental work in this area has progressed rapidly; limited clinical trials are now under way. Based on detailed animal studies and limited clinical experience, laser tissue fusion may soon replace many conventional techniques of wound repair.

  16. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  17. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  18. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  19. Radiation Effects on Superconducting Fusion Magnet Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald W. Weber

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion devices based on the magnetic confinement principle heavily rely on the existence and performance of superconducting magnets and have always significantly contributed to advancing superconductor and magnet technology to their limits. In view of the presently ongoing construction of the tokamak device ITER and the stellerator device Wendelstein 7X and their record breaking parameters concerning size, complexity of

  20. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  1. Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

    2011-01-01

    We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

  2. Real Time and Passive Measurements of the Distribution of Tritium in Graphite Tiles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Benita; Gentile, C.

    1998-11-01

    The need to determine the distribution of tritium deposition in a magnetically confined fusion device is of importance in determining tritium accountability. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) produced D-T plasmas employing tritium as a fuel component for 3.5 years. This paper describes the methods employed to measure tritium in-situ within the TFTR Vacuum Vessel. Three counting methods were employed which included thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), open wall ion chamber, and pin diodes. The paper will discuss the implementation of these three monitoring techniques, the use of these devices, and the data resulting from the in-situ measurements of the TFTR graphite tiles.

  3. Real Time and Passive Measurements of the Distribution of Tritium >in Graphite Tiles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Benita

    1998-11-01

    The need to determine the distribution of tritium deposition in a magnetically confined fusion device is of importance in determining tritium accountability. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) produced D-T plasmas employing tritium as a fuel component for 3.5 years. This paper describes the methods employed to measure tritium in-situ within the TFTR Vacuum Vessel. Three counting methods were employed which included thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), open wall ion chamber, and pin diodes. The paper will discuss the implementation of these three monitoring techniques, the use of these devices, and the data resulting from the in-situ measurements of the TFTR graphite tiles.

  4. Assisted fusion

    E-print Network

    German Kälbermann

    2009-10-19

    A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

  5. Ion beam analysis for fusion energy research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Wampler

    2004-01-01

    Proposed next-step devices for development of fusion energy present a major increase in the energy content and duration of plasmas far beyond those encountered in existing machines. This increases the importance of controlling interactions between the fusion plasma and first-wall materials. These interactions change the wall materials and strongly affect the core plasma conditions. Two critical processes are the erosion

  6. THE REQUIREMENTS OF A FUSION DEMONSTRATION

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    generation with a demonstration (DEMO) fusion power plant. The development pathway to commercial electric and decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) procedures for subsequent devices. The most profound design choice involvement. The implications to present fusion-development programs are transparent: the engineering aspects

  7. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  8. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  9. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

    2012-08-08

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

  10. Level 5 (User Refinement) issues supporting Information Fusion Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Blasch

    2006-01-01

    Subsequent revisions to the Joint-Directors of Lab (JDL) model emphasize the differentiation between fusion (estimation) and sensor management (control). Two diverging groups include one pressing for fusion automation (JDL revisions) and one advocating the role of the user (user-fusion model). The center of debate is real-world delivery of fusion systems which requires presenting fusion results for knowledge representation (fusion estimation)

  11. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  12. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  14. www.postersession.com Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion for Spacecraft

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Fusion Power and Propulsion Group (FPPG) views the probability of this sort of space activity as quite Fusion reactors for space power and propulsion applications 2. Model and explore the fundamental physics improvements BACKGROUND GOALS OF THE RESEARCH MULTI-GRID IEC DEVICES EXPERIMENT DEVELOPMENT IEC fusion reactors

  15. Glow Discharge Characteristics in Relation to Anode Size in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hodaka Osawa; Shigehisa Yoshimura; Takehiro Tabata; Masami Ohnishi

    2008-01-01

    An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device is a very simple and safe neutron source that uses a glow discharge for deuterium-deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristics of the device were studied experimentally. The relationship between gas pressure and applied voltage was examined by light changes of the device's anode size. The gas pressure ranges in which the device was able to

  16. Electrochromic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Granqvist

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of recently discussed electrochromic devices, mainly for modulating optical transmittance. Data are given on all-solid-state and polymer-laminated constructions, with and without self-powering by integrated solar cells. Special attention is devoted to a novel flexible polyester-based device incorporating electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide. In particular the exposition covers some critical manufacturing aspects, including gas treatments

  17. The scientific status of fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, D. H.

    1989-07-01

    The development of fusion energy has been a large-scale scientific undertaking of broad interest. The magnetic plasma containment in tokamaks and the laser-drive ignition of microfusion capsules appear to be scientifically feasible sources of energy. These concepts are bounded by questions of required intensity in magnetic field and plasma currents or in drive energy and, for both concepts, by issues of plasma stability and energy transport. The basic concept and the current scientific issues are described for magnetic fusion and for the interesting, but likely infeasible, muon-catalyzed fusion concept. Inertial fusion is mentioned, qualitatively, to complete the context. Fusion appears to release energy in rather large quantities (about 1000 MW) and significant new devices are needed to make progress. For magnetic fusion, the required net energy production within the plasma may be accomplished soon, but the more useful goal of self-sustained plasma ignition requires a new device of somewhat uncertain (factor of 2) cost and size.

  18. Robust data fusion for multisensor detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evaggelos Geraniotis; Yawgeng A. Chau

    1990-01-01

    Minimax robust data fusion schemes for multisensor detection systems with discrete-time observations characterized by statistical uncertainty are developed and analyzed. Block, sequential, and serial fusion rules are considered. The performance measures used, and made robust with respect to the uncertainties, include the error probabilities of the hypothesis testing problem in the block fusion case and the error probabilities and expected

  19. Revisions to the JDL data fusion model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Steinberg; C. L. Bowman; F. E. White

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Directors of Laboratories {(JDL)} Data Fusion Group's Data Fusion Model is the most widely used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This model is modified to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi-sensor\\/multi-source systems. Proposed modifications include broadening of the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion

  20. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  1. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spine. Other surgery, such as a diskectomy , laminectomy , or a foraminotomy , is almost always done first. ... procedures for spinal stenosis , such as foraminotomy or laminectomy After diskectomy in the neck Spinal fusion may ...

  2. Fusion Simulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

  3. Computational fusion magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Simple magnetohydrodynamic models provide the framework for much of our understanding of the macroscopic behavior of magnetically confined laboratory plasmas. In even the simplest of models, however, the many different time and spatial scales, the multidimensionality, and the nonlinearity of the equations make finding solutions difficult. In realistic geometries obtaining quantitative results to aid our understanding, to interpret experiment, and to design new devices, involves the development of large scale numerical codes. During the past decade considerable effort has been extended in the fusion community to develop equilibrium, linear stability, and nonlinear time evolution codes in two and three dimensions, some of which have had a considerable impact on the fusion program. An overview of the various types of codes and numerical methods is given. Emphasis is on the spectrum of linear perturbations and ideal MHD stability, boundary layer methods and resistive MHD stability, and modeling of nonlinear, time evolution resistive MHD phenomena in tokamak configurations.

  4. Materials for fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    Material problems for fusion reactor consist of finding materials to be used for the first wall, limiters, electrical insulation, neutron moderators, shielding, and component for superconducting magnets. Materials being considered for the first wall include austenitic stainless steel, nickel, titanium, refractory metals and aluminium alloys. TiC, graphite, copper, and refractory metals are being evaluated for limiters which are used to

  5. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  6. Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Ashley, R.P.; Boris, D.R.; Cipiti, B.B.; Murali, S. Krupakar; Piefer, G.R.; Radel, R.F.; Radel, T.E.; Wehmeyer, A.L. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2005-05-15

    In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for various applications, including protons for creating radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and neutrons for detecting clandestine materials. Most IEC devices worldwide, including the UW devices, presently operate primarily in a pressure range (1-10 mtorr) that allows ions to make only a few passes through the core before they charge exchange and lose substantial energy or they collide with cathode grid wires. It is believed that fusion rates can be raised by operating at a pressure where neutral gas does not impede ion flow, and a helicon ion source has been developed to explore operation at pressures of {approx}0.05 mtorr. The UW IEC research group uses proton detectors, neutron detectors, residual gas analyzers, and spectroscopic diagnostics. New diagnostic techniques have also been developed, including eclipse disks to localize proton production and chordwires to estimate ion fluxes using power balance.

  7. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  8. Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices (Report on the Fifth International Conference, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, United States of America, 3–7 May 1982)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Cohen

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, progress in the understanding and control of plasma surface interactions has led to major advances in the production of better confined, higher-density, cleaner, and hotter plasmas. Examples of these achievements include effective discharge cleaning, gettering, low-Z limiters, and beam duct and RF antenna and waveguide preparation. Continued interest in improving both the operation of present plasma

  9. Electroluminescing porous silicon device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Penczek; Rosemary L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    The main goal was to determine the mechanism of operation of an all silicon, electroluminescing device. The device consists of an n+ silicon 'wire' supported on top of a layer of porous silicon. Other aims included the evaluation of the device's light emitting efficiency and it's potential as a silicon-based light source. The device emits light over a broad spectrum,

  10. Overview of the US Fusion Materials Sciences Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Zinkle

    2004-01-01

    The challenging fusion reactor environment (radiation, heat flux, chemical compatibility, thermo-mechanical stresses) requires utilization of advanced materials to fulfill the promise of fusion to provide safe, economical, and environmentally acceptable energy. This presentation reviews recent experimental and modeling highlights on structural materials for fusion energy. The materials requirements for fusion will be compared with other demanding technologies, including high temperature

  11. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  12. An introduction to multisensor data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.; Llinas, J. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion is an emerging technology applied to Department of Defense (DoD) areas such as automated target recognition, battlefield surveillance, and guidance and control of autonomous vehicles, and to non-DoD applications such as monitoring of complex machinery, medical diagnosis, and smart buildings. Techniques for multisensor data fusion are drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and other areas. This paper provides a tutorial on data fusion, introducing data fusion applications, process models, and identification of applicable techniques. Comments are made on the state-of-the-art in data fusion.

  13. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  14. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall. It will address the origins and structure of the plasma electric field, rotation, the L-H transition, and the wide variety of pedestal relaxation mechanisms. The Whole Device Model will predict the entire discharge evolution given external actuators (i.e., magnets, power supplies, heating, current drive and fueling systems) and control strategies. Based on components operating over a range of physics fidelity, the WDM will model the plasma equilibrium, plasma sources, profile evolution, linear stability and nonlinear evolution toward a disruption (but not the full disruption dynamics). The plan assumes that, as the FSP matures and demonstrates success, the program will evolve and grow, enabling additional science problems to be addressed. The next set of integration opportunities could include: 1) Simulation of disruption dynamics and their effects; 2) Prediction of core profile including 3D effects, mesoscale dynamics and integration with the edge plasma; 3) Computation of non-thermal particle distributions, self-consistent with fusion, radio frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) sources, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and short-wavelength turbulence.

  15. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation. PMID:25458071

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  17. Data fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Bleiholder; Felix Naumann

    2008-01-01

    The development of the Internet in recent years has made it possible and useful to access many different information systems anywhere in the world to obtain information. While there is much research on the integration of heterogeneous information systems, most commercial systems stop short of the actual integration of available data. Data fusion is the process of fusing multiple records

  18. High temperature surface effects of He + implantation in ICF fusion first wall materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel J. Zenobia; R. F. Radel; B. B. Cipiti; Gerald L. Kulcinski

    2009-01-01

    The first wall armor of the inertial confinement fusion reactor chambers must withstand high temperatures and significant radiation damage from target debris and neutrons. The resilience of multiple materials to one component of the target debris has been investigated using energetic (20–40keV) helium ions generated in the inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. The materials studied include:

  19. Discharge Characteristics of Anode Size in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Osawa; S. Yoshimura; Takehiro TABATA; M. Ohnishi

    2006-01-01

    An IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device is a very simple and safe neutron source using the glow discharge in deuterium gas and deuterium - deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristic is studied experimentally. The gas pressure - applied voltage characteristics are examined altering the device's anode size. The gas pressure range that the device is able to work is differed

  20. Pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The complex networks of nutritional, cellular, paracrine, and endocrine factors are closely related with pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion. Important influencing factors include chondrocyte differentiation capacity, multiple molecular pathways active in the growth plate, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis activation and epiphyseal fusion through estrogen and its receptors. However, the exact mechanisms of these phenomena are still unclear. A better understanding of the detailed processes involved in the pubertal growth spurt and growth plate closure in longitudinal bone growth will help us develop methods to efficiently promote pubertal growth and delay epiphyseal fusion with fewer adverse effects. PMID:25883921

  1. Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 8123 Forsythia Street, Suite 140, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {l_brace}Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]{r_brace}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

  2. Pulsed High Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, John

    2000-10-01

    Based on FRC acceleration experiments, together with confinement scaling observed in past FRC experiments, a method has been determined by which an FRC can be compressed to high density and brought to ignition conditions in a rapid, repetitive manner. This regime is referred to as the Pulsed High Density (PHD) regime of MFE. Unlike MTF, the upper boundary of this regime remains below the density limit imposed by material strength limitations. Data from various FRC experiments yield a scaling with size and density such that at a density of 10^24 m-3, a fusion gain > 1 can be achieved at a radius ~ 1 cm. The energy necessary for burn is transferred to the FRC in the form of translational energy, which is produced by an inductive magnetized plasma accelerator (IMPAC) that is capable of repetitive pulsing. The simplicity of this approach to fusion lies in the fact that the directed energy of the FRC mass is much greater than the FRC internal energy, so that the confining magnetic fields, as well as accelerating fields, need to be no greater than required to contain the low-pressure FRC generated in the source coil ( ~ 0.4 T). The conversion of the FRC directed energy into thermal energy occurs only after the FRC has reached the burn chamber where the FRC is slowed and compressed to fusion conditions. The goal of a concept exploration experiment would be the construction of an IMPAC device capable of producing a FRC plasma where all key parameters can be brought to within an order of magnitude of that required for a Q ~1 fusion burn. Details of such an experiment will be discussed.

