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1

Ceramics for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1984-01-01

2

Physics of Dust in Magnetic Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant amount of dust will be produced in the next generation magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. The dust inventory must be controlled as it can pose a safety hazard and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. Questions regarding dust in magnetic fusion devices therefore may be divided into dust safety, dust production, dust motion (dynamics), characteristics of dust, dust-plasma interactions, and most important of all, can dust be controlled in ways so that it will not become a severe problem for magnetic fusion energy production? The answer is not apparent at this time, which has motivated this work. Although dust safety and dust chemistry are important, our discussions primarily focus on dust physics. We describe theoretical frameworks, mostly due to dust research under a nonfusion context, that have already been established and can be used to answer many dust-related questions. We also describe dust measurements in fusion devices, numerical methods and results, and laboratory experiments related to the physics of fusion dust. Although qualitative understanding of dust in fusion has been or can be achieved, quantitative understanding of most dust physics in magnetic fusion is still needed. In order to find an effective way to deal with dust, future research activities include better dust diagnosis and monitoring, basic dusty plasma experiments emulating fusion conditions (for example, by using a mockup facility), numerical simulations bench-marked by experimental data, and development of a new generation of wall materials for fusion, which may include wall materials with engineered nanostructures.

Wang, Zhehui; Skinner, Charles H.; Luca Delzanno, Gian; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Lapenta, Gianni M.; Pigarov, Alexander Yu.; Shukla, Padma K.; Smirnov, Roman D.; Ticos, Catalin M.; West, W. Phil

2008-03-01

3

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2011-04-01

4

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2010-04-01

5

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

...2014-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification. An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2014-04-01

6

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2012-04-01

7

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Intervertebral body fusion device. 888.3080 Section 888...Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification . An intervertebral body fusion device is an implanted single...

2013-04-01

8

Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs.

Turner, L.R.

1989-09-01

9

Edge turbulence measurements in toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews measurements of edge plasma turbulence in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with an emphasis on recent results in tokamaks. The dominant feature of edge turbulence is a high level of broadband density fluctuations with a relative amplitude deltan\\/n ~ 5 100%, accompanied by large potential and electron temperature fluctuations. The frequency range of this turbulence is ~10 kHz

S. J. Zweben; J. A. Boedo; O. Grulke; C. Hidalgo; B. La Bombard; R. J. Maqueda; P. Scarin; J. L. Terry

2007-01-01

10

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P\\/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate

Baldasaro; Paul F

1999-01-01

11

Device for studying flicker fusion frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the PIM-3Ts device for measuring the flicker fusion frequency (FFF) in the blue, green, and red regions and the technique for working with it. Preliminary results show that the FFF is highest for green irritants and lowest for red ones. Our trials had a preliminary character and were carried out mainly to check the operation of the device. However, some of our results can, in our opinion, be of interest to specialists involved in the physiology and physics of vision.

Seredenko, M. M.; Pol'Shchikov, G. V.; Murashko, M. P.

1995-07-01

12

77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers,...

2012-10-04

13

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOEpatents

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01

14

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

SciTech Connect

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, P.F.

1999-09-28

15

Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

Barrett, R.J.; Bussell, G.T.

1985-01-01

16

Eddy current analysis in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

In magnetic fusion devices, particularly tokamaks and reversed field pinch (RFP) experiments, time-varying magnetic fields are in intimate contact with electrically conducting components of the device. Induced currents, fields, forces, and torques result. This note reviews the analysis of eddy current effects in the following systems: Interaction of a tokamak plasma with the eddy currents in the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) systems; Eddy currents in a complex but two-dimensional vacuum vessel, as in TFTR, JET, and JT-60; Eddy currents in the FWBS system of a tokamak reactor, such as NET, FER, or ITER; and Eddy currents in a RFP shell. The cited studies are chosen to be illustrative, rather than exhaustive. 42 refs.

Turner, L.R.

1988-06-01

17

Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt.  

PubMed

Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base. PMID:19690360

Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos

2009-09-01

18

Electrostatic Lithium Injection for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant problems in fusion devices is controlling the recycling of hydrogen that is not used in the fusion process. A powerful getter of hydrogen, lithium, if injected into regions where it is needed, may getter hydrogen much more efficiently. Current lithium evaporation systems are inefficient in controlling where lithium deposits once injected, and a system that can control where it deposits would be invaluable. A solution may lie in a concept called electrospray, where charged lithium particles could be produced and controlled via electric and magnetic fields to target areas in need of getting impurities. While the electrospray concept has been used in other applications, the technique has yet to be applied to lithium injection. Preliminary research into the viability of an Electrostatic Lithium Injector (ELI) have shown that such a system may be capable of producing the lithium droplets and spray, and experiments are being performed to determine the optimal design. Modeling is also being done into using the ELI for repair of PFCs, and possibly even ELM control. Simulation has shown a lithium droplet can be made to follow an arbitrary path with application of a time varying voltage from 10 to -1700 V to the center stack of a tokamak. One run was able to calculate the voltage function required to make a lithium particle take a helical path.

Fiflis, Peter; Andruczyk, Daniel; Surla, Vijay; Ruzic, David

2011-11-01

19

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

1983-06-01

20

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

2013-03-15

21

D-3He fusion in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fusion fuels, D and 3He, have been successfully fused in an inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. It is thought that this is the first known fusion of helium-3 with deuterium on a steady state basis. The detection of 14.7 MeV protons has confirmed the reaction of D-3He fusion, and has produced a continuous, charged particle

R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; S. Krupakar Murali; G. Piefer

1999-01-01

22

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.  

PubMed

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

2013-03-01

23

Super-X Divertors and High Power Density Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The Super-X Divertor (SXD), a robust axisymmetric redesign of the divertor magnetic geometry that can allow a fivefold increase in the core power density of toroidal fusion devices, is presented. With small changes in poloidal coils and currents for standard divertors, the SXD allows the largest divertor plate radius inside toroidal field coils. This increases the plasma-wetted area by 2-3 times over all flux-expansion-only methods (e.g., plate near main X point, plate tilting, X divertor, and snowflake), decreases parallel heat flux and hence plasma temperature at plate, and increases connection length by 2-5 times. Examples of high-power-density fusion devices enabled by SXD are discussed; the most promising near-term device is a 100 MW modular compact fusion neutron source "battery" small enough to fit inside a conventional fission blanket.

Valanju, P. [University of Texas, Austin; Kotschenreuther, M. [University of Texas, Austin; Mahajan, S. [University of Texas, Austin; Canik, John [ORNL

2009-01-01

24

Super-X divertors and high power density fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The Super-X Divertor (SXD), a robust axisymmetric redesign of the divertor magnetic geometry that can allow a fivefold increase in the core power density of toroidal fusion devices, is presented. With small changes in poloidal coils and currents for standard divertors, the SXD allows the largest divertor plate radius inside toroidal field coils. This increases the plasma-wetted area by 2-3 times over all flux-expansion-only methods (e.g., plate near main X point, plate tilting, X divertor, and snowflake), decreases parallel heat flux and hence plasma temperature at plate, and increases connection length by 2-5 times. Examples of high-power-density fusion devices enabled by SXD are discussed; the most promising near-term device is a 100 MW modular compact fusion neutron source 'battery' small enough to fit inside a conventional fission blanket.

Valanju, P. M.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S. M. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); Canik, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

2009-05-15

25

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01

26

Advances in electromagnetic design of fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The specification of the large magnets needed in future fusion reactors based on the tokamak concept is presented as an inverse electromagnetic problem. The influence of the eddy currents flowing In the metallic structure is Illustrated. Currently used computational tools and related mathematical formulations are reviewed. The behavior predicted by the numerical models is in agreement with experimental measurements, as demonstrated by a campaign of code validation. Recent progress on the techniques for the Identification of the plasma parameters and for the scenario optimization Is presented.

Albanese, R.; Martone, R. (Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettronica); Coccorese, E. (Univ. di Reggio Calabria (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Elettronica); Rubinacci, G. (Univ. degli Studi di Cassino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Industriale)

1993-11-01

27

Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

Racene, Diana

2003-08-01

28

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths  

DOEpatents

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

2014-04-22

29

Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device  

PubMed Central

Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices.

Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

2014-01-01

30

On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1  

E-print Network

On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1 , L. E. Zakharov2 It is shown that lithium walls resulting in zero recycling conditions at the edge of magnetic fusion device strong impact of fully absorbing lithium walls on the performance of magnetic fusion devices have been

Krstic, Miroslav

31

A thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential are disclosed. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P\\/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The

Baldasaro; Paul F

1997-01-01

32

Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.

1983-01-01

33

Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization and secondary electron emission processes and is used to give preliminary results for the ionized gas physics behavior and neutron generation in the C-Device for a range of pressure calibration factors.

Bromley, Blair P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

2002-01-15

34

Conference Report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9–11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma–Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

2015-02-01

35

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

36

78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of...

2013-08-05

37

75 FR 20860 - Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Investigation...display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by reason of infringement...display devices, including digital televisions or monitors that infringe one or...

2010-04-21

38

75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers, by reason of...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that infringe...

2010-01-28

39

76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and...

2011-08-01

40

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03

41

A thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

SciTech Connect

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential are disclosed. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F.

1997-12-01

42

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

43

Some considerations of cold fusion including the calculation of fusion rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the fusion reaction rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The rates are calculated analytically (for the first time) as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the electron mass to the reduced mass of the nucleii. The fusion rates of the P-D, D-D, and D-T reactions are given for a variable electron mass by a simple analytic formula. However, we do not know any mechanism by which a sufficiently localized electron in solid can have an effective mass' large enough to explain the result of Fleischman and Pons (FP). This calculation indicates that P-D rates should exceed D-D rates for D-D fusion rates less than approximately 10{sup {minus}23} per molecule per second. The D-D fusion rate is enhanced by a factor of 10{sup 5} at 10,000{degree}K if the excited vibrational states are populated with a Boltzmann distribution and the rotational excitations suppressed. The suggestion that experimental results could be explained by bombardment of cold deuterons by kilovolt deuterons is shown to be an unlikely from an energetic point of view. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

1989-11-01

44

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the

Yasushi Yamamoto; Ryousaku Kusaba; Takayuki Shirouzu; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

45

Apparatus for friction tests of support elements in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacers and supports belong to the critical elements in the structure of a nuclear fusion device, particularly, when they are installed in the vacuum or superconducting magnet system of the reactor. These supports have to sustain high loads while allowing a certain amount of tangential movement with low friction and without any stick-slip motion. Vacuum and cryogenic environments are extremely hostile for smooth sliding systems, because conventional liquid lubricants cannot be employed, and only a very limited number of materials for dry sliding systems under these conditions are available. In order to test the friction behaviour of support elements in the field coils of the fusion experiment WENDELSTEIN 7-X, a test rig was build which allows testing in liquid helium environment at 4.2 K, with a normal force up to 150 kN, and a sliding velocity of 0.1 mm/s in oscillating motion. First tests have shown that the apparatus is appropriate for simulating the sliding behaviour of support elements. As an example, a result of an earlier model test of an MoS2-coating is shown.

Gradt, Th; Aßmus, K.; Börner, H.; Schneider, Th

2008-03-01

46

Numerical modelling of electromagnetic loads on fusion device structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic confinement fusion devices, during abnormal operations (disruptions) the plasma begins to move rapidly towards the vessel wall in a vertical displacement event (VDE), producing plasma current asymmetries, vessel eddy currents and open field line halo currents, each of which can exert potentially damaging forces upon the vessel and in-vessel components. This paper presents a methodology to estimate electromagnetic loads, on three-dimensional conductive structures surrounding the plasma, which arise from the interaction of halo-currents associated to VDEs with a magnetic field of the order of some Tesla needed for plasma confinement. Lorentz forces, calculated by complementary formulations, are used as constraining loads in a linear static structural analysis carried out on a detailed model of the mechanical structures of a representative machine.

Bettini, Paolo; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Specogna, Ruben

2014-03-01

47

Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific\\u000a character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an\\u000a outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen\\u000a boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of

V. Damideh; A. Sadighzadeh; A. Koohi; A. Aslezaeem; A. Heidarnia; N. Abdollahi; F. Abbasi Davani; R. Damideh

48

78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet...are authorized by Samsung to utilize the technology covered by the asserted claims of the...

2013-03-19

49

77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet...substantial cost or delay to design around the technology covered by the '348 and '644...

2012-11-26

50

Effects of the Cathode Grid Wires on Fusion Proton Measurements in Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2011-01-01

51

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the experiments designed to confirm these results using different electrode shapes, the effects of the anode shape are clearly observed.

Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kusaba, Ryousaku; Shirouzu, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

52

78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...communication devices, portable music and data processing...Association for Competitive Technology; Business Software...Association for Competitive Technology; Business Software...Innovation Alliance; Micron Technology, Inc.; and Retail...communication devices, portable music and data...

2013-06-10

53

Time of Flight Diagnosis of Fusion Profiles in Spherical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Time of Flight (TOF) diagnostic produces 1-D fusion spatial profiles across the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device by coincidentally capturing protons and tritons from individual deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion events. Several experimental upgrades were implemented and a new TOF data set was recorded. The resulting fusion profile was peaked at the center of the cathode and did not show evidence for significant fusion occurring outside the anode. Previous TOF measurements indicated that a significant number of fusion events were occurring in the region between the anode and the chamber wall. Detailed analysis of the previous data indicated that the measurement suffered intermittent timing errors and confirmed that fusion is primarily occurring within the cathode. The current TOF results compared well with additional previous experiments conducted at UW-Madison that observed a peak in the fusion rate near the center of the cathode. Previous measurements indicated that fusion in spherical IEC devices is concentrated in beams that extend from the center of the cathode, through holes in the cathode grid, out to the chamber wall. The current TOF data and all previous UW-Madison experimental results appear to be consistent with fusion being concentrated along beams. A new capability of the TOF system was developed, in which the energy distribution function (EDF) is determined for deuterons that initiated fusion reactions. For an applied cathode voltage of -60 kV and background gas pressure of 1.5 mTorr, the fusion deuteron EDF peaked between 15-20 keV. The peak between 15-20 keV indicates that the primary fast deuterium ion species in the system may be D3+. Scattering, ionization and charge exchange also play a significant role in IEC physics at this pressure.

McEvoy, Aaron

54

Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 109-1010 neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G.

2012-07-01

55

Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI  

SciTech Connect

In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G. [Technical University of Crete, Science Department, 73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Department of Theoret. Physics, Univ. New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, FORTH, Heraklion (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); LOA Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA, Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2012-07-09

56

Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

57

Analysis of aortic valve commissural fusion after support with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) may induce commissural fusion of the aortic valve leaflets. Factors associated with this occurrence of commissural fusion are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine histological characteristics of cf-LVAD-induced commissural fusion in relation to clinical variables. METHODS Gross and histopathological examinations were performed on 19 hearts from patients supported by either HeartMate II (n = 17) or HeartWare (n = 2) cf-LVADs and related to clinical characteristics (14 heart transplantation, 5 autopsy). RESULTS Eleven of the 19 (58%) aortic valves showed fusion of single or multiple commissures (total fusion length 11 mm [4–20] (median [interquartile range]) per valve), some leading to noticeable nodular displacements or considerable lumen diameter narrowing. Multiple fenestrations were observed in one valve. Histopathological examination confirmed commissural fusion, with varying changes in valve layer structure without evidence of inflammatory infiltration at the site of fusion. Commissural fusion was associated with continuous aortic valve closure during cf-LVAD support (P = 0.03). LVAD-induced aortic valve insufficiency developed in all patients with commissural fusion and in 67% of patients without fusion. Age, duration of cf-LVAD support and aetiology of heart failure (ischaemic vs dilated cardiomyopathy) were not associated with the degree of fusion. CONCLUSIONS Aortic valve commissural fusion after support with cf-LVADs is a non-inflammatory process leading to changes in valve layer structure that can be observed in >50% of cf-LVAD patients. This is the first study showing that patients receiving full cf-LVAD support without opening of the valve have a significantly higher risk of developing commissural fusion than patients on partial support. PMID:23798641

Martina, Jerson R.; Schipper, Marguerite E.I.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Ramjankhan, Faiz; de Weger, Roel A.; Lahpor, Jaap R.; Vink, Aryan

2013-01-01

58

Diagnostic study of steady state advanced fuel (deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium) fusion in an IEC device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionized fusion fuels (D-D & D-3He) have been accelerated to fusion velocities using two concentric grids maintained at a high potential difference in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Though the gridded IEC device currently has a low efficiency (Q ? fusion power\\/input power ˜10-5), the energetic protons and neutrons generated within this device can be used for many

Krupakar Murali Subramanian

2004-01-01

59

Optical relay design for an IR imaging diagnostic system in TJ-II fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surroundings of a nuclear fusion reactor experiments the presence of magnetic fields, which affects the performance of any diagnostic optical system located nearby. It is therefore necessary to determine with precision the optimum location for the diagnostic and to design magnetically robust optical imaging systems. The purpose of the present optical diagnostic is to measure the temperature dispersion in the vicinity of the NBI (neutral beam injectors) that heat the confined plasma inside the fusion device. The measure is made by processing the information contained in the images of the objects inside the chamber in the 7 to 16 um far infrared wavelength range, through a F2Ba vacuum viewport window. Our main concern is to design the optical relay from this viewport to the IR sensor, a FPA uncooled microbolometer 320x240px, for different axial distances, with a field of view of 24°x18° and 1.3 mrad of IFOV spatial resolution. The proposed optical relay system includes the use of a reflexive relay (aspheric concave mirrors) and a refractive and imaging camera. The system has being corrected for primary aberrations and optimized to allow a future second optical system working in visible range after the mirrors, by including a dichroic beamsplitter.

Ruiz de Galarreta, Carlota; Manzanares Ituarte, Ana; de la Cal Heusch, Eduardo; Liniers, Macarena; Wolfers, Gilles

2012-12-01

60

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

61

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contain provisions for the input of an external baseband...with a radio frequency input signal of 0 to 25 dBmV...cables used to couple the output signals to the TV receiver...composite device in a single enclosure containing...the antenna and cable input terminals that is...

2010-10-01

62

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...master antenna, 692.8 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and 155 times the square root of (R) for the audio signal. (ii...interface devices, 346.4 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and...

2013-10-01

63

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...master antenna, 692.8 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and 155 times the square root of (R) for the audio signal. (ii...interface devices, 346.4 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and...

2012-10-01

64

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...master antenna, 692.8 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and 155 times the square root of (R) for the audio signal. (ii...interface devices, 346.4 times the square root of (R) for the video signal and...

2011-10-01

65

78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets...Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets...devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems,...

2013-05-17

66

78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets...devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems, tablets...devices, including televisions, blu-ray disc players, home theater systems,...

2013-06-18

67

Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device  

SciTech Connect

A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

2012-07-01

68

Microfluidic device for high-yield pairing and fusion of stem cells with somatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro cell fusion has significant potential as a biotechnology tool with applications ranging from antibody production to cellular reprogramming. However due to low fusion efficiency of the conventional electro fusion methodology the true potential of the technique has not been reached. In this paper, we report a new method which takes cell fusion efficiency two orders magnitude higher than the conventional electro fusion method. The new method, based on one-toone pairing, fusion and selection of fused cells was developed using a microfabricated device. The device was composed of two microfluidic channels, a micro slit array and a petri dish integrated with electrodes. The electrodes positioned in each channel were used to generate electric field lines concentrating in the micro slits. Cells were introduced into channels and brought in to contact through the micro slit array using dielectrophoresis. The cells in contact were fused by applying a DC pulse to electrodes. As the electric field lines were concentrated at the micro slits the membrane potential was induced only at the vicinity of the micro slits, namely only at the cell-cell contact point. This mechanism assured the minimum damage to cells in the fusion as well as the ability to control the strength and location of induced membrane potential. We introduced mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to the microfluidic channels and demonstrated high-yield fusion (> 80%). Post-fusion study showed the method can generate viable hybrids of stem cells and embryonic fibroblasts. Multinucleated hybrid cells adhering on the chip surface were routinely obtained by using this method and on-chip culturing.

Gel, Murat; Hirano, Kunio; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Tada, Takashi; Washizu, Masao

2011-12-01

69

Dust in fusion devices---a multi-faceted problem connecting high- and low-temperature plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small particles with sizes between a few nanometers and a few 10 µm (dust) are formed in fusion devices by plasma surface interaction processes. Though it is not a major problem today, dust is considered a problem that could arise in future long pulse fusion devices. This is primarily due to its radioactivity and due to its very high chemical

J. Winter

2004-01-01

70

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-an isotope of helium with

S. Krupakar Murali; B. B. Cipiti; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2006-01-01

71

FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets  

SciTech Connect

The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasisteady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies. The emphasis on reliable nuclear testing capability demands that the plasma physics characteristics and technological features of the fusion machine be chosen as close to mid-1980s state of the art as possible, with the important exception that FED-R requires high-duty-factor operation. The outboard nuclear test region is at least 80-cm deep with approximately 60 m/sup 2/ of exposure area. The neutron wall loading is 0.4 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage I operation (Q/sub p/ = 1.5) and 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage II (Q/sub p/ = 2.5). The toroidal field coils are fabricated of water-cooled copper plates with demountable joints and operate steady state with a power dissipation of 180 MW in Stage I and 280 MW in Stage II.

Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S.

1983-06-01

72

Effects of Grid Cathode Structure on a Low-Input-Power Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grid cathode structure on a low-input-power inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device were studied to achieve a high neutron production rate (NPR). An increase in geometric transparency of the grid cathode by decreasing the number of wire rings is known to mean that the recirculation ion current is increased. We expected that this increase would contribute to

Yasuyuki TANIUCHI; Yoshihito MATSUMURA; Katsuyoshi TAIRA; Michiaki UTSUMI; Masami CHIBA; Toshiaki SHIRAKAWA; Masatoshi FUJII

2010-01-01

73

The Potential Profile and its Influence on the Neutron Yield of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

2005-01-01

74

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

2014-01-01

75

76 FR 41522 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of...importation of certain mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers. 76 FR 24051 (Apr. 29,...