  3. Numerical Study on Glow Discharge of IEC Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hodaka; Tabata, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for the neutron source that has the ability to produce the neutrons of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8}/s by the glow discharge. It works more efficiently at the condition of the high voltage and the low pressure. It, however, is difficult to keep the continuous operation at the low-pressure because the glow discharge is apt to be unstable. We have made the three-dimensional Monte Carlo PIC code including atomic processes to investigate the glow discharge. The study reveals the spatial position where the ionization occurs and numerically reproduces the discharge called 'star mode'.

  4. Electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Schwendemanm, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Kingsport, TN); Knowles, Julianna M. (Apollo, PA)

    2011-03-15

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

  5. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  6. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism and numerical techniques which enable efficient quantitative study of peeling-ballooning modes. More broadly, I would like to thank the full DIII-D, C-Mod and JET teams, the LLNL and General Atomics Theory groups, and the York Plasma Institute. In addition, I would like to thank the US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, EURATOM, and the UK EPSRC for supporting this research. On a more personal note, I would like to thank my mentors over the years, including Nat Fisch, Greg Hammett, Ron Waltz, Vincent Chan, and Tony Taylor, and numerous colleagues who provided insight related to this work, including Lang Lao, Alan Turnbull, Ming Chu, Bob Miller, Rip Perkins, John Greene, Keith Burrell, John Ferron, Mickey Wade, Wayne Solomon, George McKee, Zheng Yan, Andrea Garofalo, Raffi Nazikian, Jack Connor, Jim Hastie, Chris Hegna, Samuli Saarelma, Guido Huijsmans, Alberto Loarte, Yutaka Kamada, Naoyuki Oyama, Hajime Urano, Nobuyuki Aiba, Andrew Kirk, David Dickinson, Lorne Horton, Costanza Maggi, Wolfgang Suttrop, P.A. Schneider, Rajesh Maingi, Amanda Hubbard, Ahmed Diallo, John Walk, and Matthew Leyland. Recently, the model developed in this paper has been used to discover a new regime of operation, the Super H-Mode, and to shed light on mechanisms for suppressing Edge Localized Modes. I hope that the model will continue to be useful, both as a tool for predicting and optimizing pedestal and fusion performance, and as a platform on which the fusion community continues to build our understanding of the complex physics of the edge barrier region, which plays such an important role in overall confinement and stability.

  7. ProFusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Originally developed by the University of Kansas Information Telecommunication and Technology Center, and School of Engineering DesignLab (see the July 25, 1997 Scout Report), ProFusion is a meta-search and "deep Web" search engine. Purchased by Intelliseek and fitted with a new interface, ProFusion allows users to search over 1,000 search sites, "including search engines, Web directories, discussion groups, news sources, online publications, and archives." Visitors can also perform targeted searches of vertical search sources, selecting which databases to query. Two other new features include an alert service that tracks changes to selected pages and notifies users by email and a Search Assistant that suggests results from search engine groups relevant to a query in addition to the general Web results. Worth a spin around the block.

  8. Current Status of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) Fusion Neutron\\/Proton Source Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

    A compact fusion neutron\\/proton source, i.e., IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) fusion device is introduced with its principle, function, application and research history. 1. What is IEC? An IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device is an extremely compact, and simple configuration device as is shown in Fig. 1, running by electrical discharge on D-D\\/D- T\\/D-3He fuel gases. It basically consists of a

  9. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2006-01-05

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

  10. Nuclear Fusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Astronomical Society of the Pacific

    2008-01-01

    This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

  11. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  12. Distributed information fusion agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Perugini; Dale Lambert; Leon Sterling; Adrian Pearce

    2003-01-01

    Information fusion is typically data driven and applied to adversarial contexts. Advantages of a goal driven fusion process are emerging. An agent approach to fusion applied to friendly contexts, such as logistics, is presented. Agents are suitable for fusion because they can represent autonomous fusion eritities by modelling their capabilities, expertise and intentions. This paper promotes a level 3 centric

  13. Latching device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, G. W. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A latching device is suited for use in establishing a substantially motionless connection between a stationary receiver and a movable latching mechanism. The latching mechanism includes a pivotally supported restraining hook continuously urged into a capturing relationship with the receiver, characterized by a spring-biased pawl having a plurality of aligned teeth. The teeth are seated in the surface of the throat of the hook and positionable into restraining engagement with a rigid restraining shoulder projected from the receiver.

  14. Energetic particle physics in fusion research in preparation for burning plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Pinches, S. D.; Toi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium–tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the ‘sea’ of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  15. Thermoacoustic Refrigeration Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Qing; Feng Wu; Duanyong Li; Fangzhong Guo

    2009-01-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigeration device (TAR) includes an acoustic wave generation device arranged directed to the channel of a hollow tube, and a regenerator provided at a predetermined position in the channel of the tube. A temperature gradient is obtained across the regenerator by an acoustic wave emitted from the acoustic wave generation device. Therefore, a TAR realizing a gas Stirling

  16. U. S. Fusion Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Schmidt; Dan Jassby; Scott Larson; Maria Pueyo; Paul H. Rutherford

    2000-10-12

    Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems.

  17. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

  18. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.T. (California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM.

  19. data fusion 15 June 2012

    E-print Network

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    real world data fusion Fred Daum 15 June 2012 data fusion Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All fusion fusion of measurements performance fusion of tracks interesting parameter 3 #12;real world multi-sensor data fusion fusion of tracks performance fusion of measurements interesting parameter 4 #12;real world

  20. Atomic and molecular data needs for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas play a crucial role in the development of net energy producing magnetic fusion devices. In light of this fact, presented here is a survey of the broad needs of fusion energy research and a review of the status of the existing database. Emphasis is placed on the relatively new needs for data as novel materials are evaluated for use in the next devices, and as components such as the divertor take on more significance for demonstration and practical reactors. Also, examples are given of recent or ongoing data evaluation efforts, the role of national and international data centers is discussed, and some summarizing comments are given.

  1. Alternate Applications of Fusion - Production of Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Weidner, J.; Cipiti, B.; Ashley, R.P.; Santarius, J.F.; Murali, S.K.; Piefer, G.; Radel, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2003-09-15

    A major effort to find near-term, non-electric applications of fusion energy has shown that the production of radioisotopes is attractive. The use of the D{sup 3}He fusion reaction to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes is described. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is particularly well suited to produce low levels of high-energy (14.7 MeV) protons, which in turn, can produce short-lived PET isotopes. The IEC device at University of Wisconsin has been modified to investigate the potential of this process to be commercially attractive.

  2. Thick liquid protection in inertial fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemberton, Steven James

    Liquid jets are designed and developed for the construction of a thick-liquid first wall in fusion power plants, with attention to preventing line-of-sight interaction between target debris and solid structural materials in inertial fusion power plants. First, an introduction is given to basic fusion concepts in order to set the background for inertial fusion plant design. After this introduction, scaling relationships for experimental studies are presented and different jet types for thick-liquid inertial fusion chambers are described, including stationary cylindrical jet grids, large oscillating liquid slabs, and vortex tubes created from centrifugal flow inside pipes. The design of vortex tubes is given in some detail with an illustration of some simple concepts from fluid mechanics for the evolution of flow in the tubes, and the results of this basic analysis are compared to empirical results from a prototype device. The actual thickness of the vortex layer is found to depart from the ideal, laminar consideration of the flow development. However, the basic considerations also predict that flow in the vortex layer will remain stable in the region of interest, and will be independent of the volumetric flow rate. These estimates are supported by experimental observations. The construction of a prototype slab jet is also described, and one chapter of this dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of impulse delivery to and dispersion within a slab jet with finely dispersed voids. The reaction of a slab jet to impulse loading is predicted using a simple compressible flow model for incompressible fluid with dispersed voids. The model is compared with experimental impulse-load data, and it is found that this simple model does a fair job of predicting the empirical results. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of some important factors in vortex flow and slab jet disruption, and possible sources of departure from the basic analyses.

  3. LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Susana; Dunne, Mike; Kramer, Kevin; Anklam, Tom; Havstad, Mark; Mazuecos, Antonio Lafuente; Miles, Robin; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Deri, Bob

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed at LLNL in partnership with other institutions with the goal to deliver baseload electricity from safe, secure, sustainable fusion power in a time scale that is consistent with the energy market needs. For this purpose, the LIFE design takes advantage of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology and adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units used on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. The LIFE market entry plant will demonstrate the feasibility of a closed fusion fuel cycle, including tritium breeding, extraction, processing, refueling, accountability, and safety, in a steady-state power-producing device. While many fusion plant designs require large quantities of tritium for startup and operations, a range of design choices made for the LIFE fuel cycle act to reduce the in-process tritium inventory. This paper presents an overview of the delivery plan and the preconceptual design of the LIFE facility with emphasis on the key safety design principles being adopted. In order to illustrate the favorable safety characteristics of the LIFE design, some initial accident analysis results are presented that indicate potential for a more attractive licensing regime than that of current fission reactors. PMID:23629070

  4. Spherical Tokamak Plasma Science and Fusion Energy Component Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.; Fogarty, P. J.; Burgess, T. W.; Strickler, D. J.; Tsai, J.; Neumeyer, C. A.; Kessel, C.; Rutherford, P.; Schmidt, J.; Mikkelsen, D.; Menard, J.; Gates, D.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Synakowski, E.; Grisham, L.; Sabbagh, S.; Mitarai, O.; El-Guebaly, L.

    Recent progress(1) in plasma science of the Spherical Tokamak (or Spherical Torus, ST)(2) has indicated relatively robust plasma conditions in a broad number of topical area including strong shaping, stability limits, energy confinement, self-driven current, and sustainment. This progress has enabled an extensive update of the plasma science and fusion engineering conditions of a Component Test Facility (CTF)(3), which is potentially a necessary step in the development of practical fusion energy. The chamber systems testing conditions in a CTF are characterized by high fusion neutron fluxes ?n > 4.4×1013 n/s/cm2, over size-scale > 105 cm2 and depth-scale > 50 cm, delivering > 3 accumulated displacement per atom (dpa) per year(4). Such chamber conditions are calculated to be achievable in a CTF with R0 = 1.2 m, A = 1.5, elongation - 3, Ip - 9 MA, BT - 2.5 T, producing a driven fusion burn using 36 MW of combined neutral beam and RF power. The ST CTF will test the life time of single-turn, copper alloy center leg for the toroidal field coil without an induction solenoid and neutron shielding, and require physics data on solenoid-free plasma current initiation, ramp-up, and sustainment to multiple MA level. A new systems code that combines the key required plasma and engineering science conditions of CTF has been prepared and utilized as part of this study. The results show high potential for a family of relatively low cost CTF devices to suit a range of fusion engineering science test missions.

  5. Occipitocervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Ben J; Sasso, Rick C

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of occipitocervical fixation and new rigid universal screw-rod construct technology has allowed secure anchorage at each level of the occipitocervical junction with the elimination of rigid external orthoses. Rigid occipitocervical instrumentation constructs have achieved higher fusion rates and less postoperative immobilization-associated complications. Outcomes have improved compared with former nonrigid instrumentation techniques; however, with advances of rigid occipitocervical stabilization capability have come new challenges, risks, and operative techniques. A thorough understanding of the relevant cervical bony and soft tissue anatomy is essential for safe implantation and a successful outcome. PMID:22082624

  6. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  7. Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenaka, Kazusuke

    This paper introduces objectives and status of “Human sensing fusion project” in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

  8. Multiscale Medical Image Fusion in Wavelet Domain

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Wavelet transforms have emerged as a powerful tool in image fusion. However, the study and analysis of medical image fusion is still a challenging area of research. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a multiscale fusion of multimodal medical images in wavelet domain. Fusion of medical images has been performed at multiple scales varying from minimum to maximum level using maximum selection rule which provides more flexibility and choice to select the relevant fused images. The experimental analysis of the proposed method has been performed with several sets of medical images. Fusion results have been evaluated subjectively and objectively with existing state-of-the-art fusion methods which include several pyramid- and wavelet-transform-based fusion methods and principal component analysis (PCA) fusion method. The comparative analysis of the fusion results has been performed with edge strength (Q), mutual information (MI), entropy (E), standard deviation (SD), blind structural similarity index metric (BSSIM), spatial frequency (SF), and average gradient (AG) metrics. The combined subjective and objective evaluations of the proposed fusion method at multiple scales showed the effectiveness and goodness of the proposed approach. PMID:24453868

  9. IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    OF WISCONSIN MADISON WISCONSIN Composition of the Source Region Plasma in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement. #12;I. INTRODUCTION The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion concept was first patented Electrostatic Confinement Devices D.R. Boris and G.A. Emmert Fusion Technology Institute University of Wisconsin

  10. Signaling Mechanisms in Mammalian Myoblast Fusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ashok Kumar (University of Louisville; School of Medicine REV)

    2013-04-23

    Skeletal muscles are formed by the fusion of multiple myoblasts during development. Myoblast fusion is also essential for the growth and repair of injured myofibers. Recent investigations have shown that the process of myoblast fusion involves the activation of several cell signaling pathways, including those mediated by nuclear factor ?B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells c2, transforming growth factor–?–Smad4, and the Rho guanosine triphosphatases. In this Review, which contains 2 figures and 84 references, we summarize the mechanisms by which the activation of these signaling pathways stimulates myoblast fusion.

  11. Radiation hardening of diagnostics for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, J.F.; Engholm, B.A.; Hacker, M.P.; Maya, I.; Miller, P.H.; Toffolo, W.E.; Wojtowicz, S.S.

    1981-12-01

    A list of the diagnostic systems presently used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is compiled herein. The radiation-sensitive components are identified, and their locations in zones around the machine are indicated. A table of radiation sensitivities of components is included to indicate the data available from previous work in fission reactor, space probe, and defense-related programs. Extrapolation and application to hardening of fusion diagnostic systems requires additional data that are more specific to the fusion radiation environment and fusion components. A list is also given of present radiation-producing facilities where near-term screening tests of materials and components can be performed.

  12. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal C.; Park, Daniel K.; Herkowitz, Harry N.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures. PMID:23213303

  13. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  14. The Role of Controls in Nuclear Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Schuster; Marco Ariola

    2006-01-01

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Although controlled fusion is a very challenging technology, a fusion power reactor would offer significant advantages over existing energy sources, including no air pollution or greenhouse gases, no risk of nuclear accident, no generation of material for nuclear weapons, low-level radioactive

  15. Socio-economic Aspects of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2004-10-21

    Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper, we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production.

  16. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. McCown; D. L. Baldwin; R. F. Keough; B. P. Van der Cook

    1985-01-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and

  17. Multisensor data fusion: concepts and principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Smith; G. J. Erickson

    1991-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion is concerned with the integration and extraction of information from data obtained by two or more sensors. Assuming the data contaminated with noise, the authors present the necessary definitions and concepts to formulate multisensor data fusion as a problem of inference. The types of problems addressed include detection, resolution, discrimination, and parameter estimation. Specifically, the authors show

  18. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Conn; S. I. Abdel-Khalik; G. A. Moses

    1977-01-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion ractors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket

  19. SOLASE: a conceptual laser fusion reactor design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Conn; S. I. Abdel-Khalik; G. A. Moses

    1977-01-01

    The SOLASE conceptual laser fusion reactor has been designed to elucidate the technological problems posed by inertial confinement fusion reactors. This report contains a detailed description of all aspects of the study including the physics of pellet implosion and burn, optics and target illumination, last mirror design, laser system analysis, cavity design, pellet fabrication and delivery, vacuum system requirements, blanket

  20. Dynamic process integration framework: A novel approach to efficient implementation of robust distributed information fusion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Pavlin; Patrick de Oude; Michiel Kamermans; Frans Groen

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to large scale information fusion in contemporary applications, such as environmental monitoring, crisis management, maritime security, etc. The emphasis is on tractable implementation of sound and reliable fusion systems which can cope with large quantities of heterogeneous information obtained via sensors, mobile commu- nication devices, Internet and databases. We address main fusion challenges in

  1. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  2. 2002 Fusion Summer Study Development Pathway Subgroup (E 4)

    E-print Network

    2002 Fusion Summer Study Development Pathway Subgroup (E 4) Final Report July 25, 2002 #12;6. Development Path Scenarios The development path to realize fusion as a practical energy source must include performance, steady-state operation; 4) Development of low-activation materials and fusion technologies

  3. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  4. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  5. Comparison and analysis of fusion algorithms of high resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guangjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Dai, Chenguang

    2008-03-01

    The fusion techniques have been developed quickly in recent years and become an important remote sensing research topic. This paper systematically discusses the technique used in pixel level image fusion including IHS transform, YIQ transform, HLS transform, HSV transform, PCA transform, HPF transform and wavelet transform image fusion method. Then a fusion experiment of IKONOS image is made to compares the different merging methods from spectral quality and the spatial quality in order to choose the suitable method for the high resolution image.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Strength and microstructure of laser fusion-welded TiSS

    E-print Network

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    the micro- structures and strength of the laser fusion-welded titanium­ stainless steel dissimilar materialORIGINAL ARTICLE Strength and microstructure of laser fusion-welded Ti­SS dissimilar material pair the manufacturing costs of medical devices. The need for dissimilar material welds in the med- ical device industry

  7. Multisensor Data Fusion for Physical Activity Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaopeng Liu; Robert X. Gao; Dinesh John; John W. Staudenmayer; Patty S. Freedson

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion method for assessing physical activity (PA) of human subjects, based on support vector machines (SVMs). Specifically, acceleration and ventilation measured by a wearable multisensor device on 50 test subjects performing 13 types of activities of varying intensities are analyzed, from which activity type and energy expenditure are derived. The results show that the method

  8. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  9. Fission and Fusion Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-28

    In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  10. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  11. Mobile wearable device for long term monitoring of vital signs.

    PubMed

    Klingeberg, T; Schilling, M

    2012-05-01

    In long-term prevention and in rehabilitation of health of elderly people the recording of vital signs plays an important role. Especially the progress of rehabilitation can be deduced from the recording of an electrocardigram (ECG), blood pressure and body temperature. In this paper we present a wireless coupled recording device for long-term monitoring of these vital sign signals. We record the ECG, the blood pressure and the skin temperature and include a 3D-acceleration sensor for the determination of the movements during recording. To deal with motion artifacts in all recorded properties we use data fusion to reject or correct distorted vital sign signals. PMID:22285459

  12. The Columbus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, Matteo

    2005-10-01

    The Columbus device [1] is proposed as one component of a spectrum of experiments needed to explore the physics of fusion burning plasmas. Columbus has a larger volume than Ignitor by about 50%, lower current densities in the magnet systems and capability to sustain longer plasma pulses. The machine preserves the ability to confine, under macroscopically stable conditions, plasmas with peak pressures exceeding 3 MPa, corresponding to ignition at central plasma densities around 10^21 nuclei/m^3 and to reach this regime by ohmic heating alone. The presence of an ICRH system will expand the capabilities of the device. In our opinion, a spectrum of ``Science First'' devices is the only viable path to an efficient fusion program development and plasma ignition is an important milestone to be achieved before undertaking the construction of a Demo reactor requiring minimization of the external heating power. The Iter design envisages that about one third of its heating power be supplied from the outside in order to maintain its plasma pressure at the desired values. The Columbus program is proposed as a U.S. counterpart to the Ignitor project conducted in Italy and to be complementary to it. The machine costs can be minimized by incorporating the main engineering solutions devised for Ignitor. [1] Coppi,B. and Salvetti,M.,``Highlights of the Columbus Concept'', M.I.T. Report, PTP02/06 (2002).

  13. Compact tokamaks as convenient neutron sources for fusion reactors materials testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bombarda; B. Coppi; Z. S. Hartwig; M. Sassi; M. Zucchetti

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage evaluations have been performed with the ACAB code for fusion-relevant materials in an Ignitor-like compact fusion device that could be used as a neutron source for materials testing. Values ranging from 1.6×10?26 to 2.4×10?25dpa per source neutron have been obtained, which translates into 16–250dpa\\/y at full operating power and demonstrates the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion

  14. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  15. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S&E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selecti

  16. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-print Network

    Kuehne, R W

    2006-01-01

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  17. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  18. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  19. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  20. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  1. Cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.T. (California State Polytechnic Univ., Physics Dept., Pomona, CA (US))

    1991-03-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of {approximately}1 kW/cm{sup 3} Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm{sup 3} of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given.

  2. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  3. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  4. ERDA-76/110/l FUSION POWER

    E-print Network

    electric plants. These include direct production of hydrogen gas and/or synthetic fuels; direct energy production for chemical processing; fissile fuel production; fission product waste disposal; and fusion

  5. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  6. A hidden Markov model for multimodal biometrics score fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-05-01

    There are strong evidences of that multimodal biometric score fusion can significantly improve human identification performance. Score level fusion usually involves score normalization, score fusion, and fusion decision. There are several types of score fusion methods, direct combination of fusion scores, classifier-based fusion, and density-based fusion. The real applications require achieving greater reliability in determining or verifying person's identity. The goal of this research is to improve the accuracy and robustness of human identification by using multimodal biometrics score fusion. The accuracy means high verification rate if tested on a closed dataset, or a high genuine accept rate under low false accept rate if tested on an open dataset. While the robustness means the fusion performance is stable with variant biometric scores. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) for multiple score fusion, where the biometric scores include multimodal scores and multi-matcher scores. The state probability density functions in a HHM model are estimated by Gaussian mixture model. The proposed HMM model for multiple score fusion is accurate for identification, flexible and reliable with biometrics. The proposed HMM method are tested on three NIST-BSSR1 multimodal databases and on three face-score databases. The results show the HMM method is an excellent and reliable score fusion method.

  7. ELSEVIER Fusion Engineering and Design 27 (1995) 111-153 Engineering

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1995-01-01

    ) includes those fusion system components responsible for energy conversion and extraction, tritium (FNT) components for DEMO have been investigated. Non-fusion facilities, i.e. non-neutron test stands-fusion facilities because of their serious limitations on simulating multiple integrated effects of the fusion

  8. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  9. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  10. Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-print Network

    Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making commercially viable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada · Plan to demonstrate a fusion system capable of "net gain" within 3 years

  11. Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-print Network

    Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

  12. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)

    E-print Network

    irradiation effects on materials Harnessing Fusion Power · Fusion power extraction and tritium breedingFUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE and plasma contamination are required. 4. Harnessing Fusion Power Fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D

  13. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree. This paper describes our findings and offers insights into the role of data representation in hard/soft fusion.

  14. Reactor applications of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a DT tokamak fusion reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hoffman; B. G. Logan; R. B. Campbell

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system is made based on the CFAR concept, and it was found that performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low

  15. Magnetized Target Fusion: Input to the 35-yr Fusion Long-Range Electric Plan

    E-print Network

    to the 35-yr Fusion Long-Range Electric Plan · MTF offers a uniquely different pathway to achieving of possible "stand-off" drivers for rep-rating MTF. This could include studies of other candidate target: Input to the 35-yr Fusion Long-Range Electric Plan In summary: MTF provides an exciting "new" approach

  16. Fusion Decay Power: Validation of Code and Nuclear Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-Ch Sublet

    The calculation of activation inventories is a key input to virtually all aspects of the safety and environmental assessment of fusion power devices. For the licensing of such devices, regulatory authorities will require proof that the calculations of activation, and calculations to which activation quantities are inputs, are either correct or conservative. Validation of decay power code predictions by means

  17. Solar cell device physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fonash

    1981-01-01

    The basic physical principles and materials properties are reviewed which are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion. Specific photovoltaic configurations are discussed, including a brief background to establish the historical development of that particular device class, an in-depth development of the physical principles operative for that device class, and a survey of experimental work from the literature pertaining to that

  18. Adiabatic light processing devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Love; Andrew Molloy; Adrian Ankiewicz

    2006-01-01

    The majority of optical processing devices that are employed in optical transmission systems are based on optical fibres or planar optical waveguides that rely on basic physical phenomena such as coupling, interference or Bragg grating reflection for their functionality. These devices include, for example, a wide variety of single- and multi-mode couplers and splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, wavelength filters, dispersion compensators,

  19. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  20. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    E-print Network

    Seth Lloyd

    2000-03-31

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  1. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission

    E-print Network

    Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion

  2. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), are derived from water and the metal lithium, a relatively abundant resource. The fuels are virtually inexhaustible and they are available worldwide. Deuterium from one gallon of seawater would provide the equivalent energy of 300 gallons of gasoline, or over a half ton of coal. This energy is released when deuterium and tritium nuclei are fused together to form a helium nucleus and a neutron. The neutron is used to breed tritium from lithium. The energy released is carried by the helium nucleus (3.5 MeV) and the neutron (14 MeV). The energetic helium nucleus heats the fuel, helping to sustain the fusion reaction. Once the helium cools, it is collected and becomes a useful byproduct. A fusion power plant would produce no climate-changing gases.

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the underlying principles involved in MTF. Magnetized Target Fusion is an attempt to combine MCF (magnetic confinement fusion) for energy confinement and ICF (inertial confinement fusion) for efficient compression heating and wall free containment of the fusing plasma. It also seeks to combine the best features to these two main commonplace approaches to fusion.

  4. Deformability-based microfluidic cell pairing and fusion.

    PubMed

    Dura, Burak; Liu, Yaoping; Voldman, Joel

    2014-08-01

    We present a microfluidic cell pairing device capable of sequential trapping and pairing of hundreds of cells using passive hydrodynamics and flow-induced deformation. We describe the design and operation principles of our device and show its applicability for cell fusion. Using our device, we achieved both homotypic and heterotypic cell pairing, demonstrating efficiencies up to 80%. The platform is compatible with fusion protocols based on biological, chemical and physical stimuli with fusion yields up to 95%. Our device further permits its disconnection from the fluidic hardware enabling its transportation for imaging and culture while maintaining cell registration on chip. Our design principles and cell trapping technique can readily be applied for different cell types and can be extended to trap and fuse multiple (>2) cell partners as demonstrated by our preliminary experiments. PMID:24898933

  5. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  6. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  7. Growth tethering devices for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Courvoisier, Aurélien; Eid, Ahmad; Bourgeois, Emeline; Griffet, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spine deformity that worsens during the whole growth. The treatments available are bracing during the whole growth to avoid progression of the deformity and surgical fusion of the spine at skeletal maturity for the most severe curves. Recent advances in flexible spinal implants have given rise to new expectations in the management of progressive scoliosis with growth modulation without fusion. For the first time, treatment allows us to expect a correction of progressive curves without fusion. This review discusses the recent developments in the field of spinal growth modulation techniques and discusses the pros and cons of the medical devices used in this indication. PMID:26027921

  8. Slow liner fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

  9. Daydreaming Devices

    E-print Network

    Da Ponte, Ana Sofia Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Daydreaming Devices is a project on aspects of daydream and the design of convertible furniture within the context of art. This thesis addresses the concepts and the design of two daydreaming devices developed during my ...