2011-07-14

76

A new high-temperature indentation device for characterization of materials for fusion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For material characterization tests that simulate the operating conditions in a fusion reactor, high-temperature experiments on irradiated samples are necessary. After successful indentation investigations at room temperature, the next step is an adaption of the experiment to elevated temperatures. A high-temperature indentation device designed for this application was constructed and realized at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This device will be installed in a hot cell of the Fusion Materials Laboratory, Institute for Applied Materials. A description of chosen solutions and construction details for realization of the device are given: the properties as well as the main parts of the new apparatus—sample heating and positioning, vacuum system, force actuator, and remote handling solutions—are described.

Albinski, B.; Schneider, H.-C.; Sacksteder, I.; Kraft, O.

2013-11-01

77

Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to

Eric Alderson; John Santarius; Gil Emmert; David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

78

Helium-cooled divertor module for fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced fusion machines such as TPX, NET, and ITER have to be designed to handle a heat flux of about 5 to 15 MW/m2 in the diverter region. The present conceptual designs use water cooling. However water leaks will have very serious consequences in these machines. Cooling with a gas like helium is a very attractive alternative, if the pumping power can be limited to a reasonable value. Different concepts to cool diverter by helium gas were compared. It was found that it is feasible to remove significant steady state heat flux (10 to 20 MW/m2) by using helium at a pressure of 4 MPa (580 psia) and with pumping power less than 0.5% of the power removed, by using optimized designs. From pumping power consideration, various concepts rank in the following order: offset fins (best), fins, jets, 3-D roughness, 2-D roughness, smooth tubes (worst). A module based on this study has been designed and fabricated for a steady state operation at 10 MW/m2 and was tested at the High Heat Flux facility at Sandia National Laboratory. This paper also presents some preliminary studies of helium cooled ITER diverter.

Baxi, Chandrakant B.

1993-11-01

79

Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques.

Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Petersson, P.; Likonen, J.; Possnert, G.; Widdowson, A.

2015-01-01

80

Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic-Fusion Devices with Lithium-Conditioned Carbon Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium wall conditioning has lowered hydrogenic recycling and dramatically improved plasma performance in many magnetic-fusion devices. In this Letter, we report quantum-classical atomistic simulations and laboratory experiments that elucidate the roles of lithium and oxygen in the uptake of hydrogen in amorphous carbon. Surprisingly, we show that lithium creates a high oxygen concentration on a carbon surface when bombarded by deuterium. Furthermore, surface oxygen, rather than lithium, plays the key role in trapping hydrogen.

Krstic, P. S.; Allain, J. P.; Taylor, C. N.; Dadras, J.; Maeda, S.; Morokuma, K.; Jakowski, J.; Allouche, A.; Skinner, C. H.

2013-03-01

81

Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

Yang, Liyou (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1993-10-26

82

An in-situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science in magnetic fusion devices  

E-print Network

Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices such as fuel retention, material erosion and redeposition, and material mixing present significant scientific and engineering challenges, particularly for the ...

Hartwig, Zachary Seth

2014-01-01

83

76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-07-12

84

76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-06-02

85

Solid radiographic fusion with a nonconstrained device 5 years after cervical arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been gaining popularity as a surgical alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spontaneous fusion following a CDA is uncommon. A few anecdotal reports of heterotrophic ossification around the implant sites have been noted for the BRYAN, ProDisc-C, Mobi-C, PRESTIGE, and PCM devices. All CDA fusions reported to date have been in devices that are semiconstrained. The authors reported the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with left C-7 radiculopathy and neck pain for 10 weeks after an assault injury. There was evidence of disc herniation at the C6-7 level. He was otherwise healthy with functional scores on the visual analog scale (VAS, 4.2); neck disability index (NDI, 16); and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36; physical component summary [PSC] score 43 and mental component summary [MCS] score 47). The patient underwent total disc replacement in which the DISCOVER Artificial Cervical Disc (DePuy Spine, Inc.) was used. The patient was seen at regular follow-up visits up to 60 months. At his 60-month follow-up visit, he had complete radiographic fusion at the C6-7 level with bridging trabecular bone and no motion at the index site on dynamic imaging. He was pain free, with a VAS score of 0, NDI score of 0, and SF-36 PCS and MCS scores of 61 and 55, respectively. Conclusions This is the first case report that identifies the phenomenon of fusion around a nonconstrained cervical prosthesis. Despite this unwanted radiographic outcome, the patient's clinical outcome was excellent. PMID:25303618

Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M; Getto, Katarzyna M; Agarwal, Nitin

2014-12-01

86

Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1987-07-01

87

Design of an Ion Source for {sup 3}He Fusion in a Low Pressure IEC Device  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in helicon ion sources and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device performance at UW-Madison have enabled low pressure (< 50 {mu}torr, 6.7 mPa) operating conditions that should allow the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reaction to be observed in an IEC device. An ion source capable of delivering a {approx} 10 mA {sup 3}He ion beam into an IEC device with minimal neutral gas flow has been designed and tested. Furthermore, a new IEC device that has never been operated with deuterium has been constructed to avoid D-{sup 3}He protons from obstructing the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He reaction product spectrum, and to minimize Penning ionization of deuterium by excited helium, which in the past is suspected to have limited the ionized density of He. These developments make it possible to study beam-background {sup 3}He-{sup 3}He fusion reactions with > 300 mA recirculating ion currents.

Piefer, Gregory R.; Santarius, John F.; Ashley, Robert P.; Kulcinski, Gerald L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

88

In vitro corrosion resistance of porous NiTi intervertebral fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous titanium-nickel (PTN) intervertebral fusion devices, produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, represent an alternative to traditional long-term implants in the orthopaedic field. PTN promotes tissue ingrowth and has succeeded short-term and long-term biocompatibility in vivo testing. In this in vitro study, the PTN morphology was characterized using microfocus computer tomography (?CT) in order to calculate the active PTN surface. Potentiodynamic polarization testing was then performed to evaluate the in vitro corrosion resistance of PTN devices in Hanks' based salt solution. Direct coupling experiments of PTN with Ti6Al4V were also performed in order to establish the galvanic corrosion resistance of PTN intervertebral implants in the presence of potential Ti6Al4V supplemental fixation devices. Compared to the behaviour of other orthopaedic biomaterials and solid NiTi devices, PTN devices showed a level of corrosion resistance that is comparable to other NiTi devices and acceptable for the intended orthopaedic application. Further improvement of the corrosion resistance is still possible by specific electrochemical surface treatments.

Schrooten, Jan; Assad, Michel; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Leroux, Michel A.

2007-02-01

89

Development of accelerator based spatially resolved ion beam analysis techniques for the study of plasma materials interactions in magnetic fusion devices  

E-print Network

Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices pose significant scientific and engineering challenges for the development of steady-state fusion power reactors. Understanding PMI is crucial for the develpment ...

Barnard, Harold Salvadore

2014-01-01

90

Detection of highly enriched uranium and tungsten surface damage studies using a pulsed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in this thesis examines two applications of a pulsed Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (EEC) fusion device: detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and tungsten surface damage studies. In order to complete this thesis, a pulsed IEC device was developed that is capable of generating converging ion pulses with widths ranging from 0.1 to 5 ms at frequencies between 1

Ross F. Radel

2007-01-01

91

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in suitcases, packages, or shipping containers.Steady-state D-D operation is possible using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. The University of Wisconsin IEC device has produced D-D neutrons at 1.8 x 10{sup 8} neutrons/second at a true cathode voltage of 166 kV and a meter current of 68 mA. These neutron production rates are approaching the levels required for the detection of explosives. In order to increase and optimize the neutron production rate in the IEC device, experiments were performed altering the cathode's size (diameter), geometry, and material composition. Preliminary results indicate that significant differences in neutron production rates are not achieved by altering the geometry or material composition of the cathode. However, the neutron production rate was found to increase approximately 20% by doubling the cathode's diameter from 10 cm to 20 cm. In addition, increasing the cathode voltage from 34 kV to 94 kV at a meter current of 30 mA increased the neutron production rate from 1.24 x 10{sup 6} n/s to 2.83 x 10{sup 7} n/s.

Wehmeyer, A.L.; Radel, R.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

92

One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation  

SciTech Connect

Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated efficiently with little energy loss through charge-exchange collision with background gas at low pressure. And when the pressure is lower than 0.05Pa, almost all injected ions reach to the cathode and it is expected that applying high geometrical transparency enhances accumulation of ion and enlarges neutron yield.

Noborio, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

93

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

1990-05-01

94

Spatial profiling using a Time of Flight Diagnostic and applications of deuterim-deuterium fusion in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Research Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison utilizes IEC devices as small-scale neutron generators using D-D fusion to create 2.45 MeV neutrons for the purpose of detecting clandestine material. Detection of explosives in particular can be accomplished using thermal neutron capture methods to identify characteristic nitrogen signatures in explosive material. Research has been conducted to increase reliability of detection, decrease interrogation time, and increase the steady-state operational time. Efforts have also been made to increase the neutron production rate of the device. Optimization studies have varied the configuration and design of the electrodes and have resulted in system configurations with up to 50 percent higher neutron production rates than have previously been utilized. A new feedthrough design has been constructed that is intended to increase the maximum operating voltage from 175 kV with the previous feedthrough to 300 kV. Neutron production rates scale almost linearly with both current and voltage, so the IEC device will be capable of operation at higher neutron producing regimes than have ever before been achieved. The optimization efforts involve the use of several new diagnostic tools developed at UW, which are the Fusion Ion Doppler (FIDO) Diagnostic and the Time of Flight (TOF) Diagnostic. FIDO provides the energy spectra of the charged fusion products and reactants created in the IEC device. The FIDO Diagnostic was originally only capable of studying D-D fusion, but with recent advancements is now able to study both D-D and D-3He fusion. The TOF Diagnostic provides spatial information along with the energy resolution of where the fusion reactions are occurring in the IEC device. Development of the diagnostics has involved the implementation of timing electronics, alignment systems, data acquisition software, computational post-processing, and upgrades to the experimental facility. A significant rise in the concentration of fusion events was found outside of the anode, believed to be due in part from negative ions. The FIDO and TOF Diagnostics have proven to be valuable additions to the study of IEC devices and have greatly advanced IEC operation and theory.

Donovan, David C.

2011-12-01

95

Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels,\\u000a their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power\\u000a production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases\\u000a with increasing fusion reactivity.

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

96

High dynamic range imaging on mobile devices using fusion of multiexposure images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the real world scenes have a high dynamic range which exceeds the range of the imaging devices, the captured images sometimes contain under-exposed and saturated regions. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method to achieve high dynamic range (HDR) rendering results from three multiexposure images comprising under-, normal-, and over-exposure. First, we generate the weight function, for the fusion of multiexposure images, according to the brightness. Then, we employ the bilateral filter-based retouching to enhance image details, especially in the dark regions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method produces clear details in images and achieves natural HDR rendering results on mobile imaging devices.

Jung, Cheolkon; Yang, Yanru; Jiao, Licheng

2013-10-01

97

78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems, Navigational Aids, Mapping Systems...devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping systems...devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids, mapping...

2013-11-15

98

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2006-05-15

99

Confinement of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device and its influence on neutron production rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a one-dimensional particle code, low pressure and large current discharge in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been simulated, and confinement level of ions and the neutron yield through beam–beam fusion have been investigated.From the calculation of low-pressure operation, it is clear that the averaged life span of ions is extended but converges to a value corresponding

Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yukihisa Ueno; Satoshi Konishi

2006-01-01

100

Multi-sensor fusion for enhanced contextual awareness of everyday activities with ubiquitous devices.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

Guiry, John J; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

2014-01-01

101

Multi-Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Contextual Awareness of Everyday Activities with Ubiquitous Devices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

Guiry, John J.; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

2014-01-01

102

Polymicrogyria Includes Fusion of the Molecular Layer and Decreased Neuronal Populations, But Normal Cortical Laminar Organization  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development are frequently identified in surgical resections for intractable epilepsy. Among the more frequently identified are cortical dysplasia, pachygyria and polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of these common developmental anomalies remains uncertain. Polymicrogyria is particularly vexing because there are multiple described forms (2, 4 and 6 layer) that have been attributed to multiple etiologies (e.g. ischemic, genetic, infectious, and toxic). We reviewed the pathology in 19 cases and performed cortical laminar analysis in 10 of these cases. Our data indicate that a defining feature of polymicrogyria is fusion of the molecular layer and that most often there is a well-defined grey matter-white matter junction. Unexpectedly, the cortical lamina were normally positioned but there were reduced neuronal populations within these lamina, particularly in the subgranular layers. Based on these data, we propose that the categorization of polymicrogyria according to the number of lamina is artificial and should be abandoned and polymicrogyria should be defined according to the presence or absence of coexisting neuropathological features. Furthermore, our data indicate that polymicrogyria is not a cell migration disorder and rather that it should be considered a post-migration malformation of cortical development. PMID:21572338

Judkins, Alexander R.; Martinez, Daniel; Ferreira, Pamela; Dobyns, William B.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

103

Measurement of Ion Energy Distribution in a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) Device  

SciTech Connect

In recent researches, an assisted glow discharge experiment using an external ion source has been tried to reduce operation gas pressure. As results, operating gas pressure has been successfully reduced from 1.5 Pa to 0.3 Pa, and the neutron production rate has increased.These results are considered to be due to an increase of ion energy. However, it is necessary to measure the ion energy distribution of the Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) device in order to confirm this. To do this, we have measured the distribution of the neutral particle beam energy (relative to ion energy distribution). These experimental results demonstrate that a decrease of operation gas pressure (from 1.7 Pa to 0.3 Pa) contributes to the increase in ion energy.

Ueno, Yukihisa; Tomizawa, Takahito; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

104

Overall Characteristics of 9 kW Class Helium Refrigerator for Experimental Fusion Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryogenic system for the experimental fusion device, LHD has an equivalent refrigeration capacity of 9.1 kW at 4.4 K, and will refrigerate all sets of superconducting coils, their supporting structures, superconducting bus-lines and current leads. Eight sets of oil injected screw-type compressors with the massflow rate of 1100 g/s are equipped. Massflow rate to coldbox was controlled to 700 g/s, and the other of 400 g/s was bypassed. To minimize the bypass flow and to reduce the power consumption, overall operating characteristics of the helium refrigerator were investigated in this report. A power consumption of 500 kW was decreased by reducing the massflow rate of 200 g/s in the bypass circuit.

Yamada, S.; Moriuchi, S.; Maekawa, R.; Noguchi, M.; Kuramochi, K.; Kishi, T.; Mito, T.

2006-06-01

105

2nd Int. Symp. on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices, April 27-29, 2011, Princeton, NJ Program for the 2nd International Symposium  

E-print Network

2nd Int. Symp. on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices, April 27-29, 2011, Princeton, NJ Program for the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices April 27-29, 2011:40 Welcome, S. Prager, Director, PPPL 8:45 Announcement: Local organizer Session I-A. Lithium in Magnetic

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

106

Effects of Grid Structures and Dielectric Materials of the Holder in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device modeling has been carried out. Finite element method is used in a 3D media\\u000a in order to identify the potential and electrical fields inside the device. The effects of different materials on the electrostatic\\u000a features are found. In addition, different geometric arrangements for cathode sphere (i.e. inner grid) are considered for\\u000a the determination of

E. KurtS; S. Arslan; M. E. Güven

107

Design of a low-cost cooled dynamic infrared scene generator including a nonuniformity correction device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the optical layout that is used to stimulate air-to-ground and ground-to-ground IR seekers featuring: (1) a silicon graphics calculator based IR scene generator; (2) a high flux visible projector; (3) a cooled infrared transducer including a large dimension cell (for high-resolution IR images). Vacuum is realized around the cell in order to optimize its transduction parameters (dynamics, rise time, MTF) from the visible to the IR. The transducer is embedded into an enclosure in which a cooled fluid circulates. The paper describes the development steps of the enclosure and especially the integration of cooled windows in it; and (4) the non-uniformity correction system, which is an electronic device designed around an EEPROM storing video scene parameters (pixel by pixel correction). In addition, the stress is put on a method for correction coefficients generating using IR imagers and image processing. As a conclusion, possible next developments are discussed and some comparison to other IR scene projection systems (cost, performances).

Berisset, Philippe; Chaury, Lionel

1999-07-01

108

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding  

PubMed Central

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

109

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding.  

PubMed

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

110

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration.

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-04-01

111

Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features  

DOEpatents

An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

2014-02-11

112

Model-order reduction of finite-element approximations of passive electromagnetic devices including lumped electrical-circuit models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for the development of reduced-order macromodels for multiport passive electromagnetic devices that include embedded lumped elements. The proposed methodology utilizes a discrete state-space model for the electromagnetic device, generated through the application of the finite-element method for the spatial discretization of Maxwell's curl equations. The incorporation of lumped resistors, inductors, and capacitors is effected through the

Hong Wu; Andreas C. Cangellaris

2004-01-01

113

P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same  

DOEpatents

An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1988-10-04

114

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

115

Reactive power optimization with different objectives in large power systems including HVDC systems and FACTS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day power systems are growing in size and complexity of operation with inter connections to neighboring systems, introduction of large generating units, EHV 400\\/765 kV AC transmission systems, HVDC systems and more sophisticated control devices such as FACTS. For planning and operational studies, it requires suitable modeling of all components in the power system, as the number of HVDC

D. Thukaram; S. Lakpathi; K. Ravishankar; S. Surendra

2009-01-01

116

Thermal modeling of phase change solidification in thermal control devices including natural convection effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural convection effects in phase change thermal control devices were studied. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate natural convection effects in a phase change test cell undergoing solidification. Although natural convection effects are minimized in flight spacecraft, all phase change devices are ground tested. The mathematical approach to the problem was to first develop a transient two-dimensional conduction heat transfer model for the solidification of a normal paraffin of finite geometry. Next, a transient two-dimensional model was developed for the solidification of the same paraffin by a combined conduction-natural-convection heat transfer model. Throughout the study, n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) was used as the phase-change material in both the theoretical and the experimental work. The models were based on the transient two-dimensional finite difference solutions of the energy, continuity, and momentum equations.

Ukanwa, A. O.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

1972-01-01

117

Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices  

SciTech Connect

A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

2012-11-06

118

Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOEpatents

An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-02-05

119

77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...2012-11008 Filed 5-7-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2012-05-08

120

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

121

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Suppression of hydrogenated carbon film deposition by scavenger techniques and their application to the tritium inventory control of fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known radical and ion scavenger techniques of application in amorphous hydrogenated carbon film deposition studies are investigated in relation to the mechanism of tritium and deuterium co-deposition in carbon-dominated fusion devices. A particularly successful scheme results from the injection of nitrogen into methane/hydrogen plasmas for conditions close to those prevailing in the divertor region of present fusion devices. A complete suppression of the a-C : H film deposition has been achieved for N2/CH4 ratios close to one in methane (5%)/hydrogen DC plasma. The implications of these findings in the tritium retention control in future fusion reactors are addressed.

Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Tanarro, I.; Herrero, V. J.; Islyaikin, A.; Maffiotte, C.

2002-08-01

122

A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices  

SciTech Connect

A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

2010-10-11

123

Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

2000-06-01

124

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

125

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1\\/5 for

Kai Masuda; Kenji Taruya; Takahiro Koyama; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

126

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in

A. L. Wehmeyer; R. F. Radel; G. L. Kulcinski

2005-01-01

127

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01

128

Air filter devices including nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins.  

PubMed

Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

2013-01-01

129

Air Filter Devices Including Nonwoven Meshes of Electrospun Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins  

PubMed Central

Based on the natural sequence of Araneus diadematus Fibroin 4 (ADF4), the recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) has been engineered. This highly repetitive protein has a molecular weight of 48kDa and is soluble in different solvents (hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), formic acid and aqueous buffers). eADF4(C16) provides a high potential for various technical applications when processed into morphologies such as films, capsules, particles, hydrogels, coatings, fibers and nonwoven meshes. Due to their chemical stability and controlled morphology, the latter can be used to improve filter materials. In this protocol, we present a procedure to enhance the efficiency of different air filter devices, by deposition of nonwoven meshes of electrospun recombinant spider silk proteins. Electrospinning of eADF4(C16) dissolved in HFIP results in smooth fibers. Variation of the protein concentration (5-25% w/v) results in different fiber diameters (80-1,100 nm) and thus pore sizes of the nonwoven mesh. Post-treatment of eADF4(C16) electrospun from HFIP is necessary since the protein displays a predominantly ?-helical secondary structure in freshly spun fibers, and therefore the fibers are water soluble. Subsequent treatment with ethanol vapor induces formation of water resistant, stable ?-sheet structures, preserving the morphology of the silk fibers and meshes. Secondary structure analysis was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and subsequent Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD). The primary goal was to improve the filter efficiency of existing filter substrates by adding silk nonwoven layers on top. To evaluate the influence of electrospinning duration and thus nonwoven layer thickness on the filter efficiency, we performed air permeability tests in combination with particle deposition measurements. The experiments were carried out according to standard protocols. PMID:23685883

Lang, Gregor; Jokisch, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

2013-01-01

130

Fabrication of a heterostructure device with Au/PPani-TiO2/ITO configuration and study of device parameters including current conduction mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline based composites incorporating titanium dioxide have been synthesized by an alternative pathway using reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium and plasma polymerization of aniline monomer. Structural, optical and morphological characterizations of plasma polymerized aniline (PPani) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composites (PPani-TiO2) reveal the evidence for the incorporation of TiO2 in the PPani matrix. A hybrid heterostructure device having PPani-TiO2 composite with a top gold (Au) layer and bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer is fabricated. The developed heterostructure device exhibits rectifying behaviour indicating the formation of a Schottky contact between Au and PPani-TiO2. The detailed electrical measurement of the device is performed under different temperatures. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (?B) of the heterojunction diode at room temperature (300 K) are found to be 1.28 and 0.43 eV, respectively. Possible conduction mechanisms are examined using various plotting and curve fitting methods for space charge limited conduction mechanism (SCLC), Schottky emission mechanism and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanism. The heterostructure device shows best fit of SCLC process as compared to the other mechanisms including Schottky emission and PF emission.