  10. Adiabatic light processing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, John D.; Molloy, Andrew; Ankiewicz, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The majority of optical processing devices that are employed in optical transmission systems are based on optical fibres or planar optical waveguides that rely on basic physical phenomena such as coupling, interference or Bragg grating reflection for their functionality. These devices include, for example, a wide variety of single- and multi-mode couplers and splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, wavelength filters, dispersion compensators, arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), resonators, etc. In addition to these devices, there is a further range of devices that rely solely on their geometrical design for their functionality and involve none of the above physical phenomena. Simple examples of these devices include velocity couplers, null couplers, Y-junctions and tapers. Each of these devices relies on the approximately adiabatic propagation of each of its modes along the length of the device. A key feature of such propagation is that each mode essentially conserves both its power and field symmetry. Recent work has demonstrated that it is possible to switch modes passively with wavelength using the approximately adiabatic transformation of one mode into a mode with dissimilar field symmetry. This transformation is achieved through appropriate geometrical design of the device. For example, it is possible to transform the symmetric fundamental mode into the first odd mode of a planar waveguide by employing a two-mode asymmetric Y-junction. Using this and other mode transformations, it is possible to design compact planar devices that will combine or separate 2 or 3 channels in a coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) system.

  11. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  12. TabletopAccelerator Breaks`Cold Fusion'Jinx ButWon'tYield Energy,Physicists Say

    E-print Network

    TabletopAccelerator Breaks`Cold Fusion'Jinx ButWon'tYield Energy,Physicists Say A crystal with a strange property is at the heart of a clever method for inducing nuclear fusion in a tabletop-sized device-rays for medical therapies. Although the field of room-temperature fusion is littered with scandals and dubious

  13. Google:[Leonid Zakharov] http://w3.pppl.gov/~zakharov How far is magnetic fusion from being

    E-print Network

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    conceptual designs have been developed. Was never tested (fusion is not ready, fission expansion reactor in the blanket Toroidal geometry of magnetic fusion devices creates a lot of problems. Leonid EGoogle:[Leonid Zakharov] http://w3.pppl.gov/~zakharov How far is magnetic fusion from being

  14. Proton Detector Calibration in a Gridded Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

    2010-01-01

    Recent work [S. Krupakar Murali, J. F. Santarius, and G. L. Kulcinski, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 122702, (2008)] indicates that fusion reactions in an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device primarily occur in microchannels. Since microchannels form discretely all around the cathode, the proton calibration procedure necessitated the estimation of fusion reactivity within the microchannels. Unlike neutron detectors that see a point

  15. Fusion power production in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor baseline H-mode scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Kessel, C. E.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Self-consistent simulations of 15 MA ITER H-mode DT scenarios, from ramp-up through flat-top, are carried out. Electron and ion temperatures, toroidal angular frequency, and currents are evolved, in simulations carried out using the predictive TRANSPort and integrated modeling code starting with initial profiles and equilibria obtained from tokamak simulation code studies. Studies are carried out examining the dependence and sensitivity of fusion power production on electron density, argon impurity concentration, choice of radio frequency heating, pedestal temperature without and with E × B flow shear effects included, and the degree of plasma rotation. The goal of these whole-device ITER simulations is to identify dependencies that might impact ITER fusion performance.

  16. A smartphone-based driver safety monitoring system using data fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver's capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  17. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  18. Neutron-induced transmutation effects in W and W-alloys in a fusion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2011-04-01

    W and W-alloys are among the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the design of fusion reactors, particularly in high-heat-flux regions such as the divertor. Under neutron irradiation W undergoes transmutation to its near-neighbours in the periodic table. Additionally He and H are particles emitted from certain neutron-induced reactions, and this is particularly significant in fusion research since the presence of helium in a material can cause both swelling and a strong increase in brittleness. This paper presents the results of inventory burn-up calculations on pure W and gives quantitative estimates for He production rates in both a fusion-reactor environment and under conditions expected in the ITER experimental device. Transmutation reactions in possible alloying elements (Re, Ta, Ti and V), which could be used to reduce the brittleness of pure W, are also considered. Additionally, for comparison, the transmutation of other fusion-relevant materials, including Fe and SiC, are presented.

  19. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    A major milestone on the path to fusion energy was reached in June 2005 on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of all parties to the ITER negotiations, agreeing on future arrangements and on the construction site at Cadarache in France. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting fusion activities since the late 1950s; it took over the auspices of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities in 1988, and of the ITER Engineering and Design Activities in 1992. The Agency continues its support to Member States through the organization of consultancies, workshops and technical meetings, the most prominent being the series of International Fusion Energy Conferences (formerly called the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research). The meetings serve as a platform for experts from all Member States to have open discussions on their latest accomplishments as well as on their problems and eventual solutions. The papers presented at the meetings and conferences are routinely published, many being sent to the journal it Nuclear Fusion, co-published monthly by Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. The journal's reputation is reflected in the fact that it is a world-renowned publication, and the International Fusion Research Council has used it for the publication of a Status Report on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in 1978 and 1990. This present report marks the conclusion of the preparatory phases of ITER activities. It provides background information on the progress of fusion research within the last 15 years. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), which initiated the report, was fully aware of the complexities of including all scientific results in just one paper, and so decided to provide an overview and extensive references for the interested reader who need not necessarily be a fusion specialist. Professor Predhiman K. Kaw, Chairman, prepared the report on behalf of the IFRC, reflecting members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has been widely and expertly disseminated. We further acknowledge the efforts of the Chairman of

  20. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion conditions is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion.

  1. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  2. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H. (Rigby, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  3. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  4. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy systems

    E-print Network

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: Analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model and understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. We extract nucleus--nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, we analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: Extracted potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance...

  5. Fusion tritium program in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fusion technology development program for tritium in the US is centered around the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Labortory. Objectives of this project are to develop and demonstrate the fuel cycle for processing the reactor exhaust gas (unburned deuterium and tritium plus impurities), and the necessary personnel and environemntal protection systems for the next generation of fusion devices. The TSTA is a full-scale system for an INTOR/ITER sized machine. That is, TSTA has the capacity to process tritium in a closed loop mode at the rate of 1 kg per day, requiring a tritium inventory of about 100 g. The TSTA program also interacts with all other tritium-related fusion technology programs in the US and all major programs abroad. This report is a summary of the results and interactions of the TSTA program since a previous summary was published and an overview of related tritium programs.

  6. An introduction to multisensor data fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L. HALL; JAMES LLINAS

    1997-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion is an emerging technology applied to Department of Defense {(DoD)} areas such as automated target recognition, battlefield surveillance, and guidance and control of autonomous vehicles, and to {non-DoD} applications such as monitoring of complex machinery, medical diagnosis, and smart buildings. Techniques for multisensor data fusion are drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern

  7. AN INTRODUCTION TO MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Llinas; David L Hall

    1998-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-sensor data fusion is an,emerging,technology,applied to Department,of Defense,(DoD) areas such as automated,target recognition, battlefield surveillance, and guidance and control of autonomous vehicles, and to non-DoD applications such as monitoring of complex machinery, medical diagnosis, and smart buildings. Techniques,for multi-sensor data fusion are drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattem recognition, statistical estimation, and other areas.

  8. Preloaded latching device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A latching device is disclosed which is lever operated sequentially to actuate a set of collet fingers to provide a radial expansion and to actuate a force mechanism to provide a compressive gripping force for attaching first and second devices to one another. The latching device includes a body member having elongated collet fingers which, in a deactuated condition, is insertable through bores on the first and second devices so that gripping terminal portions on the collet fingers are proximate to the end of the bore of the first device while a spring assembly on the body member is located proximate to the outer surface of a second device. A lever is rotatable through 90 deg to move a latching rod to sequentially actuate and expand collet fingers and to actuate the spring assembly by compressing it. During the first 30 deg of movement of the lever, the collet fingers are actuated by the latching rod to provide a radial expansion and during the last 60 deg of movement of the lever, the spring assembly acts as a force mechanism and is actuated to develop a compressive latching force on the devices. The latching rod and lever are connected by a camming mechanism. The amount of spring force in the spring assembly can be adjusted; the body member can be permanently attached by a telescoping assembly to one of the devices; and the structure can be used as a pulling device for removing annular bearings or the like from blind bores.

  9. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  10. Fusion for Neutrons as a Necessary Step to Commercial Fusion

    E-print Network

    1 Fusion for Neutrons as a Necessary Step to Commercial Fusion B. Kuteev Head of Fusion Reactor" MFERW, Princeton, NJ, USA, September 7-10, 2011 #12; Renewal of interest to fusion neutrons Growing interest to steady state operations, which are urgently needed for applications of fusion neutrons Several

  11. Versatile low-power multispectral video fusion hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Lawrence B.; Socolinsky, Diego A.; Eveland, Christopher K.

    2006-05-01

    Image fusion of complementary broadband spectral modalities has been extensively studied for providing performance enhancements to various military applications. With the growing availability of COTS and customized video cameras that image in VIS-NIR, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR, there is a corresponding increase in the practical exploitation of different combinations of fusion between any of these respective spectrums. Equinox Corporation has been developing a unique line of products around the concept of a single unified video image fusion device that can centrally interface with a variety of input cameras and output displays, together with a suite of algorithms that support image fusion across the diversity of possible combinations of these imaging modalities. These devices are small in size, lightweight and have power consumption in the vicinity of 1.5 Watts making them easy to integrate into portable systems.

  12. Superconducting quantum-interference devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Holdeman, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Published document discusses devices which are based on weak-link Josephson elements that join superconductors. Links can take numerous forms, and circuitry utilizing links can perform many varied functions with unprecedented sensitivity. Theoretical review of Josephson's junctions include tunneling junctions, point contact devices, microbridges, and proximity-effect devices.

  13. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  14. Developments in AMTEC Devices, Components and Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret A. Ryan; Roger M. Williams; Chutima Saipetch; Adam Kisor; Dennis O'Connor; Mark L. Underwood; Barbara Jeffries-Nakamura

    1994-01-01

    Improvement of the performance of an AMTEC device requires improvement and development of components as well as of device geometry and construction. The research and development effort at JPL includes studies which address both overall device construction and studies of components. This paper discusses recent studies on components and devices which have been carried out at JPL. Components investigated include

  15. ACE Mission - Fusion and Nucleosynthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational brief explains the idea that nuclear fusion is thought to be the mechanism by which virtually all of the elements around us are created. Topics include the proton-proton cycle, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle, and endothermic reactions in supernova explosions. There is also a discussion of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a spacecraft intended to study the origin and evolution of the elements produced by our Sun.

  16. Microfluidic Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  17. Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Krupakar Murali; G. A. Emmert; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

    2010-01-01

    Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the

  18. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research compiled by the International Fusion Research Council (Nucl. Fusion 45,A1­A28; 2005) provides good reason

  19. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson; Craig P. (Lafayette, CA), Visco; Steven J. (Berkeley, CA), De Jonghe; Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  20. Superconductivity and fusion energy—the inseparable companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Although superconductivity will never produce energy by itself, it plays an important role in energy-related applications both because of its saving potential (e.g., power transmission lines and generators), and its role as an enabling technology (e.g., for nuclear fusion energy). The superconducting magnet’s need for plasma confinement has been recognized since the early development of fusion devices. As long as the research and development of plasma burning was carried out on pulsed devices, the technology of superconducting fusion magnets was aimed at demonstrations of feasibility. In the latest generation of plasma devices, which are larger and have longer confinement times, the superconducting coils are a key enabling technology. The cost of a superconducting magnet system is a major portion of the overall cost of a fusion plant and deserves significant attention in the long-term planning of electricity supply; only cheap superconducting magnets will help fusion get to the energy market. In this paper, the technology challenges and design approaches for fusion magnets are briefly reviewed for past, present, and future projects, from the early superconducting tokamaks in the 1970s, to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and W7-X projects and future DEMO (Demonstration Reactor) projects. The associated cryogenic technology is also reviewed: 4.2 K helium baths, superfluid baths, forced-flow supercritical helium, and helium-free designs. Open issues and risk mitigation are discussed in terms of reliability, technology, and cost.

  1. 34 CFR 300.5 - Assistive technology device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Assistive technology device. 300.5 Section...Part § 300.5 Assistive technology device. Assistive technology device means any item...The term does not include a medical device that is...

  2. 34 CFR 300.5 - Assistive technology device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Assistive technology device. 300.5 Section...Part § 300.5 Assistive technology device. Assistive technology device means any item...The term does not include a medical device that is...

  3. 34 CFR 300.5 - Assistive technology device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Assistive technology device. 300.5 Section...Part § 300.5 Assistive technology device. Assistive technology device means any item...The term does not include a medical device that is...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550 Section...Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification...nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which...includes the stimulator and the electronic processing equipment...

  9. Inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.H.; Hochberg, T.K.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. (Fusion Studies Laboratory, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US))

    1991-01-01

    Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. Here we discuss a new approach for space fusion power, namely Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct energy conversion.

  10. Introduction to magnetic confinement fusion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1980-06-06

    These notes present a brief survey of some of the current diagnostic techniques used in magnetic fusion plasma devices. To give an idea of the range of parameters and geometries encountered the parameters of four representative experiments - PLT, TMX, ZT-40 and EBT-I(S) - are given. The central issue of all experiments is to understand the flow of power which can be summarized by two volume integrated equations for the ions and electrons.