Ara Hussain, Amreen; Ratan Pal, Arup; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

2013-08-01

131

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

SciTech Connect

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1/5 for the same discharge current and voltage. Although the gas pressure region that was achieved still remains the region where the fusion reaction between the ion beam and background gas is dominant, the neutron yield normalized by the gas pressure in the triple-grid system shows higher value than the conventional single-grid system.

Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

132

Embedded D-{sup 3}He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-{sup 3}He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-{sup 3}He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2/3 of the total D-{sup 3}He reaction rate can be due to embedded fusion reactions, reactions occurring within the cathode due to ion implantation. Therefore, the cathode surface sees a large, high-energy proton flux. Using a solid molybdenum cathode, and taking advantage of the embedded reactions, about 1 nCi of the medical isotope {sup 94m}Tc was created via {sup 94}Mo(p,n){sup 94m}Tc in a proof of principle experiment. This represents the first time the IEC concept has been used to produce a radioisotope using D-{sup 3}He fusion.

Cipiti, B.B.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

133

Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same  

DOEpatents

A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

2014-04-01

134

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (˜1 m), high-current (˜1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ˜5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G.

2013-12-01

135

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented. PMID:24387430

Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

2013-12-01

136

Designing a 24/7 Fusion Device Towards Solving Plasma-materials Issues  

E-print Network

MW/m2. · MAKE LOTS OF POWER BECAUSE FUSION IS EXPENSIVE! #12;4 Efficient Power Production --> High-T thermal cycle · High T blankets (up to 1000 K) used to obtain 50-60 % conversion efficiency. · ALL are the timescales? seconds 10-6 10-3 1 1000 Ideal MHD Alvenic Plasma-wall Recycling Global Confinement

137

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific

W. R. Hamilton; K. E. Rothe

1985-01-01

138

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to {approximately}1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (>2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the US Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community -- ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to {approximately}1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R. [and others

1993-11-01

139

Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He^3He Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally,

Gabriel Becerra; John Santarius; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

140

Development of a new concept ion source for high performance inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic potential well. It consists of two spherical grids inside the vacuum chamber. An insulated high voltage feed-through supplies power to the inner grid cathode, and a small amount of deuterium or tritium gas (0.1-1.0 Pa) is fed into the chamber. When the voltage is

Y. Taniuchi; Y. Matsumura; K. Taira; M. Utsumi

2010-01-01

141

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated approach to performing and cataloging cost estimates has been developed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), wherein the cost estimate record is stored in the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet on an IBM personal computer. The cost estimation spreadsheet is based on the cost coefficient\\/cost algorithm approach and incorporates a detailed generic code of cost accounts for both tokamak

W. R. Hamilton; K. E. Rothe

1985-01-01

142

Statistical analysis of temporal and spatial evolution of in-vessel dust particles in fusion devices by using CCD images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of wide-angle visible standard CCD cameras contain information on Dust Creation Events (DCEs) that occur during plasma operations. Database on the DCEs can be built by analyzing the straight line-like dust trajectories in scrape-off layer caused by plasma-dust interaction along the vacuum vessel. The database provides short/long term temporal evolution and spatial distribution of origins of DCEs in fusion devices. We have studied DCEs of 2011 KSTAR campaign and compared with that of 2006 Tore Supra (TS) and 2007 ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) campaign. An analysis software, with which the location of dust trajectories in 3D position in the KSTAR vacuum vessel is identified, is developed and the dust velocity distribution in 2011 campaign is measured. ©2001 Elsevier Science.

Hong, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Rae; Nam, Yong-Un; Chung, Jinil; Grisolia, Christian; Rohde, Volker; KSTAR Team; TORE SUPRA Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2013-08-01

143

Development of finely dispersed Ti- and Zr-doped isotropic graphites for the divertor of next step fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finely dispersed Ti- and Zr-doped isotropic graphites have been manufactured using three different starting raw materials. The aim is to obtain doped fine grain isotropic graphites with reduced chemical erosion, high thermal shock resistance and low cost, which aim to be competitive with present carbon-based candidate materials for next step fusion devices. First ITER relevant thermal shock loads were applied on test specimens of these materials. The brittle destruction behaviour of graphite is greatly improved by doping with Ti or Zr, most probably due to a significant increase of thermal conductivity related to the catalytic effect of TiC and ZrC on the graphitization. Doped graphites manufactured with the synthetic mesophase pitch 'AR' as raw material showed the best performance from the three investigated raw materials due to its higher graphitability. The eroded surfaces of doped graphites exhibit a thin solidified carbide layer, probably caused by the segregation of liquid carbide during the thermal shot.

López-Galilea, I.; García-Rosales, C.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

2007-03-01

144

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10⁶ neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase

Takanori Higashi; Takahito Tomizawa; Mitsugu Daino; Yasushi Yamamoto

2003-01-01

145

Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices  

DOEpatents

In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

Hamilton, G.W.

1981-10-26

146

Measurement of the energy distribution of fast excited atoms by Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms resulted from charge-exchange reactions between accelerated ions and background atoms or molecules were measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device composed of a spherical vacuum chamber as an anode and a spherical hollow cathode grid concentrically placed in the chamber. Since ions generated between the cathode and the

Kai Masuda; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Ken Takiyama; Hisayuki Toku; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Akihiro Nagafuchi

2002-01-01

147

April 28, 2005 Itty-Bitty and Shrinking, Fusion Device Has Big Ideas  

E-print Network

for bombs. The findings, by a team at the University of California, Los Angeles, led by Dr. Seth J. Putterman, are being reported in the journal Nature. The minifusion device accelerates hydrogen atoms, a heavy version of hydrogen. Warming the crystal about 50 degrees Fahrenheit produced a charge of 1

148

Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600/sup 0/C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity.

Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

1980-01-01

149

Liquid metals as alternative solution for the power exhaust of future fusion devices: status and perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applying liquid metals as plasma facing components for fusion power-exhaust can potentially ameliorate lifetime issues as well as limitations to the maximum allowed surface heat loads by allowing for a more direct contact with the coolant. The material choice has so far been focused on lithium (Li), as it showed beneficial impact on plasma operation. Here materials such as tin (Sn), gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) are discussed as alternatives potentially allowing higher operating temperatures without strong evaporation. Power loads of up to 25 MW m-2 for a Sn/W component can be envisioned based on calculations and modeling. Reaching a higher operating temperature due to material re-deposition will be discussed. Liquids typically face stability issues due to j × B forces, potential pressure and magnetohydrodynamic driven instabilities. The capillary porous system is used for stabilization by a mesh (W and Mo) substrate and replenishment by means of capillary action.

Coenen, J. W.; De Temmerman, G.; Federici, G.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Strohmayer, G.; Terra, A.; Unterberg, B.; Wegener, T.; Van den Bekerom, D. C. M.

2014-04-01

150

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 cu mm volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales 1 s).

Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

2011-01-01

151

Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate\\u000a ions radially using voltage differences of 10–100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid\\u000a with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects\\u000a the ion flow into the

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

152

Computation of stationary 3D halo currents in fusion devices with accuracy control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the calculation of the resistive distribution of halo currents in three-dimensional structures of large magnetic confinement fusion machines. A Neumann electrokinetic problem is solved on a geometry so complicated that complementarity is used to monitor the discretization error. An irrotational electric field is obtained by a geometric formulation based on the electric scalar potential, whereas three geometric formulations are compared to obtain a solenoidal current density: a formulation based on the electric vector potential and two geometric formulations inspired from mixed and mixed-hybrid Finite Elements. The electric vector potential formulation is usually considered impractical since an enormous computing power is wasted by the topological pre-processing it requires. To solve this challenging problem, we present novel algorithms based on lazy cohomology generators that enable to save orders of magnitude computational time with respect to all other state-of-the-art solutions proposed in literature. Believing that our results are useful in other fields of scientific computing, the proposed algorithm is presented as a detailed pseudocode in such a way that it can be easily implemented.

Bettini, Paolo; Specogna, Ruben

2014-09-01

153

Detection of hazardous vapors including mixtures using pattern recognition analysis of responses from surface acoustic wave devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices coated with selectively sorbent materials are being investigated as monitors for personnel safety where detection of hazardous vapors is required at sub-part-per-million concentrations in ambient air that can contain interferences at much higher concentrations. A set of ten SAW devices coated with polymer materials designed to interact with different vapor properties has been used to

Susan L. Rose-Pehrsson; Jay W. Grate; David S. Ballantine; Peter C. Jurs

1988-01-01

154

Benefits and Challenges of the Use of High-Z Plasma Facing Materials in Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The use of high-Z plasma facing components requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma wall-interaction, in the physics of the confined plasma, diagnostic, and in material development. Only a few present day divertor tokamaks - mainly Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade - gained experience with the refractory metals molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. ASDEX Upgrade was stepwise converted from graphite to tungsten PFCs and in parallel a reduction of the deuterium retention by almost a factor of ten has been observed due to the strong suppression of D co-deposition with carbon. The deuterium retained in W is in line with laboratory results. In order to diagnose W sources and the W content in the main plasma adequate spectroscopic methods had to be developed. As expected from the sputtering threshold of Mo and W, negligible erosion by the thermal divertor background plasma is found in ASDEX Upgrade and Alcator C-Mod under low temperature divertor conditions. However, erosion by fast particles and intrinsic impurities, which additionally might be accelerated in rectified electrical fields observed during ion cyclotron frequency heating, plays an important role. The Mo and W concentrations in the plasma centre are strongly affected by plasma transport and variations up to a factor of 50 are observed for similar influxes. However, it could be demonstrated that sawteeth and turbulent transport driven by central heating can suppress central accumulation. The inward transport of high-Z ions at the edge can be efficiently reduced by 'flushing' the pedestal region caused by frequent edge instabilities. Since with metal walls the edge radiation by low-Z impurities is reduced, it has to be substituted in a pure high-Z device by artificially injected low-Z impurities in order to keep the power load at an acceptable level. Experiments at ASDEX Upgrade suggest that a regime with benign erosion and favourable confinement can be achieved. Extrapolations to ITER and DEMO are difficult since the physics of plasma transport is not yet completely understood, the particle and energy fluxes are orders of magnitude higher and the technical boundary conditions in DEMO strongly differ from those of present day devices.

Neu, R. [Max-PIanck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-05-20

155

Demonstration of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents in the MST toroidal magnetic fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate [1] clear examples of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents induced in the conducting shell of the MST RFP. The first theoretical work proposing a braking torque on tearing modes due to eddy currents in the tokamak and RFP was published about 15 years ago. Despite the long existence of the theory and the potential importance of this effect in fusion devices, there have been very few tests of the theory. The braking and locking observed in MST occurs with the growth to large amplitude of a single m = 1 tearing mode. The mode velocity decreases as the mode amplitude increases. In modeling the mode deceleration, we parametrize the plasma viscous momentum diffusivity in terms of the global momentum confinement time. The theory is used to predict both the momentum confinement time and the time evolution of the decelerating mode velocity. In both respects, the model is quite consistent with experimental data. [1] B.E. Chapman, R. Fitzpatrick, D. Craig et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2156 (2004).

Chapman, B. E.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Craig, D.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

2004-11-01

156

Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate ? is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for ? versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

2014-12-01

157

Targeted Biopsy in the Detection of Prostate Cancer using an Office-Based MR-US Fusion Device  

PubMed Central

Purpose Targeted biopsy of lesions identified on MRI may enhance detection of clinically relevant prostate cancers (CaP). We evaluate CaP detection rates in 171 consecutive men using MR-US fusion prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent targeted biopsy either for active surveillance (N=106) or persistently elevated PSA but negative prior conventional biopsy (N=65). Before biopsy, each man had a multiparametric MRI at 3.0-Tesla. Lesions on MRI were outlined in 3D and assigned increasing cancer suspicion levels (image grade 1–5) by a uroradiologist. The Artemis biopsy tracking system was used to fuse the stored MRI with real-time ultrasound (US), generating a 3D prostate model on-the-fly. Working from the 3D model, transrectal biopsy of target lesions and 12 systematic biopsies were performed under local anesthesia in the clinic. Results 171 subjects (median age 65) underwent targeted biopsy. At biopsy, median PSA = 4.9 ng/ml and prostate volume = 48 cc. A targeted biopsy was three times more likely to identify cancer than a systematic biopsy (21% vs. 7%). CaP was found in 53% of men, 38% of whom had Gleason ?7. 38% of men with Gleason ?7 cancers were detected only on targeted biopsies. Targeted biopsy findings correlated with level of suspicion on MRI. 15 of 16 men (94%) with an image grade 5 target (highest suspicion) had CaP, including 7 with Gleason ?7. Conclusions Prostate lesions identified on MRI can be accurately targeted using MR-US fusion biopsy by a urologist in clinic. Biopsy findings correlate with level of suspicion on MRI. PMID:23158413

Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.

2013-01-01

158

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2012-04-01

160

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2014-04-01

161

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2010-04-01

162

21 CFR 886.1880 - Fusion and stereoscopic target.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fusion and stereoscopic target. 886.1880...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1880 Fusion and stereoscopic target. (a) Identification. A fusion and stereoscopic target is a device...

2011-04-01

163

A new generation-recombination model for device simulation including the Poole-Frenkel effect and phonon-assisted tunnelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicon transistors (poly-Si TFTs) are very attractive devices for large scale integration (LSI) on glass with regards to reliability, compactness and low cost. The correct modelling of leakage currents in poly-Si TFTs is important for designers and technologists. Amongst other problems, a prevailing problem is the anomalous leakage current, which can degrade the pixel voltage in an active matrix

O. K. B Lui; P Migliorato

1997-01-01

164

A Compact SPICE Model for Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors Including Nonidealities and Its Application—Part II: Full Device Model and Circuit Performance Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a complete circuit-compatible compact model for single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) as an extension to Part 1 of this two-part paper. For the first time, a universal circuit-compatible CNFET model including the practical device nonidealities is implemented with HSPICE. In addition to the nonidealities included in the companion paper, this paper includes the elastic scattering in the

Jie Deng; H.-S. Philip Wong

2007-01-01

165

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10{sup 6} neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase neutron production. Although the discharge currents are small, we can make steady discharges at less than 0.1 Pa. The neutron production rates per current are larger than those of glow discharge at higher pressure. We consider it should suggest the validity of reducing operating pressure in IECF devices.

Higashi, Takanori; Tomizawa, Takahito; Daino, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

166

Fusion-driven transmutations of nuclear waste—a misconception or an incentive for promotion of fusion energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-driven system of transmutation of nuclear waste is presented. The main positive aspect of this fusion power option, thanks to energy release from fission, is the prospect of a radical reduction of necessary plasma energy gain, Q, to levels achievable in relatively simple mirror devices. Further advantages of the system include lower FW load and homogeneous heating distribution. The

Stefan Taczanowski; Gra?yna Doma?ska; Jerzy Cetnar

1998-01-01

167

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

168

Image fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

Pavel, M.

1993-01-01

169

The Fusion Energy Option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

Dean, Stephen O.

2004-06-01

170

78 FR 66942 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and to help promote intervertebral body fusion. During the arthrodesis procedure, they...intended for use in motion-sparing, non-fusion procedures. Spinal sphere devices are...under the heading of ``Intervertebral Fusion Device with Bone Graft,...

2013-11-07

171

Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1991-07-01

172

Graph-based Data Fusion of Pedometer and WiFi Measurements for Mobile Indoor Positioning  

E-print Network

positioning using mobile devices. We employ our fusion technique to com- bine relative motion information in distance walked and includes 13 users and four different mobile device types. Our results demonstrate positioning on less powerful mobile devices, but also saves much-needed resources for location-based end

Steinbach, Eckehard

173

Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

1988-11-01

174

Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1994-03-01

175

The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)  

SciTech Connect

The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

1993-07-01

176

Which one is safer – performing a laparoscopic hysterectomy with a tissue fusion device involving diagnostic cystoscopy or traditional abdominal hysterectomy with ureteral dissection?  

PubMed Central

Introduction It still remains an unanswered question whether, in the absence of gynecological malignancy and under elective conditions, to perform abdominal hysterectomy (AH), offering a safer approach, or to perform a laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) procedure. Aim We aimed to compare LH operations performed with a tissue fusion device accompanied by intraoperative diagnostic cystoscopy with traditional AH operations involving bilateral ureteral dissection. Material and methods The integrity of the ureters, ureteral peristalsis and the diameter of the ureters were examined during AH by inspection. At the end of LH, the bladder wall was systematically evaluated by cystoscopy and a jet of urine spurting was noted from both ureteral orifices. Results The operation time was longer in patients who underwent LH + CYS (p = 0.0001). The decline in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the postoperative period was significantly higher in patients who underwent AH + UD (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of ureteral injury, bowel injury or bladder injury (p = 0.378, p = 1.000 and p = 1.000, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean body temperature and postoperative blood transfusion requirements (p = 0.051 and p = 0.210, respectively). Mean parenteral analgesic requirement and length of hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.005 and p = 0.0001). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, re-operation rate or occurrence of genitourinary fistula (p = 1.000, p = 1.000 and p = 1.000, respectively). Conclusions We concluded that LH performed with a tissue fusion device involving diagnostic cystoscopy yields major and minor complication rates similar to safely performed AH operations preserving ureters. PMID:24501597

Yildiz, Gazi; Ça?lar, Mete; Alt?nta?, Ra?it; Dilbaz, Serdar; Yildiz, Pinar; Kumru, Selahattin; Üstün, Yusuf

2013-01-01

177

Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

1995-09-01

178

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

179

Advanced digital subtraction angiography and MR fusion imaging protocol applied to accurate placement of flow diverter device.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a progressive increase in interventional neuroradiology procedures, partially due to improvements in devices, but also to the simultaneous development of technologies and radiological images. Cone beam CT (Dyna-CT; Siemens) is a method recently used to obtain pseudo CT images from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with a flat panel detector. Using dedicated software, it is then possible to merge Dyna-CT images with images from a different source. We report here the usefulness of advanced DSA techniques (Syngo-Dyna CT, three-dimensional DSA iPilot) for the treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with a flow diverter device. Merging MR and Dyna-CT images at the end of the procedure proved to be a simple and rapid additional method of verifying the success of the intervention. PMID:25576504

Faragò, Giuseppe; Caldiera, Valentina; Tempra, Giovanni; Ciceri, Elisa

2015-01-01

180

The origin of convective structures in the scrape-off layer of linear magnetic fusion devices investigated by fast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast imaging camera is used to unveil the spatio-temporal properties of radially convective events in the CSDX linear plasma device [M. J. Burin et al., Phys. Plasmas, 12, 052320 (2005)]. The exposure time is set to 1?s and the time between frames to 10?s. The time series from a Langmuir probe and from a pixel in the 50000-frame movie are compared and cross-correlated. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is found for spatial scales greater than 2.5mm. The fluctuations inside the main plasma column are found to change between different poloidal mode numbers as a function of time. Accordingly, the power spectra determined in these linear devices reflect the sum over these modes. Outside the main plasma column, avaloids are observed to remain attached to the main plasma, hence their behavior does not become independent of the dynamics inside the main plasma column. Avaloid properties, assessed from imaging, agree with Langmuir probes done on various devices, except that the radial length is found to be much larger than previously determined because the blob-shape assumption is not valid. The link between fluctuations inside and outside the main plasma column indicates that the nonlinear evolution of the m =1 poloidal mode number is responsible for the creation of avaloids.

Antar, G. Y.; Yu, J. H.; Tynan, G.

2007-02-01

181

Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Ticos, Catalin M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

2008-09-07

182

Photonic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Covering every major photonic device, this textbook strikes a careful balance between theoretical and practical concepts. The devices it covers include optical fibers, couplers, electro-optic devices, magneto-optic devices, lasers and photodetectors. The book is well-suited as a text for senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as a device-driven engineering reference for professionals.

Liu, Jia-Ming

2005-05-01

183

Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration  

SciTech Connect

Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382-428 (India)

2014-01-29

184

Fusion Energy: Visions of the Future  

E-print Network

Scale, Terrapower, Areva Nat'l Ignition Facility, Iter, General Fusion TriAlpha, Polywell, LPP #12;DeuteriumFusion Energy: Visions of the Future Dec. 10-11, 2013 FOCUS FUSION Cheap, Clean, Safe & Unlimited Energy #12;Controlled Nuclear Fusion With a Dense Plasma Focus Device Running on Aneutronic Fuel What

185

Laser fusion  

SciTech Connect

Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

1980-12-01

186

First wall for polarized fusion reactors  

DOEpatents

A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

1985-01-29

187

Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration.

Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

2014-01-01

188

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields  

SciTech Connect

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Panayotis, Stephanie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Jacquot, Jonathan [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Green, David L [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

2014-01-01

189

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)a)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>˜1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Ekedahl, A.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Shannon, S. C.; Litaudon, X.

2014-11-01

190

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).  

PubMed

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>?1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher. PMID:25430306

Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

2014-11-01

191

Medical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

-generation packaging, where conformal coatings will serve as the primary interface between the deviceMedical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to provide medical device manufacturers, and consistency of active implantable medical devices. These devices, including pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators

192

Wireless Power May Cut the Cord for Plug-In Devices, Including Cars1 by Will Ferguson for National Geographic News, abbreviated2  

E-print Network

17 devices such as the cord for a cell phone use electromagnetic induction to transmit power. Through electromagnetic induction, an18 electric current is sent through a magnetic field generated by a power conductor by the beeping of his wife's dying cellphone. He experimented with two27 electromagnetic resonators vibrating

South Bohemia, University of

193

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

194

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

195

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

196

Teaching 'Yes' and 'No' responses to children with multiple disabilities through a program including microswitches linked to a vocal output device.  