  11. Choice of coils for a fusion reactor

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Romeo; Garabedian, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a fusion reactor a hot plasma of deuterium and tritium is confined by a strong magnetic field to produce helium ions and release energetic neutrons. The 3D geometry of a stellarator provides configurations for such a device that reduce net toroidal current that might lead to disruptions. We construct smooth coils generating an external magnetic field designed to prevent the plasma from deteriorating. PMID:17640879

  12. [Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This research is aimed at furthering the understanding of turbulent fluctuations in fusion plasmas and the anomalous transport of particles, heat, and momentum which results therefrom. This understanding is critical to the design of future plasma confinement devices. This study involves a combination of experimental measurements, from the Caltech and other tokamaks, analysis and interpretation of measurements, computer calculations of basic processes, and comparisons of the latter with experiment.

  13. Development of the solid state amplifier for magnetic confined fusion application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Kwak; W. C. Choi; C. Hwang

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of ICH (Ion Cyclotron Heating) in magnetic confined fusion devices such as tokamak depends on the applied magnetic field and generally the transmitter with the frequency of 20-80 MHz is required. There are many advantages to use solid state device than the vacuum tube at the amplifier stage because no tuning device is needed during frequency change and

  14. Progress in Bright Ion Beams for Industry, Medicine and Fusion at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-12-01

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  15. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  16. Joint interpretation of geophysical data using Image Fusion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitrou, A.; Tsokas, G.; Petrou, M.

    2013-12-01

    Joint interpretation of geophysical data produced from different methods is a challenging area of research in a wide range of applications. In this work we apply several image fusion approaches to combine maps of electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, vertical gradient of the magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility, and ground penetrating radar reflections, in order to detect archaeological relics. We utilize data gathered from Arkansas University, with the support of the U.S. Department of Defense, through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP-CS1263). The area of investigation is the Army City, situated in Riley Country of Kansas, USA. The depth of the relics is estimated about 30 cm from the surface, yet the surface indications of its existence are limited. We initially register the images from the different methods to correct from random offsets due to the use of hand-held devices during the measurement procedure. Next, we apply four different image fusion approaches to create combined images, using fusion with mean values, wavelet decomposition, curvelet transform, and curvelet transform enhancing the images along specific angles. We create seven combinations of pairs between the available geophysical datasets. The combinations are such that for every pair at least one high-resolution method (resistivity or magnetic gradiometry) is included. Our results indicate that in almost every case the method of mean values produces satisfactory fused images that corporate the majority of the features of the initial images. However, the contrast of the final image is reduced, and in some cases the averaging process nearly eliminated features that are fade in the original images. Wavelet based fusion outputs also good results, providing additional control in selecting the feature wavelength. Curvelet based fusion is proved the most effective method in most of the cases. The ability of curvelet domain to unfold the image in terms of space, wavenumber, and orientation, provides important advantages compared with the rest of the methods by allowing the incorporation of a-priori information about the orientation of the potential targets.

  17. A direct fusion drive for rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, Yosef S.; Pajer, Gary; Breton, Mary; Ham, Eric; Mueller, Joseph; Paluszek, Michael; Glasser, Alan H.; Cohen, Samuel A.

    2014-12-01

    The Direct Fusion Drive (DFD), a compact, anuetronic fusion engine, will enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system. The engine proposed here uses a deuterium-helium-3 reaction to produce fusion energy by employing a novel field-reversed configuration (FRC) for magnetic confinement. The FRC has a simple linear solenoid coil geometry yet generates higher plasma pressure, hence higher fusion power density, for a given magnetic field strength than other magnetic-confinement plasma devices. Waste heat generated from the plasma's Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation is recycled to maintain the fusion temperature. The charged reaction products, augmented by additional propellant, are exhausted through a magnetic nozzle. A 1 MW DFD is presented in the context of a mission to deploy the James Webb Space Telescope (6200 kg) from GPS orbit to a Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit in 37 days using just 353 kg of propellant and about half a kilogram of 3He. The engine is designed to produce 40 N of thrust with an exhaust velocity of 56.5 km/s and has a specific power of 0.18 kW/kg.

  18. MRI–ultrasound fusion for guidance of targeted prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Leonard; Young, Shelena; Natarajan, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer (CaP) may be detected on MRI. Fusion of MRI with ultrasound allows urologists to progress from blind, systematic biopsies to biopsies, which are mapped, targeted and tracked. We herein review the current status of prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion. Recent findings Three methods of fusing MRI for targeted biopsy have been recently described: MRI–ultrasound fusion, MRI–MRI fusion (‘in-bore’ biopsy) and cognitive fusion. Supportive data are emerging for the fusion devices, two of which received US Food and Drug Administration approval in the past 5 years: Artemis (Eigen, USA) and Urostation (Koelis, France). Working with the Artemis device in more than 600 individuals, we found that targeted biopsies are two to three times more sensitive for detection of CaP than nontargeted systematic biopsies; nearly 40% of men with Gleason score of at least 7 CaP are diagnosed only by targeted biopsy; nearly 100% of men with highly suspicious MRI lesions are diagnosed with CaP; ability to return to a prior biopsy site is highly accurate (within 1.2 ± 1.1 mm); and targeted and systematic biopsies are twice as accurate as systematic biopsies alone in predicting whole-organ disease. Summary In the future, MRI–ultrasound fusion for lesion targeting is likely to result in fewer and more accurate prostate biopsies than the present use of systematic biopsies with ultrasound guidance alone. PMID:23138468

  19. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, ? (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, ?CN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  20. Multisensor Data Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramod K. Varshney

    2000-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion is a key enabling technology in which information from a number of sources is integrated to form a\\u000a unified picture [1]. This concept has been applied to numerous fields and new applications are being explored constantly. Even though most multisensor\\u000a data fusion applications have been developed relatively recently, the notion of data fusion has always been around.

  1. Report to DOE of the fusion programs in applied plasma physics and development and technology at GA Technologies, Incorporated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overskei, D. O.

    1986-12-01

    Highlights of the fusion theory effort described in this report include investigations of high beta limit disruptions in the DIII-D device, Tokamak transport code simulations with electrostatic drift wave models, theoretical investigation of electromagnetic emissions from neutral beam injected plasmas, and results of a design study of the ellipsoidal shell Tokamak. Experimental plasma research efforts are addressing several important issues in fusion research. Neutron and alpha particle spectroscopy and triton confinement diagnostics are being developed to enable fusion researchers to understand alpha particle confinement and slowdown in burning plasmas. Development of Li beam diagnostic systems continued and has shown a capability for measuring both magnetic field pitch angle and relative current density profiles. Experiments on ergodic magnetic divertor (EMD) phenomena on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) continued to demonstrate low plasma edge temperatures and impurity reduction that make the concept attractive for reactor applications. GA led efforts continuing the Helical Resonant Island Divertor (HRID) experiments on TEXT using the EMD as a controlled magnetic perturbation. Other research included reactor systems design studies, development of an advanced antenna for radiofrequency heating of plasma ions, and development of ferritic steels suitable for use as a structural material in fusion reactors.

  2. Radiation Shielding for Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel.

  3. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) before Upgrade to Component Test Facility (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, understand, and innovate scientific and technical solutions for the challenges facing DEMO, by addressing the multi-scale synergistic interactions involving fusion plasma material interactions, tritium fuel cycle, power extraction, and the nuclear effects on materials. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of 19 MW. If and when this research operation is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and 76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate- plasmas would minimize plasma-induced disruptions, helping to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all components using extensive remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for all internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post with RH-compatible bi-directional sliding joints. Such device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum seal welds behind the internal and shielding components. If these further goals could be achieved, the FNSF would provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, at higher neutron fluence and duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF strategy would be complementary to the ITER and the Broader Approach programs, and thereby help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  4. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Diem, Stephanie J [ORNL; Milora, Stanley L [ORNL; Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Fogarty, P. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Burgess, Thomas W [ORNL; Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Yoder, III, Graydon L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  5. Device control at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, S.; Barker, D.; Bookwalter, V. [and others

    1996-08-01

    CEBAF has undergone a major conversion of its accelerator control system from TACL to EPICS, affecting device control for the RF system, magnets, the machine protection system, the vacuum and valves, and the diagnostic systems including beam position monitors, harps, and the camera and solenoid devices (beam viewers, faraday cups, optical transition radiation viewers, synchrotron radiation monitor, etc.). Altogether these devices require approximately 125,000 EPICS database records. The majority of these devices are controlled through CAMAC; some use embedded microprocessors (RF and magnets), and newer interfaces are in VME. The standard EPICS toolkit was extended to include a driver for CAMAC which supports dual processors on one serial highway, custom database records for magnets and BPMs, and custom data acquisition tasks for the BPMs. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Fusion of short telomeres in human cells is characterized by extensive deletion and microhomology, and can result in complex rearrangements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boitelo T. Letsolo; Jan Rowson; Duncan M. Baird

    2010-01-01

    Telomere fusion is an important mutational event that has the potential to lead to large-scale genomic rearrangements of the types frequently observed in cancer. We have developed single- molecule approaches to detect, isolate and charac- terize the DNA sequence of telomere fusion events in human cells. Using these assays, we have detected complex fusion events that include fusion with interstitial

  7. Electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Allemand, Pierre M. (Tucson, AZ); Grimes, Randall F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Ingle, Andrew R. (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Kennedy, Steve R. (Tuscon, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Boulton, Jonathan M. (Tucson, AZ)

    2001-01-01

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  8. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  9. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  10. Interactions between fusion materials R&D and other technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kohyama; M. Seki; K. Abe; T. Muroga; H. Matsui; S. Jitsukawa; S. Matsuda

    2000-01-01

    The importance of interactions between fusion materials research and development (R&D) and other technologies is emphasized to make attractive and realistic fusion technology integration activities. The focuses are on: (1) materials design and processing, (2) safety issues relating to materials and (3) material performance evaluation methodologies, including 14 MeV neutron source utilization for fusion material R&D. As typical examples, material

  11. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-08-19

    Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

  12. Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    del Alamo, Jesus

    The topics of this course include: modeling of microelectronic devices, basic microelectronic circuit analysis and design, physical electronics of semiconductor junction and MOS devices, relation of electrical behavior to internal physical processes, development of circuit models, and understanding the uses and limitations of various models. The course uses incremental and large-signal techniques to analyze and design bipolar and field effect transistor circuits, with examples chosen from digital circuits, single-ended and differential linear amplifiers, and other integrated circuits.

  13. Pre-evaluation of fusion shielding benchmark experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Handa, H. [Hitachi Engineering Company, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Konno, C. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Shielding benchmark experiment is very useful to test the design code and nuclear data for fusion devices. There are many types of benchmark experiments that should be done in fusion shielding problems, but time and budget are limited. Therefore it will be important to select and determine the effective experimental configurations by precalculation before the experiment. The authors did three types of pre-evaluation to determine the experimental assembly configurations of shielding benchmark experiments planned in FNS, JAERI. (1) Void Effect Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure the local increase of dose and nuclear heating behind small void(s) in shield material. Dimension of the voids and its arrangements were decided as follows. Dose and nuclear heating were calculated both for with and without void(s). Minimum size of the void was determined so that the ratio of these two results may be larger than error of the measurement system. (2) Auxiliary Shield Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure shielding properties of B{sub 4}C, Pb, W, and dose around superconducting magnet (SCM). Thickness of B{sub 4}C, Pb, W and their arrangement including multilayer configuration were determined. (3) SCM Nuclear Heating Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure nuclear heating and dose distribution in SCM material. Because it is difficult to use liquid helium as a part of SCM mock up material, material composition of SCM mock up are surveyed to have similar nuclear heating property of real SCM composition.

  14. A preliminary study of a D—T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using the compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoshikawa; M. Ohnishi; Y. Yamamoto; H. Toku; I. Kataoka; Y. Inui; M. Ishikawa; J. Umoto; A. Fukuyama; O. Mitarai; M. Okamoto; H. Sekimoto; M. Nagatsu

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary key issues for a synchrotron radiation-enhanced compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle fusion reactor similar to the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle reactor are presented. These include plasma operation windows as a function of the first wall reflectivity and related issues, to estimate an allowance for deterioration of the first wall reflectivity due to dpa effects. It was

  15. Plasma diagnostics in a large helical device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junji Fujita

    1997-01-01

    In the National Institute for Fusion Science, a large helical device (LHD) is under construction, with the objectives of understanding the physical phenomena and behaviors of a magnetically confined high temperature plasma, and of obtaining basic data which can be extrapolated to a reactor-relevant plasma in a helical system. Superconducting coils with pole number l = 2. pitch number m

  16. Design Considerations for Clean QED Fusion Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1994-07-01

    The direct production of electric power appears possible from fusion reactions between fuels whose products consist solely of charged particles and thus do not present radiation hazards from energetic neutron production, as do reactions involving deuteron-bearing fuels. Among these are the fuels p, 11B, 3He, and 6Li. All of these can be ``burned'' in inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) devices to power QED fusion-electric rocket engines. These IEF sources provide direct-converted electrical power at high voltage (MeV) to drive e-beams for efficient propellant heating to extreme temperatures, with resulting high specific impulse performance capabilities. IEF/QED engine systems using p11B can outperform all other advanced concepts for controlled fusion propulsion by 2-3 orders of magnitude, while 6Li6Li fusion yields one order of magnitude less advance. Either of these fusion rocket propulsion systems can provide very rapid transit for solar system missions, with high payload fractions in single-stage vehicles. The 3He3He reaction can not be used practically for direct electric conversion because of the wide spread in energy of its fusion products. However, it may eventually prove useful for thermal/electrical power generation in central station power plants, or for direct-fusion-product (DFP) propellant heatingin advanced deep-space rocket engines.

  17. Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance

    E-print Network

    Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance required for a Fusion Power Plant. Const. Cost $B Date

  18. Neural net sensor fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Levine; T. S. Khuon

    1991-01-01

    A generic architecture for neural net multisensor data fusion is introduced and analyzed. The architecture consists of a set of independent sensor neural nets, one for each sensor, coupled to a fusion net. Each sensor is trained (from a representative data set of the particular sensor) to map to a hypothesis space output. The decision outputs from the sensor nets

  19. Fusion welding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Jones; M. A. Mcbride; K. C. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content

  20. Coatings for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-12-18

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors.

  1. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Peng; Y. K. M

    1985-01-01

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement

  2. Aspects of Phonological Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

  3. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  4. Total wrist fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Field; T. J. Herbert; R. Prosser

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cases of total wrist fusion, performed for post-traumatic conditions, were reviewed objectively, subjectively and radiologically. All patients were satisfied with the position of the fused wrist and had good pain relief. All patients would have had the procedure sooner, having had an average of three operations on the wrist before the fusion. There was a high complication rate (45%),

  5. Muon-catalyzed fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Breunlich; P. Kammel; J. S. Cohen; M. Leon

    1989-01-01

    Great progress achieved in muon-catalyzed fusion research in the past decade now makes it possible to review careful quantitative calculations and measurements. The major experimental surprises have doubled the fusion yields, but direct energy production would appear to be excluded without a significant breakthrough.(AIP)

  6. Muon catalysed fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Ponomarev

    1990-01-01

    A decade ago it was established that one muon in a deuterium-tritium mixture can catalyse more than 100 nuclear fusion reactions and that this phenomenon could be used for the production of nuclear fuel and energy. This review presents the state of the art of muon catalysed fusion studies and its place among alternative methods of nuclear breeding. The main

  7. Inertial fusion reactors (review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A V Kalinin

    1984-01-01

    The current status of the work on engineering problems of inertial fusion is reviewed. The state of laboratory physics research, aspects of driver choice, and pellet designs are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the development of inertial fusion reactors and their energy applications. It is shown that lasers with output energies in the 0.5-5.0 MJ range must be acknowledged

  8. Presented by Information Fusion

    E-print Network

    Information Fusion at ORNL · ORNL Instrumental in formulating and fostering this multi-disciplinary area by ASCR Statistics Program ­ Cyber-physical networks ­ ASCR Applied Math Program 2009 - present · Foundational work at ORNL: ­ Showed tractability of generic information fusion problem using measurements

  9. Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    A particle-in-cell calculation code was made to simulate the operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device. The computation includes the effects of ionization by electron impact. Several techniques to save computational time are introduced in this program code. One of them is time-dependent fine space meshes used in the regions where the particles concentrate. Several superparticles that have similar radial position as well as similar energy are merged, while one superparticle is divided into several particles with a somewhat different velocity when the total number of superparticles decreases. The methods enable more precise determination of the characteristics of an IEC device in a shorter time than by previous methods.

  10. Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Project Staff (V.S. Chan)

    2012-02-29

    Under this project, General Atomics (GA) was tasked to develop the experimental validation plans for two high priority ISAs, Boundary and Pedestal and Whole Device Modeling in collaboration with the theory, simulation and experimental communities. The following sections have been incorporated into the final FSP Program Plan (www.pppl.gov/fsp), which was delivered to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional deliverables by GA include guidance for validation, development of metrics to evaluate success and procedures for collaboration with experiments. These are also part of the final report.

  11. Inertial electrostatic confinement: Theoretical and experimental studies of spherical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is a means to confine ions for fusion purposes with electrostatic fields in a converging geometry. Its engineering simplicity makes it appealing when compared to magnetic confinement devices. It is hoped that such a device may one day be a net energy producer, but it has near term applications as a neutron generator. We study spherical

  12. Barriers to medical device innovation.

    PubMed

    Bergsland, Jacob; Elle, Ole Jakob; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on "implantable devices", which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. PMID:24966699

  13. Barriers to medical device innovation

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Jacob; Elle, Ole Jakob; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it’s purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. PMID:24966699

  14. emergency.pppl.gov Join Our Mailing List A Collaborative National Center for Fusion & Plasma Research

    E-print Network

    punchy." The balky 600-ton, 17-foot- high TFTR device behaved like a car that wouldn't start. "We had lights coming on in a car, and forced some unanticipated maintenance. After due consideration Images to Download Learn More Engineering Fusion energy Fusion reactor design ITER Nuclear energy Plasma

  15. Fusion excitation function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

    2012-09-28

    We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

  16. Fusion Technology for ITER, the ITER Project. Further Development Towards a DEMO Fusion Power Plant (3/4)

    E-print Network

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    This is the second half of a lecture series on fusion and will concentrate on fusion technology. The early phase of fusion development was concentrated on physics. However, during the 1980s it was realized that if one wanted to enter the area of fusion reactor plasmas, even in an experimental machine, a significant advance in fusion technologies would be needed. After several conceptual studies of reactor class fusion devices in the 1980s the engineering design phase of ITER started in earnest during the 1990s. The design team was in the beginning confronted with many challenges in the fusion technology area as well as in physics for which no readily available solution existed and in a few cases it was thought that solutions may be impossible to find. However, after the initial 3 years of intensive design and R&D work in an international framework utilizing basic fusion technology R&D from the previous decade it became clear that for all problems a conceptual solution could be found and further devel...

  17. Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Device Performance group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we measure the performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reporting conditions--defined as a reference temperature (25 C), total irradiance (1000 Wm-2), and spectral irradiance distribution (IEC standard 60904-3). Typically, these are ''global'' reference conditions, but we can measure with respect to any reference set. To determine device performance, we conduct two general categories of measurements: spectral responsivity (SR) and current versus voltage (I-V). We usually perform these measurements using standard procedures, but we develop new procedures when required by new technologies. We also serve as an independent facility for verifying device performance for the entire PV community. We help the PV community solve its special measurement problems, giving advice on solar simulation, instrumentation for I-V measurements, reference cells, measurement procedures, and anomalous results. And we collaborate with researchers to analyze devices and materials.

  18. Transverse Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Julian Goldsmid

    Attractions of devices based on the transverse thermoelectric effects. Theory of synthetic transverse thermo-elements and\\u000a selection of materials. Advantages of a porous component in satisfying conflicting requirements.

  19. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-print Network

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  20. Integrated Data Analysis for Fusion: A Bayesian Tutorial for Fusion Diagnosticians

    SciTech Connect

    Dinklage, Andreas; Dreier, Heiko; Preuss, Roland [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Fischer, Rainer; Gori, Silvio; Toussaint, Udo von [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-03-12

    Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) offers a unified way of combining information relevant to fusion experiments. Thereby, IDA meets with typical issues arising in fusion data analysis. In IDA, all information is consistently formulated as probability density functions quantifying uncertainties in the analysis within the Bayesian probability theory. For a single diagnostic, IDA allows the identification of faulty measurements and improvements in the setup. For a set of diagnostics, IDA gives joint error distributions allowing the comparison and integration of different diagnostics results. Validation of physics models can be performed by model comparison techniques. Typical data analysis applications benefit from IDA capabilities of nonlinear error propagation, the inclusion of systematic effects and the comparison of different physics models. Applications range from outlier detection, background discrimination, model assessment and design of diagnostics. In order to cope with next step fusion device requirements, appropriate techniques are explored for fast analysis applications.

  1. A fusion development facility on the critical path to fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Garofalo, A. M.; Canik, J.; Kinsey, J. E.; Park, J. M.; Peng, M. Y. K.; Petrie, T. W.; Porkolab, M.; Prater, R.; Sawan, M.; Smith, J. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wong, C. P. C.

    2011-08-01

    A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF's nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

  2. A Fusion Development Facility on the Critical Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S. [General Atomics, San Diego; Stambaugh, R [General Atomics, San Diego

    2011-01-01

    A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF's nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

  3. A fusion development facility on the critical path to fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Dr. Vincent [General Atomics; Canik, John [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF s nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

  4. Microchannel devices

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-09-01

    The fabrication of stainless steel microchannel heat exchangers was examined through microlamination, the process of diffusion bonding precision machined metallic foils. The influence of diffusion bonding parameters, as well as the device geometry on the strength of the bond between the foils and embedded channel integrity, was investigated. During diffusion bonding, high temperatures and/or pressures result in well bonded foils, but these conditions cause the embedded channels to deform, which will degrade the efficiency of fluid flow through the channels. Alternatively, low temperatures and/or pressures result in undeformed channels but weakly bonded foils. This causes failure of the device due to fluid leakage. Thus, a processing envelope exists for producing a sound device with no fluid leakage and no degradation of fluid flow properties. The theoretical limit on aspect ratio within two-fluid counter-flow microchannel heat exchangers was also investigated. A counter-flow device is comprised of alternating layers of microchannels, which allow the two fluids to flow in opposite directions separated by fins. A theoretical model for interpreting the span of the fin as a function of the fin thickness was established. The model was verified experimentally by fabricating specimens to simulate the counter-flow device. The results of these investigations were used to aid in the design and processing of prototype microchannel devices.

  5. New Horizons for Fusion-Advanced Fuels for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, Gerald; Santarius, John

    1998-11-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the second generation advanced fusion fuel cycles (D^3He, p^11B, ^3He^3He, etc.) are contrasted to the first generation fuel (DT). Among the advantages, the reduction or elimination of neutrons has the biggest influence on such features as radiation degradation of the first walls, reduction of the amount and level of long lived radioactive waste, and proliferation resistance. Other advantages include direct conversion of ion energy and lack of tritium breeding blankets. Disadvantages include more difficult plasma physics required for ignition and, for the ^3He cycle, acquiring a large source of fuel. Confinement concepts that have high beta characteristics such as FRC’s, spheromaks, ST’s or RFP’s appear to be good candidates for burning the second generation fuels. Inertial electrostatic confinement concepts also are attractive. Tokamaks, stellarators, and inertial fusion devices relying on lasers or ion beams appear to be less amenable to this generation of fuels. It is possible that early second generation fueled devices can make a positive contribution to commercial markets even at Q << 1.

  6. High Level Information Fusion developments, issues, and grand challenges: Fusion 2010 panel discussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Blasch; James Llinas; Dale Lambert; Pierre Valin; Subrata Das; Chee Chong; Mitch Kokar; Elisa Shahbazian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the High-Level Information Fusion (HLIF) Panel Discussion is to present contemporary HLIF advances and developments to determine unsolved grand challenges and issues. The discussion will address the issues between low-level (signal processing and object state estimation and characterization) and high-level information fusion (control, situational understanding, and relationships to the environment). Specific areas of interest include modeling (situations,

  7. Fusion hindrance and roles of shell effects in superheavy mass region

    E-print Network

    Y. Aritomo

    2006-09-18

    We present the first attempt of systematically investigating the effects of shell correction energy for a dynamical process, which includes fusion, fusion-fission and quasi-fission processes. In the superheavy mass region, for the fusion process, shell correction energy plays a very important role and enhances the fusion probability when the colliding partner has a strong shell structure. By analyzing the trajectory in three-dimensional coordinate space with the Langevin equation, we reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of the fusion probability caused by `cold fusion valleys'. The temperature dependence of shell correction energy is considered.

  8. Fusion hindrance and roles of shell effects in superheavy mass region

    E-print Network

    Aritomo, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present the first attempt of systematically investigating the effects of shell correction energy for a dynamical process, which includes fusion, fusion-fission and quasi-fission processes. In the superheavy mass region, for the fusion process, shell correction energy plays a very important role and enhances the fusion probability when the colliding partner has a strong shell structure. By analyzing the trajectory in three-dimensional coordinate space with the Langevin equation, we reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of the fusion probability caused by `cold fusion valleys'. The temperature dependence of shell correction energy is considered.

  9. Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven

    E-print Network

    Craven, David A.

    Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven September 2010 Abstract This short note provides a new and straightforward proof of the original fusion theorem of Alperin, then considers so-called domestic intersections, which are special types of tame intersections that should play a role in fusion

  10. Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Xiangyu Wang

    E-print Network

    Rui, Yong

    Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Method Xiangyu Wang National Univ. of Singapore multimedia's nature of hav- ing multiple information sources, fusion methods are criti- cal for its data analysis and understanding. However, most of the traditional fusion methods are static with respect to time

  11. Development of electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka, A

    2009-01-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECD) are systems of considerable commercial interest due to their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, these devices are mainly applied to glare attenuation in automobile rearview mirrors and also in some smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings. Other possible applications of ECDs include solar cells, small- and large-area flat panel displays, and frozen food monitoring and document authentication also are of great interest. Over the past 20 years almost 1000 patents and 1500 papers in journals and proceedings have been published with the key words "electrochromic windows". Most of these documents report on materials for electrochromic devices and only some of them about complete electrochromic devices. This paper describes the first patents and some of the recent ones on ECDs, whose development is possible due to the advances in nanotechnology. PMID:19958283

  12. 76 FR 40714 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...relevant to the Fusion Energy Sciences program. Tentative Agenda...Status of the Fusion Nuclear Sciences Pathways Assessment Activities...the start of the meeting. A video record of the meeting including...fax) or albert.opdenaker@science.doe.gov...