PubMed

The present study introduced two children (a boy and a girl of 9.2 and 12.3 yr. of age, respectively, with multiple disabilities) to an intervention program for establishing Yes and No responses in relation to preferred and nonpreferred stimuli and assessed the acquisition and generalization of those responses. The program involved the use of microswitches, which monitored the nonverbal Yes and No responses performed by the children and ensured that these responses produced the matching verbal utterances via a vocal output device. Analysis showed children acquired Yes and No responses in relation to the stimuli used for the intervention and, to a comparable degree, to the stimuli used for generalization checks as well. An interview of 30 educational staff of a center for persons with multiple disabilities indicated that they considered the presence of Yes and No verbal utterances preferable to the absence of such utterances, and thought that the utterances could be helpful for the children's response acquisition and would be useful and pleasing for staff and parents. General implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:16671596

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona

2006-02-01

197

An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)  

PubMed Central

Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45?cm for W or 62?cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90?cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120?cm for W or 150?cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662

Gryz, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

198

An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).  

PubMed

Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45?cm for W or 62?cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90?cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120?cm for W or 150?cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662

Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

199

Graft inserter for anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simple instrument for graft insertion in anterior cervical fusion. This device obviates the need for screw distraction of the adjacent vertebrae or the use of an impactor for insertion. This device simplifies graft insertion where the disc space is narrow, particularly in multilevel fusions, and reduces the risk of over-penetration of the graft. PMID:24974192

Hitchon, Patrick W; Kumar, Rajinder; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dahdaleh, Nader S

2014-11-01

200

Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

Not Available

1981-11-01

201

www.postersession.com Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion for Spacecraft  

E-print Network

of fusion reactor known as an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion reactor. Experimental hardware Fusion reactors for space power and propulsion applications 2. Model and explore the fundamental physics improvements BACKGROUND GOALS OF THE RESEARCH MULTI-GRID IEC DEVICES EXPERIMENT DEVELOPMENT IEC fusion reactors

de Weck, Olivier L.

202

Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface  

SciTech Connect

The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-05-15

203

Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report Summary for NRC BPAC Panel (Focus on MFE of a demonstration power plant in approximately 35 years. The plan should recognize the capabilities of all fusion facilities around the world, and include both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE

204

Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCL-TCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3/4; L5/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) implanted with mPCL-TCP + 0.6 mg rhBMP-2 as treatment group while four other pigs implanted with autogenous bone graft served as control. Computed tomographic scanning and histology revealed complete defect bridging in all (100%) specimen from the treatment group as early as 3 months. Histological evidence of continuing bone remodeling and maturation was observed at 6 months. In the control group, only partial bridging was observed at 3 months and only 50% of segments in this group showed complete defect bridging at 6 months. Furthermore, 25% of segments in the control group showed evidence of graft fracture, resorption and pseudoarthrosis. In contrast, no evidence of graft fractures, pseudoarthrosis or foreign body reaction was observed in the treatment group. These results reveal that mPCL-TCP scaffolds could act as bone graft substitutes by providing a suitable environment for bone regeneration in a dynamic load bearing setting such as in a porcine model of interbody spine fusion. PMID:19540586

Abbah, Sunny A; Lam, Christopher X L; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Goh, James C H; Wong, Hee-Kit

2009-10-01

205

Fusion strategies for speech and handwriting modalities in HCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a strategy for handling of multimodal signals from pen-based mobile devices for Human to Computer Interaction (HCI), where our focus is on the modalities of spoken and handwritten inputs. Each modality for itself is quite well understood, as the exhaustive literature demonstrates, although still a number of challenges exist, like recognition result improvements. Among the potentials in multimodal HCI are improvements in recognition and robustness as well as seamless men-machine communication based on fusion of different modalities by exploiting redundancies among these modalities. However, such valuable fusion of both modalities still poses some problems. Open problems today include design approaches for fusion strategies and with the increasing number of mobile and pen-based computers, particularly techniques for fusion of handwriting and speech appear to have a great potential. But today few publications can be found that addresses this potential. In this work we introduce a conceptional approach based on a model to describe a bimodal HCI process. We analyze four exemplary applications with respect to the structure of this model, and highlight the open problems within these applications. Further, we will outline possible solutions to these challenges. Having such fusion model for HCI may simplify the development of seamless and intuitive to user interfaces on pen-based mobile devices. For one of our application scenarios, a bimodal system for form data recording and recognition in medical or financial environment, we will present some first experimental results.

Vielhauer, Claus; Schimke, Sascha; Thanassis, Valsamakis; Stylianou, Yannis

2005-03-01

206

An evaluation of fusion gain in the compact helical fusion reactor FFHR-c1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure to predict achievable fusion gain in a sub-ignition fusion reactor is proposed. This procedure uses the direct profile extrapolation (DPE) method based on the gyro-Bohm model. The DPE method has been developed to predict the radial profiles in a fusion reactor sustained without auxiliary heating (i.e., in the self-ignition state) from the experimental data. To evaluate the fusion gain in a fusion reactor sustained with auxiliary heating (i.e., in the sub-ignition state), the DPE method is modified to include the influence of the auxiliary heating. The beta scale factor from experiment to reactor is assumed to be 1. Under this assumption, it becomes reasonable to apply the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium (which is calculated to reproduce the experimental data) to the reactor. At the same time, the MHD stability of the reactor plasma is also guaranteed to a certain extent since that beta was already proven in the experiment. The fusion gain in the helical type nuclear test machine FFHR-c1 has been evaluated using this modified DPE method. FFHR-c1 is basically a large duplication of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with a scale factor of 10/3, which corresponds to the major radius of the helical coils of 13.0 m and the plasma volume of ?1000 m3. Two options with different magnetic field strengths are considered. The fusion gain in FFHR-c1 extrapolated from a set of radial profile data obtained in LHD ranges from 1 to 7, depending on the profiles used together with the assumptions of the magnetic field strength and the alpha heating efficiency.

Miyazawa, J.; Goto, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Sagara, A.; the FFHR Design Group

2014-01-01

207

Titanium intervertebral disc and instrumentation for fusion in anterior cervical discectomy. Technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new titanium intervertebral disc for fusion in anterior cervical discectomy is described. The advantages of the device, apart from avoidance of graft explanation, include biocompatibility, simple instrumentation, availability of different forms and sizes, and restoration of physiologic lordosis. Following extensive biochemical testing and implantation in animals, first long-term experience in 15 patients with an average follow-up of three years

Bertram Kaden; Johannes Schramm; Gerhard Fuhrmann; Chris H. Hoffmann

1995-01-01

208

The "Science First" Approach to Fusion Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meaningful fusion burning plasmas are self organized physical entities for which there are limited means to make reliable theoretical predictions. Therefore, near term experiments, based on technologies that do not require major new developments, are needed which should achieve values of the criticality parameter Kf in the range 2/3 < K_f? 1. Here, K_f=P_a/P_Loss, Pa is the power emitted as ?-particles by fusion reactions and P_Loss is the rate of energy loss. It is suggested that the US should have meaningful experiment on fusion burning plasmas represented by an Ignitor(B. Coppi, A. Airoldi, et al., Nucl. Fus.), 41, 9 (2001)-like machine (such as the proposed Columbus(B. Coppi and M. Salvetti, MIT (R.L.E.) Report PTP-02/06 (2002)) device), with the same criteria of design simplicity and plasma stability adopted for Ignitor, and collaborate in the near term with the ongoing Ignitor program in Italy directed at demonstrating ignition (K_f? 1) over times that exceed all the intrinsic physics time. Moreover, experts on the physics and the technologies of burning plasma devices could develop the conceptual design of an ``ITER-Physics'' experiment to be constructed on a longer term basis by an international consortium. The design would not include tritium-producing blankets, be of more compact dimensions than ITER-FEAT, have higher poloidal fields, higher safety factors against the main instabilities and involve smaller costs and shorter construction times.

Coppi, Bruno

2003-04-01

209

Particle beam fusion  

SciTech Connect

Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

NONE

1980-12-31

210

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets  

E-print Network

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

211

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets  

E-print Network

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady­state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

212

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-04-20

213

Assistive Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... center provides information on VA benefits for assistive technology. Medicare ? Benefits may include assistive devices, such as ... a Web site that provides information about assistive technology products. Go to the “Products” section to find ...

214

Fusion development and technology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

Montgomery, D.B.

1992-01-01

215

"Polarized" Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

216

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

217

The evolution of the histone methyltransferase gene Su(var)3-9 in metazoans includes a fusion with and a re-fission from a functionally unrelated gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a common mechanism involved in gene silencing and the establishment of heterochromatin. The loci of the major heterochromatic H3K9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9 and the functionally unrelated ? subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 are fused in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examined the phylogenetic distribution of this unusual gene fusion and

Veiko Krauss; Anne Fassl; Petra Fiebig; Ina Patties; Heinz Sass

2006-01-01

218

Assisted fusion  

E-print Network

A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

German Kälbermann

2009-10-19

219

Ion beam analysis for fusion energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed next-step devices for development of fusion energy present a major increase in the energy content and duration of plasmas far beyond those encountered in existing machines. This increases the importance of controlling interactions between the fusion plasma and first-wall materials. These interactions change the wall materials and strongly affect the core plasma conditions. Two critical processes are the erosion

Wampler; William R

2003-01-01

220

Ion beam analysis for fusion energy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed next-step devices for development of fusion energy present a major increase in the energy content and duration of plasmas far beyond those encountered in existing machines. This increases the importance of controlling interactions between the fusion plasma and first-wall materials. These interactions change the wall materials and strongly affect the core plasma conditions. Two critical processes are the erosion

W. R. Wampler

2004-01-01

221

EDITORIAL: Spectroscopic diagnostics of magnetic fusion plasmas Spectroscopic diagnostics of magnetic fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy has always been an integral part of the diagnostic systems of super-hot fusion plasmas. The numerous results derived from studies of the emitted spectra have been highly important for elucidating key physical properties of fusion plasmas; moreover, plasma spectroscopy has provided crucial input for development of new tokamaks, stellarators and other advanced devices. Many concepts of spectroscopic diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) are well established and have been thoroughly tested over decades. However the recent advances on the existing machines (e.g. JET, ASDEX Upgrade and LHD), linked to the accelerating development of the international ITER project, call for new and improved spectroscopic methods. These are required to determine the key plasma parameters in all regions of the plasma volume while coping with complex materials, new advanced operating scenarios and a hostile radiation environment. It is such advanced methods and techniques that are the focus of this special issue. The papers collected here provide an extensive representation of the state of the art in spectroscopic diagnostics of MCF plasmas. On the experimental side, several contributions from the existing tokamaks and stellarators demonstrate how sophisticated spectroscopic methods are used to derive information on temporal evolution of electron temperature and density, particle velocity in peripheral plasmas, edge ion temperature, and many other quantities of interest. A group of papers addresses development of new experimental techniques for future measurements, including specific spectroscopic tools for ITER diagnostics. As accurate atomic data are at the cornerstone of reliable diagnostics, several papers describe newly calculated spectroscopic and collisional data for species and processes of highest importance in fusion devices, such as, for example, charge exchange for neutral beam injection diagnostics. Finally, a group of contributions address various issues related to theoretical modelling of plasma emission spectra including collisional-radiative simulations and line profile modelling. We hope that the papers contributed to this special issue will serve as a valuable resource for the MCF community.

Neu, Rudolf; Summers, Hugh P.; Ralchenko, Yuri

2010-07-01

222

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

223

The evolution of the histone methyltransferase gene Su(var)3-9 in metazoans includes a fusion with and a re-fission from a functionally unrelated gene  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a common mechanism involved in gene silencing and the establishment of heterochromatin. The loci of the major heterochromatic H3K9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9 and the functionally unrelated ? subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 are fused in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we examined the phylogenetic distribution of this unusual gene fusion and the molecular evolution of the H3K9 HMTase Su(var)3-9. Results We show that the gene fusion had taken place in the ancestral line of winged insects and silverfishs (Dicondylia) about 400 million years ago. We cloned Su(var)3-9 genes from a collembolan and a spider where both genes ancestrally exist as independent transcription units. In contrast, we found a Su(var)3-9-specific exon inside the conserved intron position 81-1 of the eIF2? gene structure in species of eight different insect orders. Intriguinly, in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we detected only sequence remains of this Su(var)3-9 exon in the eIF2? intron, along with an eIF2?-independent Su(var)3-9 gene. This reveals an evolutionary re-fission of both genes in aphids. Su(var)3-9 chromo domains are similar to HP1 chromo domains, which points to a potential binding activity to methylated K9 of histone H3. SET domain comparisons suggest a weaker methyltransferase activity of Su(var)3-9 in comparison to other H3K9 HMTases. Astonishingly, 11 of 19 previously described, deleterious amino acid substitutions found in Drosophila Su(var)3-9 are seemingly compensable through accompanying substitutions during evolution. Conclusion Examination of the Su(var)3-9 evolution revealed strong evidence for the establishment of the Su(var)3-9/eIF2? gene fusion in an ancestor of dicondylic insects and a re-fission of this fusion during the evolution of aphids. Our comparison of 65 selected chromo domains and 93 selected SET domains from Su(var)3-9 and related proteins offers functional predictions concerning both domains in Su(var)3-9 proteins. PMID:16512904

Krauss, Veiko; Fassl, Anne; Fiebig, Petra; Patties, Ina; Sass, Heinz

2006-01-01

224

Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion  

SciTech Connect

It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

2012-08-08

225

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1998-02-17

226

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1998-01-01

227

Level 5 (User Refinement) issues supporting Information Fusion Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsequent revisions to the Joint-Directors of Lab (JDL) model emphasize the differentiation between fusion (estimation) and sensor management (control). Two diverging groups include one pressing for fusion automation (JDL revisions) and one advocating the role of the user (user-fusion model). The center of debate is real-world delivery of fusion systems which requires presenting fusion results for knowledge representation (fusion estimation)

Erik Blasch

2006-01-01

228

Registration and Fusion of the Autofluorescent and Infrared Retinal Images  

PubMed Central

This article deals with registration and fusion of multimodal opththalmologic images obtained by means of a laser scanning device (Heidelberg retina angiograph). The registration framework has been designed and tested for combination of autofluorescent and infrared images. This process is a necessary step for consecutive pixel level fusion and analysis utilizing information from both modalities. Two fusion methods are presented and compared. PMID:18949055

Kolar, Radim; Kubecka, Libor; Jan, Jiri

2008-01-01

229

Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 39, 2011 Strength and Microstructure of Laser Fusion Welded Ti-SS  

E-print Network

welding to diffusion bonding including metal-metal, metal- ceramic, and metal-polymer joints [1Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 39, 2011 Strength and Microstructure of Laser Fusion Welded Ti functionalities and reduce the manufacturing costs of medical devices. The need for dissimilar material welds

Yao, Y. Lawrence

230

Glow Discharge Characteristics in Relation to Anode Size in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device is a very simple and safe neutron source that uses a glow discharge for deuterium-deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristics of the device were studied experimentally. The relationship between gas pressure and applied voltage was examined by light changes of the device's anode size. The gas pressure ranges in which the device was able to

Hodaka Osawa; Shigehisa Yoshimura; Takehiro Tabata; Masami Ohnishi

2008-01-01

231

Fusion project decision delayed ITER -NUCLEAR FUSION PROJECT  

E-print Network

the International Space Station. Scientists say it will be the first fusion device to produce thermal energy-free energy - but the reactor will take 10 years to build. Pros and cons Member countries of the International also be the world's largest international co-operative research and development project after

232

A wavelet-based image fusion tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a new image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or further image-processing tasks such as segmentation, feature extraction and object recognition. Di4erent fusion methods have been proposed in literature, including multiresolution analysis. This paper is

Gonzalo Pajares; Jesús Manuel De La Cruz

2004-01-01

233

Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission  

SciTech Connect

A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P

2012-08-27

234

Revisions to the JDL data fusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Directors of Laboratories {(JDL)} Data Fusion Group's Data Fusion Model is the most widely used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This model is modified to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi-sensor\\/multi-source systems. Proposed modifications include broadening of the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion

A. N. Steinberg; C. L. Bowman; F. E. White

1999-01-01

235

Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

2013-10-01

236

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion  

E-print Network

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

Pelizzari, Charles A.

237

Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

Roth, R. J.

1976-01-01

238

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

239

Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices  

PubMed Central

The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

2009-01-01

240

Myoblast fusion in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)] [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

2010-11-01

241

Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for various applications, including protons for creating radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and neutrons for detecting clandestine materials. Most IEC devices worldwide, including the UW devices, presently operate primarily in a pressure range (1-10 mtorr) that allows ions to make only a few passes through the core before they charge exchange and lose substantial energy or they collide with cathode grid wires. It is believed that fusion rates can be raised by operating at a pressure where neutral gas does not impede ion flow, and a helicon ion source has been developed to explore operation at pressures of {approx}0.05 mtorr. The UW IEC research group uses proton detectors, neutron detectors, residual gas analyzers, and spectroscopic diagnostics. New diagnostic techniques have also been developed, including eclipse disks to localize proton production and chordwires to estimate ion fluxes using power balance.

Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Ashley, R.P.; Boris, D.R.; Cipiti, B.B.; Murali, S. Krupakar; Piefer, G.R.; Radel, R.F.; Radel, T.E.; Wehmeyer, A.L. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

2005-05-15

242

EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

Kikuchi, M.

2011-01-01

243

History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

244

STAR Power, an Interactive Educational Fusion CD with a Dynamic, Shaped Tokamak Power Plant Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an interactive, educational fusion adventure game developed within our fusion education program. The theme of the adventure is start-up of a state-of-the-art fusion power plant. To gain access to the power plant control room, the student must complete several education modules, including topics on building an atom, fusion reactions, charged particle motion in electric and magnetic fields, and building a power plant. Review questions, a fusion video, library material and glossary provide additional resources. In the control room the student must start-up a complex, dynamic fusion power plant. The simulation model contains primary elements of a tokamak based device, including a magnetic shaper capable of producing limited and diverted elongated plasmas. A zero dimensional plasma model based on ITER scaling and containing rate based conservation equations provides dynamic feedback through major control parameters such as toroidal field, fueling rate and heating. The game is available for use on PC and Mac. computers. Copies will be available at the conference.

Leuer, J. A.; Lee, R. L.; Kellman, A. G.; Chapman Nutt, G. C., Jr.; Holley, G.; Larsen, T. A.

2000-10-01

245

Selectively detail-enhanced fusion of differently exposed images with moving objects.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce an exposure fusion scheme for differently exposed images with moving objects. The proposed scheme comprises a ghost removal algorithm in a low dynamic range domain and a selectively detail-enhanced exposure fusion algorithm. The proposed ghost removal algorithm includes a bidirectional normalization-based method for the detection of nonconsistent pixels and a two-round hybrid method for the correction of nonconsistent pixels. Our detail-enhanced exposure fusion algorithm includes a content adaptive bilateral filter, which extracts fine details from all the corrected images simultaneously in gradient domain. The final image is synthesized by selectively adding the extracted fine details to an intermediate image that is generated by fusing all the corrected images via an existing multiscale algorithm. The proposed exposure fusion algorithm allows fine details to be exaggerated while existing exposure fusion algorithms do not provide such an option. The proposed scheme usually outperforms existing exposure fusion schemes when there are moving objects in real scenes. In addition, the proposed ghost removal algorithm is simpler than existing ghost removal algorithms and is suitable for mobile devices with limited computational resource. PMID:25148667

Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Wu, Shiqian

2014-10-01

246

Fusion Simulation Project (Whole Tokamak Plasma Modeling)  

E-print Network

;PSACI June 7-8, 2007 PPPL FSP Objective and Motivation · Primary objective of Fusion Simulation is expected to cost about a million dollars · Whole device computer simulations needed to optimize discharge Integration Initiatives · Coupling pairs of components before moving to whole device modeling · OFES formed

247

Detection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, J.E.

1981-02-27

248

Cleaning devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

249

Detection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01

250

Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables.

Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

1995-09-01

251

Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {l_brace}Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]{r_brace}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 8123 Forsythia Street, Suite 140, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

2010-06-15

252

Discharge Characteristics of Anode Size in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device is a very simple and safe neutron source using the glow discharge in deuterium gas and deuterium - deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristic is studied experimentally. The gas pressure - applied voltage characteristics are examined altering the device's anode size. The gas pressure range that the device is able to work is differed

H. Osawa; S. Yoshimura; Takehiro TABATA; M. Ohnishi

2006-01-01

253

Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

1980-08-01

254

Numerical Study on Glow Discharge of IEC Fusion  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for the neutron source that has the ability to produce the neutrons of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8}/s by the glow discharge. It works more efficiently at the condition of the high voltage and the low pressure. It, however, is difficult to keep the continuous operation at the low-pressure because the glow discharge is apt to be unstable. We have made the three-dimensional Monte Carlo PIC code including atomic processes to investigate the glow discharge. The study reveals the spatial position where the ionization occurs and numerically reproduces the discharge called 'star mode'.

Osawa, Hodaka; Tabata, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan)

2005-05-15

255

Overview of European PR Efforts on Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poster presents an overview of a fusion exhibit used for the teachers' day in Washington DC last spring and of the itinerant "Fusion-Expo", organized by the European Commission and the EURATOM Associations. The Washington exhibit gives a concise intro on fusion and on fusion R + D in the European Union. The "Fusion-Expo" is more comprehensive and contains mock-ups of existing fusion devices, multimedia presentations and video's. It consists of: (i) an introduction on fusion and the need for fusion (ii) an overview of magnetic and inertial confinement systems and (iii) a technological section. This exhibit has been on display in more than 20 European Cities. An updated version has been produced recently, taking into account the experience and reactions of the public of the past years. Handouts and brochures on both will be available. In addition there will be various leaflets currently used in Europe to increase the public awareness on fusion in general, and on the tremendous progress of the last decade with as highlight the deuterium-tritium results of TFTR and the ones obtained recently on JET.