  13. Reciprocal translocation versus centric fusion between two No. 13 chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lillian Y. F. Hsu; Hyon J. Kim; Eva Sujansky; B. Kousseff; K. Hirschhorn

    1973-01-01

    The centric fusion, or Robertsonian, type of translocation has been considered as a fusion of the entire long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes preceded by breakage of the centric heterochromatin. Reunion of the long arms is considered to include the centromeres, only one of which is visible by conventional staining methods. Prior to the development of the current banding techniques

  14. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1999-01-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

  15. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  16. Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski; R. P. Ashley; D. R. Boris; B. B. Cipiti; S. Krupakar Murali; G. R. Piefer; R. F. Radel; T. E. Radel; A. L. Wehmeyer

    2005-01-01

    In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for

  17. Plasma-Surface Interaction Studies on DIII-D and Their Implications for Next-Step Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, D.G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Unique diagnostic and access features of the DIII-D tokamak, including a sample exposure system, have been used to carry out controlled and well-diagnosed plasma-surface interactions (PSI) experiments. An important contribution of the experiments has been the ability to link a given plasma exposure condition to a measured response of the plasma-facing surface and to thus understand the interaction. This has allowed for benchmarking certain aspects of erosion models, particularly near-surface particle transport. DIII-D has empirically quantified some of the PSI effects that will limit the operation availability and lifetime of future fusion devices, namely, net erosion limiting divertor plate lifetime and hydrogenic fuel retention in deposit layers. Cold divertor plasmas obtained with detachment can suppress net carbon divertor erosion, but many low-temperature divertor PSI phenomena remain poorly understood: nondivertor erosion sources, long-range particle transport, global erosion/deposition patterns, the enhancement of carbon erosion with neon impurity seeding, the sputtered carbon velocity distribution, and the apparent suppression of carbon chemical erosion in detachment. Long-term particle and energy fluences have reduced the chemical erosion yield of lower-divertor tiles. Plasma-caused modification of a material's erosion properties, including material mixing, will occur quickly and be important in long-pulse fusion devices, making prediction of PSI difficult in future devices.

  18. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights

    E-print Network

    Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

  19. Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1 and St´ephane Hong Tuan Ha2 1 INRIA Rh^one-Alpes 655, av. de l composition method which strives to reconcile modularity and efficiency. Our technique, network fusion fusion. Fusion allows to replace internal commu- nications by assignments and alleviates most time

  20. Information Fusion Technology and Its Application to Fire Automatic Control System of Intelligent Building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion applied to intelligent building field and a corresponding control scheme of fire automation control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. There are six levels in the control scheme, including sensor layer, sensor subsystem layer, primary fusion subsystem layer, decision management subsystem layer, actuator subsystem layer and actuator layer. The functions, constitutions and adaptive

  1. Improved data fusion through intelligent sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Angell, Christopher R.; Hernandez, Marcel L.; Oxford, William J.

    2003-08-01

    This paper investigates how the targeting capability of a distributed data fusion system can be improved though the use of intelligent sensor management. The research reported here builds upon previous results from QinetiQ's air-to-ground fusion programme and sensor management research. QinetiQ's previously reported software test-bed for developing and evaluating data fusion algorithms has been enhanced to include intelligent sensor management functions and weapon fly-out models. In this paper details of the enhancements are provided together with a review of the sensor management algorithms employed. These include flight path optimization of airborne sensors to minimize target state estimation error, sensor activation control and sightline management of individual sensors for optimal targeting performance. Initial results from investigative studies are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  2. Space Propulsion via Spherical Torus Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Craig H.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A. [NASA Glenn Research Center (United States)

    2003-01-15

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance and utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation.

  3. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

  4. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

    1993-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  5. Stellarator approach to fusion plasma confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The stellarator is a toroidal fusion plasma confinement device with nested magnetic flux surfaces. The required twist of the field lines is produced by external helical coils rather than by plasma current, as in a tokamak. Stellarator devices are attractive fusion reactor candidates precisely because they offer the prospect of steady-state operation without plasma current. In the last few years the excellent results achieved with currentless stellarator plasmas of modest minor radius (10 to 20 cm) at Kyoto University (Japan) and the Max Planck Institute (West Germany) have made the stellarator second only to the tokamak in its progress toward fusion breakeven, with temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/ approx. 1 KeV, Lawson products n tau approx. 2 to 5 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/.s, and volume-averaged beta values approx. = 2%. The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), now under construction at Oak Ridge Natioal Laboratory (ORNL) and scheduled to operate in 1986, represents a significant advance in stellarator research, with a plasma major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a magnetic field of 2 T for 5 s or 1 T at steady state. ATF replaces the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B heating and diagnostic system.

  6. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  7. Pulsed Operation of Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Demora; Robert Stubbers; Mike Willliams; Yibin Gu; George H. Miley

    1996-01-01

    A cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device (C-device) is being developed at U of I as a portable neutron source for activation analysis.^1 The device consists of a cylindrical 56-inch long, 4.5-inch dia. glass vacuum chamber containing ~0.5 mTorr of D2 fill gas; a hollow 3.5-inch diameter cylindrical cathode; two 3.5-inch dia. cylindrical anodes; and two concave focusing cathode

  8. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Sawyer

    1998-12-31

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright.

  9. Compact NE213 neutron spectrometer with high energy resolution for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbal, A.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Bertalot, L.; Esposito, B.; Poli, F.; Adams, J.M.; Popovichev, S.; Kiptily, V.; Murari, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalleee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati, I-00044, Roma (Italy); Association Euratom-UKAEA Fusion, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Consorzio RFX--Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padua (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    Neutron spectrometry is a tool for obtaining important information on the fuel ion composition, velocity distribution and temperature of fusion plasmas. A compact NE213 liquid scintillator, fully characterized at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, was installed and operated at the Joint European Torus (JET) during two experimental campaigns (C8-2002 and trace tritium experiment-TTE 2003). The results show that this system can operate in a real fusion experiment as a neutron (1.5 MeVincluding trace tritium experiments, are presented. The analysis of the pulse height data was carried out using a newly developed method based on maximum entropy unfolding. The results indicate that this efficient, inexpensive, and compact scintillator is suitable for use as a broadband spectrometer in large fusion devices (JET and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

  10. The initial fusion pore induced by baculovirus GP64 is large and forms quickly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilya Plonsky; Joshua Zimmerberg

    1996-01-01

    The formation of the fusion pore is the first detectable event in membrane fusion (Zimmerberg, J., R. Blumenthal, D.P. Sarkar, M. Curran, and S.J. Mor- ris. 1994. J. Cell BioL 127:1885-1894). To date, fusion pores measured in exocytosis and viral fusion have shared features that include reversible closure (flicker- ing), highly fluctuating semistable stages, and a lag time of at

  11. Listening Devices

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    We've covered most of the basics of how sound is produced and transmitted, but we've left something out, and that's all the electronic devices we use to amplify sound, reproduce it, or get it from one place to another. How exactly does a CD player work? How does a phone work? And how exactly do those two listening devices we carry on either side of our head work? No, not headphones, even though it might seem that some kids do have those permanently attached. The item in question is our ears.

  12. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gribkov, V. A. [A.I. Alikhanov Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, ul. Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, ul. Hery 23, Warsaw 01-497 (Poland)

    2008-04-07

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement--MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.

  13. Thick deposits and overlays for fusion-reactor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Mattox

    1983-01-01

    Coatings and\\/or claddings on the interior surfaces of magnetically confined fusion devices are necessary to control the plasma materials interactions which affect the reactor operation. Such interactions are: (1) machine conditioning, (2) impurity injection into the plasma, (3) fuel recycling from the plasma to the surfaces, and (4) material degradation. For present and near term engineering\\/experimental reactors relatively thin coatings

  14. Electronic security device

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); LeBlanc, Edward J. (Kennewick, WA); Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  15. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  16. Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-02-20

    Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

  17. Fusion Energy Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    As part of the US Department of Energy, the Office of Science contains the Fusion Energy Sciences program, whose mission is to advance plasma science and fusion science technology. The program "supports research to understand the physics of plasmas; to identify and explore innovative and cost-effective development paths to fusion energy; and as a partner in international efforts, to advance the science and technology of energy-producing plasmas." Visitors to the Fusion Energy Sciences Web site will find current news related to the program, a program highlights document, several informative published papers, additional links, and more. If you're interested in energy, physics, or other related sciences, you'll definitely enjoy learning about the cutting edge science being undertaken within the department.

  18. On cold fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spinrad

    1990-01-01

    This paper argues that a high negative voltage on a metal into which deuterium is soaked might enhance fusion reactions. The author discusses how this may have been the way Fleischmann and Pons achieved their results.

  19. Spectral Label Fusion

    E-print Network

    Wachinger, Christian

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers ...

  20. Superlattice optical device

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gourley, Paul L. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  1. Rotavirus-induced fusion from without in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, M M; Gilbert, J M; Roper, A M; Greenberg, H B; Gavora, J S

    1995-01-01

    We present the first evidence of fusion from without induced in tissue culture cells by a nonenveloped virus. Electron micrographs of two strains of rotavirus, bovine rotavirus C486 and rhesus rotavirus, show that virally mediated cell-cell fusion occurs within 1 h postinfection. Trypsin activation is necessary for rotavirus to mediate cell-cell fusion. The extent of fusion is relative to the amount of virus used, and maximum fusion occurs between pHs 6.5 and 7.5. Fusion does not require virus-induced protein synthesis, as virus from both an empty capsid preparation and from an EDTA-treated preparation, which is noninfectious, can induce fusion. Incubation of rotavirus with neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies before addition to cells indicates that viral protein 4 (VP4; in the form of VP5* and VP8*) and VP7 are involved in fusion. Light and electron micrographs document this fusion, including the formation of pores or channels between adjacent fused cells. These data support direct membrane penetration as a possible route of infection. Moreover, the assay should be useful in determining the mechanisms of cell entry by rotavirus. PMID:7637004

  2. Jamb and Jamc Are Essential for Vertebrate Myocyte Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Gareth T.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular fusion is required in the development of several tissues, including skeletal muscle. In vertebrates, this process is poorly understood and lacks an in vivo-validated cell surface heterophilic receptor pair that is necessary for fusion. Identification of essential cell surface interactions between fusing cells is an important step in elucidating the molecular mechanism of cellular fusion. We show here that the zebrafish orthologues of JAM-B and JAM-C receptors are essential for fusion of myocyte precursors to form syncytial muscle fibres. Both jamb and jamc are dynamically co-expressed in developing muscles and encode receptors that physically interact. Heritable mutations in either gene prevent myocyte fusion in vivo, resulting in an overabundance of mononuclear, but otherwise overtly normal, functional fast-twitch muscle fibres. Transplantation experiments show that the Jamb and Jamc receptors must interact between neighbouring cells (in trans) for fusion to occur. We also show that jamc is ectopically expressed in prdm1a mutant slow muscle precursors, which inappropriately fuse with other myocytes, suggesting that control of myocyte fusion through regulation of jamc expression has important implications for the growth and patterning of muscles. Our discovery of a receptor-ligand pair critical for fusion in vivo has important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for myocyte fusion and its regulation in vertebrate myogenesis. PMID:22180726

  3. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  4. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  5. Building fusion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Shahbazian

    2002-01-01

    Information and data fusion is a discipline that provides the methods and techniques to build observe-orient-decide-act (OODA) capabilities for various applications. There are many ways in which these methods and techniques can be chosen to provide capabilities in each phase of the OODA decision-making cycle, and there are different fusion architectures, i.e., ways these methods and techniques can be applied,

  6. Still Flying Fusion Edition

    E-print Network

    2013-11-27

    . ; The Fox Television Broadcasting Company ; 20th Century Fox Ltd. ; Fox Home Entertainment or Universal Pictures All rights are reserved and owned by the copyright holders as appropriate. Welcome to this very special Fusion Edition of Still.... This abridged edition is available only at Fusion, Issue Two will be available soon, complete with an Adam Baldwin interview! If you wish to subscribe (for free) please email stillflying@bitwiser.com with the subject heading "Subscribe" and you...

  7. Fusion ignition research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  8. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  9. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  10. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  11. 1.5- to 0.8-?m optical upconversion by wafer fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Ban, Dayan; Liu, Huichun C.; SpringThorpe, Anthony J.; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Buchanan, Margaret

    2004-12-01

    An InGaAs photodetector array interconnected with a silicon readout IC is the industry standard for 1.2-1.6 ?m imaging applications. However, the indium-bump technique it employs for interconnection makes it expensive. An alternative approach is to combine a CCD with a device that upconverts 1.2-1.6 ?m radiation to a wavelength below 1 ?m. Here we report the realization of a 1.5 ?m to 0.87 ?m optical upconversion device using wafer fusion technology. The device consists of an InGaAs/InP PIN photodetector and an AlGaAs/GaAs light emitting diode (LED). Incoming 1.5 ?m light is absorbed by the InGaAs photodetector. The resulting photocurrent drives the GaAs LED, which emits at 0.87 ?m. The PIN and LED structures are epitaxially grown on an InP and a GaAs substrate, respectively. The two wafers are wafer fused together, the GaAs substrate is removed, and the sample is processed using conventional microfabrication technology. In this paper, we first present the design and fabrication process of the device. We then discuss the approaches to increase device efficiency. We show, both experimentally and theoretically, that the active layer doping affects the LED internal quantum efficiency, especially under low current injection. An optimum doping value is obtained. The LED extraction efficiency is increased using several approaches, including micro-lens and surface scattering. Overall device efficiency is further improved by introducing a gain mechanism into the photodetector. Our results show the potentials of this integrated photodetector-LED device for 1.2-1.6 ?m imaging applications.

  12. Reducing the Barriers to Fusion Electric Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    1998-03-01

    A potential solution to some of the current problems faced by the U.S. Magnetic Fusion community is presented. It can be implemented with little or no increase in the present funding level and it could promote a more positive attitude toward what is, in its ultimate application to electricity generation, a very long and costly research program. The proposed solution is to devote a significant fraction of the current program to developing, and marketing, near term commercial products from low Q devices. It is anticipated that such a research and development program is in fact less expensive than the pursuit of very large and complex toroidal power plants based on the DT cycle. A few examples of near term commercial products are discussed and a plan presented that could ultimately lead to economical and environmentally attractive fusion power plants.