Ongena, Jef; van Oost, Guido

1998-11-01

256

Nuclear Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

Astronomical Society of the Pacific

2008-01-01

257

Fusion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In energy technology priority discussions, fusion takes varying positions in different countries. In the U.S., the fashion for solar power presently puts nuclear breeders in the shade, but that priority may reverse later; coal is an extended intermediate. In Europe, oil is the intermediate and nuclear is for the long term. Yet all the U.S., Europe, Japan, the U.S.S.R. want

Rose

1978-01-01

258

Fusion of Spectrograph and LPC Analysis for Word Recognition: A New Fuzzy Approach  

E-print Network

) . Four different methods are applied to fusion of these features, including weighted averaging, k alternative methods for decision level fusion in word recognition. Simulation results and conclusions extraction, some preprocessing Acoustic Speech Preprocessing Spectrogram LPC Analysis Fusion Feature

Williamson, John

259

2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism and numerical techniques which enable efficient quantitative study of peeling-ballooning modes. More broadly, I would like to thank the full DIII-D, C-Mod and JET teams, the LLNL and General Atomics Theory groups, and the York Plasma Institute. In addition, I would like to thank the US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, EURATOM, and the UK EPSRC for supporting this research. On a more personal note, I would like to thank my mentors over the years, including Nat Fisch, Greg Hammett, Ron Waltz, Vincent Chan, and Tony Taylor, and numerous colleagues who provided insight related to this work, including Lang Lao, Alan Turnbull, Ming Chu, Bob Miller, Rip Perkins, John Greene, Keith Burrell, John Ferron, Mickey Wade, Wayne Solomon, George McKee, Zheng Yan, Andrea Garofalo, Raffi Nazikian, Jack Connor, Jim Hastie, Chris Hegna, Samuli Saarelma, Guido Huijsmans, Alberto Loarte, Yutaka Kamada, Naoyuki Oyama, Hajime Urano, Nobuyuki Aiba, Andrew Kirk, David Dickinson, Lorne Horton, Costanza Maggi, Wolfgang Suttrop, P.A. Schneider, Rajesh Maingi, Amanda Hubbard, Ahmed Diallo, John Walk, and Matthew Leyland. Recently, the model developed in this paper has been used to discover a new regime of operation, the Super H-Mode, and to shed light on mechanisms for suppressing Edge Localized Modes. I hope that the model will continue to be useful, both as a tool for predicting and optimizing pedestal and fusion performance, and as a platform on which the fusion community continues to build our understanding of the complex physics of the edge barrier region, which plays such an important role in overall confinement and stability.

Snyder, P. B.

2015-01-01

260

Current Status of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) Fusion Neutron\\/Proton Source Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact fusion neutron\\/proton source, i.e., IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) fusion device is introduced with its principle, function, application and research history. 1. What is IEC? An IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device is an extremely compact, and simple configuration device as is shown in Fig. 1, running by electrical discharge on D-D\\/D- T\\/D-3He fuel gases. It basically consists of a

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

261

Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion  

SciTech Connect

The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

2006-01-05

262

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-19

263

Magnetic fusion energy program: Annual report 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses activities in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion energy research at Sandia National Laboratories. Topic covered are: facilities equipment; project and device support; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; compact ignition tokamak; International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor; joint European torus; TEXTOR; tore supra; DIII-D, ASDEX and ASDEX upgrade; alternate concepts (mirror machines and ZT-40M); high-heat flux materials and components development; and plasma

B. L. Doyle; J. B. Whitley; K. L. Wilson

1988-01-01

264

Maximum likelihood wavelet fusion for aerospace NDE applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet-based data fusion techniques have been used extensively in several application areas, including quantification of flaw parameters in nondestructive evaluation applications. The use of hybrid systems including the use of wavelets and neural networks for fusion and corrosion characterization is relatively recent. While the hybrid approach usually results in fairly accurate results, the selection of the fusion parameters is manually

Mrityunjay Kumar; Pradeep Ramuhalli

2005-01-01

265

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

266

Multisensor Images Fusion Based on Feature-Level  

E-print Network

Until now, of highest relevance for remote sensing data processing and analysis have been techniques for pixel level image fusion. So, This paper attempts to undertake the study of Feature-Level based image fusion. For this purpose, feature based fusion techniques, which are usually based on empirical or heuristic rules, are employed. Hence, in this paper we consider feature extraction (FE) for fusion. It aims at finding a transformation of the original space that would produce such new features, which preserve or improve as much as possible. This study introduces three different types of Image fusion techniques including Principal Component Analysis based Feature Fusion (PCA), Segment Fusion (SF) and Edge fusion (EF). This paper also devotes to concentrate on the analytical techniques for evaluating the quality of image fusion (F) by using various methods including (SD), (En), (CC), (SNR), (NRMSE) and (DI) to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zaky, Ali A

2011-01-01

267

Alternate Applications of Fusion - Production of Radioisotopes  

SciTech Connect

A major effort to find near-term, non-electric applications of fusion energy has shown that the production of radioisotopes is attractive. The use of the D{sup 3}He fusion reaction to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes is described. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is particularly well suited to produce low levels of high-energy (14.7 MeV) protons, which in turn, can produce short-lived PET isotopes. The IEC device at University of Wisconsin has been modified to investigate the potential of this process to be commercially attractive.

Kulcinski, G.L.; Weidner, J.; Cipiti, B.; Ashley, R.P.; Santarius, J.F.; Murali, S.K.; Piefer, G.; Radel, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

268

Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture  

E-print Network

Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Braided Weakly Integral Fusion Fusion Categories #12;Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Outline 1 Braided Fusion Categories Preliminaries Dimensions and Braid Representations 2 First Conjecture Finiteness

Rowell, Eric C.

269

Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

2014-05-27

270

Multiscale Medical Image Fusion in Wavelet Domain  

PubMed Central

Wavelet transforms have emerged as a powerful tool in image fusion. However, the study and analysis of medical image fusion is still a challenging area of research. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a multiscale fusion of multimodal medical images in wavelet domain. Fusion of medical images has been performed at multiple scales varying from minimum to maximum level using maximum selection rule which provides more flexibility and choice to select the relevant fused images. The experimental analysis of the proposed method has been performed with several sets of medical images. Fusion results have been evaluated subjectively and objectively with existing state-of-the-art fusion methods which include several pyramid- and wavelet-transform-based fusion methods and principal component analysis (PCA) fusion method. The comparative analysis of the fusion results has been performed with edge strength (Q), mutual information (MI), entropy (E), standard deviation (SD), blind structural similarity index metric (BSSIM), spatial frequency (SF), and average gradient (AG) metrics. The combined subjective and objective evaluations of the proposed fusion method at multiple scales showed the effectiveness and goodness of the proposed approach. PMID:24453868

Khare, Ashish

2013-01-01

271

Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces objectives and status of “Human sensing fusion project” in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

Maenaka, Kazusuke

272

IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

OF WISCONSIN MADISON WISCONSIN Composition of the Source Region Plasma in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement. #12;I. INTRODUCTION The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion concept was first patented Electrostatic Confinement Devices D.R. Boris and G.A. Emmert Fusion Technology Institute University of Wisconsin

273

Newest frontier in radiation damage research: laser fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The completely different radiation environment in laser fusion facilities compared to that anticipated in magnetic fusion devices, or presently found in current fission reactors, will open up new areas of solid-state research. The pulsed nature of the damage, the unique spectrum of high energy neutrons and the addition of high fluxes of charged particles and X-rays is shown to combine

Kulcinski

1978-01-01

274

Plasma processing techniques for tritium inventory control in fusion research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some techniques with a long tradition in the plasma technology field have already been successfully applied to research in plasma wall interactions of fusion devices. They have produced important advances in the control of particle and energy exhaust. In this paper, the possible application of these techniques to the problem of tritium inventory control in fusion reactors with carbon-based plasma

F. L. Tabarés; V. Rohde

2004-01-01

275

Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics  

E-print Network

Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics Demetri Psaltis1 optical systems, whereas the implementation of optics through the microfluidic toolkit gives highly to implement optofluidic devices with recently developed microfluidic technologies that allow accurate control

Yang, Changhuei

276

76 FR 17422 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the device is as an alternative bone grafting substitute to autologous bone graft in applications to facilitate fusion in the ankle and foot without necessitating an additional invasive procedure to harvest the graft. FDA intends to make background...

2011-03-29

277

Signaling Mechanisms in Mammalian Myoblast Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skeletal muscles are formed by the fusion of multiple myoblasts during development. Myoblast fusion is also essential for the growth and repair of injured myofibers. Recent investigations have shown that the process of myoblast fusion involves the activation of several cell signaling pathways, including those mediated by nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells c2, transforming growth factor–β–Smad4, and the Rho guanosine triphosphatases. In this Review, which contains 2 figures and 84 references, we summarize the mechanisms by which the activation of these signaling pathways stimulates myoblast fusion.

Ashok Kumar (University of Louisville;School of Medicine REV); Sajedah M. Hindi (University of Louisville;School of Medicine REV); Marjan M. Tajrishi (University of Louisville;School of Medicine REV)

2013-04-23

278

Magnetic fusion 1985: what next  

SciTech Connect

Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

Fowler, T.K.

1985-03-01

279

COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

Chang, Choong Seock

2012-06-05

280

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential

Moses

2010-01-01

281

Fusion Power Associates 34th Annual Meeting  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates 34th Annual Meeting Washington, DC 11 December 2013 Perspectives Laser power ~ EL Pulse length ~ EL Mass fuel ~ EL 1/3 1/3 1/3 2/3 Performance metrics include Px (atm, 165001 (2010). **R. Betti, "Theory of Ignition and Hydro-Equivalence for Inertial Confinement Fusion

282

Virus membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fusion of enveloped viruses with cellular membranes is mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP). Interaction of GP with cellular receptors alone or coupled to exposure to the acidic environment of endosomes induces extensive conformational changes in the fusion protein which pull two membranes into close enough proximity to trigger bilayer fusion. The refolding process provides the energy for fusion and

Winfried Weissenhorn; Andreas Hinz; Yves Gaudin

2007-01-01

283

Fluid flow control device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fluid flow control device operable in a gas purge mode, liquid flow mode or backflow restriction mode for use with a fluid circulating system including a pump to selectively control the direction of fluid flow through the fluid circulating system. The fluid flow control device comprises: a valve body including a lower fluid chamber and an

D. F. Bailey; W. F. Jr. Morrison

1991-01-01

284

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

French, P.D.

1996-06-11

285

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

French, Patrick D. (Aurora, CO)

1996-01-01

286

Active cleaning technique device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

1973-01-01

287

2002 Fusion Summer Study Development Pathway Subgroup (E 4)  

E-print Network

2002 Fusion Summer Study Development Pathway Subgroup (E 4) Final Report July 25, 2002 #12;6. Development Path Scenarios The development path to realize fusion as a practical energy source must include performance, steady-state operation; 4) Development of low-activation materials and fusion technologies

288

21 CFR 870.2900 - Patient transducer and electrode cable (including connector).  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2900 Patient transducer and electrode cable (including...

2014-04-01

289

Fission and Fusion Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

290

Heat exchange device  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchange device is adapted to recover heat from the fire box of a wood burning stove or the like for heating ambient air in a room or other enclosed space. The heat exchange device is adapted to mount in a recess in a stove top in place of a lid which is normally supplied with the stove. The device according to the invention includes heat exchange means which extend into the fire box of the stove below the top surface thereof. The heat from the heat exchange device is transmitted into a main cavity of the device where the heat is transferred to air forced through the main cavity by a blower mounted to an outside surface of the device. Air exit means are provided on a surface opposite to the surface on which the blower is mounted to provide a passage for heated air into the room or other enclosed space to be heated. The device may also include a top mounted isolated handle for ease in handling the device such as for moving from one area to another. In a second embodiment of the device, a high temperature heat exchange glass plate is mounted on the surface of the device which is in contact with the fire box. Heat is transmitted by heat exchange plate to the main cavity of the device where the air is heated and blown into the room as above.

Callison, G.

1984-01-17

291

Draft Draft April 3, 1998 Q, Breakeven and the ntE Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas  

E-print Network

used by Lawson [1]. Auxiliary Heating Input Power Fusion Output Power Fusion Plasma Q = Output Power fusion system including transient plasma conditions. Lawson defined a fusion gain parameter R = ``ratio of the (fusion) energy released in the hot gas to the energy supplied'' for a pulsed system where the energy

292

Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"  

E-print Network

Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

Rainer W. Kuehne

2006-04-14

293

Novel fusion energy conversion methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential importance of direct energy conversion to the long-term development of fusion power is discussed with emphasis on the possibility of alleviating waste heat problems. This is envisioned to be important for any central power station in the 21st century and crucial for future space applications. Various novel conversion methods are briefly considered, including direct collection, magnetic expansion, synchroton

L. J. Perkins; G. H. Miley; B. G. Logan

1988-01-01

294

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review  

SciTech Connect

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

295

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

296

EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S&E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selecti

Kolbasov, B. N.

2007-07-01

297

Review of fusion synfuels  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J.A.

1980-01-01

298

Fusion power for space propulsion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

1972-01-01

299

In vitro fusion of Acanthamoeba phagolysosomes. I. Demonstration and quantitation of vacuole fusion in Acanthamoeba homogenates  

PubMed Central

Fusion of phagolysosomes (PLs) has been demonstrated to occur in vitro. Two separate cell homogenates of the ameba Acanthamoeba sp. (Neff) were prepared, each rich in PLs labeled with distinctive particulate markers. Portions of each were incubated together in vitro and fusion occurred as evidenced by the appearance of PLs containing both types of markers. Fusion was confirmed by electron microscopy, including serial sectioning. The membranes of fused vacuoles excluded the dye eosin Y. Surviving cells in the homogenates were not responsible for the observed fusion. Fusion was obtained using either synthetic markers (polystyrene and polyvinyltoluene latex) or biological markers (autoclaved yeast cells and glutaraldehyde-fixed goat red blood cells), or a combination of both. The specificity of PL fusion in vivo appeared to be maintained in vitro. As determined by light and electron microscopy, the fusion reaction was dependent on time and temperature, and on the initial presence of membrane around both marker particles. A minimum of 10% of the vacuoles fused by 10 min of incubation at 30 degrees C, and no rupture of the vacuoles was detected during this time. After 10 min of incubation, vacuole rupture began and fusion ceased. At a constant initial vacuole concentration, the extent of PL fusion in vitro was quantitatively reproducible. This appears to be a promising system for further investigation of membrane fusion in the lysosomal system. PMID:1245550

1976-01-01

300

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Dean, Stephen O.

1999-06-01

301

External Factors Affecting Fusion Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of external factors affecting the pace and direction of fusion energy development are reviewed and discussed. These include the changing electric utility marketplace environment, the availability of fossil fuels, competing power sources, and environmental issues.

Stephen O. Dean

1999-01-01

302

Fudge: a high-bandwidth fusion diagnostic of the NIF  

SciTech Connect

Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)/Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program must include good characterization of the fusion source. Ideally, diagnostics would measure the spatially-resolved history of the fusion reaction rate and temperature. Existing diagnostics can satisfy this goal only partially. One class of new techniques that could play a major role in high-yield diagnostics is measurements based on fusion {gamma} rays. The Fusion Diagnostic Gamma Experiment (FUDGE) can be used to perform energy-resolved measurements of (D,T) fusion reaction rates This diagnostic is based on the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays that are produced by (D,T) fusion. The {gamma} rays are free of spectral dispersion and can be detected with a high bandwidth Cherenkov detector. A simple magnetic monochromator selects signals from the 16 7-MeV {gamma} rays and reduces background signals from non-fusion {gamma} rays.

Moran, M. J., LLNL

1998-06-02

303

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making commercially viable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada · Plan to demonstrate a fusion system capable of "net gain" within 3 years

304

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

305

Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

2013-06-01

306

Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree. This paper describes our findings and offers insights into the role of data representation in hard/soft fusion.

Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

2012-06-01

307

Capillary interconnect device  

DOEpatents

An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

Renzi, Ronald F

2013-11-19

308

Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

309

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission  

E-print Network

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion

310

Electrophoresis device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (inventors)

1982-01-01

311

75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice...certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by...of authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices,...

2010-01-05

312

Daydreaming Devices  

E-print Network

Daydreaming Devices is a project on aspects of daydream and the design of convertible furniture within the context of art. This thesis addresses the concepts and the design of two daydreaming devices developed during my ...

Da Ponte, Ana Sofia Lopes

2008-01-01

313

Presented by Information Fusion  

E-print Network

Presented by Information Fusion: Science and Engineering of Combining Information from Multiple's Office of Science #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Rao_InfoFusion_SC10 Information Fusion at ORNL · ORNL Instrumental in formulating and fostering this multi-disciplinary area

314

Cluster-impact fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

Echenique, P. M.; Manson, J. R.; Ritchie, R. H.

1990-03-01

315

Cluster-impact fusion  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. (Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, San Sebastian 20080, Spain (ES))

1990-03-19

316

Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the underlying principles involved in MTF. Magnetized Target Fusion is an attempt to combine MCF (magnetic confinement fusion) for energy confinement and ICF (inertial confinement fusion) for efficient compression heating and wall free containment of the fusing plasma. It also seeks to combine the best features to these two main commonplace approaches to fusion.

Cylar, Rashad

2003-01-01

317

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

318

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

319

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

320

Utility requirements for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options are described. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R. J.

1982-02-01

321

Device for cutting protrusions  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05

322

Paramyxovirus F1 protein has two fusion peptides: implications for the mechanism of membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Viral fusion proteins contain a highly hydrophobic segment, named the fusion peptide, which is thought to be responsible for the merging of the cellular and viral membranes. Paramyxoviruses are believed to contain a single fusion peptide at the N terminus of the F1 protein. However, here we identified an additional internal segment in the Sendai virus F1 protein (amino acids 214-226) highly homologous to the fusion peptides of HIV-1 and RSV. A synthetic peptide, which includes this region, was found to induce membrane fusion of large unilamellar vesicles, at concentrations where the known N-terminal fusion peptide is not effective. A scrambled peptide as well as several peptides from other regions of the F1 protein, which strongly bind to membranes, are not fusogenic. The functional and structural characterization of this active segment suggest that the F1 protein has an additional internal fusion peptide that could participate in the actual fusion event. The presence of homologous regions in other members of the same family suggests that the concerted action of two fusion peptides, one N-terminal and the other internal, is a general feature of paramyxoviruses. PMID:10698638

Peisajovich, S G; Samuel, O; Shai, Y

2000-03-10

323

Corneal seal device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A corneal seal device is provided which, when placed in an incision in the eye, permits the insertion of a surgical tool or instrument through the device into the eye. The device includes a seal chamber which opens into a tube which is adapted to be sutured to the eye and serves as an entry passage for a tool. A sealable aperture in the chamber permits passage of the tool through the chamber into the tube and hence into the eye. The chamber includes inlet ports adapted to be connected to a regulated source of irrigation fluid which provides a safe intraocular pressure.

Baehr, E. F. (inventor)

1977-01-01

324

Proton Detector Calibration in a Gridded Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work [S. Krupakar Murali, J. F. Santarius, and G. L. Kulcinski, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 122702, (2008)] indicates that fusion reactions in an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device primarily occur in microchannels. Since microchannels form discretely all around the cathode, the proton calibration procedure necessitated the estimation of fusion reactivity within the microchannels. Unlike neutron detectors that see a point

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

325

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features… (more)

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01

326

Radiology of cardiac devices and their complications.  

PubMed

This article familiarizes the reader with several different cardiac devices including pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, intra-aortic balloon pumps, ventricular assist devices, valve replacements and repairs, shunt-occluding devices and passive constraint devices. Many cardiac devices are routinely encountered in clinical practice. Other devices are in the early stages of development, but circumstances suggest that they too will become commonly found. The radiologist must be familiar with these devices and their complications. PMID:25411826

Dipoce, J; Bernheim, A; Spindola-Franco, H

2015-02-01

327

Multisensor data fusion in an integrated tracking system for endoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Surgical planning and navigation systems are vital for minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries but it is challenging to track the position and orientation of intrabody surgical instruments in these procedures. In order to address this problem, we propose a tracking system including multiple-sensor integration and data fusion. The proposed tracking approach is free of the constraints of line-of-sight, less subject to environmental distortion, and with higher update rate. By incorporating electromagnetic and inertial sensors, the system yields continuous 6-DOF information. Based on a system dynamic model and estimation theories, a new multisensor fusion algorithm, cascade orientation and position-estimation algorithm, is proposed for the integrated tracking device. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms achieve accurate orientation and position tracking with robustness. PMID:21827975

Ren, Hongliang; Rank, Denis; Merdes, Martin; Stallkamp, Jan; Kazanzides, Peter

2012-01-01

328

Neutron-induced transmutation effects in W and W-alloys in a fusion environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W and W-alloys are among the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the design of fusion reactors, particularly in high-heat-flux regions such as the divertor. Under neutron irradiation W undergoes transmutation to its near-neighbours in the periodic table. Additionally He and H are particles emitted from certain neutron-induced reactions, and this is particularly significant in fusion research since the presence of helium in a material can cause both swelling and a strong increase in brittleness. This paper presents the results of inventory burn-up calculations on pure W and gives quantitative estimates for He production rates in both a fusion-reactor environment and under conditions expected in the ITER experimental device. Transmutation reactions in possible alloying elements (Re, Ta, Ti and V), which could be used to reduce the brittleness of pure W, are also considered. Additionally, for comparison, the transmutation of other fusion-relevant materials, including Fe and SiC, are presented.

Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

2011-04-01

329

Fusion pumped light source  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

330

Preloaded latching device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A latching device is disclosed which is lever operated sequentially to actuate a set of collet fingers to provide a radial expansion and to actuate a force mechanism to provide a compressive gripping force for attaching first and second devices to one another. The latching device includes a body member having elongated collet fingers which, in a deactuated condition, is insertable through bores on the first and second devices so that gripping terminal portions on the collet fingers are proximate to the end of the bore of the first device while a spring assembly on the body member is located proximate to the outer surface of a second device. A lever is rotatable through 90 deg to move a latching rod to sequentially actuate and expand collet fingers and to actuate the spring assembly by compressing it. During the first 30 deg of movement of the lever, the collet fingers are actuated by the latching rod to provide a radial expansion and during the last 60 deg of movement of the lever, the spring assembly acts as a force mechanism and is actuated to develop a compressive latching force on the devices. The latching rod and lever are connected by a camming mechanism. The amount of spring force in the spring assembly can be adjusted; the body member can be permanently attached by a telescoping assembly to one of the devices; and the structure can be used as a pulling device for removing annular bearings or the like from blind bores.

Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor)

1992-01-01

331

Computational problems in magnetic fusion research  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly.

Killeen, J.

1981-08-31

332

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor Michael Lindstrom fusion en- ergy known as a magnetized target fusion reactor, in which an intense pressure wave the fusion reactor design we have chosen to model. In section 2, we present a simplified model and set

Wetton, Brian

333

Sensor Management Fusion Using Operating Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

System control includes sensor management, user refinement, and mission accomplishment (SUM). An example of simultaneous tracking and identification includes (1) mission goals of resource appropriation and goal priorities, (2) user selection of targets and areas of coverage, and (3) fusion of data and sensory information. Many sensor management (SM) approaches are data-driven which includes filtering, aggregation, and normalization; however that

Bart Kahler; Erik Blasch

2008-01-01

334

Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

McCown, Steven H. (Rigby, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-05-08

335

Visualize Your Data with Google Fusion Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Google Fusion Tables is a modern data management platform that makes it easy to host, manage, collaborate on, visualize, and publish tabular data online. Fusion Tables allows users to upload their own data to the Google cloud, which they can then use to create compelling and interactive visualizations with the data. Users can view data on a Google Map, plot data in a line chart, or display data along a timeline. Users can share these visualizations with others to explore and discover interesting trends about various types of data, including scientific data such as invasive species or global trends in disease. Fusion Tables has been used by many organizations to visualize a variety of scientific data. One example is the California Redistricting Map created by the LA Times: http://goo.gl/gwZt5 The Pacific Institute and Circle of Blue have used Fusion Tables to map the quality of water around the world: http://goo.gl/T4SX8 The World Resources Institute mapped the threat level of coral reefs using Fusion Tables: http://goo.gl/cdqe8 What attendees will learn in this session: This session will cover all the steps necessary to use Fusion Tables to create a variety of interactive visualizations. Attendees will begin by learning about the various options for uploading data into Fusion Tables, including Shapefile, KML file, and CSV file import. Attendees will then learn how to use Fusion Tables to manage their data by merging it with other data and controlling the permissions of the data. Finally, the session will cover how to create a customized visualization from the data, and share that visualization with others using both Fusion Tables and the Google Maps API.

Brisbin, K. E.

2011-12-01

336

An introduction to multisensor data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisensor data fusion is an emerging technology applied to Department of Defense {(DoD)} areas such as automated target recognition, battlefield surveillance, and guidance and control of autonomous vehicles, and to {non-DoD} applications such as monitoring of complex machinery, medical diagnosis, and smart buildings. Techniques for multisensor data fusion are drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern

DAVID L. HALL; JAMES LLINAS

1997-01-01

337

Laser driven instabilities in inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

Parametric instabilities excited by an intense electromagnetic wave in a plasma is a fundamental topic relevant to many applications. These applications include laser fusion, heating of magnetically-confined plasmas, ionospheric modification, and even particle acceleration for high energy physics. In laser fusion, these instabilities have proven to play an essential role in the choice of laser wavelength. Characterization and control of the instabilities is an ongoing priority in laser plasma experiments. Recent progress and some important trends will be discussed. 8 figs.

Kruer, W.L.

1990-06-04

338

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

2010-11-30

339

4:03 Nitric oxide modulates recombinant human bone morphogenic protein–2–induced corticocancellous autograft incorporation in a rat intertransverse process fusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Nitric oxide has important physiological functions, including the modulation of fracture healing. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP)-2 enhances spinal fusion. With progression of fusion, there is a remodeling of the fusion mass bone accompanied with a decrease in the fusion mass size. It is not known whether nitric oxide has a role in spinal fusion or

Ashish D. Diwan; Safdar N. Khan; Deirdre Campbell; M. Ng; Russell Nord; Michael Peterkin; Stephen B. Doty; Frank P. Cammisa; Harvinder S. Sandhu

2002-01-01

340

BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Confinement Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is a collection of papers, written by specialists in the field, on advanced topics of nuclear fusion diagnostics. The 78 contributions were originally presented at the International Conference on Advanced Diagnostics for Magnetic and Inertial Fusion held at Villa Monastero, Italy in September 2001. Both magnetically confined and inertial fusion programmes are quite extensively covered, with more emphasis given to the former scheme. In the case of magnetic confinement, since the present international programme is strongly focused on next-step devices, particular attention is devoted to techniques and technologies viable in an environment with strong neutron fluxes. Indeed, in the first section, the various methods are considered in the perspective of performing the measurements of the relevant parameters in conditions approaching a burning plasma, mainly in the Tokamak configuration. The most demanding requirements, like the implications of the use of tritium and radiation resistance, are reviewed and the most challenging open issues, which require further research and development, are also clearly mentioned. The following three sections are devoted to some of the most recent developments in plasma diagnostics, which are grouped according to the following classification: `Neutron and particle diagnostics', `Optical and x-ray diagnostics' and `Interferometry, Polarimetry and Thomson Scattering'. In these chapters, several of the most recent results are given, covering measurements taken on the most advanced experiments around the world. Here the developments described deal more with the requirements imposed by the physical issues to be studied. They are therefore more focused on the approaches adopted to increase the spatial and time resolution of the diagnostics, on some methods to improve the characterisation of the turbulence and on fast particles. Good coverage is given to neutron diagnostics, which are assuming increasing relevance as the plasma parameters approach ignition. Spectroscopic systems and their recent developments are well represented, whereas edge diagnostics are somewhat thin on the ground. A dedicated section is devoted to the latest tests on radiation effects and technological issues. The problems of damage to optical components and the difficulties presented by the determination of the tritium inventory are described. In the last part, the new diagnostic systems of the most recent experiments (under construction or recently operated) are reported. Various aspects of some diagnostics not included in the three previous sections are also covered, with particular emphasis on microwaves and infrared diagnostics. The book is well suited for specialists and, more generally, for people involved in nuclear fusion, who need information about the most recent developments in the field of plasma diagnostics. The papers cover many aspects of the challenges and possible solutions for performing measurements in fusion machines approaching reactor conditions. On the other hand, the contributions are in general quite advanced and would be challenging for people without a significant background in plasma diagnostics and nuclear fusion. The quality of the paper is more than satisfactory both from the point of view of clarity and of graphics. Moreover, at the beginning of the book, several papers make a considerable effort to put diagnostic issues in the wider context of present day nuclear fusion research. For those topics, which are too involved to be completely described in a conference contribution, in general adequate references are provided for deeper investigation. A Murari Approximately one third of the papers included in this volume deal with diagnostics related to inertial confinement fusion plasmas (i.e., laser-produced plasmas and pulsed-power). These papers discuss recent developments in charged particle diagnostics, neutron diagnostics, optical and x-ray measurements along with laser and particle probing diagnostics. The resulting collection of papers is comprehensive and wide-ranging and all of th

Stott, PE; Wootton, A.; Gorini, G.; Sindoni, E.; Batani, D.

2003-02-01

341

Cognitive fusion analysis based on context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard fusion model includes active and passive user interaction in level 5 - "User Refinement". User refinement is more than just details of passive automation partitioning - it is the active management of information. While a fusion system can explore many operational conditions over myopic changes, the user has the ability to reason about the hyperopic "big picture." Blasch and Plano developed cognitive-fusion models that address user constraints including: intent, attention, trust, workload, and throughput to facilitate hyperopic analysis. To enhance user-fusion performance modeling (i.e. confidence, timeliness, and accuracy); we seek to explore the nature of context. Context, the interrelated conditions of which something exists, can be modeled in many ways including geographic, sensor, object, and environmental conditioning. This paper highlights user refinement actions based on context to constrain the fusion analysis for accurately representing the trade space in the real world. As an example, we explore a target identification task in which contextual information from the user"s cognitive model is imparted to a fusion belief filter.

Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

2004-04-01

342

ACE Mission - Fusion and Nucleosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief explains the idea that nuclear fusion is thought to be the mechanism by which virtually all of the elements around us are created. Topics include the proton-proton cycle, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle, and endothermic reactions in supernova explosions. There is also a discussion of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a spacecraft intended to study the origin and evolution of the elements produced by our Sun.

343

ACE Mission - Fusion and Nucleosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief explains the idea that nuclear fusion is thought to be the mechanism by which virtually all of the elements around us are created. Topics include the proton-proton cycle, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle, and endothermic reactions in supernova explosions. There is also a discussion of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a spacecraft intended to study the origin and evolution of the elements produced by our Sun.

2011-06-30

344

Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited).  

PubMed

Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. PMID:20192420

Takeiri, Yasuhiko

2010-02-01

345

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion  

E-print Network

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research compiled by the International Fusion Research Council (Nucl. Fusion 45,A1­A28; 2005) provides good reason

Loss, Daniel

346

Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a center for information exchange, nationally and internationally, by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results that are obtained by the Institute contribute mainly to the progress of national and international efforts in nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power.as a basic energy source. In addition to its primary focus on fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in related fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, plasma astrophysics, and accelerator physics. The work of EFS scientists continued to receive national and international recognition. Numerous invited papers were given during the past year at workshops, conferences, and scientific meetings. Last year IFS scientists published 95 scientific articles in technical journals and monographs.

Hazeltine, R.D.

1992-07-01

347

75 FR 16347 - Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices; Requirement for Submission of Information on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...includes the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, FDA, National...healthcare practitioners, medical device trade associations...Confidential business information, Medical devices, Medical research, Reporting and...

2010-04-01

348

75 FR 16365 - Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices; Requirement for Submission of Information on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...includes the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, FDA, National...healthcare practitioners, medical device trade associations...Confidential business information, Medical devices, Medical research, Reporting and...

2010-04-01

349

Planar electrochemical device assembly  

DOEpatents

A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2007-06-19

350

Planar electrochemical device assembly  

DOEpatents

A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

Jacobson; Craig P. (Lafayette, CA), Visco; Steven J. (Berkeley, CA), De Jonghe; Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2010-11-09

351

Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) motivation and required capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact (R0˜1.2-1.3m), low aspect ratio, low-Q (<3) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) was recently assessed to provide a fully integrated, D-T-fueled, continuously driven plasma, volumetric nuclear environment of copious neutrons. This environment would be used to carry out, for the first time, discovery-driven research in fusion nuclear science and materials, in parallel with and complementary to ITER. This research would aim to test, discover, and understand new nuclear-nonnuclear synergistic interactions involving plasma material interactions, neutron material interactions, tritium fuel breeding and transport, and power extraction, and innovate and develop solutions for DEMO components. Progress will be reported on the fusion nuclear-nonnuclear coupling effects identified that motivate research on such an FNSF, and on the required capabilities in fusion plasma, device operation, and fusion nuclear science and engineering to fulfill its mission.

Peng, Y. K. M.; Park, J. M.; Canik, J. M.; Diem, S. J.; Sontag, A. C.; Lumsdaine, A.; Murakami, M.; Katoh, Y.; Burgess, T. W.; Korsah, K.; Patton, B. D.; Wagner, J. C.; Yoder, G. L.; Cole, M. J.; Fogarty, P. J.; Sawan, M.

2011-11-01

352

Fusion programs in applied plasma physics  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

Not Available

1992-02-01

353

Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the

S. Krupakar Murali; G. A. Emmert; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

354

Choice of coils for a fusion reactor.  

PubMed

In a fusion reactor a hot plasma of deuterium and tritium is confined by a strong magnetic field to produce helium ions and release energetic neutrons. The 3D geometry of a stellarator provides configurations for such a device that reduce net toroidal current that might lead to disruptions. We construct smooth coils generating an external magnetic field designed to prevent the plasma from deteriorating. PMID:17640879

Alexander, Romeo; Garabedian, Paul R

2007-07-24

355

Fisher Information: Its Flow, Fusion, and Coordination  

SciTech Connect

The information form of the Kalman filter is used as a device for implementing an optimal, linear, decentralized algorithm on a decentralized topology. A systems approach utilizing design tradeoffs is required to successfully implement an effective data fusion network with minimal communication. Combining decentralized results over the past four decades with practical aspects of nodal network implementation, the final product provides an important benchmark for functionally decentralized systems designs.

BERG, TIMOTHY M.

2002-06-01

356

Advanced power technology for fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the technological and economic feasibility of achieving net electric power from a near-term fusion device by using high efficiency energy conversion technology. A variety of energy conversion\\/reactor blanket schemes have been considered and the best one, an argon topping cycle, steam bottoming cycle coupled to a zirconium oxide-based high temperature blanket, has been selected for conceptual design.

R. T. Taussig; J. F. Zumdieck; H. J. Willenberg; T. S. Vaidyanathan; J. R. Powell

1980-01-01

357

Introduction to magnetic confinement fusion diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

These notes present a brief survey of some of the current diagnostic techniques used in magnetic fusion plasma devices. To give an idea of the range of parameters and geometries encountered the parameters of four representative experiments - PLT, TMX, ZT-40 and EBT-I(S) - are given. The central issue of all experiments is to understand the flow of power which can be summarized by two volume integrated equations for the ions and electrons.

Turner, W.C.

1980-06-06

358

Electrochromic devices  

DOEpatents

An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

Allemand, Pierre M. (Tucson, AZ); Grimes, Randall F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Ingle, Andrew R. (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Kennedy, Steve R. (Tuscon, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Boulton, Jonathan M. (Tucson, AZ)

2001-01-01

359

A direct fusion drive for rocket propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Direct Fusion Drive (DFD), a compact, anuetronic fusion engine, will enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system. The engine proposed here uses a deuterium-helium-3 reaction to produce fusion energy by employing a novel field-reversed configuration (FRC) for magnetic confinement. The FRC has a simple linear solenoid coil geometry yet generates higher plasma pressure, hence higher fusion power density, for a given magnetic field strength than other magnetic-confinement plasma devices. Waste heat generated from the plasma's Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation is recycled to maintain the fusion temperature. The charged reaction products, augmented by additional propellant, are exhausted through a magnetic nozzle. A 1 MW DFD is presented in the context of a mission to deploy the James Webb Space Telescope (6200 kg) from GPS orbit to a Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit in 37 days using just 353 kg of propellant and about half a kilogram of 3He. The engine is designed to produce 40 N of thrust with an exhaust velocity of 56.5 km/s and has a specific power of 0.18 kW/kg.

Razin, Yosef S.; Pajer, Gary; Breton, Mary; Ham, Eric; Mueller, Joseph; Paluszek, Michael; Glasser, Alan H.; Cohen, Samuel A.

2014-12-01

360

The European Fusion Programme  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H. [European Commission (Belgium)

2004-03-15

361

Reconstituted Fusion Pore  

PubMed Central

Fusion pores or porosomes are basket-like structures at the cell plasma membrane, at the base of which, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse to release vesicular contents. Earlier studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of fusion pores at the cell plasma membrane in a number of live secretory cells, revealing their morphology and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time. ImmunoAFM studies demonstrated the release of vesicular contents through the pores. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the presence of fusion pores, and immunoAFM, and immunochemical studies demonstrated t-SNAREs to localize at the base of the fusion pore. In the present study, the morphology, function, and composition of the immunoisolated fusion pore was investigated. TEM studies reveal in further detail the structure of the fusion pore. Immunoblot analysis of the immunoisolated fusion pore reveals the presence of several isoforms of the proteins, identified earlier in addition to the association of chloride channels. TEM and AFM micrographs of the immunoisolated fusion pore complex were superimposable, revealing its detail structure. Fusion pore reconstituted into liposomes and examined by TEM, revealed a cup-shaped basket-like morphology, and were functional, as demonstrated by their ability to fuse with isolated secretory vesicles. PMID:12944316

Jeremic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Marie; Cho, Sang-Joon; Stromer, Marvin H.; Jena, Bhanu P.

2003-01-01

362

Superconductivity and fusion energy—the inseparable companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although superconductivity will never produce energy by itself, it plays an important role in energy-related applications both because of its saving potential (e.g., power transmission lines and generators), and its role as an enabling technology (e.g., for nuclear fusion energy). The superconducting magnet’s need for plasma confinement has been recognized since the early development of fusion devices. As long as the research and development of plasma burning was carried out on pulsed devices, the technology of superconducting fusion magnets was aimed at demonstrations of feasibility. In the latest generation of plasma devices, which are larger and have longer confinement times, the superconducting coils are a key enabling technology. The cost of a superconducting magnet system is a major portion of the overall cost of a fusion plant and deserves significant attention in the long-term planning of electricity supply; only cheap superconducting magnets will help fusion get to the energy market. In this paper, the technology challenges and design approaches for fusion magnets are briefly reviewed for past, present, and future projects, from the early superconducting tokamaks in the 1970s, to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and W7-X projects and future DEMO (Demonstration Reactor) projects. The associated cryogenic technology is also reviewed: 4.2 K helium baths, superfluid baths, forced-flow supercritical helium, and helium-free designs. Open issues and risk mitigation are discussed in terms of reliability, technology, and cost.

Bruzzone, Pierluigi

2015-02-01

363

Inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion for space power  

SciTech Connect

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. Here we discuss a new approach for space fusion power, namely Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct energy conversion.

Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.H.; Hochberg, T.K.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. (Fusion Studies Laboratory, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US))

1991-01-01

364

Development of the solid state amplifier for magnetic confined fusion application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of ICH (Ion Cyclotron Heating) in magnetic confined fusion devices such as tokamak depends on the applied magnetic field and generally the transmitter with the frequency of 20-80 MHz is required. There are many advantages to use solid state device than the vacuum tube at the amplifier stage because no tuning device is needed during frequency change and

J. G. Kwak; W. C. Choi; C. Hwang

2003-01-01

365

Joint interpretation of geophysical data using Image Fusion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint interpretation of geophysical data produced from different methods is a challenging area of research in a wide range of applications. In this work we apply several image fusion approaches to combine maps of electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, vertical gradient of the magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility, and ground penetrating radar reflections, in order to detect archaeological relics. We utilize data gathered from Arkansas University, with the support of the U.S. Department of Defense, through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP-CS1263). The area of investigation is the Army City, situated in Riley Country of Kansas, USA. The depth of the relics is estimated about 30 cm from the surface, yet the surface indications of its existence are limited. We initially register the images from the different methods to correct from random offsets due to the use of hand-held devices during the measurement procedure. Next, we apply four different image fusion approaches to create combined images, using fusion with mean values, wavelet decomposition, curvelet transform, and curvelet transform enhancing the images along specific angles. We create seven combinations of pairs between the available geophysical datasets. The combinations are such that for every pair at least one high-resolution method (resistivity or magnetic gradiometry) is included. Our results indicate that in almost every case the method of mean values produces satisfactory fused images that corporate the majority of the features of the initial images. However, the contrast of the final image is reduced, and in some cases the averaging process nearly eliminated features that are fade in the original images. Wavelet based fusion outputs also good results, providing additional control in selecting the feature wavelength. Curvelet based fusion is proved the most effective method in most of the cases. The ability of curvelet domain to unfold the image in terms of space, wavenumber, and orientation, provides important advantages compared with the rest of the methods by allowing the incorporation of a-priori information about the orientation of the potential targets.

Karamitrou, A.; Tsokas, G.; Petrou, M.

2013-12-01

366

Adhesion testing device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

367

Soldier systems sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

Brubaker, Kathryne M.

1998-08-01

368

EPICS GPIB device support  

SciTech Connect

A GPIB device support module is used to provide access to the operating parameters of a GPIB device. GPIB devices may be accessed via National Instruments 1014 cards or via Bitbus Universal Gateways. GPIB devices typically have many parameters, each of which may be thought of in terms of the standard types of database records available in EPICS. It is the job of the device support module designer to decide how the mapping of these parameters will be made to the available record types. Once this mapping is complete, the device support module may be written. The writing of the device support module consists primarily of the construction of a parameter table. This table is used to associate the database record types with the operating parameters of the GPIB instrument. Other aspects of module design include the handling of SRQ events and errors. SRQ events are made available to the device support module if so desired. The processing of an SRQ event is completely up to the designer of the module. They may be ignored, tied to event based record processing, or anything else the designer wishes. Error conditions may be handled in a similar fashion.

Winans, J.

1993-09-24

369

Automobile maneuvering device  

SciTech Connect

An automobile maneuvering device is described which consists of: a chassis comprising transport wheels for permitting movement of the device along the ground, a drive wheel operably rotatably connected to the chassis, and means for rotating the drive wheel, clamp means operably connected to the chassis and spaced from and opposed to the drive wheel, the chassis including means to move the clamp means to engage one portion of an automobile tire with the drive wheel engaged at another portion of the automobile tire, and means to actuate the rotating means, so that with rotation of the drive wheel the automobile tire is rotated and the automobile and device moved along the ground.

Ricciardi, R.

1987-08-18

370

Rain sampling device  

DOEpatents

The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)

1991-01-01

371

Conformal gripping device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a conformal gripping device. In an embodiment of the present invention a conformal gripper device may be disclosed comprising a frame that includes an array of movable pins. The device may also include a roller locking and unlocking system within the frame. The system may comprise a pair of locking rollers for each row of gripper pins to facilitate locking and unlocking the array of gripper pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may also include a striker element that may force the locking rollers to roll along an angled roll surface to facilitate unlocking of the array of pins on a column-by-column basis. The system may further include an electromagnetic actuator or solenoid and permanent magnets to facilitate movement of the striker element and the locking rollers.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

372

Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

Kwan, Joe W.

2002-05-31

373

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)  

SciTech Connect

The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Diem, Stephanie J [ORNL; Milora, Stanley L [ORNL; Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Fogarty, P. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Burgess, Thomas W [ORNL; Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Yoder, III, Graydon L [ORNL

2011-01-01

374

78 FR 36132 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from a number of electronic devices including computers, tablets...presenting traffic control device information more in a modular...guidance for traffic control devices. This narrative may also be...office environment as their primary [[Page 36134

2013-06-17

375

Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments without Superconducting Electromagnets  

SciTech Connect

Long-pulse fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long-pulse ignition with deuterium-tritium fuel. Long-pulse resistive electromagnets are alternatives to today's delicate and costly superconductors. At any rate, superconducting technology is now evolving independent of fusion, so near-term superconducting experience may not ultimately be useful.

Woolley, R.D.

1998-08-19

376

Q, Break-even and the nE Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas Dale M. Meade  

E-print Network

by Lawson [1]. Auxiliary Heating Input Power Fusion Output Power Fusion Plasma Q = Output Power Input Power system including transient plasma conditions. Lawson defined a fusion gain parameter R = "ratio of the (fusion) energy released in the hot gas to the energy supplied" for a pulsed system where the energy

377

Posterior Instrumentation for Occipitocervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Since 1995, 29 consecutive patients with craniocervical spine instability due to several pathologies were managed with posterior occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. Laminectomy was additionally performed in nineteen patients. The patients were divided in two groups: Group A which included patients managed with screw-rod instrumentation, and Group B which included patients managed with hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically using the following parameters: spine anatomy and reconstruction, sagittal profile, neurologic status, functional level, pain relief, complications and status of arthrodesis. The follow-up was performed immediately postoperatively and at 2, 6, 12 months after surgery, and thereafter once a year. Fusion was achieved in all but one patient. One case of infection was the only surgery related complication. Neurological improvement and considerable pain relief occurred in the majority of patients postoperatively. There were neither intraoperative complications nor surgery related deaths. However, the overall death rate was 37.5% in group A, and 7.7% in group B. There were no instrument related failures. The reduction level was acceptable and was maintained until the latest follow-up in all of the patients. No statistical difference between the outcomes of screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod instrumentation was detected. Laminectomy did not influence the outcome in either group. Screw-rod and hook-and-screw-rod occipitocervical fusion instrumentations are both considered as safe and effective methods of treatment of craniocervical instability. PMID:21772931

Sapkas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Segkos, Dimitrios; Kateros, Konstantinos; Tsakotos, George; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

378

Microwave plasma devices—Promise and progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, considerable effort has been devoted to employing the plasma state in applications as widely differing as microwave and optical frequency devices; power generation by thermonuclear fusion; magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermionic energy conversion, and the propulsion of spacecraft. In some of these areas intense activity still continues, and encouraging progress is being made. In others the

FREDERICK W. CRAWFORD

1971-01-01

379

Overview of the Large Helical Device project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Helical Device (LHD) has successfully started running plasma confinement experiments after a long construction period of eight years. During the construction and machine commissioning phases, a variety of milestones were attained in fusion engineering which successfully led to the first operation, and the first plasma was ignited on 31 March 1998. Two experimental campaigns were carried out in

A. Iiyoshi; A. Komori; A. Ejiri; M. Emoto; H. Funaba; M. Goto; K. Ida; H. Idei; S. Inagaki; S. Kado; O. Kaneko; K. Kawahata; T. Kobuchi; S. Kubo; R. Kumazawa; S. Masuzaki; T. Minami; J. Miyazawa; T. Morisaki; S. Morita; S. Murakami; S. Muto; T. Mutoh; Y. Nagayama; Y. Nakamura; H. Nakanishi; K. Narihara; K. Nishimura; N. Noda; S. Ohdachi; N. Ohyabu; Y. Oka; M. Osakabe; T. Ozaki; B. J. Peterson; A. Sagara; S. Sakakibara; R. Sakamoto; H. Sasao; M. Sasao; K. Sato; M. Sato; T. Seki; T. Shimozuma; M. Shoji; H. Suzuki; Y. Takeiri; K. Tanaka; K. Toi; T. Tokuzawa; K. Tsumori; K. Tsuzuki; K. Y. Watanabe; T. Watari; H. Yamada; I. Yamada; S. Yamaguchi; M. Yokoyama; R. Akiyama; H. Chikaraishi; K. Haba; S. Hamaguchi; M. Iima; S. Imagawa; N. Inoue; K. Iwamoto; S. Kitagawa; J. Kodaira; Y. Kubota; R. Maekawa; T. Mito; T. Nagasaka; A. Nishimura; C. Takahashi; K. Takahata; Y. Takita; H. Tamura; T. Tsuzuki; S. Yamada; K. Yamauchi; N. Yanagi; H. Yonezu; Y. Hamada; K. Matsuoka; K. Murai; K. Ohkubo; I. Ohtake; M. Okamoto; S. Satoh; T. Satow; S. Sudo; S. Tanahashi; K. Yamazaki; M. Fujiwara; O. Motojima

1999-01-01

380

Economics and Environmental Compatibility of Fusion Reactors —Its Analysis and Coming Issues— 4.Economic Effect of Fusion in Energy Market 4.1Economic Impact of Fusion Deployment in Energy Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment.

Konishi, Satoshi; Tokimatsu, Koji

381

IOP PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 (2012) 124007 (9pp) doi:10.1088/0741-3335/54/12/124007  

E-print Network

. Wave­particle interactions create supra-thermal populations in many natural plasmas, including and fusion plasmas, the energetic ions have speeds vf that are intermediate between the electron thermalIOP PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 (2012) 124007

California at Los Angles, University of

382

Solid State Devices: Course Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provided by eSyst describes solid state devices. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include power amplifier class comparison, device pathology, and the role of devices. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

383

Controlled Nuclear Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

Glasstone, Samuel

384

Fusion power Bouillabaisse sushi  

E-print Network

://www.economist.com/science/PrinterFriendly.cfm?Story_ID=2404587 #12;gerrymandering recalls the worst of the International Space Station, a collaborative effort be chosen for a new international fusion reactor. This is a pity IF AVANT-GARDE cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International

385

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance  

E-print Network

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance required for a Fusion Power Plant. Const. Cost $B Date

386

Fusion excitation function revisited  

E-print Network

We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

2012-09-28

387

Electropionics and fusion  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the electropionic mass formula which does not differentiate between nuclei and elementary particles, but gives the deuteron a unique bifurcated space-time description. This hints at fusion products produced by anomalous intermediate mass states of 3026, 3194, and 3515 MeV/c{sup 2} that then decay to produce energy. Another unique possibility in electropionics is that no fusion of deuterons occurs, but the deuteron is changed by electron capture into a D-meson that then decays to produce observed cold fusion energies. All these cold fusion electropionic reactions violate baryon conservation but do produce energy yields consistent with reported cold fusion decay products and energy levels.

Kenny, J.P. (Bradley Univ., Dept. of Physics, Peoria, IL (US))

1991-05-01

388

Device Performance  

SciTech Connect

In the Device Performance group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we measure the performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reporting conditions--defined as a reference temperature (25 C), total irradiance (1000 Wm-2), and spectral irradiance distribution (IEC standard 60904-3). Typically, these are ''global'' reference conditions, but we can measure with respect to any reference set. To determine device performance, we conduct two general categories of measurements: spectral responsivity (SR) and current versus voltage (I-V). We usually perform these measurements using standard procedures, but we develop new procedures when required by new technologies. We also serve as an independent facility for verifying device performance for the entire PV community. We help the PV community solve its special measurement problems, giving advice on solar simulation, instrumentation for I-V measurements, reference cells, measurement procedures, and anomalous results. And we collaborate with researchers to analyze devices and materials.

Not Available

2006-06-01

389

Device modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary report is given of the activities of the device modeling workshop which was held as a part of the Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference at the Lewis Research Center, October 7 to 9, 1986. The purpose of this workshop was to access the status of solar cell device modeling to see if it is meeting present and future needs of the photovoltaic community.

Schwartz, Richard

1987-01-01

390

Microchannel devices  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of stainless steel microchannel heat exchangers was examined through microlamination, the process of diffusion bonding precision machined metallic foils. The influence of diffusion bonding parameters, as well as the device geometry on the strength of the bond between the foils and embedded channel integrity, was investigated. During diffusion bonding, high temperatures and/or pressures result in well bonded foils, but these conditions cause the embedded channels to deform, which will degrade the efficiency of fluid flow through the channels. Alternatively, low temperatures and/or pressures result in undeformed channels but weakly bonded foils. This causes failure of the device due to fluid leakage. Thus, a processing envelope exists for producing a sound device with no fluid leakage and no degradation of fluid flow properties. The theoretical limit on aspect ratio within two-fluid counter-flow microchannel heat exchangers was also investigated. A counter-flow device is comprised of alternating layers of microchannels, which allow the two fluids to flow in opposite directions separated by fins. A theoretical model for interpreting the span of the fin as a function of the fin thickness was established. The model was verified experimentally by fabricating specimens to simulate the counter-flow device. The results of these investigations were used to aid in the design and processing of prototype microchannel devices.

Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.

2001-09-01

391

Barriers to medical device innovation  

PubMed Central

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it’s purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. PMID:24966699

Bergsland, Jacob; Elle, Ole Jakob; Fosse, Erik

2014-01-01

392

Computational modeling of the axial-cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion neutron generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial-cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement fusion neutron generator (IEC C-Device) is a high- voltage, low-pressure glow discharge device that produces neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Such a neutron source has potential applications for neutron activation analysis and capture therapies for cancer treatment. The IEC C-Device operating with deuterium fuel is modeled with the CHIMP computer code developed and written completely by the author to predict the fusion neutron generation rate and the plasma physics behavior using fundamental first principles. The CHIMP code is a time-dependent, spatially two-dimensional (r,z), particle-in-cell, Monte-Carlo-Collision (PIC-MCC) direct simulation model. The effects of secondary electron emission due to ion and electron impact on the metal electrodes and the glass walls and charge build-up on the glass wall are included. Either monatomic or molecular ions and electrons are modeled in a monatomic or molecular background neutral deuterium gas. CHIMP code predictions are compared against experimental results for the C-Device operating between 10 and 30 kV of anode voltage, between 10 and 40 mA of electrode current, and between 0.29 and 1.1 milliTorr of deuterium gas pressure. A calibration factor for the pressure accounts for the calibration of the ionization pressure gauge in the experiment, and an estimated pressure drop between the main chamber of the C-Device and the pressure gauge that is downstream of the exhaust port. Upgraded versions of the CHIMP code which have modifications to the algorithms for the boundary conditions, and which include charge exchange processes, and the contribution of fast neutrals to the neutron generation rate are also tested against several experimental data points. Although the CHIMP code gives predictions for the neutron generation rate that exhibit the same near-linear trends with current found in the experiment, it is apparent that at least five types of particle and many additional physical processes must be included in a more advanced simulation model to obtain better agreement between the model and the experiment.

Bromley, Blair Patrick

2001-12-01

393

Fusion Technology for ITER, the ITER Project. Further Development Towards a DEMO Fusion Power Plant (3/4)  

E-print Network

This is the second half of a lecture series on fusion and will concentrate on fusion technology. The early phase of fusion development was concentrated on physics. However, during the 1980s it was realized that if one wanted to enter the area of fusion reactor plasmas, even in an experimental machine, a significant advance in fusion technologies would be needed. After several conceptual studies of reactor class fusion devices in the 1980s the engineering design phase of ITER started in earnest during the 1990s. The design team was in the beginning confronted with many challenges in the fusion technology area as well as in physics for which no readily available solution existed and in a few cases it was thought that solutions may be impossible to find. However, after the initial 3 years of intensive design and R&D work in an international framework utilizing basic fusion technology R&D from the previous decade it became clear that for all problems a conceptual solution could be found and further devel...

CERN. Geneva

2011-01-01

394

Engineering the fusion reactor first wall  

SciTech Connect

Recently the National Academy of Engineering published a set of Grand Challenges in Engineering in which the second item listed was entitled 'Provide energy from fusion'. Clearly a key component of this challenge is the science and technology associated with creating and maintaining burning plasmas. This is being vigorously addressed with both magnetic and inertial approaches with various experiments such as ITER and NIF. Considerably less attention is being given to another key component of this challenge, namely engineering the first wall that will contain the burning plasma. This is a daunting problem requiring technologies and materials that can not only survive, but also perform multiple essential functions in this extreme environment. These functions are (1) shield the remainder of the device from radiation. (2) convert of neutron energy to useful heat and (3) breed and extract tritium to maintain the reactor fuel supply. The first wall must not contaminate the plasma with impurities. It must be infused with cooling to maintain acceptable temperatures on plasma facing and structural components. It must not degrade. It must avoid excessive build-up of tritium on surfaces, and, if surface deposits do form, must be receptive to cleaning techniques. All these functions and constraints must be met while being subjected to nuclear and thermal radiation, particle bombardment, high magnetic fields, thermal cycling and occasional impingement of plasma on the surface. And, operating in a nuclear environment, the first wall must be fully maintainable by remotely-operated manipulators. Elements of the first wall challenge have been studied since the 1970' s both in the US and internationally. Considerable foundational work has been performed on plasma facing materials and breeding blanket/shield modules. Work has included neutronics, materials fabrication and joining, fluid flow, tritium breeding, tritium recovery and containment, energy conversion, materials damage and magnetohydrodynamics. While work to date has been quite valuable, no blanket concept has been built and operated in anything approaching a realistic fusion reactor environment. Rather, work has been limited to isolated experiments on first wall components and paper studies. The need now is to complete necessary R&D on first wall components, assemble components into a practical design, and test the first wall in a realistic fusion environment. Besides supporting work, major prototype experiments could be performed in non-nuclear experiments, as part of the ITER project and as part of the Component Test Facility. The latter is under active consideration and is a proposed machine which would use a driven plasma to expose an entire first wall to a fusion environment. Key US contributors to first wall research have been UCLA, UCSD, U of Wisconsin, LANL, ORNL, PNNL, Argonne and Idaho National Lab. Current efforts have been coordinated by UCLA. It is recognized that when this work progresses to a larger scale, leadership from a national laboratory will be required. LANL is well-prepared to provide such leadership.

Wurden, Glen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Willms [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

395

Desirable engineering features of the next-generation tokamak device  

SciTech Connect

Recent scoping studies examined a series of superconducting, long-pulse Driven Current Tokamak (DCT) devices. One class of options is an ignited, D-T burning device designated DCT-8. It was concluded that the DCT-8 is a most attracttive engineering option to adequately bridge the gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR).

Brown, T.G.; Flanagan, C.A.

1983-01-01

396

Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Plasma  

SciTech Connect

A particle-in-cell calculation code was made to simulate the operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device. The computation includes the effects of ionization by electron impact. Several techniques to save computational time are introduced in this program code. One of them is time-dependent fine space meshes used in the regions where the particles concentrate. Several superparticles that have similar radial position as well as similar energy are merged, while one superparticle is divided into several particles with a somewhat different velocity when the total number of superparticles decreases. The methods enable more precise determination of the characteristics of an IEC device in a shorter time than by previous methods.

Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Kansai University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

397

1 DEMONSTRATION OF NUCLEAR FUSION IN AN ORDINARY CLAY FLOWER POT  

E-print Network

This work demonstrates a sustainable nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen using a clay flower port as a reactor vessel. Our novel approach uses a “charge mirror ” that reduces the electromagnetic repulsion between nuclei enough to allow fusion initiation at room temperature. The device can also be used as a secure error-free transgalactic communications pipe with zero latency and near infinite bandwidth. I.

Albert Einstein; Er Bell; Richard Feynman

2002-01-01

398

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven  

E-print Network

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven September 2010 Abstract This short note provides a new and straightforward proof of the original fusion theorem of Alperin, then considers so-called domestic intersections, which are special types of tame intersections that should play a role in fusion

Craven, David A.

399

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Xiangyu Wang  

E-print Network

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Method Xiangyu Wang National Univ. of Singapore multimedia's nature of hav- ing multiple information sources, fusion methods are criti- cal for its data analysis and understanding. However, most of the traditional fusion methods are static with respect to time

Rui, Yong

400

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)  

E-print Network

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE ON DEVELOPING THE MISSION & RESEARCH GOALS Gerald A. Navratil Columbia University Fusion Power Associates 32st in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

401

Fusion-Fission Hybrids Driven By Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a desire to resolve fuel cycle issues for increasing the role of nuclear energy. The recent Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) initiative that builds upon NIF ignition, is likely to rekindle national interest in developing intense, high power ion beam accelerators for fusion energy production and for fusion-fission hybrid concepts that combine an ion beam driven fusion neutron

P. A. Seidl

402

A Fusion Development Facility on the Critical Path to Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF's nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

Chan, V. S. [General Atomics, San Diego; Stambaugh, R [General Atomics, San Diego

2011-01-01

403

A fusion development facility on the critical path to fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF s nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

Chan, Dr. Vincent [General Atomics; Canik, John [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

2011-01-01

404

A fusion development facility on the critical path to fusion energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF's nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

Chan, V. S.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Garofalo, A. M.; Canik, J.; Kinsey, J. E.; Park, J. M.; Peng, M. Y. K.; Petrie, T. W.; Porkolab, M.; Prater, R.; Sawan, M.; Smith, J. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wong, C. P. C.

2011-08-01

405

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-print Network

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

406

High Level Information Fusion developments, issues, and grand challenges: Fusion 2010 panel discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the High-Level Information Fusion (HLIF) Panel Discussion is to present contemporary HLIF advances and developments to determine unsolved grand challenges and issues. The discussion will address the issues between low-level (signal processing and object state estimation and characterization) and high-level information fusion (control, situational understanding, and relationships to the environment). Specific areas of interest include modeling (situations,

Erik Blasch; James Llinas; Dale Lambert; Pierre Valin; Subrata Das; Chee Chong; Mitch Kokar; Elisa Shahbazian

2010-01-01

407

Fusion of radioactive $^{132}$Sn with $^{64}$Ni  

E-print Network

Evaporation residue and fission cross sections of radioactive $^{132}$Sn on $^{64}$Ni were measured near the Coulomb barrier. A large sub-barrier fusion enhancement was observed. Coupled-channel calculations including inelastic excitation of the projectile and target, and neutron transfer are in good agreement with the measured fusion excitation function. When the change in nuclear size and shift in barrier height are accounted for, there is no extra fusion enhancement in $^{132}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni with respect to stable Sn+$^{64}$Ni. A systematic comparison of evaporation residue cross sections for the fusion of even $^{112-124}$Sn and $^{132}$Sn with $^{64}$Ni is presented.

J. F. Liang; D. Shapira; J. R. Beene; C. J. Gross; R. L. Varner; A. Galindo-Uribarri; J. Gomez del Campo; P. A. Hausladen; P. E. Mueller; D. W. Stracener; H. Amro; J. J. Kolata; J. D. Bierman; A. L. Caraley; K. L. Jones; Y. Larochelle; W. Loveland; D. Peterson

2007-04-05

408

Pyroelectric devices and materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of pyroelectric detectors is reviewed, including a discussion of response and electronic noise and their dependence on device design and material parameters. Other sources of noise are described, particularly as generated by environmental effects such as microphony, together with techniques for their minimization. The range of ferroelectric materials which have been assessed for use in pyroelectric detectors is reviewed and their properties compared, particularly from the aspect of application to different types of device. Finally, an account is given of the wide range of applications for which pyroelectric detectors have been used, including a detailed description of both the pyroelectric vidicon and pyroelectric arrays and their application to thermal imagers.

Whatmore, R. W.

1986-12-01

409

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

SciTech Connect

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07

410

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Segmental Spinal Fusion in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Spinous Process Tricortical Autograft  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To investigate clinical and radiological outcomes when using spinous process as a tricortical autograft for segmental spinal fusion in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Overview of Literature Interbody spinal fusion is one of the important procedures in spinal surgery. Many types of autografts are harvested at the expense of complications. Clinical and radiographic results of patients who underwent TLIF with intraoperative harvested spinous process autograft in Prasat Neurological Institue, Bangkok, Thailand, were assessed as new technical innovation. Methods Between October 2005 to July 2009, 30 cases of patients who underwent TLIF with spinous process tricortical autograft were included. Clinical evaluations were assessed by visual analog scales (VAS) and Prolo functional and economic scores at the preoperation and postoperation and at 2 years postoperation. Static and dynamic plain radiograph of lumbar spine were reviewed for achievement of fusion. Results Initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion with spinous process tricortical autograft was 4.72 months (range, 3.8-6.1 months) postoperation and 100% fusion rate was reported at 2 years. Our initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion was compared to the other types of grafts in previous literatures. Conclusions The use of intraoperative harvested spinous process tricortical autograft has overcome many disadvantages of harvesting autograft with better initial successful fusion time (4.72 months). VAS and Prolo scores showed some improvement in the outcomes between the preoperative and postoperative periods. PMID:24761199

Tangviriyapaiboon, Teera

2014-01-01

411

BOOK REVIEW: Fusion: The Energy of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book outlines the quest for fusion energy. It is presented in a form which is accessible to the interested layman, but which is precise and detailed for the specialist as well. The book contains 12 detailed chapters which cover the whole of the intended subject matter with copious illustrations and a balance between science and the scientific and political context. In addition, the book presents a useful glossary and a brief set of references for further non-specialist reading. Chapters 1 to 3 treat the underlying physics of nuclear energy and of the reactions in the sun and in the stars in considerable detail, including the creation of the matter in the universe. Chapter 4 presents the fusion reactions which can be harnessed on earth, and poses the fundamental problems of realising fusion energy as a source for our use, explaining the background to the Lawson criterion on the required quality of energy confinement, which 50 years later remains our fundamental milestone. Chapter 5 presents the basis for magnetic confinement, introducing some early attempts as well as some straightforward difficulties and treating linear and circular devices. The origins of the stellarator and of the tokamak are described. Chapter 6 is not essential to the mission of usefully harnessing fusion energy, but nonetheless explains to the layman the difference between fusion and fission in weapons, which should help the readers understand the differences as sources of peaceful energy as well, since this popular confusion remains a problem when proposing fusion with the `nuclear' label. Chapter 7 returns to energy sources with laser fusion, or inertial confinement fusion, which constitutes both military and civil research, depending on the country. The chapter provides a broad overview of the progress right up to today's hopes for fast ignition. The difficulty of harnessing fusion energy by magnetic or inertial confinement has created a breeding ground for what the authors call `false trails', since it is so tempting to produce a `backroom' solution to mankind's hunger for energy. Unfortunately, Chapter 8 can only regret that none of them has passed closer peer review. Chapters 9 and 10 concentrate on the `tokamak' concept for magnetic confinement, the basis for the JET and ITER projects, as well as for a wealth of smaller, national projects. The hopes and the disappointments are well and very frankly illustrated. The motivation for building a project of the size of ITER is made very clear. Present fusion research cannot forget that its mission is to develop an industrial reactor, not just a powerful research tool. Chapter 11 presents the major challenges between ITER and a reactor. Finally, Chapter 12 reminds us of why we need energy, why we do not have a credible solution at the mid-term (20 years) and why we have no solution in the longer term. The public awareness of this is growing, at last, even though the arguments were all on the table in the 1970's. This chapter therefore closes the book by bringing the reader back to earth rather suitably with the hard reality of energy needs and the absence of credible policies. This book has already received impressive approval among a wide range of people, since it so evidently succeeds in its goal to explain Fusion to many levels of reader. Gary McCracken and Peter Stott (one time editor of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion) both dedicated their careers to magnetic confinement fusion, mostly at Culham working on UKAEA projects and later on the JET project. They were both deeply involved with international collaborations and both were working abroad when they retired. The mixture between ideas, developments and people is most successfully developed. They clearly underline the importance of strong international collaboration on which this field depends. This open background is tangible in their recently published work, in which they have tried to communicate their love and understanding of this exciting field to the non-specialist. Their attempt has resulted in a remarkable success, filling a

Lister, J.