  13. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    DOEpatents

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  14. Clinical Results with ProDisc: European Experience and U.S. Investigation Device Exemption Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack E. Zigler

    Study Design. This study is based on a review of the literature related to the use of the ProDisc device and a report of the preliminary results of a prospective random- ized study. Objectives. To review European results related to the use of the ProDisc device and compare the results of this device to lumbar fusion in a prospective, randomized

  15. the fusion trend line Stan Milora (ORNL)

    E-print Network

    2009: ReNeW identifies required research and facilities including an FNSF (integrated fusion, fueling, disruption and ELM control, T systems, PFCs) ­ Provides an opportunity for TBM down the road VLT sciences etc. ­ 9 of 15 gaps are technology specific, component qualification facility identified · June

  16. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E- ... this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Search the Medical Device Safety Section ...

  17. Alerts and Notices (Devices)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Safety Communications Safety Communications Search the Safety Communication Section Medical Device Safety ... Recalls: Get e-mail updates Medical Device Safety Communications Medical Device Safety Communication Date Unintentional Injection of ...

  18. A Summary of the NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Santarius, John F.; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A NASA Fusion Propulsion Workshop was held on Nov. 8 and 9, 2000 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. A total of 43 papers were presented at the Workshop orally or by posters, covering a broad spectrum of issues related to applying fusion to propulsion. The status of fusion research was reported at the Workshop showing the outstanding scientific research that has been accomplished worldwide in the fusion energy research program. The international fusion research community has demonstrated the scientific principles of fusion creating plasmas with conditions for fusion burn with a gain of order unity: 0.25 in Princeton TFTR, 0.65 in the Joint European Torus, and a Q-equivalent of 1.25 in Japan's JT-60. This research has developed an impressive range of physics and technological capabilities that may be applied effectively to the research of possibly new propulsion-oriented fusion schemes. The pertinent physics capabilities include the plasma computational tools, the experimental plasma facilities, the diagnostics techniques, and the theoretical understanding. The enabling technologies include the various plasma heating, acceleration, and the pulsed power technologies.

  19. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  20. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Mark S. (Tijeras, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  1. Home Healthcare Medical Devices: A Checklist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... how to replace them. Educate your family and caregivers about your devices. * Include them in hospital planning ... that may change the way you or your caregiver use the device. - Are there changes in vision, ...

  2. Fusion after minimally disruptive anterior lumbar interbody fusion: Analysis of extreme lateral interbody fusion by computed tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Rodgers; Edward J. Gerber; Jamie R. Patterson

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundLess invasive fusion approaches, such as extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF), have proliferated, but few reports have critically assessed fusion rates. To date, no studies have reported computed tomography (CT) documented fusion rates following XLIF.

  3. Edge ambipolar potential in toroidal fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Spizzo, G., E-mail: gianluca.spizzo@igi.cnr.it; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Puiatti, M. E.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy)] [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Abdullaev, S. S.; Schmitz, O. [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany)] [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy)] [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); Ciaccio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Padova, Padova (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A series of issues with toroidally confined fusion plasmas are related to the generation of 3D flow patterns by means of edge magnetic islands, embedded in a chaotic field and interacting with the wall. These issues include the Greenwald limit in Tokamaks and reversed-field pinches, the collisionality window for ELM mitigation with the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamaks, and edge islands interacting with the bootstrap current in stellarators. Measurements of the 2D map of the edge electric field E{sup r}(r=a,?,?) in the RFX reversed-field pinch show that E{sup r} has the same helicity of the magnetic islands generated by a m/n perturbation: in fact, defining the helical angle u=m??n?+?t, maps show a sinusoidal dependence as a function of u, E{sup r}=E{sup ~r}sin?u. The associated E?×?B flow displays a huge convective cell with v(a)?0 which, in RFX and near the Greenwald limit, determines a stagnation point for density and a reversal of the sign of E{sup r}. From a theoretical point of view, the question is how a perturbed toroidal flux of symmetry m/n gives rise to an ambipolar potential ?=?{sup ~}sin?u. On the basis of a model developed with the guiding center code ORBIT and applied to RFX and the TEXTOR tokamak, we will show that the presence of an m/n perturbation in any kind of device breaks the toroidal symmetry with a drift proportional to the gyroradius ?, thus larger for ions (?{sub i}????{sub e}). Immediately, an ambipolar potential arises to balance the drifts, with the same symmetry as the original perturbation.

  4. Information fusion for CB defense applications: Challenge and opportunity

    E-print Network

    Hess, Austin R.

    Information fusion aims at a synergistic exploitation of multiple information sources, to enable decision-making or to enhance its performance. The sources include sensors of various modalities and characteristics, as well ...

  5. Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable

    E-print Network

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

  6. Include folders ! Classic black

    E-print Network

    Include folders ! Classic black folders. Perfect to display photos, present photos as a gift indicate your package selection(s) below. Send check/money order (outside the US International Money Order% Money Back Guarantee on Photographs How To Order: Sales Tax: Photos mailed to MA 6.25%, to CT 6

  7. Cdc42 controls the dilation of the exocytotic fusion pore by regulating membrane tension

    PubMed Central

    Bretou, Marine; Jouannot, Ouardane; Fanget, Isabelle; Pierobon, Paolo; Larochette, Nathanaël; Gestraud, Pierre; Guillon, Marc; Emiliani, Valentina; Gasman, Stéphane; Desnos, Claire; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Darchen, François

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion underlies multiple processes, including exocytosis of hormones and neurotransmitters. Membrane fusion starts with the formation of a narrow fusion pore. Radial expansion of this pore completes the process and allows fast release of secretory compounds, but this step remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibiting the expression of the small GTPase Cdc42 or preventing its activation with a dominant negative Cdc42 construct in human neuroendocrine cells impaired the release process by compromising fusion pore enlargement. Consequently the mode of vesicle exocytosis was shifted from full-collapse fusion to kiss-and-run. Remarkably, Cdc42-knockdown cells showed reduced membrane tension, and the artificial increase of membrane tension restored fusion pore enlargement. Moreover, inhibiting the motor protein myosin II by blebbistatin decreased membrane tension, as well as fusion pore dilation. We conclude that membrane tension is the driving force for fusion pore dilation and that Cdc42 is a key regulator of this force. PMID:25143404

  8. Membrane Fusion Intermediates via Directional and Full Assembly of the SNARE Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Javier M.; Stein, Alexander; Behrmann, Elmar; Riedel, Dietmar; Cypionka, Anna; Farsi, Zohreh; Walla, Peter J.; Raunser, Stefan; Jahn, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Cellular membrane fusion is thought to proceed through intermediates including docking of apposed lipid bilayers, merging of proximal leaflets to form a hemifusion diaphragm, and fusion pore opening. A membrane-bridging four-helix complex of soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediates fusion. However, how assembly of the SNARE complex generates docking and other fusion intermediates is unknown. Using a cell-free reaction we identified intermediates visually and then arrested the SNARE fusion machinery when fusion was about to begin. Partial and directional assembly of SNAREs tightly docked bilayers, but efficient fusion and an extended form of hemifusion required assembly beyond the core complex to the membrane-connecting linkers. We propose that straining of lipids at the edges of an extended docking zone initiates fusion. PMID:22653732

  9. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  10. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  11. Membrane Fusion Triggering

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Negi, Surendra; Braun, Werner; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) fusion apparatus consists of a fusion protein and an attachment protein named hemagglutinin (H). After receptor-binding through its cuboidal head, the H-protein transmits the fusion-triggering signal through its stalk to the fusion protein. However, the structural basis of signal transmission is unclear because only structures of H-heads without their stalk have been solved. On the other hand, the entire ectodomain structure of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of another Paramyxovirus revealed a four-helix bundle stalk. To probe the structure of the 95-residue MV H-stalk we individually substituted head-proximal residues (positions 103–153) with cysteine, and biochemically and functionally characterized the resultant proteins. Our results indicate that most residues in the central segment (positions 103–117) can be cross-linked by engineered disulfide bonds, and thus may be engaged in a tetrameric structure. While covalent tetramerization disrupts fusion triggering function, disulfide bond reduction restores it in most positions except Asp-113. The next stalk segment (residues 123–138) also has high propensity to form covalent tetramers, but since these cross-links have little or no effect on function, it can conduct the fusion-triggering signal while remaining in a stabilized tetrameric configuration. This segment may act as a spacer, maintaining H-heads at an optimal height. Finally, the head-proximal segment (residues 139–154) has very limited propensity to trap tetramers, suggesting bifurcation into two flexible linkers clamped by inter-subunit covalent links formed by natural Cys-139 and Cys-154. We discuss the modular structure of the MV H-stalk in the context of membrane fusion triggering and cell entry by Paramyxoviruses. PMID:23007387

  12. Highly Efficient Multilayer Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Multilayer thermoelectric devices now at the prototype stage of development exhibit a combination of desirable characteristics, including high figures of merit and high performance/cost ratios. These devices are capable of producing temperature differences of the order of 50 K in operation at or near room temperature. A solvent-free batch process for mass production of these state-of-the-art thermoelectric devices has also been developed. Like prior thermoelectric devices, the present ones have commercial potential mainly by virtue of their utility as means of controlled cooling (and/or, in some cases, heating) of sensors, integrated circuits, and temperature-critical components of scientific instruments. The advantages of thermoelectric devices for such uses include no need for circulating working fluids through or within the devices, generation of little if any noise, and high reliability. The disadvantages of prior thermoelectric devices include high power consumption and relatively low coefficients of performance. The present development program was undertaken in the hope of reducing the magnitudes of the aforementioned disadvantages and, especially, obtaining higher figures of merit for operation at and near room temperature. Accomplishments of the program thus far include development of an algorithm to estimate the heat extracted by, and the maximum temperature drop produced by, a thermoelectric device; solution of the problem of exchange of heat between a thermoelectric cooler and a water-cooled copper block; retrofitting of a vacuum chamber for depositing materials by sputtering; design of masks; and fabrication of multilayer thermoelectric devices of two different designs, denoted I and II. For both the I and II designs, the thicknesses of layers are of the order of nanometers. In devices of design I, nonconsecutive semiconductor layers are electrically connected in series. Devices of design II contain superlattices comprising alternating electron-acceptor (p)-doped and electron-donor (n)-doped, nanometer- thick semiconductor layers.

  13. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  14. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-05-20

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  15. Medical Image Fusion: A survey of the state of the art

    E-print Network

    James, A P

    2014-01-01

    Medical image fusion is the process of registering and combining multiple images from single or multiple imaging modalities to improve the imaging quality and reduce randomness and redundancy in order to increase the clinical applicability of medical images for diagnosis and assessment of medical problems. Multi-modal medical image fusion algorithms and devices have shown notable achievements in improving clinical accuracy of decisions based on medical images. This review article provides a factual listing of methods and summarizes the broad scientific challenges faced in the field of medical image fusion. We characterize the medical image fusion research based on (1) the widely used image fusion methods, (2) imaging modalities, and (3) imaging of organs that are under study. This review concludes that even though there exists several open ended technological and scientific challenges, the fusion of medical images has proved to be useful for advancing the clinical reliability of using medical imaging for medi...

  16. Implementation of multispectral image fusion system based on SoPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingfei; Wang, Zhihui

    2013-10-01

    Combining the theory of wavelet transform based image fusion and SOPC design method, the authors uses SOPC as the core device to design and implement a image fusion system. The fusion system adopts the Verilog hardware description language, Dsp builder and Quartus II development platform together with macro module to complete the logic design and timing control of each module. In the fusion system, we can achieve simple pixel-level image fusion of two registered images. This design not only builds up an image fusion system based on SOPC in accident, but also provides a hardware design principle in SoPC for the future design and Implementation of more comprehensive function of image processing.

  17. Support and maneuvering device

    DOEpatents

    Wood, R.L.

    1987-03-23

    A support and maneuvering device includes an elongated flexible inflatable enclosure having a fixed end and a movable end. The movable end is collapsible toward the fixed end to a contracted position when the enclosure is in a noninflated condition. Upon inflation, the movable end is movable away from the fixed end to an extended position. The movable end includes means for mounting an article such as a solar reflector thereon. The device also includes a plurality of position controlling means disposed about the movable end to effect adjusting movement of portions thereof by predetermined amounts and for controlling an angle at which the article disposed at the movable end is oriented. The plurality of position controlling means limits a suitable number degrees of freedom of the movable end for transmitting a steering motion thereto and for controlling the position thereof. 9 figs.

  18. Support and maneuvering device

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Richard L. (Arvada, CO)

    1988-01-01

    A support and maneuvering device includes an elongated flexible inflatable enclosure having a fixed end and a movable end. The movable end is collapsible toward the fixed end to a contracted position when the enclosure is in a noninflated condition. Upon inflation, the movable end is movable away from the fixed end to an extended position. The movable end includes means for mounting an article such as a solar reflector thereon. The device also includes a plurality of position controlling means disposed about the movable end to effect adjusting movement of portions thereof by predetermined amounts and for controlling an angle at which the article disposed at the movable end is oriented. The plurality of position controlling means limits a suitable number degrees of freedom of the movable end for transmitting a steering motion thereto and for controlling the position thereof.

  19. Organic photosensitive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  20. Laser device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. D.

    1985-06-25

    A simplified, relatively inexpensive laser device, wherein the laser elements are fixed in a body exoskeleton of electrical insulating material having a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The preferred embodiment includes a shotgun type laser filter having parallel bores which receive the laser flashlamp and laser rod in fixed relation in a body chamber. The reflector surrounds the laser filter and retains the filter within the body chamber. In the preferred method of this invention, several controlled lasing pulses are generated with each illumination pulse of the flashlamp, substantially increasing the efficiency of the laser device. The number of pulses is generally controlled by increasing the voltage to the flashlamp. The rapid multiple lasing pulses generate an elongated plasma in a fluid medium, such as the vitreous fluid body of an eye which makes the laser device extemely efficient for treating glaucoma and other medical treatments.