2006-05-01

412

Fusion hindrance and roles of shell effects in superheavy mass region  

E-print Network

We present the first attempt of systematically investigating the effects of shell correction energy for a dynamical process, which includes fusion, fusion-fission and quasi-fission processes. In the superheavy mass region, for the fusion process, shell correction energy plays a very important role and enhances the fusion probability when the colliding partner has a strong shell structure. By analyzing the trajectory in three-dimensional coordinate space with the Langevin equation, we reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of the fusion probability caused by `cold fusion valleys'. The temperature dependence of shell correction energy is considered.

Y. Aritomo

2006-09-18

413

Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for

J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski; R. P. Ashley; D. R. Boris; B. B. Cipiti; S. Krupakar Murali; G. R. Piefer; R. F. Radel; T. E. Radel; A. L. Wehmeyer

2005-01-01

414

Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has been prepared in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to consider possible alternatives on reduced cost options for “next-step” devices. A central focus of next-step devices is the study of “burning” plasmas, which explore the impact of substantial fusion energy production via the deuterium-tritium reaction.

Charles C. Baker

2000-01-01

415

Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), detecting small-scale primary devices---such as wireless microphones (WMs)---is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. We identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary devices. In particular, we derive a closed-form expression for the optimal data-fusion range that minimizes

Alexander W. Min; Xinyu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2010-01-01

416

Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), detecting small- scale primary devices—such as wireless microphones (WMs)— is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. We identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary devices. In particular, we derive a closed-form expression for the optimal data-fusion range

Alexander W. Min; Xinyu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2010-01-01

417

Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1999-01-01

418

Syncytial fusion of human trophoblast depends on caspase 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of human placental villous trophoblast includes syncytial fusion of cytotrophoblast forming syncytiotrophoblast. Early stages of the apoptosis cascade were described to be involved in this differentiation process. We investigated the role of the initiator caspase 8 in syncytial fusion in vitro, cultivating placental villous explants with or without caspase 8 antisense oligonucleotides or peptide inhibitors for up to 120

S Black; M Kadyrov; P Kaufmann; B Ugele; N Emans; B Huppertz

2004-01-01

419

Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1999-01-05

420

Information fusion for CB defense applications: Challenge and opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information fusion aims at a synergistic exploitation of multiple information sources, to enable decision-making or to enhance its performance. The sources include sensors of various modalities and characteristics, as well as sources which are not sensors. We discuss the challenges of information fusion, technical directions and approaches that can cope with those challenges, and the opportunities those approaches enable. Several

Jerome J. Braun; Yan Glina; Austin Hess; Timothy J. Dasey; Edward C. Wack

2009-01-01

421

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights  

E-print Network

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

422

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1  

E-print Network

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1 and St´ephane Hong Tuan Ha2 1 INRIA Rh^one-Alpes 655, av. de l composition method which strives to reconcile modularity and efficiency. Our technique, network fusion fusion. Fusion allows to replace internal commu- nications by assignments and alleviates most time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Nuclear fusion - Focus on Tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of nuclear fusion engineering is presented covering: basic fusion technology, magnetic and inertial confinement schemes, fusion fuel, tritium breeding, blankets, tritium containment and disposal, fusion process waste management, power generation costs, environmental impact, and safety. Attention is focused on closed magnetic confinement systems, specifically Tokamak systems. The outlook for pulsed\\/batch or continuous Tokamak operation is assessed. Power supplies

D. Steiner

1977-01-01

424

Feature-level sensor fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two practical fusion techniques for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data ta the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescreened before the fusion stage. The cued fusion method assumes that one of the sensors is designated as a primary sensor, and thus ATC is only

Tamar Peli; Mon Young; Robert Knox; Kenneth K. Ellis; Frederick Bennett

1999-01-01

425

Cluster-impact fusion  

SciTech Connect

Deuteron-deuteron fusion, detected via the 3-MeV protons produced, is shown to occur when singly charged clusters of 25 to 1300 D{sub 2}O molecules, accelerated to 200 to 325 keV, impinge on TiD targets. The energy and cluster-size dependence of the fusion rate are discussed. The fusion events are shown to originate from the cluster-ion impacts rather than from D{sup +} or D{sub 2}O{sup +} ions in the beam. The observed rates may be correlated with the compressions and high energy densities created in collision spikes by cluster-ion impacts.

Beuhler, R.J.; Friedlander, G.; Friedman, L. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (US))

1989-09-18

426

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03

427

Plasma-Surface Interaction Studies on DIII-D and Their Implications for Next-Step Fusion Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Unique diagnostic and access features of the DIII-D tokamak, including a sample exposure system, have been used to carry out controlled and well-diagnosed plasma-surface interactions (PSI) experiments. An important contribution of the experiments has been the ability to link a given plasma exposure condition to a measured response of the plasma-facing surface and to thus understand the interaction. This has allowed for benchmarking certain aspects of erosion models, particularly near-surface particle transport. DIII-D has empirically quantified some of the PSI effects that will limit the operation availability and lifetime of future fusion devices, namely, net erosion limiting divertor plate lifetime and hydrogenic fuel retention in deposit layers. Cold divertor plasmas obtained with detachment can suppress net carbon divertor erosion, but many low-temperature divertor PSI phenomena remain poorly understood: nondivertor erosion sources, long-range particle transport, global erosion/deposition patterns, the enhancement of carbon erosion with neon impurity seeding, the sputtered carbon velocity distribution, and the apparent suppression of carbon chemical erosion in detachment. Long-term particle and energy fluences have reduced the chemical erosion yield of lower-divertor tiles. Plasma-caused modification of a material's erosion properties, including material mixing, will occur quickly and be important in long-pulse fusion devices, making prediction of PSI difficult in future devices.

Whyte, D.G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

2005-10-15

428

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

429

Analytical Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid 60s under contract with NASA, Dr. Benjamin W. Grunbaum was responsible for the development of an automated electrophoresis device that would work in the weightless environment of space. The device was never used in space but was revived during the mid 70s as a technology utilization project aimed at an automated system for use on Earth. The advanced system became known as the Grunbaum System for electrophoresis. It is a versatile, economical assembly for rapid separation of specific blood proteins in very small quantities, permitting their subsequent identification and quantification.

1983-01-01

430

Listening Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We've covered most of the basics of how sound is produced and transmitted, but we've left something out, and that's all the electronic devices we use to amplify sound, reproduce it, or get it from one place to another. How exactly does a CD player work? How does a phone work? And how exactly do those two listening devices we carry on either side of our head work? No, not headphones, even though it might seem that some kids do have those permanently attached. The item in question is our ears.

Robertson, William C.

2003-01-01

431

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1993-01-01

432

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1996-01-01

433

Ion manipulation device  

DOEpatents

An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

2014-09-16

434

Fusion materials: Adapting to realistic reactor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been considerable movement in the fusion materials field since the last International Workshop on Reactor Design was held in Madison (1977). Some of the movement has been forward; e.g., we now have much better theoretical descriptions of the melting, vaporization, and electromechanical stresses imposed on first wall material during plasma disruptions. Some of the movement has been sideways, e.g., the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) now has slipped 3 years in its schedule since the last conference 4 years ago. Finally, there has been very little progress in the fields of pulsed damage simulation for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Systems, definition of the radiation spectra from ICF targets, or the experimental determination of disruption characteristics for magnetic fusion devices. Several new ideas have appeared since 1977 such as the use of low swelling martensitic alloys, the use of a much more favorable breeding material, Pb83Li17, and there have been two major efforts to design materials test facilities: INTOR and TASKA.

Kulcinski, G. L.

1981-10-01

435

Information Fusion Technology and Its Application to Fire Automatic Control System of Intelligent Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-sensor information fusion applied to intelligent building field and a corresponding control scheme of fire automation control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. There are six levels in the control scheme, including sensor layer, sensor subsystem layer, primary fusion subsystem layer, decision management subsystem layer, actuator subsystem layer and actuator layer. The functions, constitutions and adaptive

Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang

2007-01-01

436

Spectral Label Fusion  

E-print Network

We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers ...

Wachinger, Christian

437

Laser-Driven Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

Gibson, A. F.

1980-01-01

438

Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

2004-02-20

439

Pulsed Operation of Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device (C-device) is being developed at U of I as a portable neutron source for activation analysis.^1 The device consists of a cylindrical 56-inch long, 4.5-inch dia. glass vacuum chamber containing ~0.5 mTorr of D2 fill gas; a hollow 3.5-inch diameter cylindrical cathode; two 3.5-inch dia. cylindrical anodes; and two concave focusing cathode

John Demora; Robert Stubbers; Mike Willliams; Yibin Gu; George H. Miley

1996-01-01

440

Electrochemical device  

DOEpatents

A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1988-01-12

441

ITER Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2009-12-01

442

ITER Fusion Energy  

ScienceCinema

ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2010-01-08

443

Signal processing aspects of fusion plasma broadband reflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave reflectometry is a radar technique utilized by nuclear fusion diagnostics to evaluate the plasma electron density distribution (density profile) and its local fluctuations in experimental devices, e,g., tokamaks. It exploits the fact that an electromagnetic wave launched into the plasma is reflected at the layer where the refractive index vanishes. By mixing the incident and reflected waves, a phase-modulated

Fernando D. Nunes; J. M. N. Leitao

1999-01-01

444

Virtual Laboratory for Technology For Fusion Energy Science  

E-print Network

. · A gas gun based DT pellet fueling system that continuously supplies 5-mm diameter cryogenic DT pellets for attractive fusion power sources, by 3) conducting advanced design studies that integrate the wealth of our understanding to guide R&D priorities and by developing design solutions for next-step and future devices. #12

445

WHITE PAPER: Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) William M. Tang  

E-print Network

to confidently predict toroidal magnetic confinement fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted-scope grows over 5 years to ~$22M/year effort · 2-year national effort producing FSP Plan, involving ~ 6 FES (theory & experiment) and ASCR (applied math & computer science) communities · Integrated science

446

Microstructured optical fiber devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present several applications of microstructured optical fibers and study their modal characteristics by using Bragg gratings inscribed into photosensitive core regions designed into the air-silica microstructure. The unique characteristics revealed in these studies enable a number of functionalities including tunability and enhanced nonlinearity that provide a platform for fiber device applications. We discuss experimental and numerical tools that allow

Benjamin J. Eggleton; Charles Kerbage; Paul Westbrook; Robert S. Windeler; Arturo Hale

2001-01-01

447

Precombustion ionization device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precombustion ionization devices are disclosed for treating the vaporizable liquid fuel in internal combustion engines, including at least one foraminous member prepared from a catalytic metal having an oxide coating on the surface thereof. The foraminous member, or screen, is spaced from the carburetor and the engine intake of the internal combustion engine by means of a supporting gasket. The

J. B. Jr. Hicks; D. J. Hicks

1978-01-01

448

78 FR 60291 - Investigational Device Exemptions for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain First in Human Studies; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including Certain First in Human...

2013-10-01

449

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2014-04-01

450

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2013-04-01

451

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2010-04-01

452

Diamond Electronic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

Isberg, J.

2010-11-01

453

Tire deflation device  

DOEpatents

A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-01-05

454

Living Expenses (includes approximately  

E-print Network

Expenses and Financial Guarantee for International Students Spring 2015 -Fall 2015 Summer Estimated Technology, Facilites, Student Activities, International. 3 SUMMER ESTIMATES - Full-time summer expenses) Lower Division including Associate: 1st and 2nd-year students Upper Division (admitted Summer 2003

Maroncelli, Mark

455

Living Expenses (includes approximately  

E-print Network

://www.bursar.psu.edu. Fees include Information Technology, Facilites, Student Activities, International. Summer 2013 Guarantee for International Students Fall 2014 - Spring 2015 University Park, Hershey, Dickinson, and Great Valley $20,900 $21,300 3 SUMMER 2014-2015 ESTIMATES - Full-time summer expenses are figured by adding

Yener, Aylin

456

Terahertz devices and device modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we review some of the present technologies of interest for terahertz (THz) applications, and the physics and modeling of ultra-high frequency devices such as high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) which have achieved THz frequencies. We present results of full band Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) physics based simulation of InP and GaN based HEMTs of current interest to industry, and in particular, we address the current limitations in their frequency response in terms of the material and device structure, and the ultimate limits of scaling for such technologies.

Soligo, R.; Saraniti, M.; Goodnick, S. M.

2014-06-01

457

Materials issues in fusion reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks are steels for the first wall and other structurals, copper alloys for the heat sink, and beryllium for facing the plasma. For the TBMs, the materials that need to be developed include beryllium and/or beryllium-titanium alloys for neutron multiplication, lithium-bearing compounds for tritium generation, and the liquid metal coolants like lead-lithium eutectic in which lead acts as a neutron multiplier and lithium as a tritium breeder. The other materials that need attention of the materials scientists include superconductors made of NbTi, Nb3Sn and Nb3Al for the tokamaks, coatings or ceramic inserts to offset the effect of corrosion and the MHD in liquid metal cooled TBMs, and a host of other materials like nano-structured materials, special adhesives and numerous other alloys and compounds. Apart from this, the construction of the tokamaks would necessitate development of methodologies of joining the selected materials. This presentation would deal with the issues related to the development, characterization and qualification of both the structural as well as the functional materials required to carry forward the challenging task of harnessing fusion energy for use of mankind in engineered systems.

Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

2010-02-01

458

Recent Medical Device Recalls  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Recalls Medical Device ...

459

Including Your Child  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, recently released by the US Department of Education, deal with special needs children and their parents. Including Your Child is a booklet for parents that deals with the first eight years of life for children with special needs. Its eight brief sections discuss the importance of the family, help and support systems, expectations, how to plan to meet expectations, inclusion, and outreach. It also contains a developmental progress chart and several sections of resource information.

460

NATURE | NEWS Laser fusion nears crucial milestone  

E-print Network

alternative technologies for imploding the fuel. Engineers inspect the fusion chamber at the National Ignition thought it had ignition in the bag," says Wurden. Instead, NIF's approach to heating and compressing studying an array of tweaks, including encasing the fuel in beryllium or diamond instead of plastic

461

MAST-Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources  

E-print Network

machine to include the Super-X divertor design, an innovative plasma exhaust system that, if successful fusion concept pioneered at Culham and since developed around the world. Now a major machine upgrade has will bring expertise and equipment to enhance MAST-Upgrade. In return, we will provide a machine uniquely

462

Feature level fusion for hyperspectral images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for detecting poultry skin tumors based on serial feature fusion in hyperspectral images. First, some transform methods, including principal component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and band ratio method, are used to generate largely independent datasets in the hyperspectral fluorescence images. Then, the kernel discriminant analysis is utilized to extract features from each represented dataset

Chengzhe Xu; Intaek Kim; Seong G. Kong

2009-01-01

463

Status of silicon carbide composites for fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide composites are currently being investigated as potential fusion energy structural materials in the United States, the European Community and Japan. This paper presents an overview of some of the recent issues regarding the use of this low activation material including the radiation performance of present day materials and the direction towards the development of radiation hardened SiC composites.

L. L Snead; R. H Jones; A Kohyama; P Fenici

1996-01-01

464

Status of silicon carbide composites for fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide composites are currently being investigated as potential fusion energy structural materials in the United States, the European Community and Japan. This paper presents an overview of some of the recent issues regarding the use of this low activation material including the radiation performance of present day materials and the direction towards the development of radiation hardened SiC composites.

Snead, L. L.; Jones, R. H.; Kohyama, A.; Fenici, P.

1996-10-01

465

Multisensor fusion, communications and information warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todays fusion problems are chiefly concerned with organizational and procedural issues. The technology they employ is mostly available state-of-the-art. The future brings a new set of concerns centered about issues that are more technical in nature. Future military command and control and weapons systems will likely be more distributed, more automated and smarter. They will probably include an advanced form

D. Schutzer

1983-01-01

466

Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

2013-08-20

467

FusionFinder: A Software Tool to Identify Expressed Gene Fusion Candidates from RNA-Seq Data  

PubMed Central

The hallmarks of many haematological malignancies and solid tumours are chromosomal translocations, which may lead to gene fusions. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques at the transcriptome level (RNA-Seq) have been used to verify known and discover novel transcribed gene fusions. We present FusionFinder, a Perl-based software designed to automate the discovery of candidate gene fusion partners from single-end (SE) or paired-end (PE) RNA-Seq read data. FusionFinder was applied to data from a previously published analysis of the K562 chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cell line. Using FusionFinder we successfully replicated the findings of this study and detected additional previously unreported fusion genes in their dataset, which were confirmed experimentally. These included two isoforms of a fusion involving the genes BRK1 and VHL, whose co-deletion has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of renal-cell carcinoma. FusionFinder is made freely available for non-commercial use and can be downloaded from the project website (http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/fusionfinder/). PMID:22761941

Francis, Richard W.; Thompson-Wicking, Katherine; Carter, Kim W.; Anderson, Denise; Kees, Ursula R.; Beesley, Alex H.

2012-01-01

468

Semiconductor structure and devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor devices such as lasers which include a substrate with a channel therein with a clad layer overlying the substrate and filling the channel exhibit irregularities such as terraces in the surface of the clad layer which are detrimental to device performance. These irregularities are substantially eliminated by forming the channel in a surface of a buffer layer greater than about 4 micrometers thick on the substrate and forming the clad layer over the buffer layer and the channel. CW lasers incorporating the principles of the invention exhibit the highest output power in a single spatial mode and maximum output power which have been observed to date.

Dinkel, Nancy A. (Inventor); Goldstein, Bernard (Inventor); Ettenberg, Michael (Inventor)

1987-01-01

469

Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality  

PubMed Central

Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on the theory of exon/domain shuffling. The model leads to a hypothesis that a fusion is more likely to be an oncogenic driver if its partner genes act like hubs in a network because the fusion mutation can deregulate normal functions of many other genes and their pathways. The hypothesis is supported by the observation that for most known cancer fusion genes, at least one of the fusion partners appears to be a hub in a network, and even for many fusions both partners appear to be hubs. Based on this model, we construct fusion centrality, a multi-gene-based network metric, and use it to score fusion drivers. We show that the fusion centrality outperforms other single gene-based methods. Specifically, the method successfully predicts most of 38 newly discovered fusions that had validated oncogenic importance. To our best knowledge, this is the first network-based approach for identifying fusion drivers. Availability: Matlab code implementing the fusion centrality method is available upon request from the corresponding authors. Contact: perwu777@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23505294

Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

2013-01-01

470

78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof; Institution...tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof by reason of...tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof that...

2013-01-08

471

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2004-09-01

472

Low latency long wave infrared visible fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human factors issues related to head mounted imaging systems have driven the requirements for system latency to nearly the bounds of sensor physics. Image processing must therefore be performed in an envelope that is ever decreasing in size. This paper presents a complete method for intelligent fusion of a long wave infrared and visible sensor, including contrast enhancement in both spectrums, with end to end processing latency of less than 1 millisecond. The use of image statistics and opponent color theory allows fusion with minimal computational resources and latency. This algorithm has demonstrated performance without inducing any noticeable human factors issues during user trials.

Robison, Derek

2014-06-01

473

Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-15

474

Edge ambipolar potential in toroidal fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A series of issues with toroidally confined fusion plasmas are related to the generation of 3D flow patterns by means of edge magnetic islands, embedded in a chaotic field and interacting with the wall. These issues include the Greenwald limit in Tokamaks and reversed-field pinches, the collisionality window for ELM mitigation with the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamaks, and edge islands interacting with the bootstrap current in stellarators. Measurements of the 2D map of the edge electric field E{sup r}(r=a,?,?) in the RFX reversed-field pinch show that E{sup r} has the same helicity of the magnetic islands generated by a m/n perturbation: in fact, defining the helical angle u=m??n?+?t, maps show a sinusoidal dependence as a function of u, E{sup r}=E{sup ~r}sin?u. The associated E?×?B flow displays a huge convective cell with v(a)?0 which, in RFX and near the Greenwald limit, determines a stagnation point for density and a reversal of the sign of E{sup r}. From a theoretical point of view, the question is how a perturbed toroidal flux of symmetry m/n gives rise to an ambipolar potential ?=?{sup ~}sin?u. On the basis of a model developed with the guiding center code ORBIT and applied to RFX and the TEXTOR tokamak, we will show that the presence of an m/n perturbation in any kind of device breaks the toroidal symmetry with a drift proportional to the gyroradius ?, thus larger for ions (?{sub i}????{sub e}). Immediately, an ambipolar potential arises to balance the drifts, with the same symmetry as the original perturbation.

Spizzo, G., E-mail: gianluca.spizzo@igi.cnr.it; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Puiatti, M. E.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy)] [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Abdullaev, S. S.; Schmitz, O. [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany)] [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENE