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1

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device...component spinal device made from a variety of materials, including titanium and polymers. The device is inserted into the...

2013-04-01

2

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device...component spinal device made from a variety of materials, including titanium and polymers. The device is inserted into the...

2010-04-01

3

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device...component spinal device made from a variety of materials, including titanium and polymers. The device is inserted into the...

2012-04-01

4

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device...component spinal device made from a variety of materials, including titanium and polymers. The device is inserted into the...

2011-04-01

5

Wafer fusion: materials issues and device results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of novel devices have been recently demonstrated using wafer fusion to integrate materials with different lattice constants. In many cases, devices created using this technique have shown dramatic improvements over those which maintain a single lattice constant. We present device results and characterizations of the fused interface between several groups of materials

A. Black; A. R. Hawkins; N. M. Margalit; D. I. Babic; Y.-L. Chang; P. Abraham; J. E. Bowers; E. L. Hu

1997-01-01

6

'Pinch-Tormac' - A new fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion device consisting of two linear theta pinches connected by two tormac-like sectors in a racetrack configuration is proposed. The device, designated the Pinch-Tormac, allows the feeding of the end losses of the two linear theta pinches into each other and is, in principle, magnetohydrodynamically stable. The confinement properties of the device are discussed, considering the sheath confinement time

T. Hatori; A. K. Sen

1979-01-01

7

Parametric Study of Axisymmetric Fusion Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different axisymmetric magnetic mirror fusion machines are examined in order to optimize the ratio the fusion power produced by them to the power injected into them to maintain the plasma. These three devices were chosen to study the continuum between a simple mirror and a tandem mirror. This allowed the evolutionary process leading from the simple to the tandem

William Scott Ducar

1987-01-01

8

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25

9

Edge turbulence measurements in toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews measurements of edge plasma turbulence in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with an emphasis on recent results in tokamaks. The dominant feature of edge turbulence is a high level of broadband density fluctuations with a relative amplitude deltan\\/n ~ 5 100%, accompanied by large potential and electron temperature fluctuations. The frequency range of this turbulence is ~10 kHz

S. J. Zweben; J. A. Boedo; O. Grulke; C. Hidalgo; B. La Bombard; R. J. Maqueda; P. Scarin; J. L. Terry

2007-01-01

10

Magnetic systems for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

Henning, C.D.

1985-02-01

11

21 CFR 888.3080 - Intervertebral body fusion device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3080 Intervertebral body fusion device. (a) Identification. An intervertebral body...

2014-04-01

12

Planar geometry inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the classic gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion reactor, ion bombardment of the grid leads to heating, thermionic electron emission, significant power loss, and ultimately melting of the grid. Gridless IEC devices have sought to overcome these limitations. Klein reported a gridless device in which ions are circulated as a linear beam in an electrostatic analogue of an optical resonator. To overcome limits of stored ions due to space charge effects at the turning regions, the device employed multiple overlapping traps. The work reported here seeks to further increase the turning region space in a gridless trap by employing a planar geometry. Ion trapping in the planar device was examined by simulating trajectories of 2H+ ions with SIMION 8.1 software. Simulations were carried out using multiple potentials as in Klein's device and for a single potential trap as a planar analogue of the anharmonic ion trap. Scattering by background gas was simulated using a hard sphere collision model, and the results suggested the device will require operation at low pressure with a separate ion source.

Knapp, Daniel R.

2015-03-01

13

77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers,...

2012-10-04

14

78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Investigations...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by...

2013-03-19

15

77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers; Notice...devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by...

2012-11-26

16

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H.F.

1981-11-01

17

Hot cell facility design for large fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Large hot cell facilities will be necessary to support the operation of large fusion devices. The supporting hot cells will be needed to serve a variety of different functions and tasks, which include reactor component maintenance, tool and maintenance equipment repair, and preparation of radioactive material for shipment and disposal. This paper discusses hot cell facility functions, requirements, and design issues and techniques. Suggested solutions and examples are given.

Barrett, R.J.; Bussell, G.T.

1985-01-01

18

Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt.  

PubMed

Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base. PMID:19690360

Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos

2009-09-01

19

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOEpatents

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01

20

Assessment of Bioplex Interbody Fusion Device in a Sheep Lumbar Fusion Model  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioPlex bioresorbable interbody device in a sheep lumbar fusion model and compare it to the concorde®, a standard carbon fiber interbody cage. Background Lumbar interbody fusion devices are made from a variety of materials, including titanium alloys, carbon-fiber, and PEEK. The BioPlex Continuous Phase Composite (CPC) is a unique bioresorbable material comprised of Pro Osteon 500R and 70:30 Poly (L/D, L-lactic acid). The BioPlex device is radiolucent, resorbable and due to its bulk nanoporosity of 8%, has a more consistent degradation profile as compared to a polymer alone. Methods A total of twenty five male Suffolk sheep were used in this study; nineteen of which were implanted with a bioPlex or concorde device at the L3-L4 and L5-L6 levels using a modified transforaminal/lateral approach. A discectomy was performed and each implant (filled with autologous bone) was placed within the disc space. The sheep were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24 months postimplantation. Fusion was assessed via motion, radiographic and histological data. Results The BioPlex and Concorde implanted levels had significantly less motion (p<0.05) than the normal controls in flexion/extension and lateral bending at 6, 12, and 24 months. No significant difference in motion was detected between the bioPlex and concorde implants. CT fusion scores correlated with the motion analysis in all the three cases. Conclusion In comparison to the concorde device, the bioPlex implant appears to have equivalent radiographic and biomechanical fusion success. PMID:24027458

Fredericks, Douglas C.; Gandhi, Anup A.; Grosland, Nicole M.; Smucker, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

21

Parametric Study of Axisymmetric Fusion Devices.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different axisymmetric magnetic mirror fusion machines are examined in order to optimize the ratio the fusion power produced by them to the power injected into them to maintain the plasma. These three devices were chosen to study the continuum between a simple mirror and a tandem mirror. This allowed the evolutionary process leading from the simple to the tandem mirror to be examined in detail. The Kelley mirror, which corresponds to the middle step, was examined in depth for the first time. A computer code that models the plasma in these machines was written to investigate the steady state operation of these machines. The balance equations are solved by using an ordinary differential equation solver, LSODE ^{11}, to numerically solve the system of differential equations. Unlike previous methods, this technique allowed for a quick, inexpensive, and exhaustive examination of parameter space and has the added advantage that the steady state solutions obtained are numerically stable, which is not always the case with fixed point iteration. Furthermore, this computer model also permitted investigation of the use of polarized fuels, which has not been done before in mirror machines. The computer model was used to examine parameter space to optimize Q for each of the three machines. When feasible, a comparison with a Fokker-Planck code was made for the optimal Q case for each machine. It was found that the computer model compared favorably with the Fokker -Planck code, HYBRIDII^{22}. HYBRIDII used 54 minutes of Cray-1 computing time for a tandem mirror case to reach steady state, while the computer model obtained a steady state solution in one and a half minutes. Finally, the possible roles these devices might fill was discussed. It was found that none of the devices appeared suited for the role of a pure fussion electrical power plant. However, the Kelley machine and tandem machine appeared to be strong candidates for the role of a hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Also, the neutron flux from all three devices was large enough for them to be considered as sources of high energy neutrons for material testing. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Ducar, William Scott

1987-09-01

22

Electrostatic Lithium Injection for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant problems in fusion devices is controlling the recycling of hydrogen that is not used in the fusion process. A powerful getter of hydrogen, lithium, if injected into regions where it is needed, may getter hydrogen much more efficiently. Current lithium evaporation systems are inefficient in controlling where lithium deposits once injected, and a system that can control where it deposits would be invaluable. A solution may lie in a concept called electrospray, where charged lithium particles could be produced and controlled via electric and magnetic fields to target areas in need of getting impurities. While the electrospray concept has been used in other applications, the technique has yet to be applied to lithium injection. Preliminary research into the viability of an Electrostatic Lithium Injector (ELI) have shown that such a system may be capable of producing the lithium droplets and spray, and experiments are being performed to determine the optimal design. Modeling is also being done into using the ELI for repair of PFCs, and possibly even ELM control. Simulation has shown a lithium droplet can be made to follow an arbitrary path with application of a time varying voltage from 10 to -1700 V to the center stack of a tokamak. One run was able to calculate the voltage function required to make a lithium particle take a helical path.

Fiflis, Peter; Andruczyk, Daniel; Surla, Vijay; Ruzic, David

2011-11-01

23

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to methods of controlling in the steady state, neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices, and in particular, to methods of controlling the flux and energy distribution of collided neutrons which are incident on an outboard wall of a toroidal fusion device.

Jassby, D.L.; Micklich, B.J.

1983-06-01

24

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

2013-03-15

25

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (˜100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

2013-03-01

26

D-3He fusion in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fusion fuels, D and 3He, have been successfully fused in an inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. It is thought that this is the first known fusion of helium-3 with deuterium on a steady state basis. The detection of 14.7 MeV protons has confirmed the reaction of D-3He fusion, and has produced a continuous, charged particle

R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; S. Krupakar Murali; G. Piefer

1999-01-01

27

Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

1999-05-01

28

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.  

PubMed

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

2013-03-01

29

Variable control of neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices  

DOEpatents

An arrangement is provided for controlling neutron albedo in toroidal fusion devices having inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls for containment of the neutrons of a fusion plasma. Neutron albedo material is disposed immediately adjacent the inboard wall, and is movable, preferably in vertical directions, so as to be brought into and out of neutron modifying communication with the fusion neutrons. Neutron albedo material preferably comprises a liquid form, but may also take pebble, stringer and curtain-like forms. A neutron flux valve, rotatable about a vertical axis is also disclosed.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Micklich, Bradley J. (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01

30

Skyshine study for next generation of fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A shielding analysis for next generation of fusion devices (ETR/INTOR) was performed to study the dose equivalent outside the reactor building during operation including the contribution from neutrons and photons scattered back by collisions with air nuclei (skyshine component). Two different three-dimensional geometrical models for a tokamak fusion reactor based on INTOR design parameters were developed for this study. In the first geometrical model, the reactor geometry and the spatial distribution of the deuterium-tritium neutron source were simplified for a parametric survey. The second geometrical model employed an explicit representation of the toroidal geometry of the reactor chamber and the spatial distribution of the neutron source. The MCNP general Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport was used to perform all the calculations. The energy distribution of the neutron source was used explicitly in the calculations with ENDF/B-V data. The dose equivalent results were analyzed as a function of the concrete roof thickness of the reactor building and the location outside the reactor building.

Gohar, Y.; Yang, S.

1987-02-01

31

Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

Racene, Diana

2003-08-01

32

Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

2014-01-01

33

Biomechanical Characteristics of an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device  

PubMed Central

Introduction We hypothesized that an Integrated Lumbar Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) will function biomechanically similar to a traditional anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX) plus posterior instrumentation (FIREBIRD, Orthofix, Lewisville, TX). Purpose of this study was to determine if an Integrated Interbody Fusion Device (PILLAR SA) can stabilize single motion segments as well as an anterior interbody spacer (PILLAR AL) + pedicle screw construct (FIREBIRD). Methods Eight cadaveric lumbar spines (age: 43.9±4.3 years) were used. Each specimen's range of motion was tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) under intact condition, after L4-L5 PILLAR SA with intervertebral screws and after L4-L5 360° fusion (PILLAR AL + Pedicle Screws and rods (FIREBIRD). Each specimen was tested in flexion (8Nm) and extension (6Nm) without preload (0 N) and under 400N of preload, in lateral bending (±6 Nm) and axial rotation (±5 Nm) without preload. Results Integrated fusion using the PILLAR SA device demonstrated statistically significant reductions in range of motion of the L4-L5 motion segment as compared to the intact condition for each test direction. PILLAR SA reduced ROM from 8.9±1.9 to 2.9±1.1° in FE with 400N follower preload (67.4%), 8.0±1.7 to 2.5±1.1° in LB, and 2.2±1.2 to 0.7±0.3° in AR. A comparison between the PILLAR SA integrated fusion device versus 360° fusion construct with spacer and bilateral pedicle screws was statistically significant in FE and LB. The 360° fusion yielded motion of 1.0±0.5° in FE, 1.0±0.8° in LB (p0.05). Conclusions The PILLAR SA resulted in motions of less than 3° in all modes of motion and was not as motion restricting as the traditional 360° using bilateral pedicle screws. The residual segmental motions compare very favorably with published biomechanical studies of other interbody integrated fusion devices. PMID:25694931

Voronov, Leonard I.; Vastardis, Georgios; Zelenakova, Julia; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M.; Waldorff, Erik I.; Zindrick, Michael R.

2014-01-01

34

On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1  

E-print Network

On Lithium Wall and Performance of Magnetic Fusion Device S. I. Krasheninnikov1 , L. E. Zakharov2 It is shown that lithium walls resulting in zero recycling conditions at the edge of magnetic fusion device strong impact of fully absorbing lithium walls on the performance of magnetic fusion devices have been

Krstic, Miroslav

35

FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets  

SciTech Connect

The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

1983-04-01

36

PEEK Versus Ti Interbody Fusion Devices: Resultant Fusion, Bone Apposition, Initial and 26 Week Biomechanics.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: Comparative evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biomechanics, resulting fusion and histomorphometric aspects of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) versus Titanium (Ti) interbody fusion devices in an animal model with similar volumes of bone graft. OBJECTIVE:: Identify differences in the characteristics of fusion and biomechanics immediately following implantation (time zero) and at 26 weeks with each interbody implant. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: PEEK has been well accepted in spinal surgery, it provides a closer match to the mechanical properties of bone than metallic implants such as titanium. This is thought to reduce graft stress shielding and subsidence of interbody fusion devices. There remains controversy as to the overall influence of this as a factor influencing resultant fusion and initial stability. While material modulus is one factor of importance, other design factors are likely to play a large role determining overall performance of an interbody implant. METHODS:: A Ti and PEEK device of similar size with a central void to accommodate graft material were compared. The PEEK device had a ridged surface on the caudal and cephalad surfaces, while Ti device allowed axial compliance and had bone ingrowth endplates and polished internal surfaces. A two level ALIF was performed in 9 sheep and fusion, biomechanics, and bone apposition were evaluated at 26 weeks. Time zero in vitro biomechanical tests were performed to establish initial stability immediately following implantation. RESULTS:: No differences were detected in the biomechanical measures of each of the devices in in vitro time zero tests. All levels were fused by 26 weeks with considerably lower Range of Motion (ROM) when compared to in vitro tests. ROM in all modes of bending was reduced by over 70% when compared to intact values for Axial Rotation (Ti-74%, PEEK-71%), Lateral Bending (Ti-90%, PEEK-88%) and Flexion/Extension (Ti-92%, PEEK-91%). Mechanical properties of fusions formed with each implant did not differ, however bone apposition was variable with polished internal Ti surfaces being lower than PEEK and treated Ti endplates showing the greatest levels. Graft material displayed axial trabecular alignment with both implants. CONCLUSIONS:: Although material properties and surface characteristics resulted in differing amounts of biological integration from the host, both implants were capable of producing excellent fusion results using similar volumes of bone graft. PMID:22801456

Pelletier, Matthew; Cordaro, Nicholas; Lau, Abe; Walsh, William R

2012-07-13

37

Interfacing between concrete and steel construction and fusion research devices  

SciTech Connect

In 1976 Giffels Associates, Inc. an architect/engineer organization, was retained by the United States Department of Energy to provide Title I and Title II design services and Title III construction inspection services for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor now being installed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey. Construction of the complex required to house and serve the reactor itself, designed by others, now commencing. During building construction several problems occurred with respect to the interface between the building design, construction and the fusion device (reactor). A brief description of some of these problems and related factors is presented, which may be of benefit to those persons active in continuing fusion research and experimental work.

Willoughby, E.

1981-01-01

38

78 FR 32689 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...portable electronic communications devices, including mobile phones and...

2013-05-31

39

Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10/sup 6/ atoms/cm/sup 3/ with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed.

Husinsky, W.R.

1980-08-01

40

Pressure Sensitivity Studies of an Electrostatic Fusion Neutron Device Using a Particle-in-Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

The background deuterium neutral gas pressure is a major operational parameter affecting the physics of the ionized gas discharge in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) axial-cylindrical fusion neutron generator device (C-Device). There is uncertainty in its actual value in previous experiments. The cylindrical hollow IEC modeling program (CHIMP) computer code is a particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo-collision (PIC-MCC) model that includes ionization and secondary electron emission processes and is used to give preliminary results for the ionized gas physics behavior and neutron generation in the C-Device for a range of pressure calibration factors.

Bromley, Blair P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

2002-01-15

41

Deaths in custody: Are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER® devices) or excited delirium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaths have occurred after law-enforcement incidents involving applications of electronic control devices (ECDs) (including TASER® devices). An “excited delirium” syndrome (reported in the literature prior to the development of ECDs currently in use), however, includes several factors that may be related to such deaths in custody. In this review, potential detrimental effects of ECDs are compared with possible changes due

James R. Jauchem

2010-01-01

42

Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

2012-03-01

43

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device with an ion source using a magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is studied for a compact fusion neutron\\/proton source using a built-in magnetron ion source. The addition of an ion source to the IEC fusion device enhances fusion reactions by allowing a lower operating gas pressure and by providing a beam-like ion energy distribution. Under lower gas pressures, charge exchange collisions are reduced, resulting

T. Takamatsu; K. Masuda; T. Kyunai; H. Toku; K. Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

44

Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10/sup 10/ to 10/sup 11/ rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/.

Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

1983-12-07

45

Wall reflection issues for optical diagnostics in fusion devices.  

PubMed

The problem of light reflection has been raised as a high priority issue for optical diagnostics in next step fusion devices where metallic wall environment will generate significant perturbations in the diagnostics measurements. Tore Supra is a large size tokamak equipped with water-cooled stainless-steel panels used to sustain the plasma long shot radiations. These panels are highly reflective and affect significantly optical systems. In particular, we show that the infrared imaging diagnostic, which surveys the plasma facing component surface temperature for safety purposes, can give incorrect information due to reflected light coming from the bottom limiter. In the visible range, motional Stark effect and Zeff measurements experience important drifts during the plasma heating phases due to parasitic light coming from the limiter, but also from the plasma itself when the viewing lines are facing the reflecting walls. In the next step fusion devices such as ITER, the possibility to use optical measurements needs to be accessed by a modeling of the diagnostic light in its machine environment and the development of new techniques of online correction. PMID:21033985

Lotte, Ph; Aumeunier, M H; Devynck, P; Fenzi, C; Martin, V; Travère, J M

2010-10-01

46

78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation AGENCY...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of certain claims...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of one or...

2013-08-05

47

78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission is soliciting...devices, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint names as respondents...

2013-07-03

48

77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof Institution...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof by...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...

2012-06-08

49

77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof, DN...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof....

2012-05-08

50

75 FR 74080 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-749 In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors...States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors...States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including...

2010-11-30

51

75 FR 63856 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-741] In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors...States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including monitors...States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices, including...

2010-10-18

52

75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers, by reason of...devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that infringe...

2010-01-28

53

78 FR 38361 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Institution...communications devices, including mobile phones and components thereof, by reason...communications devices, including mobile phones and components thereof, by...

2013-06-26

54

76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet...wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and...

2011-08-01

55

Self-organizing plasma behavior in multiple grid IEC fusion devices for propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, IEC, of charged particles for the purpose of producing fusion energy is a low mass alternative to more traditional magnetic and inertial confinement fusion schemes. Experimental fusion production and energy efficiency in IEC devices to date has been hindered by confinement limitations. Analysis of the major loss mechanisms suggests that the low pressure beam-beam interaction regime holds

Thomas McGuire; Carl Dietrich; Raymond Sedwick

2004-01-01

56

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the

Yasushi Yamamoto; Ryousaku Kusaba; Takayuki Shirouzu; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

57

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03

58

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

59

78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction...entitled Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof, DN...

2013-06-06

60

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Complex Fusion Devices Using CAD-MCNPX Interface Mengkuo Wang  

E-print Network

a user-friendly interface. They also provide functionalities that can evaluate the geometryThree-Dimensional Modeling of Complex Fusion Devices Using CAD-MCNPX Interface Mengkuo Wang 1 for the ARIES-CS[2] design, is described. I. INTRODUCTION For a commercial power plant fusion device, many

California at San Diego, University of

61

Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many facilities in the field of nuclear fusion devices, inertial electrostatic confinement (IECF) device has the specific\\u000a character of tendency to generate fusion products continuously. Besides the distinctive characteristics, it has become an\\u000a outstanding focus of interest for many scientists because of several applications such as the ability of performing hydrogen\\u000a boron fusion. This paper summarizes primary results of

V. Damideh; A. Sadighzadeh; A. Koohi; A. Aslezaeem; A. Heidarnia; N. Abdollahi; F. Abbasi Davani; R. Damideh

62

Recent progress in wall material development and of surface technology for fusion devices at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development of materials and material processes associated with the plasma--wall interaction in magnetically confined fusion devices includes current and near-term problems which must be solved to advance plasma confinement research. The major elements to be considered for the materials and processes are (a) impurity release and surface modification; (b) hydrogen isotope recycling, retention, and permeation; (c) high

Y. Murakami; T. Abe

1987-01-01

63

Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices.  

PubMed

A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe. PMID:24593580

Chang, D H; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Park, M; Lee, K W; In, S R

2014-02-01

64

Fusion Engineering Device frame seal welder and cutter  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is being designed in a torus shape using ten removable segments to form the torus geometry. The torus consists of a frame and ten shield assemblies which fit into the frame. It is necessary to seal the shield segment to the frame for the assembly to sustain an internal vacuum. Designs for the seal, the welder to weld the seal in place, the cutter to remove the seal, and the handling fixture for seal installation and removal are presented. The concept for the seal installation is novel in that precise alignment of the seal to the torus frame and shield assemblies is not required. Vacuum handling technology is used for handling the three story tall, twelve foot wide, fragile, relatively light weight seal. The welder and cutter assemblies track off the seal handling fixture, eliminating the need for complex rails on each of the shield segments. The entire seal installation and removal system has been designed for remote operation.

Watts, K.D.; Williams, S.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; McPherson, R.S.; Masson, L.S.

1981-10-01

65

78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and...

2013-01-08

66

Effects of Electrode Shape on Performance Characteristics of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

The effects of beam convergence on the fusion reaction rate in the cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device are investigated using a two-dimensional simulation code and experiments. It is found from the simulation that the fusion reaction rate increases significantly with an increase of beam convergence; therefore, there is an increase of ion densities at the center region. In the experiments designed to confirm these results using different electrode shapes, the effects of the anode shape are clearly observed.

Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kusaba, Ryousaku; Shirouzu, Takayuki; Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

67

Effects of the Cathode Grid Wires on Fusion Proton Measurements in Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2011-01-01

68

Deaths in custody: are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER devices) or excited delirium?  

PubMed

Deaths have occurred after law-enforcement incidents involving applications of electronic control devices (ECDs) (including TASER devices). An "excited delirium" syndrome (reported in the literature prior to the development of ECDs currently in use), however, includes several factors that may be related to such deaths in custody. In this review, potential detrimental effects of ECDs are compared with possible changes due to excited delirium. Although extreme (i.e., long-duration or repeated) exposures to ECDs can result in significant hyperkalaemia, acidaemia, and myoglobinemia in animal models, limited applications (such as those normally used in law-enforcement situations) would appear to have only transient effects. In addition, the hyperthermia observed in patients with excited delirium does not seem to be directly exacerbated by ECD applications. ECD use is unlikely to be a common cause of ventricular fibrillation, but other events that are generally associated with excited delirium (e.g., drug use) may be related to subsequent ventricular fibrillation or asystole. Metabolic or respiratory acidosis may only be serious consequences of long-duration or repeated ECD applications. On the basis of current available information, factors other than ECDs themselves may be more important when death occurs after the use of ECDs. PMID:20083043

Jauchem, James R

2010-01-01

69

Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ?107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

Winterberg, F.

2005-11-01

70

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

Herman, Robin

1990-10-01

71

Analysis of compression and burn of ion-beam inertial fusion targets including radiation transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents implosion results of a new ion-beam inertial fusion target which has been designed for use in a reactor study, HIBALL-II. This target has been simulated using an updated version of the MEDUSA-KA code which includes radiation transport. The target contains 4 mg of DT fuel which is protected against radiative preheat by a high-Z, high- rho lead

N. A. Tahir; K. A. Long

1986-01-01

72

Analysis of compression and burn of ion-beam inertial fusion targets including radiation transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents implosion results of a new ion-beam inertial fusion target which has been designed for use in a reactor study, HIBALL-II. This target has been simulated using an updated version of the MEDUSA-KA code which includes radiation transport. The target contains 4 mg of DT fuel which is protected against radiative preheat by a high-Z, high-? lead radiation

N. A. Tahir; K. A. Long

1986-01-01

73

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...coaxial cables necessary to ensure that the unit complies with the requirements of this...submitted on a single application (FCC Form 731) and shall be authorized as a single device...such a terminal device or a stand-alone unit, shall not attenuate the input...

2010-10-01

74

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coaxial cables necessary to ensure that the unit complies with the requirements of this...submitted on a single application (FCC Form 731) and shall be authorized as a single device...such a terminal device or a stand-alone unit, shall not attenuate the input...

2013-10-01

75

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...coaxial cables necessary to ensure that the unit complies with the requirements of this...submitted on a single application (FCC Form 731) and shall be authorized as a single device...such a terminal device or a stand-alone unit, shall not attenuate the input...

2014-10-01

76

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...coaxial cables necessary to ensure that the unit complies with the requirements of this...submitted on a single application (FCC Form 731) and shall be authorized as a single device...such a terminal device or a stand-alone unit, shall not attenuate the input...

2011-10-01

77

47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...coaxial cables necessary to ensure that the unit complies with the requirements of this...submitted on a single application (FCC Form 731) and shall be authorized as a single device...such a terminal device or a stand-alone unit, shall not attenuate the input...

2012-10-01

78

Modeling Gridded Inertial-Electrostatic Fusion Devices with Short Mean Free Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices accelerate and focus ions using voltage differences between nearly transparent concentric grids in spherical or cylindrical geometry. Voltages of 50-100 kV can be produced relatively easily between the grids, giving the accelerated ions energies with substantial fusion cross sections. The resulting fusion products potentially can produce radioisotopes useful for positron emission tomography and other applications.

J. F. Santarius; R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; G. R. Piefer; K. M. Subramanian

2000-01-01

79

Performance characteristics of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device with magnetron discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source for an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device was experimentally studied aiming at a drastic improvement of fusion reaction rate. With this discharge in the vicinity of the grounded vacuum chamber, produced ions are expected to have almost full energy corresponding to the voltage applied to the central transparent cathode. Also, the magnetron-glow

Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Teruhisa Takamatsu; Masaki Imoto; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Hisayuki Toku

2003-01-01

80

Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

81

77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To...

2012-07-31

82

77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Final Determination of No...

2012-06-20

83

78 FR 56737 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...

2013-09-13

84

Simulation of RF-fields in a fusion device  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the problem of scattering off a fusion plasma is approached from the point of view of integral equations. Using the volume equivalence principle an integral equation is derived which describes the electromagnetic fields in a plasma. The equation is discretized with MoM using conforming basis functions. This reduces the problem to solving a dense matrix equation. This can be done iteratively. Each iteration can be sped up using FFTs.

De Witte, Dieter; Bogaert, Ignace; De Zutter, Daniel [Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Ghent University (Belgium); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Van Eester, Dirk [Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium)

2009-11-26

85

Microfluidic device for high-yield pairing and fusion of stem cells with somatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro cell fusion has significant potential as a biotechnology tool with applications ranging from antibody production to cellular reprogramming. However due to low fusion efficiency of the conventional electro fusion methodology the true potential of the technique has not been reached. In this paper, we report a new method which takes cell fusion efficiency two orders magnitude higher than the conventional electro fusion method. The new method, based on one-toone pairing, fusion and selection of fused cells was developed using a microfabricated device. The device was composed of two microfluidic channels, a micro slit array and a petri dish integrated with electrodes. The electrodes positioned in each channel were used to generate electric field lines concentrating in the micro slits. Cells were introduced into channels and brought in to contact through the micro slit array using dielectrophoresis. The cells in contact were fused by applying a DC pulse to electrodes. As the electric field lines were concentrated at the micro slits the membrane potential was induced only at the vicinity of the micro slits, namely only at the cell-cell contact point. This mechanism assured the minimum damage to cells in the fusion as well as the ability to control the strength and location of induced membrane potential. We introduced mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to the microfluidic channels and demonstrated high-yield fusion (> 80%). Post-fusion study showed the method can generate viable hybrids of stem cells and embryonic fibroblasts. Multinucleated hybrid cells adhering on the chip surface were routinely obtained by using this method and on-chip culturing.

Gel, Murat; Hirano, Kunio; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Tada, Takashi; Washizu, Masao

2011-12-01

86

Dust in fusion devices---a multi-faceted problem connecting high- and low-temperature plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small particles with sizes between a few nanometers and a few 10 µm (dust) are formed in fusion devices by plasma surface interaction processes. Though it is not a major problem today, dust is considered a problem that could arise in future long pulse fusion devices. This is primarily due to its radioactivity and due to its very high chemical

J. Winter

2004-01-01

87

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

Microsoft Academic Search

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-an isotope of helium with

S. Krupakar Murali; B. B. Cipiti; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2006-01-01

88

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

2014-01-01

89

Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design.

File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

1980-10-01

90

The Potential Profile and its Influence on the Neutron Yield of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

2005-01-01

91

Effects of Grid Cathode Structure on a Low-Input-Power Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of grid cathode structure on a low-input-power inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device were studied to achieve a high neutron production rate (NPR). An increase in geometric transparency of the grid cathode by decreasing the number of wire rings is known to mean that the recirculation ion current is increased. We expected that this increase would contribute to

Yasuyuki TANIUCHI; Yoshihito MATSUMURA; Katsuyoshi TAIRA; Michiaki UTSUMI; Masami CHIBA; Toshiaki SHIRAKAWA; Masatoshi FUJII

2010-01-01

92

Progress Toward a Sono-Fusion Demonstration Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Energy Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing a commercial demonstration device, based on the pioneering work of Roger Stringham (First Gate Energies). Stringham has shown how to produce excess heat from ultrasonic, cavitating bubbles, typically using D_2O, in contact with various metals. NERL has improved the power and heat measurements, by employing Seebeck envelope calorimetry. Nerl has also improved

Kenneth Rauen; Eugene Mallove

2002-01-01

93

Studies of Negative Ion Generation in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of negative ion generation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices [1] has prompted a campaign to extend understanding of negative ion phenomena in IEC devices. Theoretical studies include modeling negative ion physics in IEC devices by adding negative ion generation and propagation to a 1-D computational model of ion and fast neutral currents in IEC devices [2], to

Eric Alderson; John Santarius; Gil Emmert; David Donovan; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

94

Plasma assessments for the fusion engineering device (FED)  

SciTech Connect

An initial range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the US tokamak FED concept. The results suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 4.8 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 4.8 to 5.4 MA are appropriate for achieving its nominal goals of P(fusion) approx. = 180 MW and a plasma Q greater than or equal to to 5 for a pulse length greater than 100 s. However, large uncertainty still exists in the areas of current startup, ion-cyclotron wave launching, influence of plasma shape on achievable beta, impurity control, plasma edge transport, and plasma disruption. Various options and remedies have been suggested to alleviate the impact of the uncertainty on the FED design concept. They appear promising because they can be studied experimentally and are not expected to lead to fundamental design modifications of FED.

Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.; Lyon, J.F.

1981-01-01

95

Remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device  

SciTech Connect

Tokamak design studies for the past five years have emphasized the importance of device maintenance by developing configurations based strongly on component disassembly. These configuration-oriented considerations have not, however, addressed the means by which a component is replaced, namely the maintenance procedures and the equipment needed. A detailed study of the replacement of a torus sector is the basis for identifying the stepwise maintenance procedures and the major equipment needed to accomplish this task. The replacement scenario is described in six stages, along with the requirements for general purpose and special purpose equipment.

Spampinato, P.T.

1982-01-01

96

78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S....

2013-10-24

97

77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigations No. 337-TA-741 and 337-TA-749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the...

2012-01-25

98

76 FR 41522 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of...importation of certain mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers. 76 FR 24051 (Apr. 29,...

2011-07-14

99

Development of a new two color far infrared laser interferometer for future fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new two color far infrared (FIR) laser interferometer under development for future fusion devices will be presented. The laser wavelength is optimized from the consideration of the beam refraction effect due to plasma density gradient and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasmas. Laser lines of 57.2 and 47.6 mum are found to be suitable for

K. Kawahata; K. Tanaka; T. Tokuzawa; T. Akiyama; Y. Ito; S. Okajima; K. Nakayama; R. J. Wylde

2004-01-01

100

Kinetics of dust particles around the scrape off layer in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model based on the balance of charge and energy over the dust particle surface around the scrape off layer (SOL) region in fusion devices has been developed; for describing the dust mass diminution, its temperature evolution and phase change process have been taken into account. The formulation has been utilized to determine the lifetime of cylindrical and spherical dust particles. A realistic situation in fusion devices, when the plasma exhibits meso-thermal flow, has been taken into account; for this purpose a rigorous approach, pioneered by Mott-Smith and Langmuir (1926 Phys. Rev. 28 727), has been adopted to derive the general expressions for the electron (ion) current on cylindrical dust surfaces and the corresponding mean energy of accreting electrons/ions in a flowing plasma. On the basis of analytical modelling the numerical results for the dust electric potential energy and the lifetime of the dust particles corresponding to a typical plasma environment near the SOL region of Mega Ampere Spherical tokamak (MAST)/Joint European Torus (JET) fusion devices have been evaluated for graphite and tungsten dust particles. The results are graphically illustrated as functions of particle size, electron/ion temperature and plasma ionization. It is seen that a large dust particle immersed in low temperature plasma can survive for long time; as an important outcome it is also noticed that the cylindrical particles of tungsten last longer than spherical particles. The findings are of relevance in characterizing and simulating the effects of a variety of dusts for experimental campaigns in large scale (ITER/Demo-like) fusion devices.

Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.

2014-05-01

101

An in-situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science in magnetic fusion devices  

E-print Network

Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices such as fuel retention, material erosion and redeposition, and material mixing present significant scientific and engineering challenges, particularly for the ...

Hartwig, Zachary Seth

2014-01-01

102

Solid radiographic fusion with a nonconstrained device 5 years after cervical arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been gaining popularity as a surgical alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Spontaneous fusion following a CDA is uncommon. A few anecdotal reports of heterotrophic ossification around the implant sites have been noted for the BRYAN, ProDisc-C, Mobi-C, PRESTIGE, and PCM devices. All CDA fusions reported to date have been in devices that are semiconstrained. The authors reported the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with left C-7 radiculopathy and neck pain for 10 weeks after an assault injury. There was evidence of disc herniation at the C6-7 level. He was otherwise healthy with functional scores on the visual analog scale (VAS, 4.2); neck disability index (NDI, 16); and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36; physical component summary [PSC] score 43 and mental component summary [MCS] score 47). The patient underwent total disc replacement in which the DISCOVER Artificial Cervical Disc (DePuy Spine, Inc.) was used. The patient was seen at regular follow-up visits up to 60 months. At his 60-month follow-up visit, he had complete radiographic fusion at the C6-7 level with bridging trabecular bone and no motion at the index site on dynamic imaging. He was pain free, with a VAS score of 0, NDI score of 0, and SF-36 PCS and MCS scores of 61 and 55, respectively. Conclusions This is the first case report that identifies the phenomenon of fusion around a nonconstrained cervical prosthesis. Despite this unwanted radiographic outcome, the patient's clinical outcome was excellent. PMID:25303618

Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M; Getto, Katarzyna M; Agarwal, Nitin

2014-12-01

103

Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1987-07-01

104

Prediction of potential well structure formed in spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices with various parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the theoretical analysis regarding potential structure on the inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices has been carried out. Negatively biased grid as cathode placed at the center of the device surrounded by anode is assumed. The device is an ion-injection system and electrons may be emitted from the surface of the cathode. So the existence of both ion and electron currents inside the cathode is considered. Dependence of radial potential well structure on some important parameters as the spreads in the normalized total and angular electron and ion energies, the ratio of ion circulating current to electron circulating current, ion perveance, and grid transparency are investigated by solving Poisson equation.

Ghasemi, M.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Amrollahi

2013-06-01

105

MAGPIE: A new linear plasma device for studying fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-surface interactions are crucial to determining the success of ITER and the ultimate viability of generating fusion power under steady state conditions. The first walls of magnetic fusion reactors must sustain large particle and heat fluxes and present a major challenge to achieving fusion power. To answer fundamental questions about the science of plasma-surface interactions at the complex fusion boundary a new purpose-built linear plasma device, the prototype MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE), has been constructed at The Australian National University (ANU) to develop novel diagnostics and test materials under aggressive plasma conditions. In this work we employ optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and fast imaging to characterize the plasma environment and its interaction with various materials. It will be shown that a well-collimated plasma is created in the downstream region with a diameter of about 2 cm. High-energy electrons are observed along the axis of the discharge and the power deposition region is transferred to where the magnetic field maximum occurs in the downstream region. These findings indicate that efficient non-collisional heating occurs downstream of the plasma source.

Corr, Cormac; Samuell, Cameron; Blackwell, Boyd; Howard, John; Caneses, Juan; Lester, Romana

2012-10-01

106

76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-06-02

107

76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission Determination...certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, and computers by reason of infringement of...

2011-07-12

108

78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Docket No 2954] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...received a complaint entitled Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...Procedure filed on behalf of Black Hills Media, LLC on May 13, 2013. The...

2013-05-17

109

78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 337-TA-882] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray...S.C. 1337, on behalf of Black Hills Media, LLC of Wilmington, Delaware. The complaint...States after importation of certain digital media devices, including televisions,...

2013-06-18

110

77 FR 64827 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has terminated the above-captioned investigation with a finding of violation of section 337, and has issued a general exclusion order directed against infringing lighting control devices including dimmer switches and parts thereof, and cease and desist orders directed against respondents American Top Electric Corp. (``American......

2012-10-23

111

Development of accelerator based spatially resolved ion beam analysis techniques for the study of plasma materials interactions in magnetic fusion devices  

E-print Network

Plasma-material interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices pose significant scientific and engineering challenges for the development of steady-state fusion power reactors. Understanding PMI is crucial for the develpment ...

Barnard, Harold Salvadore

2014-01-01

112

Detection of highly enriched uranium and tungsten surface damage studies using a pulsed inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in this thesis examines two applications of a pulsed Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (EEC) fusion device: detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and tungsten surface damage studies. In order to complete this thesis, a pulsed IEC device was developed that is capable of generating converging ion pulses with widths ranging from 0.1 to 5 ms at frequencies between 1

Ross F. Radel

2007-01-01

113

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in suitcases, packages, or shipping containers.Steady-state D-D operation is possible using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device. The University of Wisconsin IEC device has produced D-D neutrons at 1.8 x 10{sup 8} neutrons/second at a true cathode voltage of 166 kV and a meter current of 68 mA. These neutron production rates are approaching the levels required for the detection of explosives. In order to increase and optimize the neutron production rate in the IEC device, experiments were performed altering the cathode's size (diameter), geometry, and material composition. Preliminary results indicate that significant differences in neutron production rates are not achieved by altering the geometry or material composition of the cathode. However, the neutron production rate was found to increase approximately 20% by doubling the cathode's diameter from 10 cm to 20 cm. In addition, increasing the cathode voltage from 34 kV to 94 kV at a meter current of 30 mA increased the neutron production rate from 1.24 x 10{sup 6} n/s to 2.83 x 10{sup 7} n/s.

Wehmeyer, A.L.; Radel, R.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2005-05-15

114

Physics of the edge plasma and first wall in fusion devices: synergistic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various synergistic effects resulting from plasma–wall interactions in magnetic fusion devices are considered. The crucial role of the first wall out-gassing processes in the recovery of pedestal density in the high-confinement mode of tokamak operation after giant type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) transient events as well as in the setting the ELM period is discussed. The shielding effects of vapor plasma formed during interactions of extremely large plasma heat fluxes with material surfaces are analyzed. The strongly non-linear impact of secondary electron emission from the divertor target on the incident plasma heat flux is discussed.

Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu; Lee, Wonjae

2015-04-01

115

One Dimensional Simulation of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device at Low Gas Pressure Operation  

SciTech Connect

Using a 1-D particle code, we have analyzed characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device with external ion source which is added to enable low pressure operation. When the pressure becomes low, though neutron yield decreases, the decreasing amount is less than estimated from the decrease in background (target) gas density and it is confirmed that ions are accelerated efficiently with little energy loss through charge-exchange collision with background gas at low pressure. And when the pressure is lower than 0.05Pa, almost all injected ions reach to the cathode and it is expected that applying high geometrical transparency enhances accumulation of ion and enlarges neutron yield.

Noborio, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

116

Scaling, stability, and fusion mechanisms. Studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to tenth of joules  

SciTech Connect

Fusion studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to less than one joule performed at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission are presented. The similarity of the physical behavior and the scaling observed in these machines are emphasized. Experiments on actual devices show that scaling holds at least through six order of magnitude. In particular all of these devices, from the largest to the smallest, keep the same quantity of energy per particle. Therefore, fusion reactions are possible to be obtained in ultraminiature devices (driven by generators of 0.1 J), as they are in the bigger devices (driven by generators of 1 MJ). However, the stability of the plasma depends on the size and energy of the device.

Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile); Tarifeno, Ariel [Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

2009-01-21

117

Study of Fuel Ratios on the Fusion Reactivity in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device Using a Residual Gas Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gridded Inertial Electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest due to their flexibility in burning advanced fuels,\\u000a their tuning ability of the applied voltage to the reaction cross-section. Although this device is not suitable for power\\u000a production in its present form, it does have several near term applications. The number of applications of this device increases\\u000a with increasing fusion reactivity.

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

118

High dynamic range imaging on mobile devices using fusion of multiexposure images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the real world scenes have a high dynamic range which exceeds the range of the imaging devices, the captured images sometimes contain under-exposed and saturated regions. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method to achieve high dynamic range (HDR) rendering results from three multiexposure images comprising under-, normal-, and over-exposure. First, we generate the weight function, for the fusion of multiexposure images, according to the brightness. Then, we employ the bilateral filter-based retouching to enhance image details, especially in the dark regions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method produces clear details in images and achieves natural HDR rendering results on mobile imaging devices.

Jung, Cheolkon; Yang, Yanru; Jiao, Licheng

2013-10-01

119

Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

1990-05-01

120

Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2006-05-15

121

Confinement of ions in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device and its influence on neutron production rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a one-dimensional particle code, low pressure and large current discharge in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device has been simulated, and confinement level of ions and the neutron yield through beam–beam fusion have been investigated.From the calculation of low-pressure operation, it is clear that the averaged life span of ions is extended but converges to a value corresponding

Kazuyuki Noborio; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yukihisa Ueno; Satoshi Konishi

2006-01-01

122

Performance of a low-pressure, helicon driven IEC helium-3 fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the 3He(3He,2p)4He fusion reaction is interesting for many reasons ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics to fusion energy. While this reaction has been studied in particle accelerators, its behavior at low energy (< 1 MeV) is not fully characterized due to low accelerator beam currents (< 1 mA) and the low reaction cross-section. The spherical recirculation of ions in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device offers the potential to explore these reactions at sub MeV energy levels, but with ion currents as high as 100 mA or more. Such a capability would improve counting statistics tremendously, and be a valuable tool for characterizing this reaction at these low energies. This dissertation focuses on the development of an IEC device toward this end, with the final goal of detecting 3He(3He,2p) 4He reactions. Many facets of IEC technology were enhanced to accomplish this, and these enhancements will also play a major role in the development of IEC devices for near-term applications. Some of the major enhancements were: (1) the maximum operating voltage was increased from 55 kV to 170 kV, (2) the lifetime of insulators was increased from about 1 month to 6 months, (3) a gas recycle system was developed that allowed the reuse of 3He gas after it flowed through the system, (4) an ion source was developed that allowed operation at 1/3 the previous minimum pressure with seven times the current, (5) the same ion source was developed to give independent control over the ion current, (6) a proton detection system was developed that reduced the noise level in the detection system by 2 orders of magnitude. These developments have allowed for the detection of 3He( 3He,2p)4He reactions at the rates of 144 +/- 44 reactions/sec at 124 kV, and 400 +/- 67 reactions/sec at 134 kV, with a maximum total reactivity of 1.1 * 103 reactions/sec. These results agree to within 50% of the theoretical prediction from the combination of beam-background and beam-embedded fusion, and represent the first time 3He-3He reactions have been observed in an IEC device.

Piefer, Gregory R.

123

SELF-SIMILAR SKELETAL STRUCTURES IN FUSION AND MATERIAL TEST DEVICES: NUMERICAL MODELING AND NEW OBSERVATIONAL DATA  

SciTech Connect

The hypotheses for self-assembling of a fractal condensed matter in electric discharges and the probable role of a skeletal matter in the long-lived filamentary structures in fusion devices is studied in two directions. First, we append previous collection of respective data with recent evidences for skeletal structuring in peripheral plasmas and dust deposits in fusion and material test devices. Second, we demonstrate, via numerical modelling, the possibility of coaxial tubular structuring formation in a system of electric current filaments composed of magnetized, electrically conducting thin rods (nanodust), with an accent on self-reduction of spatial dimensionality of structuring and on the role of magnetic in such systems.

Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

2009-07-26

124

Multi-Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Contextual Awareness of Everyday Activities with Ubiquitous Devices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

Guiry, John J.; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

2014-01-01

125

Study of magnetic nanoparticles and overcoatings for biological applications including a sensor device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I. A general introduction to the field of nanomaterials is presented, highlighting their special attributes and characteristics. Nanoparticles in general are discussed with respect to their structure, form and properties. Magnetic particles in particular are highlighted, especially the iron oxides. The importance and interest of integrating these materials with biological media is discussed, with emphasis on transferring particles from one medium to another, and subsequent modification of surfaces with different types of materials. II. A general route to making magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is explained, both as maghemite and magnetite, including properties of the particles and characterization. A novel method of producing magnetite particles without a ligand is then presented, with subsequent characterization and properties described. III. Attempts to coat iron oxide nanoparticles with a view to creating biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles are presented, using a gold overcoating method. Methods of synthesis and characterization are examined, with unique problems to core-shell structures analyzed. IV. Solubility of nanoparticles in both aqueous and organic media is discussed and examined. The subsequent functionalization of the surface of maghemite and magnetite nanoparticles with a variety of biomaterials including block copolypeptides, phospholipids and carboxydextran is then presented. These methods are integral to the use of magnetic nanoparticles in biological applications, and therefore their properties are examined once tailored with these molecules. V. A new type of magnetic nanoparticle sensor-type device is described. This device integrates bio-and DNA-functionalized nanoparticles with conjugate functionalized silicon dioxide surfaces. These techniques to pattern particles to a surface are then incorporated into a device with a magnetic tunnel junction, which measures magnetoresistance in the presence of an external magnetic field. This configuration thereby introduces a new way to detect magnetic nanoparticles via their magnetic properties after conjugation via biological entities.

Grancharov, Stephanie G.

126

Measurement of Ion Energy Distribution in a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) Device  

SciTech Connect

In recent researches, an assisted glow discharge experiment using an external ion source has been tried to reduce operation gas pressure. As results, operating gas pressure has been successfully reduced from 1.5 Pa to 0.3 Pa, and the neutron production rate has increased.These results are considered to be due to an increase of ion energy. However, it is necessary to measure the ion energy distribution of the Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (C-IECF) device in order to confirm this. To do this, we have measured the distribution of the neutral particle beam energy (relative to ion energy distribution). These experimental results demonstrate that a decrease of operation gas pressure (from 1.7 Pa to 0.3 Pa) contributes to the increase in ion energy.

Ueno, Yukihisa; Tomizawa, Takahito; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

127

Effects of Grid Structures and Dielectric Materials of the Holder in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device modeling has been carried out. Finite element method is used in a 3D media\\u000a in order to identify the potential and electrical fields inside the device. The effects of different materials on the electrostatic\\u000a features are found. In addition, different geometric arrangements for cathode sphere (i.e. inner grid) are considered for\\u000a the determination of

E. KurtS; S. Arslan; M. E. Güven

128

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

129

Polymicrogyria includes fusion of the molecular layer and decreased neuronal populations but normal cortical laminar organization.  

PubMed

Malformations of cortical development are frequently identified in surgical resections for intractable epilepsy. Among the more frequently identified are cortical dysplasia, pachygyria, and polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of these common developmental anomalies remains uncertain. Polymicrogyria is particularly vexing because there are multiple described forms (2, 4, and 6 layers) that have been attributed to multiple etiologies (e.g. ischemic, genetic, infectious, and toxic). We reviewed the pathology in 19 cases and performed cortical laminar analysis in 10 of these cases. Our data indicate that a defining feature of polymicrogyriais fusion of the molecular layer and that most often there is a well-defined gray matter-white matter junction. Unexpectedly, the cortical laminae were normally positioned, but there were reduced neuronal populations within these laminae, particularly in the subgranular layers. On the basis of these data, we propose that the categorization of polymicrogyria according to the number of lamina is artificial and should be abandoned, and polymicrogyria should be defined according to the presence or absence of coexisting neuropathological features. Furthermore, our data indicate that polymicrogyria is not a cell migration disorder, rather it should be considered a postmigration malformation of cortical development. PMID:21572338

Judkins, Alexander R; Martinez, Daniel; Ferreira, Pamela; Dobyns, William B; Golden, Jeffrey A

2011-06-01

130

Polymicrogyria Includes Fusion of the Molecular Layer and Decreased Neuronal Populations, But Normal Cortical Laminar Organization  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development are frequently identified in surgical resections for intractable epilepsy. Among the more frequently identified are cortical dysplasia, pachygyria and polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of these common developmental anomalies remains uncertain. Polymicrogyria is particularly vexing because there are multiple described forms (2, 4 and 6 layer) that have been attributed to multiple etiologies (e.g. ischemic, genetic, infectious, and toxic). We reviewed the pathology in 19 cases and performed cortical laminar analysis in 10 of these cases. Our data indicate that a defining feature of polymicrogyria is fusion of the molecular layer and that most often there is a well-defined grey matter-white matter junction. Unexpectedly, the cortical lamina were normally positioned but there were reduced neuronal populations within these lamina, particularly in the subgranular layers. Based on these data, we propose that the categorization of polymicrogyria according to the number of lamina is artificial and should be abandoned and polymicrogyria should be defined according to the presence or absence of coexisting neuropathological features. Furthermore, our data indicate that polymicrogyria is not a cell migration disorder and rather that it should be considered a post-migration malformation of cortical development. PMID:21572338

Judkins, Alexander R.; Martinez, Daniel; Ferreira, Pamela; Dobyns, William B.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

131

Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOEpatents

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26

132

Multiple cell photoresponsive amorphous photo voltaic devices including graded ban gaps  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved photoresponsive tandem multiple cell device. It comprises: at least first and second superimposed solar cells; the first cell being formed of an amorphous silicon alloy material; the second amorphous silicon alloy cell having an active photoresponsive region in which radiation can impinge to produce charge carriers. The amorphous silicon alloy cell body including at least one element for reducing the density of defect states to about 10{sup 16} defects per cubic centimeter and a band gap adjusting element graded through at least a portion of the photoresponsive region thereof to enhance the radiation absorption; the adjusting element being germanium, and the band gap of the cell being adjusted for a specified photoresponse wavelength threshold function different from the first cell; the second cell being a multi-layer body having deposited silicon alloy layers of opposite (p and n) conductivity type; and the first cell being formed with the second cell in substantially direct junction contact therebetween.

Ovshinsky, S.R.; Adler, D.

1990-09-04

133

CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 16th IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Research using Small Fusion Devices'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common research topics that are being studied in small, medium and large devices such as H-mode like or improved confinement, turbulence and transport are reported. These included modelling and diagnostic developments for edge and core, to characterize plasma density, temperature, electric potential, plasma flows, turbulence scale, etc. Innovative diagnostic methods were designed and implemented which could be used to develop

V. Gribkov; G. Van Oost; A. Malaquias; J. Herrera

2006-01-01

134

An internal view of the vacuum chamber containing the fusion device, showing two  

E-print Network

Institute have developed a tabletop accelerator that produces nuclear fusion at room temperature, providing, which is the telltale sign that nuclear fusion has occurred, according to Danon. A research team led a viable means of producing nuclear fusion, and that commercial applications may be closer than originally

Danon, Yaron

135

Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process in which two lighter atomic nuclei are combined to form a heavier atomic nucleus. Very high temperatures are normally required in order for atomic nuclei to collide with sufficient energy to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsions (each atomic nucleus has a positive charge, the magnitude of which depends on the number of protons it contains). Fusion that occurs under high-tempe...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

136

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding.  

PubMed

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

137

III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding  

PubMed Central

Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon is highly sought after for high-speed, low-power-consumption silicon photonics and low-cost, light-weight photovoltaics. Here we present a GaAs/Si direct fusion bonding technique to provide highly conductive and transparent heterojunctions by heterointerfacial band engineering in relation to doping concentrations. Metal- and oxide-free GaAs/Si ohmic heterojunctions have been formed at 300°C; sufficiently low to inhibit active material degradation. We have demonstrated 1.3 ?m InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si substrates with the lowest threshold current density of any laser on Si to date, and AlGaAs/Si dual-junction solar cells, by p-GaAs/p-Si and p-GaAs/n-Si bonding, respectively. Our direct semiconductor bonding technique opens up a new pathway for realizing ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells with ideal bandgap combinations that are free from lattice-match restrictions required in conventional heteroepitaxy, as well as enabling the creation of novel high performance and practical optoelectronic devices by III-V/Si hybrid integration. PMID:22470842

Tanabe, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

138

Characterization of scintillator screens for suprathermal ion detection in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminescence of scintillator screens of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (P46), Gd2O2S:Tb3+ (P43), Y2O3:Eu3+ (P56) and SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (TG-Green) has been characterized when irradiated with deuterium ions and ?-particles with energies up to 3 MeV. The relative efficiency of the scintillator layers deposited on stainless steel plates has been studied as a function of beam energy and current as well as ion species. The emitted light first increases linearly with beam energy and then saturates. A logarithmic decay of the efficiency with beam current has been observed for all scintillators. Furthermore, the scintillator degradation by high ion dose has been investigated. Among the screens under study, the TG-Green and P46 scintillators are the best suited materials, in terms of relative efficiency and degradation with ion dose, for fast-ion loss detection in fusion devices.

García-Muñoz, M.; Jimenez-Rey, D.; García-Lopez, J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; McCarthy, K. J.

2011-04-01

139

Energy-dependent finite-orbit treatment for plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation of hot plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices and results from this model are presented. In a small, hot magnetically confined plasma, the ion orbit radius (rho/sub i/) can be comparable to the plasma radius (R/sub p/). It a mirror-confined plasma were rho/sub i//R/sub p/ > 1/25 (such as 2XII-B), a point kinetic treatment of ion interactions becomes inaccurate and a finite gyro-radius (FGR) treatment must be used to adequately describe plasma buildup processes. This is particularly true for describing losses due to cold-gas charge exchange (c-x) near the plasma surface, since a particle lost near the vacuum interface may have contributed to the density as far as 2 rho/sub i/ radially inward from the c-x point. A similar FGR effect applies to beam-deposited ions whose large orbits influence the density up to 2 rho/sub i/ from the trapping point.

Campbell, M.M.

1980-01-01

140

Material ejection and surface morphology changes during transient heat loading of tungsten as plasma-facing component in fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of edge-localized mode like transient heat events on pristine samples for two different grades of deformed tungsten with ultrafine and nanocrystalline grains as potential candidates for plasma-facing components. Pulses from a laser beam with durations ?1 ms and operating in the near infrared wavelength were used for simulating transient heat loading in fusion devices. We specifically focused on investigating and analysis of different mechanisms for material removal from the sample surface under repetitive transient heat loads. Several techniques were applied for analysing different mechanisms leading to material removal from the W surface under repetitive transient heat loads which include witness plates for collected ejected material, and subsequent analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, visible imaging using fast-gated camera, and evaluating thermal emission from the particles using optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show a significantly improved performance of polycrystalline cold-rolled tungsten compared to tungsten produced using an orthogonal machining process under repetitive transient loads for a wide range of the power densities.

Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

2015-03-01

141

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

142

Studies of Hydrodynamic Processes in Alternative Magneto-Inertial Fusion Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the research is evaluation of the plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF) concept via simulations. To achieve this goal, the development of mathematical models and numerical algorithms for PJMIF has been performed, and large-scale simulation studies have been conducted. In the PJMIF concept, a plasma liner, formed by the merger of a large number of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on a magnetized plasma target and compresses it to conditions of the fusion ignition. 1- (spherically symmetric), 2- and 3-dimensional simulations of the implosion of plasma liners and compression of plasma targets have been performed using the FronTier code based on the method of front tracking. Scaling laws and related fusion theories have been investigated and their conclusions compared with our results. Compared to previous theoretical and numerical studies of PJMIF, our numerical models and algorithms implement several new physics models important to PJMIF. One of them is a numerical model for atomic physics processes. The influence of atomic physics processes on the plasma liners for magneto-inertial nuclear fusion has been studied based on equation of state models with dissociation and ionization. These atomic processes in imploding liners reduce the temperature and increase the Mach number of liners, result in higher stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain. Other factors influencing liner implosion are the residual vacuum gas and heat conduction. By replacing the idealized vacuum region with realistic residual gas and adding the Spitzer electronic thermal conductivity, we quantified their effects in the low-energy simulation regime. We have demonstrated that the internal structure of argon plasma liners, formed by the merger of plasma jets is strongly influenced by a cascade of oblique shock waves generated by colliding jets. Corresponding studies have been performed using 2- and 3-dimensional simulations. 10 times reduction of the stagnation pressure was found compared to spherically symmetric liner with the same pressure and density profiles at the merging radius, due to the influence of oblique shock waves and adiabatic compression heating. The experiment results of single argon plasma jet propagation and two argon plasma jets merger reported by Plasma Liner Experiment group in Los Alamos National Lab have also been compared with our simulations. A multi-stage computational approach for simulations of the liner-target interaction and the compression of plasma targets has been developed to minimize computing time. Simulations revealed important features of the target implosion process, including instability and disintegration of targets. The non-uniformity of the leading edge of the liner caused by the oblique shock waves between jets leads to instabilities during target compression. By using front tracking, the evolution of targets has been studied in 2- and 3-dimensional simulations. Optimization studies of target compression with different number of jets have also been performed.

Zhang, Lina

143

Microfluidic Control of Cell Pairing and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step represents the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device to trap and properly pair thousands of cells. Using this device we were able to pair different cell types, including fibroblasts, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and myeloma cells, achieving pairing efficiencies up to 70%. The device is compatible with both chemical and electrical fusion protocols. We observed that electrical fusion was more efficient than chemical fusion, with membrane reorganization efficiencies of up to 89%. We achieved greater than 50% properly paired and fused cells over the entire device, 5× greater than a commercial electrofusion chamber, and were able to observe reprogramming in hybrids between mESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:19122668

Skelley, Alison M.; Kirak, Oktay; Suh, Heikyung; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Voldman, Joel

2011-01-01

144

Fusion power implosion of laser-type light-ion beam driven reactor-size inertial fusion targets including radiation transport effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter presents simulation results of compression, ignition and burn of an umtamped (laser-type) inertial confinement fusion target which may be used in a reactor system driven by 33 MeV Li+ ions. These simulations have been carried out using a one-dimensional, three-temperature (electron, ion and radiation), Lagrangian ion-beam fusion code MEDUSA-KAT. The importance of thermal radiation in the simulations of

N. A. Tahir

1989-01-01

145

Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features  

DOEpatents

An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

2014-02-11

146

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied

Teruhisa Takamatsu; Kai Masuda; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Toshiyuki Kyunai

2005-01-01

147

Reactive power optimization with different objectives in large power systems including HVDC systems and FACTS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present day power systems are growing in size and complexity of operation with inter connections to neighboring systems, introduction of large generating units, EHV 400\\/765 kV AC transmission systems, HVDC systems and more sophisticated control devices such as FACTS. For planning and operational studies, it requires suitable modeling of all components in the power system, as the number of HVDC

D. Thukaram; S. Lakpathi; K. Ravishankar; S. Surendra

2009-01-01

148

Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the understanding and validate the models of the in vessel build-up of the T inventory in ITER and future D-T devices. So far, research in these areas is largely supported by post-mortem analysis of wall tiles. However, access to samples will be very much restricted in the next-generation devices (such as ITER, JT-60SA, W7-X, etc) with actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFC) and increasing duty cycle. This has motivated the development of methods to measure the deposition of material and retention of plasma fuel on the walls of fusion devices in situ, without removal of PFC samples. For this purpose, laser-based methods are the most promising candidates. Their feasibility has been assessed in a cooperative undertaking in various European associations under EFDA coordination. Different laser techniques have been explored both under laboratory and tokamak conditions with the emphasis to develop a conceptual design for a laser-based wall diagnostic which is integrated into an ITER port plug, aiming to characterize in situ relevant parts of the inner wall, the upper region of the inner divertor, part of the dome and the upper X-point region.

Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

2013-09-01

149

NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

1978-01-01

150

A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices  

SciTech Connect

A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

2010-10-11

151

Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices  

DOEpatents

A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

2012-11-06

152

Unified theory for inhomogeneous thermoelectric generators and coolers including multistage devices.  

PubMed

A novel generalized Lagrange multiplier method for functional optimization with inclusion of subsidiary conditions is presented and applied to the optimization of material distributions in thermoelectric converters. Multistaged devices are considered within the same formalism by inclusion of position-dependent electric current in the legs leading to a modified thermoelectric equation. Previous analytical solutions for maximized efficiencies for generators and coolers obtained by Sherman [J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1 (1960)], Snyder [Phys. Rev. B 86, 045202 (2012)], and Seifert et al. [Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 760 (2010)] by a method of local optimization of reduced efficiencies are recovered by independent proof. The outstanding maximization problems for generated electric power and cooling power can be solved swiftly numerically by solution of a differential equation-system obtained within the new formalism. As far as suitable materials are available, the inhomogeneous TE converters can have increased performance by use of purely temperature-dependent material properties in the thermoelectric legs or by use of purely spatial variation of material properties or by a combination of both. It turns out that the optimization domain is larger for the second kind of device which can, thus, outperform the first kind of device. PMID:23214902

Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

2012-11-01

153

Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices  

SciTech Connect

Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

Not Available

1988-01-01

154

Magnetron-Discharge-Based Ion Source for Improvement of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

A magnetron discharge as a built-in ion source have studied both experimentally and numerically for a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). With this magnetron discharge, ions are produced in the vicinity of the vacuum chamber (anode) at negative electric potential. Therefore, produced ions are expected to have nearly full energy corresponding to the applied voltage to the IECF cathode but slightly smaller energy preventing them from hitting the anode of the opposite end, eventually improving both fusion reaction rate and ion recirculation life. Also, the magnetron ion source was found to produce ample ion current for maintenance of the discharge. With the optimization of the configuration of the magnetron discharge, further improvement of the fusion reaction rate is found feasible.

Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Kyunai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2005-05-15

155

Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

2000-06-01

156

Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

SciTech Connect

An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-02-05

157

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1\\/5 for

Kai Masuda; Kenji Taruya; Takahiro Koyama; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Hisayuki Toku; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

158

Optimizing Neutron Production Rates from D-D Fusion in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of explosives has been identified as a near term commercial opportunity for using a fusion plasma. Typical explosive compositions contain low Z material (C, N, O) which are not easily detected using conventional x-rays or metal detectors. However, 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in a D-D fusion reaction can be used for detection of explosives or other clandestine materials in

A. L. Wehmeyer; R. F. Radel; G. L. Kulcinski

2005-01-01

159

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01

160

Active noise suppression of smart panels including piezoelectric devices and absorbing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, noise reduction performance of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. Piezoelectric smart panel is comprised of plate structure on which piezoelectric sensor/actuators are bonded and sound absorbing materials. The concept of piezoelectric smart panels is to combine passive and active strategies such that the noise reduction can be effectively achieved over a broad frequency range. The noise reduction performance is tested on an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is made of a guided tube having a square cross section and loud speaker is installed at one end as a sound source while nonreflection terminator is attached at the other end. The panels can be mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmission as well as reflection of panels can be measured. Noise reduction performance of a single plate with absorbing material shows a good result at mid frequency region but little effect in the resonance frequencies. When the active control scheme is activated, a remarkable noise reduction is observed at the resonance. The combined use of absorbing materials and piezoelectric active devices brings the simultaneous noise reduction in mid and low frequency regions. It can be concluded that piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and active piezoelectric devices, is a promising technology for noise reduction in a wide band frequency.

Kim, Jaehwan; Im, Byoung-Soo; Lee, Joongkuen

2000-06-01

161

Cost comparison of patients with 3-level artificial total lumbar disc replacements versus 360° fusion at 3 contiguous lumbar vertebral levels: an analysis of compassionate use at 1 site of the US investigational device exemption clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to evaluate the difference between hospital service costs of 2 treatment options for patients diagnosed with 3-level degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the lumbar spine. In this retrospective analysis, itemized billing records of hospital stay for patients with 3-level DDD treated with artificial disc replacement (ADR) were compared with those treated with circumferential fusion (standard of care). Methods Sequential 3-level DDD patients treated with either ADR (ProDisc-L; Synthes, West Chester, Pennsylvania) or circumferential fusion during the period from January 2004 to October 2005 were included. Surgeries were performed at the same hospital for all patients. The ADR-treated patients were participating in the investigational device exemption clinical trial as part of the compassionate-use arm. Patients treated with fusion at the same institution during this same time interval were evaluated. Itemized billing records were collected at least 1 year after the index surgery. Costs according to hospital service categories were compared between ADR-treated and fusion-treated patients by use of analysis of variance and multivariate statistical techniques. Results There were 43 consecutive patients treated for 3-level DDD between January 2004 and October 2005. Of these, 21 underwent 3-level ADR and 22 had a 3-level fusion procedure. There was a mean of 3 fewer hospital days for patients treated with ADR (4.77 ± 1.11 days) than for those treated with fusion (8.00 ± 1.82 days) (P < .0001). The cost of hospital services for ADR-treated patients was 49% less excluding instrumentation costs and 54% less when accounting for instrumentation. The pattern of cost was similar when workers’ compensation patients were analyzed separately. Conclusions ADR-treated 3-level patients benefited from significantly lower costs from their in-hospital stay compared with those treated by fusion. Hospital service costs were 49% (54% when instrumentation was included in the costs) less for ADR patients than for fusion patients.

Buttacavoli, Frank A.; Delamarter, Rick B.; Kanim, Linda E.A.

2010-01-01

162

CORSICA: A comprehensive simulation of toroidal magnetic-fusion devices. Final report to the LDRD Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, our group began exploring the requirements for a comprehensive simulation code for toroidal magnetic fusion experiments. There were several motivations for taking this step. First, the new machines being designed were much larger and more expensive than current experiments. Second, these new designs called for much more sophisticated control of the plasma shape and position, as well as the distributions of energy, mass, and current within the plasma. These factors alone made it clear that a comprehensive simulation capability would be an extremely valuable tool for machine design. The final motivating factor was that the national Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) had recently received High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge funding to model turbulent transport in tokamaks, raising the possibility that first-principles simulations of this process might be practical in the near future. We felt that the best way to capitalize on this development was to integrate the resulting turbulence simulation codes into a comprehensive simulation. Such simulations must include the effects of many microscopic length- and time-scales. In order to do a comprehensive simulation efficiently, the length- and time- scale disparities must be exploited. We proposed to do this by coupling the average or quasistatic effects from the fast time-scales to a slow-time-scale transport code for the macroscopic plasma evolution. In FY93-FY96 we received funding to investigate algorithms for computationally coupling such disparate-scale simulations and to implement these algorithms in a prototype simulation code, dubbed CORSICA. Work on algorithms and test cases proceeded in parallel, with the algorithms being incorporated into CORSICA as they became mature. In this report we discuss the methods and algorithms, the CORSICA code, its applications, and our plans for the future.

Crotinger, J.A.; LoDestro, L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Tarditi, A.; Casper, T.A.; Hooper, E.B.

1997-03-21

163

Novel fusion device mimics the planets A novel device built by MIT and Columbia University researchers suggests that nature's  

E-print Network

inside it flows without resistance, creating a magnetic field that circles vertically around the ring in a "blanket" that surrounds the reactor. Kesner, Mauel, and their team spent more than six years designing and building their novel experimental device, and in summer 2004, the LDX was ready for "concept exploration

164

PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) – 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the I

Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

2015-03-01

165

Performance Characteristics of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device with a Triple-Grid System  

SciTech Connect

Performance characteristics of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion triple-grid system are experimentally studied to provide an ample fusion reaction rate under a lower-gas-pressure region to make the operation free from glow discharge restrictions between the discharge voltage, current, and gas pressure. With a filament to provide sufficient electrons, the operating gas pressure is found to reduce down to 1/5 for the same discharge current and voltage. Although the gas pressure region that was achieved still remains the region where the fusion reaction between the ion beam and background gas is dominant, the neutron yield normalized by the gas pressure in the triple-grid system shows higher value than the conventional single-grid system.

Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

166

Embedded D-{sup 3}He Fusion Reactions and Medical Isotope Production in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy 14.7 MeV protons generated from the D-{sup 3}He fusion reaction can be used to produce medical radioisotopes. Steady-state D-{sup 3}He operation is possible using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC); however, the location of the reactions must be known to use them effectively for isotope production. In University of Wisconsin IEC Device, it has been found that as much as 2/3 of the total D-{sup 3}He reaction rate can be due to embedded fusion reactions, reactions occurring within the cathode due to ion implantation. Therefore, the cathode surface sees a large, high-energy proton flux. Using a solid molybdenum cathode, and taking advantage of the embedded reactions, about 1 nCi of the medical isotope {sup 94m}Tc was created via {sup 94}Mo(p,n){sup 94m}Tc in a proof of principle experiment. This represents the first time the IEC concept has been used to produce a radioisotope using D-{sup 3}He fusion.

Cipiti, B.B.; Kulcinski, G.L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

167

Fabrication of a heterostructure device with Au/PPani-TiO2/ITO configuration and study of device parameters including current conduction mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline based composites incorporating titanium dioxide have been synthesized by an alternative pathway using reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium and plasma polymerization of aniline monomer. Structural, optical and morphological characterizations of plasma polymerized aniline (PPani) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composites (PPani-TiO2) reveal the evidence for the incorporation of TiO2 in the PPani matrix. A hybrid heterostructure device having PPani-TiO2 composite with a top gold (Au) layer and bottom indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer is fabricated. The developed heterostructure device exhibits rectifying behaviour indicating the formation of a Schottky contact between Au and PPani-TiO2. The detailed electrical measurement of the device is performed under different temperatures. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (?B) of the heterojunction diode at room temperature (300 K) are found to be 1.28 and 0.43 eV, respectively. Possible conduction mechanisms are examined using various plotting and curve fitting methods for space charge limited conduction mechanism (SCLC), Schottky emission mechanism and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanism. The heterostructure device shows best fit of SCLC process as compared to the other mechanisms including Schottky emission and PF emission.

Ara Hussain, Amreen; Ratan Pal, Arup; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

2013-08-01

168

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (?1 m), high-current (?1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields – in between plasma shots – to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ?5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-12-15

169

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (~1 m), high-current (~1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields--in between plasma shots--to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ~5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented. PMID:24387430

Hartwig, Zachary S; Barnard, Harold S; Lanza, Richard C; Sorbom, Brandon N; Stahle, Peter W; Whyte, Dennis G

2013-12-01

170

An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (˜1 m), high-current (˜1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields - in between plasma shots - to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ˜5 ?m into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.

Hartwig, Zachary S.; Barnard, Harold S.; Lanza, Richard C.; Sorbom, Brandon N.; Stahle, Peter W.; Whyte, Dennis G.

2013-12-01

171

Designing a 24/7 Fusion Device Towards Solving Plasma-materials Issues  

E-print Network

that "answers" must be eventually found on a tokamak · Fuelling: Dominated by "recycling" of fuel from material through fusion reactions. · Indefinite sustainment and duration for burning plasma. · Nuclear science power loading ~ 4 MW/m3 --> 4 MW/m2 Our "nuclear" brethren in fission ~ 40 MW/m3!! Best guess still

172

Increased hematocrit after applications of conducted energy weapons (including TASER(®) devices) to Sus scrofa.  

PubMed

Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed. PMID:21198623

Jauchem, James R

2011-01-01

173

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to {approximately}1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (>2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the US Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community -- ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to {approximately}1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R. [and others

1993-11-01

174

High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research (e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)) indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to approximately 1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (greater than 2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community--ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to approximately 1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.

175

Characterization tests of an Apitron particulate control device. Final report. [Includes electrostatic augmentation  

SciTech Connect

A 2400-acfm pilot-scale Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter was evaluated on a slip-stream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler at the EPRI Arapahoe Test Facility in Denver, Colorado. Tests made over a range of operating conditions included determination of the dependence of collection efficiency and operating pressure drop on the air-to-cloth ratio, the level of electrostatic augmentation, and the type of filter fabric (woven glass fiber, felted Nomex, and felted Teflon). The test methods used were state-of-the-art techniques for measuring particle-collection efficiencies using inertial, optical, and electrical mobility measurements. The electrical resistivity of the fly ash and the electrostatic charge of individual particles of the fly ash were also measured. Particle collection efficiencies obtained with the Apitron were comparable to those of conventional fabric filters although the operating conditions were substantially different. High collection efficiencies (>99.9%) are common in conventional units; but for reverse-gas cleaning the air-to-cloth ratios are generally less than 2 acfm/ft/sup 2/. System pressure drops range from 3 to 10 in. w.c. In operating the Apitron with woven glass bags similar to those commonly used by conventional systems, collection efficiencies greater than 99% were obtained for air-to-cloth ratios of 4.5 to 9.1 acfm/ft/sup 2/. At an air-to-cloth ratio of 4.5 acfm/ft/sup 2/, the Apitron system pressure drop was in the range of 2 to 4 in. w.c. with electrostatic augmentation and 5 to 8 in. w.c. without electrostatic augmentation. Although the unit sometimes operated in back corona, the effects of electrostatic augmentation were beneficial more often than not. Operating pressure drops of the system were considerably reduced for all filter materials tested when the charger power was on.

Kistler, W.G.

1984-10-01

176

Plasma-wall interactions and plasma behaviour in fusion devices with liquid lithium plasma facing components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of lithium as a self-recovery and renewable material of plasma facing components (PFC) can be used to solve steady state fusion reactor PFC problems. This paper is a survey of liquid Li use in current tokamaks. Liquid Li as tokamak limiter material has been tested in T-11M tokamak (TRINITI, RF), in FTU (Italy) and in CDX-U (USA). The

S. Mirnov

2009-01-01

177

Improved Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device for ^3He^3He Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ions in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) systems are accelerated radially by an electrostatic field between two spherical grids, a configuration in which ^3He-^3He fusion has previously been demonstrated as part of the advanced fuels program at the University of Wisconsin [1]. A campaign is underway to enhance the experimental setup, in order to sustain cathode voltages beyond 200 kV. Additionally,

Gabriel Becerra; John Santarius; Gerald Kulcinski

2010-01-01

178

Development of a new concept ion source for high performance inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) is a concept for retaining a plasma using an electrostatic potential well. It consists of two spherical grids inside the vacuum chamber. An insulated high voltage feed-through supplies power to the inner grid cathode, and a small amount of deuterium or tritium gas (0.1-1.0 Pa) is fed into the chamber. When the voltage is

Y. Taniuchi; Y. Matsumura; K. Taira; M. Utsumi

2010-01-01

179

Experimental study of potential structure in a spherical IEC fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) concept is designed to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward towards the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid. The converging ions create a high-density plasma core where a high fusion rate occurs. In addition, under proper conditions, the ion and electron flows create a space-charge induced “double potential” well (a

Yibin Gu; George H. Miley

2000-01-01

180

Experimental study of proton rate density in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement (SIEC) is to focus and accelerate ions and electrons radially inward into the center of a negatively biased, highly transparent spherical grid to create a space-charge double-potential well (a negative-potential well nested inside a positive-potential well) which confines the high-energy ions in the dense central core region such that appreciable nuclear fusion reactions are

Yibin Gu

1998-01-01

181

A bioresorbable osteosynthesis device can induce an earlier sternal fusion after median sternotomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES We examined the impact of the bioresorbable osteosynthesis sternal pin (Super Fixsorb 30) on sternal healing after median sternotomy. METHODS Sixty-three patients who underwent aortic surgery through median sternotomy between January 2006 and March 2009 were analysed. Sternal pins were utilized in 36 patients in addition to the standard closure of the sternum with Ethibond sutures (Group A), and 27 patients received no pins with the standard Ethibond sternal closure (Group B). The occurrence of transverse sternal dehiscence, anterior–posterior displacement and complete fusion of the sternum were evaluated by a computed tomography scan. The cross-sectional cortical bone density area (CBDA) of the sternum was examined to evaluate the osteoconductivity of the sternal pin over a 12-month period. RESULTS There was no sternal displacement (0%) observed in Group A at discharge. Meanwhile, five displacements (18.5%) were observed in Group B (P = 0.007). The complete sternal fusion rates at 12 months postoperatively were 100% in Group A, and 21.6% in Group B (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the CBDA was observed in Group A (P < 0.001; between CBDA at discharge and 12 months postoperatively). CONCLUSIONS The Super Fixsorb 30 sternal pin reduced an anterior–posterior sternal displacement and facilitated an earlier sternal fusion. The pin may have the potential to promote osteogenesis. PMID:22623628

Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Usui, Akihiko; Oshima, Hideki; Mizutani, Shinnichi; Araki, Yoshimori; Okada, Noritaka; Ueda, Yuichi

2012-01-01

182

Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same  

DOEpatents

A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

2014-04-01

183

Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices  

DOEpatents

In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

Hamilton, G.W.

1981-10-26

184

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10⁶ neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase

Takanori Higashi; Takahito Tomizawa; Mitsugu Daino; Yasushi Yamamoto

2003-01-01

185

Image fusion analysis of 99m Tc-HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide SPECT and diagnostic CT using an immobilisation device with external markers in patients with endocrine tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the value of multimodality imaging using a novel reposition- ing device with external markers for fusion of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and com- puted tomography (CT) images. The additional benefit de- rived from this methodological approach was analysed in comparison with SPECTand diagnostic CTalone in terms of detection rate,

Michael Gabriel; Florian Hausler; Reto Bale; Roy Moncayo; Clemens Decristoforo; Peter Kovacs; Irene Virgolini

2005-01-01

186

Real time measurements of strongly localized potential profile through Stark effects in the central core region of an inertial-electrostatic fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time measurements of the electric fields were made in the central cathode core region of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device by the laser-induced fluorescence method by use of Stark effects. Preliminary results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center and also the existence of energetic electrons in the localized region near potential peaks

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; K. Takiyama; Y. Yamamoto; K. Masuda; H. Toku; T. Koyama; Kenji Taruya; H. Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; H. Horiike; N. Inoue

1999-01-01

187

Measurement of the energy distribution of fast excited atoms by Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms resulted from charge-exchange reactions between accelerated ions and background atoms or molecules were measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy in an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device composed of a spherical vacuum chamber as an anode and a spherical hollow cathode grid concentrically placed in the chamber. Since ions generated between the cathode and the

Kai Masuda; Toshiyuki Mizutani; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kazunobu Nagasaki; Ken Takiyama; Hisayuki Toku; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Akihiro Nagafuchi

2002-01-01

188

Electromechanical analysis of the technology demonstrator for the IGNITEX fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas Ignition Experiment (IGNITEX) device is a single turn coil tokamak designed to produce and control an ignited plasma using ohmic heating alone. The proposed high strength magnet system operates at a magnetic field on-axis of 20 T, using homopolar generators (HPGs), which meet the power supply requirements (150 MA, 10 V) inexpensively. In this paper, the electromechanical analysis

M. D. Driga; K. T. Hsieh; W. F. Weldon; M. D. Werst

1989-01-01

189

Fusion of Gait and Fingerprint for User Authentication on Mobile Devices  

E-print Network

personal value. Moreover, the services which can be accessed via mobile devices (e.g., m-banking and m-commerce, Davrondzhon Gafurov, Rasmus Larsen, Christoph Busch and Patrick Bours Norwegian Information Security Lab phones ­ are being found in almost everyone's hip pocket these days all over the world. The security

190

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

F.Q.L. Friesen, B. John, C.H. Skinner, A.L. Roquemore and C.I. Calle

2011-01-20

191

Evaluation of an electrostatic dust removal system with potential application in next-step fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass, and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm{sup 3} volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 s. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

Friesen, F. Q. L. [Grinnell College, 1115 8th Avenue, Grinnell, Iowa 50112-1616 (United States); John, B. [Swarthmore College, 500 College Ave., Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 (United States); Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Calle, C. I. [NASA Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 32899 (United States)

2011-05-15

192

Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 cu mm volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales 1 s).

Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, A. L.; Calle, C. I.

2011-01-01

193

Development of Carbon Based Plasma Facing Components for Steady State Operation of the Fusion Devices in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a series of multi-element doped graphite materials has been developed for PFC (plasma facing components) in China. Detailed investigation of the composition and full characterization of the microstructure of the doped graphite were carried out in the last several years and are now still in progress. These research activities were mainly concentrated on multi-element (B, Si, Ti) doped graphite and thick gradient SiC coatings. Investigations on the applicability of doped graphite as PFC under high heat flux, and further evaluation under HT-7 limiter plasma irradiation have been carefully investigated. From a 0.3 m2 poloidal limiter to a 1.2 m2 new belt limiter plus two poloidal limiters with actively water-cooled, this changes to the new carbon limiter in the HT-7 device turned out to be very successful. The plasma performance has been significantly improved and the longest discharge duration has been more than 60 s. These results have demonstrated that new carbon armoured PFCs will be an attractive choice making them competitive with other candidate PFC for the first wall of steady state fusion devices.

Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Li, H.; Quo, Q. G.

194

An Embeddable Fusion Framework to Manage Context Information in Mobile Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conveniently fused and combined with data from external sources, information from sensors embedded in a mobile device may offer a dynamic view of the user's situation, sufficient to build adaptive context-aware services. In order to shorten the development cycle of these applications, an embeddable framework to acquire, fuse and reason on context information is hereby described. 'CASanDRA Mobile' is designed to work autonomously in resource-constrained devices, offering to application developers a transparent management of context information. Based on a service-oriented architecture implemented in mobile OSGi, it offers a scalable infrastructure of bundles which decouple context acquisition and automate context inference from application development. 'CASanDRA Mobile' aims at providing the user with full control on his private context data, by using privacy policies suitable to handle P2P context sharing. To exemplify how to use the framework features, the design procedure for a context-aware wellness application is described.

Bernardos, Ana M.; Madrazo, Eva; Casar, José R.

195

Effects of Displaced Grids on the Fusion Reactivity of an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices consist of nearly transparent, concentric grid electrodes that accelerate\\u000a ions radially using voltage differences of 10–100s of kV. This paper investigates the effect of offsetting the inner grid\\u000a with respect to the outer grid. Offsetting the grids changes the electric fields set up between the two grids and hence affects\\u000a the ion flow into the

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

196

Electromechanical analysis of the technology demonstrator for the IGNITEX fusion device  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Ignition Experiment (IGNITEX) device is a single turn coil tokamak designed to produce and control an ignited plasma using ohmic heating alone. The proposed high strength magnet system operates at a magnetic field on-axis of 20 T, using homopolar generators (HPGs), which meet the power supply requirements (150 MA, 10 V) inexpensively. In this paper, the electromechanical analysis of a scaled down prototype (1/10 scale in linear dimensions) of the IGNITEX toroidal field (TF) magnet is presented. The primary goal of the IGNITEX Technology Demonstrator (ITD) is to prove the operation of a single turn, 20 T, toroidal field coil powered by a homopolar generator power supply system of 60 MJ, 9 MA, current operating at the Center for Electromechanics. The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). In order to simulate the actual operating conditions of the full-scale device, the ITD coil will be precooled at liquid nitrogen temperature and driven by the six homopolar generators in parallel. Scaling relationships have shown that electromagnetic loading mechanical and thermal loading of the coil and their relative distribution will approximate well predicted levels of the full-scale IGNITEX device.

Driga, M.D.; Hsieh, K.T.; Weldon, W.F.; Werst, M.D.

1989-03-01

197

Two-dimensional density and density fluctuation diagnostic for the edge plasma in fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

A technique is described for the two-dimensional measurement of electron density profile and fluctuations in edge regions of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The method is based on existing lithium beam beam emission spectroscopy technique, two-dimensional resolution is achieved by electrostatically scanning the beam. If scanning is performed faster than the lifetime of the turbulent structures in the plasma, the diagnostic is capable of measuring the structure of electron density fluctuations as well. The beam strength of currently available beams makes the detection of single fluctuation events impossible, but the full two-dimensional spatial structure of correlations can still be determined. The article describes the technique and fast beam deflection tests up to 250 kHz. The capabilities of such a diagnostic for fluctuation measurement are explored by simulating measurement signals. Measurement of both the two-dimensional density profile, fluctuation correlation function and poloidal flow velocity are demonstrated at the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator. The shape of the density profile, the radial and poloidal correlation lengths and the flow velocity are in agreement with expectations and previous Langmuir probe measurement.

Zoletnik, S.; Petravich, G.; Bencze, A.; Berta, M.; Fiedler, S.; McCormick, K.; Schweinzer, J. [KFKI-Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Institute of Nuclear Techniques 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 9 and Szechenyi Istvan University, Department of Physics 9026 Gyor, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-07-15

198

Computation of stationary 3D halo currents in fusion devices with accuracy control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the calculation of the resistive distribution of halo currents in three-dimensional structures of large magnetic confinement fusion machines. A Neumann electrokinetic problem is solved on a geometry so complicated that complementarity is used to monitor the discretization error. An irrotational electric field is obtained by a geometric formulation based on the electric scalar potential, whereas three geometric formulations are compared to obtain a solenoidal current density: a formulation based on the electric vector potential and two geometric formulations inspired from mixed and mixed-hybrid Finite Elements. The electric vector potential formulation is usually considered impractical since an enormous computing power is wasted by the topological pre-processing it requires. To solve this challenging problem, we present novel algorithms based on lazy cohomology generators that enable to save orders of magnitude computational time with respect to all other state-of-the-art solutions proposed in literature. Believing that our results are useful in other fields of scientific computing, the proposed algorithm is presented as a detailed pseudocode in such a way that it can be easily implemented.

Bettini, Paolo; Specogna, Ruben

2014-09-01

199

Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He{sup 2{plus}} and Fe{sup 24{plus}} transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He{sup 2{plus}} studies. By examining the electron and He{sup 2{plus}} responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed.

Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

1992-12-31

200

Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He[sup 2+] and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe[sup 24+] induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D[sub He] in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity [chi]fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V[sub He] is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V[sub He]/D[sub He]. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D[sub He] and [chi]fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

1993-03-01

201

Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Local thermal particle and energy transport studies of balanced-injection L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power have been performed on TFTR. The particle transport of He{sup 2+} and electrons following a small helium gas puff and Fe{sup 24+} induced by laser ablation has been examined and compared to the local energy transport characteristics inferred from power balance analysis. All particle perturbation diffusivities are radially hollow and are similar in magnitude and shape to the effective thermal conductivities found by power balance analysis. All particle diffusivities are 1--2 orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical values, except near the magnetic axis. A reduction in the helium diffusivity D{sub He} in the Supershot as compared to the L-mode is accompanied by a similar reduction in the effective single fluid thermal conductivity {chi}fluid. Also, the helium core convective velocity V{sub He} is found to increase in the Supershot over the L-Mode for r/a < 0.5. A quasilinear model of electrostatic drift waves has been used to calculate ratios between particle and energy fluxes in the Supershot. The measured ratios of the helium and iron particle diffusivities are in good accord with predictions, as are predicted ratios of V{sub He}/D{sub He}. Modelling indicates that the similarity in magnitude and profile shape of D{sub He} and {chi}fluid has generally favorable implications for helium ash content in a future fusion reactor. The core convection found in the Supershot increases the helium concentration on axis but does not reduce the plasma reactivity significantly.

Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

1993-03-01

202

Irradiation creep at temperatures of 400 {degrees}C and below for application to near-term fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

To study irradiation creep at 400{degrees}C and below, a series of six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys was irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor; and, after an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa, the specimens were moved to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the 19 dpa accumulated. Irradiation temperatures of 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C were studied with internally pressurized tubes of type 316 stainless steel, PCA, HT 9, and a series of four laboratory heats of: Fe-13.5Cr-15Ni, Fe-13.5Cr-35Ni, Fe-1 3.5Cr-1 W-0.18Ti, and Fe-16Cr. At 330{degrees}C, irradiation creep was shown to be linear in fluence and stress. There was little or no effect of cold-work on creep under these conditions at all temperatures investigated. The HT9 demonstrated a large deviation from linearity at high stress levels, and a minimum in irradiation creep with increasing stress was observed in the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys.

Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T.; Mansur, L.K. [and others

1996-12-31

203

Demonstration of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents in the MST toroidal magnetic fusion device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate [1] clear examples of tearing mode braking and locking due to eddy currents induced in the conducting shell of the MST RFP. The first theoretical work proposing a braking torque on tearing modes due to eddy currents in the tokamak and RFP was published about 15 years ago. Despite the long existence of the theory and the potential importance of this effect in fusion devices, there have been very few tests of the theory. The braking and locking observed in MST occurs with the growth to large amplitude of a single m = 1 tearing mode. The mode velocity decreases as the mode amplitude increases. In modeling the mode deceleration, we parametrize the plasma viscous momentum diffusivity in terms of the global momentum confinement time. The theory is used to predict both the momentum confinement time and the time evolution of the decelerating mode velocity. In both respects, the model is quite consistent with experimental data. [1] B.E. Chapman, R. Fitzpatrick, D. Craig et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2156 (2004).

Chapman, B. E.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Craig, D.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

2004-11-01

204

Two-color medium-infrared scanning interferometer for the Frascati tokamak upgrade fusion test device.  

PubMed

A scanning beam interferometer installed on the Frascati tokamak upgrade (FTU) experiment is presented. The scanning beam scheme combined with the small dimensions of the beams produces a system with very high spatial resolution: more than 30 adjacent (nonoverlapping) chords sample most of the plasma cross section. A good time resolution is achieved by the use of a proper scanning device, with a scanning frequency >or=8 kHz. Very fast events are measured by three additional fixed lines of sight providing a time resolution >or=100 kHz. The instrument is a two-color medium-infrared-compensated-type interferometer; two wavelengths (colors) are used to measure both the density and the mechanical vibrations of optical components. A CO2 laser (lambda=10.6 microm) is the main light source, and a CO laser (lambda=5.4 microm) is the compensation one. The optical scheme is a double pass Mach-Zehnder type. All the retroreflector mirrors are mounted directly on the FTU mechanical structure thanks to the compensation system that allows for large vibration amplitudes of optical components. Heterodyne detection at 30 and 40 MHz is obtained by frequency shifting the reference beams with two acousto-optic modulators (Bragg cells). Many features are implemented to achieve high measurement accuracy and reliability. A real-time system computes the integral density measured on one of the fixed lines of sight and provides an analog signal for density feedback control. The interferometer was used to measure density profiles both in medium-density discharges (n(e) approximately 10(20) m(-3)) and in high-density pellet injected discharges (n(e) approximately 7-8 x 10(20) m(-3)). The measurement error is approximately 2 x 10(18) m(-2) under optimal conditions but can be higher in some cases, mainly because of the large tilt of the retroreflector mirrors. PMID:17151749

Canton, A; Innocente, P; Tudisco, O

2006-12-20

205

What is a cochlear implant? A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to convey auditory information including speech  

E-print Network

· What is a cochlear implant? A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to convey). The cochlear implant system consists of an internal device that is surgically implanted into the inner ear to be meaningful for them. A cochlear implant may provide sound information for these children. · How does

O'Toole, Alice J.

206

DCLL TBM Safety Assessment A key objective for ITER includes integrated testing of blanket concepts suitable for demonstrating fusion  

E-print Network

DCLL TBM Safety Assessment A key objective for ITER includes integrated testing of blanket concepts and quality requirements. Operation procedures were defined, radioactive and chemical hazards identified operation of this system, primarily because of the biological hazards of these radioisotopes. The initial

207

Advanced X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Magnetic Fusion Tokamak Devices  

SciTech Connect

An advanced X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is currently under development using a segmented position sensitive detector and time-to-digital converter (TDC) based delay-line readout electronics for burning plasma diagnostics. The proposed advanced XICS utilizes an eight-segmented position sensitive multi-wire proportional counter and supporting electronics to increase the spectrometer performance includes the photon count-rate capability and spatial resolution.

Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bog, M. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Taejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and space Science Institute, Taejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-12

208

Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with

1975-01-01

209

Below the Knee Intervention Using Multidisciplinary Methods Including an Antegrade, Retrograde Approach Without the Use of a Sheath but With a Plaque Excision Device  

PubMed Central

Below the knee (BTK) interventions are increasing in patients with rest pain or critical limb ischemia, and these interventions are frequently successful in facilitating limb salvage. New intervention techniques and devices allow successful recanalization of occluded BTK arteries. Here, we report a case of successful recanalization of BTK arteries using multidisciplinary methods, including an antegrade approach and retrograde approach without the use of a sheath, but with simple balloon angioplasty, and plaque excision using Silverhawk atherectomy device. PMID:22396702

An, Hye Mi; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lim, Chur Hoan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Weon; Kim, Wan

2012-01-01

210

Preliminary Results of Low Pressure Discharge Experiments of a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device Aimed for a Small Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The effects of operating gas pressure on a Cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) device are investigated. First we did glow discharge experiments, and we obtained 1.8 x 10{sup 6} neutrons production per second with 45-kV, 44-mA discharge at 1.2 Pa. Next we modified the device and tried to reduce the operating gas pressure with an ion source, aimed to increase neutron production. Although the discharge currents are small, we can make steady discharges at less than 0.1 Pa. The neutron production rates per current are larger than those of glow discharge at higher pressure. We consider it should suggest the validity of reducing operating pressure in IECF devices.

Higashi, Takanori; Tomizawa, Takahito; Daino, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan)

2003-09-15

211

Abstract--Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because  

E-print Network

ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping rehabilitation applications. I. INTRODUCTION A. Background An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is a device that assists

Durfee, William K.

212

A Compact SPICE Model for Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors Including Nonidealities and Its Application—Part II: Full Device Model and Circuit Performance Benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a complete circuit-compatible compact model for single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) as an extension to Part 1 of this two-part paper. For the first time, a universal circuit-compatible CNFET model including the practical device nonidealities is implemented with HSPICE. In addition to the nonidealities included in the companion paper, this paper includes the elastic scattering in the

Jie Deng; H.-S. Philip Wong

2007-01-01

213

TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

2014-03-06

214

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust

Bill Emrich

2000-01-01

215

Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1991-07-01

216

Biomechanical stability of a bioabsorbable self-retaining polylactic acid/nano-sized ?-tricalcium phosphate cervical spine interbody fusion device in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion sheep models  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stability provided by a novel, polylactic acid/nano-sized, ?-tricalcium phosphate, bioabsorbable, self-retaining cervical fusion cage (BCFC). Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torques (maximum 1.5 NM) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending (±1.5 NM), and axial rotation (±1.5 NM) on 32 sheep cervical spines (C2–C5). The motion segment C3–C4 was first tested intact; the following groups were tested after complete discectomy: autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft, Medtronic–Wego polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, Solis PEEK cage, and BCFC. The autologous bone graft group was tested with an anterior plate. The mean range of motion (ROM) was calculated from the load-displacement curves. Results BCFC significantly decreased ROM in lateral bending and axial rotation compared to other implants, and no significant difference in ROM between two types of PEEK cages and BCFC could be observed in flexion and extension. Anterior cervical plate (ACP) significantly decreased ROM in flexion and extension, but no significant difference in ROM between BCFC and bone graft plus ACP could be determined in lateral bending and axial rotation. Conclusion The BCFC device showed better stability to autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft and PEEK cages in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion models and thus may be a potential alternative to the current PEEK cages. PMID:23226018

Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Che, Wu; Wang, Hui-Ren; Dong, Jian

2012-01-01

217

To enhance light extraction of OLED devices by multi-optic layers including a micro lens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, OLED has advantages including that larger light area, thinner thickness, excellent light uniformity, and can be as a flexible light source. Many display panel and lighting have been started to use the OLED due to OLED without back light system, thus how to make and employ light extracting layer could be important issue to enhance OLED brightness. The purpose of this study is to enhance the light extraction efficiency and light emitting area of OLED, so the micro lens array and the prism reflection layer were provided to enhance the surface light extracting efficiency of OLD. Finally the prism layer and diffusing layer were used to increase the uniformity of emitting area of OLED, which the efficiency of 31% increasing to compare with the OLED without light extracting film.

Chiu, Chuang-Hung; Chien, Chao-Heng; Kuo, Yu-Xaong; Lee, Jen-Chi

2014-10-01

218

Fail-safe device for an electrical power assisted steering system including an in-line clutch mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A power assisted steering system for a vehicle is described, the vehicle having an operator controlled steering mechanism, at least one steered wheel and a steering shaft directly connecting the steering mechanism to the wheel. The system consists of: a bidirectional electric motor; control means for energizing the motor to turn in a first direction when the steering mechanism is moved in one direction by the operator, for energizing the motor to turn in a direction opposite the first direction when the steering mechanism is moved in a direction opposite the one direction by the operator, for monitoring the operational condition of the system to detect malfunctions, and for generating a signal indicative of the operational condition system; a gear reduction means connected between the motor and the steering shaft for increasing the torque delivered to the steering shaft by the motor; clutch means, responsive to the control means for coupling the motor to the ratio reduction means when the system is operating properly and for isolating the motor from the ratio reduction means when the system is not operating properly, and the clutch means including a first clutch half and a coaxial second clutch half, the first clutch half being axially mounted on the motor armature for rotation therewith, second clutch half being axially mounted on the gear reduction means for rotation therewith, and further including means, responsive to the control means for moving one of the first or second clutch halves into frictional contact with the other of the first or second halves when the system is operating properly.

Kalns, I.

1986-03-04

219

Medical devices; invitation for offers to submit or to develop a performance standard for cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm)--FDA. Notice of inquiry.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this notice to invite interested persons, including any Federal agency, to submit any existing standard as a proposed performance standard for the cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) for use in measuring heart rate, or to submit an offer to develop such a proposed standard. If FDA does not receive any response to this notice, or receives a response to but does not accept any existing standard or offer to develop a standard, the agency will proceed to develop a performance standard or take other appropriate action to facilitate the development of a performance standard for the device. PMID:10274372

1985-11-21

220

Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

1994-03-01

221

Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

1988-11-01

222

Comparative Study of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a Zero-Profile Device Concerning Reduced Postoperative Dysphagia after Single Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective This study analyzed clinical and radiological outcomes of a zero-profile anchored spacer (Zero-P) and conventional cage-plate (CCP) for single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to compare the incidence and difference of postoperative dysphagia with both devices. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our experiences of single level ACDF with the CCP and Zero-P. From January 2011 to December 2013, 48 patients who had single level herniated intervertebral disc were operated on using ACDF, with CCP in 27 patients and Zero-P in 21 patients. Patients who received more than double-level ACDF or combined circumferential fusion were excluded. Age, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), pre-operative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores, post-operative mJOA scores, achieved mJOA scores and recovery rate of mJOA scores were assessed. Prevertebral soft tissue thickness and postoperative dysphagia were analyzed on the day of surgery, and 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. Results The Zero-P group showed same or favorable clinical and radiological outcomes compared with the CCP group. Postoperative dysphagia was significantly low in the Zero-P group. Conclusions Application of Zero-P may achieve favorable outcomes and reduce postoperative dysphagia in single level ACDF. PMID:25328646

Son, Doo Kyung; Kim, Ho Sang; Sung, Soon Ki; Lee, Sang Weon; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

223

Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

1995-09-01

224

The use of neutral beam heating to produce high performance fusion plasmas, including the injection of tritium beams into the Joint European Torus (JET)  

SciTech Connect

The neutral beam injection (NBI) system of the Joint European Torus (JET) [[ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Nuclear] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 11] has proved to be an extremely effective and flexible heating method capable of producing high performance plasmas and performing a wide range of related physics experiments. High fusion performance deuterium plasmas have been obtained in the hot-ion (HI) H-mode regime, using the central particle fueling and ion heating capabilities of the NBI system in low target density plasmas, and in the pellet enhanced plasma (PEP) H-mode regime, where the good central confinement properties of pellet fueled plasmas are exploited by additional heating and fueling as well as the transition to H mode. The HI H-mode configuration was used for the First Tritium Experiment (FTE) in JET in which NBI was used to heat the plasma using 14 D[sup 0] beams and, for the first time, to inject T[sup 0] using the two remaining beams. These plasmas had a peak fusion power of 1.7 MW from deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion reactions. The capability for injection of a variety of beam species (H[sup 0], D[sup 0], [sup 3]He[sup 0], and [sup 4]He[sup 0]) has allowed the study of confinement variation with atomic mass and the simulation of [alpha]-particle transport. Additionally, the use of the NBI system has permitted an investigation of the plasma behavior near the toroidal [beta] limit over a wide range of toroidal field strengths.

Thompson, E.; Stork, D.; de Esch, H.P.L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon 0X14 3EA (United Kingdom)); the JET Team

1993-07-01

225

ChemTeacher: Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Fusion page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery and applications of fusion.

2012-07-24

226

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

227

The origin of convective structures in the scrape-off layer of linear magnetic fusion devices investigated by fast imaging  

SciTech Connect

A fast imaging camera is used to unveil the spatio-temporal properties of radially convective events in the CSDX linear plasma device [M. J. Burin et al., Phys. Plasmas, 12, 052320 (2005)]. The exposure time is set to 1 {mu}s and the time between frames to 10 {mu}s. The time series from a Langmuir probe and from a pixel in the 50000-frame movie are compared and cross-correlated. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is found for spatial scales greater than 2.5 mm. The fluctuations inside the main plasma column are found to change between different poloidal mode numbers as a function of time. Accordingly, the power spectra determined in these linear devices reflect the sum over these modes. Outside the main plasma column, avaloids are observed to remain attached to the main plasma, hence their behavior does not become independent of the dynamics inside the main plasma column. Avaloid properties, assessed from imaging, agree with Langmuir probes done on various devices, except that the radial length is found to be much larger than previously determined because the blob-shape assumption is not valid. The link between fluctuations inside and outside the main plasma column indicates that the nonlinear evolution of the m=1 poloidal mode number is responsible for the creation of avaloids.

Antar, G. Y.; Yu, J. H.; Tynan, G. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2007-02-15

228

Complications of Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement Compared to Fusion: Results From the Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter US Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption Study of the Charité Artificial Disc  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) have described significant complications. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc represents the first level I data comparison of TDR to fusion. Methods In the prospective, randomized, multicenter IDE study, patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, with 205 patients in the Charité group and 99 patients in the control group (anterior lumbar interbody fusion [ALIF] with BAK cages). Inclusion criteria included confirmed single-level degenerative disc disease at L4-5 or L5-S1 and failure of nonoperative treatment for at least 6 months. Complications were reported throughout the study. Results The rate of approach-related complications was 9.8% in the investigational group and 10.1% in the control group. The rate of major neurological complications was similar between the 2 groups (investigational = 4.4%, control = 4.0%). There was a higher rate of superficial wound infection in the investigational group but no deep wound infections in either group. Pseudarthrosis occurred in 9.1% of control group patients. The rate of subsidence in the investigational group was 3.4%. The reoperation rate was 5.4% in the investigational group and 9.1% in the control group. Conclusions The incidence of perioperative and postoperative complications for lumbar TDR was similar to that of ALIF. Vigilance is necessary with respect to patient indications, training, and correct surgical technique to maintain TDR complications at the levels experienced in the IDE study.

Majd, Mohammed E.; Isaza, Jorge E.; Blumenthal, Scott L.; McAfee, Paul C.; Guyer, Richard D.; Hochschuler, Stephen H.; Geisler, Fred H.; Garcia, Rolando; Regan, John J.

2007-01-01

229

Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

2014-01-01

230

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

conditions suitable for nuclear fusion on earth have made significant leaps and bounds in re- cent years due;1.1 Fusion Challenges and Requirements There are a number of ongoing large-scale efforts to acheive nuclear fusion, including NIF[15] and ITER. This paper reports on an effort by a Canadian nuclear fusion research

Wetton, Brian

231

First wall for polarized fusion reactors  

DOEpatents

A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

1985-01-29

232

Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration. PMID:25694918

Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

2014-01-01

233

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields  

SciTech Connect

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Panayotis, Stephanie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Jacquot, Jonathan [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Green, David L [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

2014-01-01

234

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).  

PubMed

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>?1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher. PMID:25430306

Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

2014-11-01

235

Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>˜1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Ekedahl, A.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Shannon, S. C.; Litaudon, X.

2014-11-01

236

Trends in fusion reactor safety research  

SciTech Connect

Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

1991-01-01

237

Accelerators for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

Bangerter, R.O.

1985-10-01

238

EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics of mapping methods of magnetic field lines, 3D-plasma transport modelling efforts of ergodized plasmas and island divertors, and on the penetration of the external field including the resulting force transfer. We hope that the article series in Nuclear Fusion will stimulate interest in this fascinating subject of plasma physics.

Finken, K. H.

2006-04-01

239

Fusion Energy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

240

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

241

Status of fusion maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

Fuller, G.M.

1984-01-01

242

Biological performance of a polycaprolactone-based scaffold used as fusion cage device in a large animal model of spinal reconstructive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactive and bioresorbable scaffold fabricated from medical grade poly (epsilon-caprolactone) and incorporating 20% beta-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL–TCP) was recently developed for bone regeneration at load bearing sites. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate bone ingrowth into mPCL–TCP in a large animal model of lumbar interbody fusion. Six pigs underwent a 2-level (L3\\/4; L5\\/6) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

Sunny A. Abbah; Christopher X. L. Lam; Dietmar W. Hutmacher; James C. H. Goh; Hee-Kit Wong

2009-01-01

243

Wireless Power May Cut the Cord for Plug-In Devices, Including Cars1 by Will Ferguson for National Geographic News, abbreviated2  

E-print Network

17 devices such as the cord for a cell phone use electromagnetic induction to transmit power. Through electromagnetic induction, an18 electric current is sent through a magnetic field generated by a power conductor by the beeping of his wife's dying cellphone. He experimented with two27 electromagnetic resonators vibrating

South Bohemia, University of

244

Improvements of image fusion methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of images from different imaging modalities, obtained by conventional fusion methods, may cause artifacts, including destructive superposition and brightness irregularities, in certain cases. This paper proposes two methods for improving image multimodal fusion quality. Based on the finding that a better fusion can be achieved when the images have a more positive correlation, the first method is a decision algorithm that runs at the preprocessing fusion stage and determines whether a complementary gray level of one of the input images should be used instead of the original one. The second method is suitable for multiresolution fusion, and it suggests choosing only one image from the lowest-frequency sub-bands in the pyramids, instead of combining values from both sub-bands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion enhancement can reduce fusion artifacts. Quantitative fusion quality measures that support this conclusion are shown.

Ben-Shoshan, Yotam; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

2014-03-01

245

Nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of nuclear fusion as an energy source and research progress in this area are summarized. The current state of the art is described. Laser fusion, inertial confinement fusion, and magnetic fusion (the tokamak) are explained, the latter in some detail. Remaining problems and planned future reactors are considered. They are the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear

T. K. Fowler

1989-01-01

246

Heat Generation and Transport in Nanometer-Scale Transistors Heat problems in ever-smaller integrated circuits include hot-spots at transistor drain areas, reduced heat conduction in new devices and higher thermal resistance at material boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As transistor gate lengths are scaled towards the 10-nm range, thermal device design is becoming an important part of microprocessor engineering. Decreasing dimensions lead to nanometer-scale hot spots in the transistor drain region, which may increase the drain series and source injection electrical resistances. Such trends are accelerated by the introduction of novel materials and nontraditional transistor geometries, including ultrathin

Eric Pop; Sanjiv Sinha; Kenneth E. Goodson

247

Fusion R&D strategy for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present status and the strategy of fusion R&D in Japan are outlined. Although the past fusion research subjects in Japan were strongly oriented to plasma confinement and related device technologies, activity in fusion engineering, especially materials engineering, is now growing. It is recognized that the development of radiation-resistant low activation materials is the key to the realization of fusion reactors. It is of vital importance to establish the sound research plan for materials development.

Iiyoshi, A.

1998-10-01

248

Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

Not Available

1981-11-01

249

Stand-alone cage for posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of high-degree degenerative disc disease: design of a new device for an “old” technique. A prospective study on a series of 116 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age.\\u000a The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis.\\u000a In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing

Francesco Costa; Marco Sassi; Alessandro Ortolina; Andrea Cardia; Roberto Assietti; Alberto Zerbi; Martin Lorenzetti; Fabio Galbusera; Maurizio Fornari

2011-01-01

250

Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interfacea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

2012-05-01

251

Fusion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

252

Surgical Outcome of a Zero-profile Device Comparing with Stand-alone Cage and Anterior Cervical Plate with Iliac Bone Graft in the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective A Zero-profile device is a cervical stand-alone cage with integrated segmental fixation device. We characteristically evaluated the radiological changes as well as clinical outcomes in the application of Zero-profile devices compared with stand-alone cages and anterior cervical plates with iliac bone grafts for the cervical disease. Methods Retrospectively, total 60 patients at least more than one year follow-up were enrolled. Twenty patients were treated with Zero-profile devices (Group A), twenty patients with stand-alone cages (Group B) and twenty patients with anterior cervical plates and iliac bone grafts (Group C) for a single level cervical disease. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Odom's criteria and Bazaz-Yoo dysphagia index. The radiologic parameters were by subsidence and the changes of the midpoint interbody height (IBH), the segmental kyphotic angle (SKA), the overall kyphotic angle (OKA) in index level. Results Although there was no significant clinical difference according to the Odom's criteria among them(p=0.766), post-operative dysphagia was significantly decreased in the Group A and B compared with the Group C (p=0.04). From the immediate postoperative to the last follow-up time, the mean change of IBH decrement and SKA increment were significant in the Group B compared with the Group A (p=0.025, p=0.033) and the Group C (p=0.001, p=0.000). The subsidence rate was not significant among all groups (p=0.338). Conclusion This Zero-profile device is a valuable alternative to the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and without segmental kyphotic change. PMID:25346764

Shin, Jae Sik; Cho, Pyoung Goo

2014-01-01

253

Modeling hydrogen isotope behavior in fusion plasma-facing components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we focus on understanding hydrogen isotope retention in plasma-facing materials in fusion devices. Three common simulation methods are usually used to study this problem that includes Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, and numerical/analytical methods. A system of partial differential equations describing deuterium behavior in tungsten under various conditions is solved numerically to explain recent data compared to other methods. The developed model of hydrogen retention in metals includes classic, intercrystalline and trapped-induced Gorsky effects. The bombardment and depth profile of 200 eV deuterium in single crystal tungsten are simulated and compared with recent work. The total deuterium retention at various temperatures and fluences are also calculated and compared with available data. The results are in reasonable agreement with data and therefore, this model can be used to estimate deuterium inventory and recovery in future fusion devices.

Hu, Alice; Hassanein, Ahmed

2014-03-01

254

V-fusion: a convenient, nontoxic method for cell fusion.  

PubMed

Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety of cellular mechanisms, including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with desired properties, such as hybridomas and reprogrammed progenitors. However, current methods of cell fusion are not satisfactory because of their toxicity, inefficiency, or lack of flexibility. We describe a simple, versatile, scalable, and nontoxic approach that we call V-fusion, as it is based on the ability of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), a viral fusogen of broad tropism, to become rapidly and reversibly activated. We suggest that this approach will benefit a broad array of studies that investigate consequences of cell fusion or use cell fusion as an experimental tool. PMID:20964635

Gottesman, Amy; Milazzo, Joseph; Lazebnik, Yuri

2010-10-01

255

SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

2013-05-01

256

The "Science First" Approach to Fusion Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meaningful fusion burning plasmas are self organized physical entities for which there are limited means to make reliable theoretical predictions. Therefore, near term experiments, based on technologies that do not require major new developments, are needed which should achieve values of the criticality parameter Kf in the range 2/3 < K_f? 1. Here, K_f=P_a/P_Loss, Pa is the power emitted as ?-particles by fusion reactions and P_Loss is the rate of energy loss. It is suggested that the US should have meaningful experiment on fusion burning plasmas represented by an Ignitor(B. Coppi, A. Airoldi, et al., Nucl. Fus.), 41, 9 (2001)-like machine (such as the proposed Columbus(B. Coppi and M. Salvetti, MIT (R.L.E.) Report PTP-02/06 (2002)) device), with the same criteria of design simplicity and plasma stability adopted for Ignitor, and collaborate in the near term with the ongoing Ignitor program in Italy directed at demonstrating ignition (K_f? 1) over times that exceed all the intrinsic physics time. Moreover, experts on the physics and the technologies of burning plasma devices could develop the conceptual design of an ``ITER-Physics'' experiment to be constructed on a longer term basis by an international consortium. The design would not include tritium-producing blankets, be of more compact dimensions than ITER-FEAT, have higher poloidal fields, higher safety factors against the main instabilities and involve smaller costs and shorter construction times.

Coppi, Bruno

2003-04-01

257

Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

Thomas, E.W.

1985-02-01

258

Advancing Fusion by Innovations: Smaller, Quicker, Cheaper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the path to Fusion power, the construction of ITER is on-going, however there is not much progress in performance improvements of tokamaks in the last 15 years, Fig.1. One possible reason for this stagnation is the lack of innovations in physics and technology that could be implemented with this approach in which progress is expected mainly from the increase in the size of a Fusion device. Such innovations could be easier to test and use in much smaller (and so cheaper and quicker to build) compact Fusion devices. In this paper we propose a new path to Fusion energy based on a compact high field Spherical Tokamak approach.

Gryaznevich, M. P.; Chuyanov, V. A.; Kingham, D.; Sykes, A.; Energy Ltd, Tokamak

2015-03-01

259

Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans  

SciTech Connect

Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Correll, D.; Storm, E.

1987-12-04

260

Particle beam fusion  

SciTech Connect

Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

NONE

1980-12-31

261

Sealing device  

DOEpatents

A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

2013-12-10

262

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-02-22

263

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-04-20

264

Erosion resistance of titanium nitride coatings and their possible use to protect components of fusion devices subjected to a high power load  

SciTech Connect

Tin coating were bombarded by 80-kev He/sup +/ ions in order to study composition and erosion resistance. The results were compared to those obtained for stainless steels. All of the measurements were carried out in the Uragan-3 device. (AIP)

Volkov, E.D.; Volkov, Y.F.; Demidenko, I.I.; Dyatlov, V.G.; Il'enko, B.P.; Kolot, V.Y.; Konovalov, V.G.; Lomino, N.S.; Nazarov, N.I.; Pavlichenko, O.S.; and others

1987-10-01

265

Fusion Implementation  

SciTech Connect

If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

J.A. Schmidt

2002-02-20

266

(Fusion energy research)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

1988-01-01

267

STATs and macrophage fusion  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play a pivotal role in host defense against multiple foreign materials such as bacteria, parasites and artificial devices. Some macrophage lineage cells, namely osteoclasts and foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), form multi-nuclear giant cells by the cell–cell fusion of mono-nuclear cells. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells, and are formed in the presence of RANKL on the surface of bones, while FBGCs are formed in the presence of IL-4 or IL-13 on foreign materials such as artificial joints, catheters and parasites. Recently, fusiogenic mechanisms and the molecules required for the cell–cell fusion of these macrophage lineage cells were, at least in part, clarified. Dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP), both of which comprise seven transmembrane domains, are required for both osteoclast and FBGC cell–cell fusion. STAT6 was demonstrated to be required for the cell–cell fusion of FBGCs but not osteoclasts. In this review, advances in macrophage cell–cell fusion are discussed. PMID:24069561

2013-01-01

268

Modeling the time variation of beam-grid fusion reaction rates in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the two-dimensional analysis code KUAD2 to simulate D^{+_{2}} trajectories in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device driven by a ring-shaped magnetron ion source (RS-MIS). This aims to maximize the path length lambdaCX for ion-gas charge exchange by operating at just units of mPa D2 gas pressures; however, under these conditions simulations reveal a surprisingly small path length for

J. Kipritidis; K. Masuda; T. Kajiwara; Y. Yamagaki; K. Nagasaki

2011-01-01

269

Cleaning devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes.

Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

270

Technology Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology fusion involves the combination and transformation of a number of different core technologies in order to create new product markets. The key element of technology fusion is that it is both complementary and cooperative. Typically, it is the result of reciprocal and substantial R&D expenditure by companies from a range of industries and with different technological competences. For example,

J. Tidd; T. Sammut-Bonnici

2014-01-01

271

Laser fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons

W. A. Smit; P. Boskma

1980-01-01

272

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

273

Security on the US Fusion Grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

274

Data security on the national fusion grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

275

Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion  

SciTech Connect

It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

2012-08-08

276

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

SciTech Connect

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1998-01-01

277

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

SciTech Connect

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1998-02-17

278

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting

S. Cohen; J. G. Crocker

1981-01-01

279

Lasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States  

E-print Network

Lasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States R. L. McCrory Director and Vice Provost thermonuclear device began the Inertial Confinement Fusion Era I1860 · StanislawUlamandEdward Teller developed confinement fusion (ICF) has grown as successively larger lasers have been built I1859 · The

280

Current status of the gasdynamic mirror fusion propulsion experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). An experimental GDM device has been constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of

William J. Emrich

2002-01-01

281

Fusion Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

Dingee, David A.

1979-01-01

282

Glow Discharge Characteristics in Relation to Anode Size in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion device is a very simple and safe neutron source that uses a glow discharge for deuterium-deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristics of the device were studied experimentally. The relationship between gas pressure and applied voltage was examined by light changes of the device's anode size. The gas pressure ranges in which the device was able to

Hodaka Osawa; Shigehisa Yoshimura; Takehiro Tabata; Masami Ohnishi

2008-01-01

283

Fusion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

284

A wavelet-based image fusion tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a new image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or further image-processing tasks such as segmentation, feature extraction and object recognition. Di4erent fusion methods have been proposed in literature, including multiresolution analysis. This paper is

Gonzalo Pajares; Jesús Manuel De La Cruz

2004-01-01

285

the fusion trend line Stan Milora (ORNL)  

E-print Network

: Greenwald report on Priorities, Gaps and Opportunities identifies glaring gaps in materials, fusion nuclear ­materials and fusion nuclear science and technology ReNeW findings VLT Virtual Laboratory for Technology need to move." ­ High level goal 2 "Materials in a fusion environment " includes PMI effects, nuclear

286

Cell fusion.  

PubMed

Selective cell fusion is a natural part of development. It is found in sexually reproducing organisms that require fertilization to propagate and in muscles, placenta, bones, lens of the eye and stem cells. Cell fusion is particularly important in the development of C. elegans: in addition to 300 sperm and oocytes that fuse during fertilization, 300 of the 1090 somatic cells born, fuse throughout development. Studies of cell fusion in C. elegans have shown that although different types of cells fuse, cell membrane merger is initiated through a common mechanism involving the action of one gene, eff-1. In worms with mutations that inactivate eff-1, almost none of the 300 somatic cells that normally fuse do so, but appear to differentiate, attach and behave in the same way as fusing cells. Such worms develop and survive but have numerous morphological, behavioral and fertility defects associated to cell fusion failure in the epidermis, pharynx, male tail, vulva and uterus. Cell fusion in embryonic dorsal epithelial cells has been analyzed in great detail by confocal microscopy using membrane fluorescent probes, apical junction markers and cytoplasmic aqueous fluorescent probes allowing the direct observation of membrane disappearance, pore expansion and cytoplasmic content mixing. The complete elimination of the membranes between two fusing cells takes about 30 min and involves vesiculation of the fusing membranes. Genetic and cell biological evidence indicates that eff-1 activity is both necessary and sufficient to fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in vivo. Based on electron microscopic analyses of intermediates of cell fusion in eff-1 mutants, it appears that eff-1 is required for both initiation and expansion of fusion pores, similar to the fusogen of Influenza virus. While only one gene encoding a novel candidate component of the cell membrane fusion machinery has been found, the nematode's cell fusion program is under the control of many cell-specific transcriptional regulators. A large number of these conserved regulators prevent cell fusion by repressing eff-1 activity. For example, if either ceh-16/engrailed or the GATA factor EGL-18/ELT-5 is inactivated, the lateral epidermal cells that normally do not fuse in the embryo will fuse causing embryonic lethality. And if either the Hox protein lin-39/Deformed or its cofactor ceh-20/Extradenticle is inactivated, the ventral epidermal vulval precursor cells that normally do not fuse in the larvae will fuse and the hermaphrodite will have no vulva. In addition, there is evidence for coordinated and complex regulation of lin-39 in the ventral epidermis by Ras, Wnt, Rb/E2F, NuRD and lin-15 pathways. It appears that in many cells that normally do not fuse, specific transcription complexes repress eff-1 expression preventing cell fusion. ref-2 (REgulator of Fusion-2) encodes a Zn-finger protein that is required to generate ventral Pn.p cells and to keep them unfused both in males and hermaphrodites. ref-2 is necessary, but not sufficient, to maintain Pn.p cells unfused. This review shows that far from cell fusion being an unusual phenomenon, there is the clear prospect that animal cells in all tissues are intrinsically programmed to fuse, and are only prevented from fusing by transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. There are three major questions that remain open for future research: (1) How does eff-1 fuse cells? (2) How do Ras, Wnt, Rb, NuRD, E2F, heterochronic and other pathways control cell fusion? (3) What are the implications of cell fusion beyond worms? PMID:18050486

Podbilewicz, Benjamin

2006-01-01

287

Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission  

SciTech Connect

A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P

2012-08-27

288

Antiproton Driven Fusion Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion propulsion system in which the plasma is heated to thermonuclear temperature by antiproton annihilation reactions is proposed. It makes use of an open-ended magnetic confinement device known as the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) in which the plasma - such as deuteriumtritium (DT) - is confined long enough to be heated before being ejected through one mirror (serving as a

Ricky Tang; Terry Kammash; Alec Gallimore

2008-01-01

289

Nuclear data for fusion calculations  

SciTech Connect

The European Activation System for calculations of activation of fusion devices is described, concentrating on recent innovations such as uncertainty estimation and the modelling of pulsed exposures. A comparison of measurements and calculational results is reviewed as a means of improving the data libraries.

Forrest, R.A. [UKAEA Government Division, Culham (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

290

Measurement of magnetic field and velocity profiles in 3.6 kJ United Nations University/International Center For Theoretical Physics plasma focus fusion device  

SciTech Connect

A Mather-type small plasma focus device was operated in air filling in the pressure range of 0.5 to 1.0 Torr and capacitor bank charging voltage of 13{endash}15 kV. A strong focusing action was observed in this pressure range. Magnetic probe signals at various axial positions were used to estimate velocity of current sheet and axial magnetic field distribution profiles. It was observed that under the present experimental conditions the magnetic field remains constant at 0.72 T from {ital z}=0.0 cm to {ital z}=8.0 cm but falls rapidly to 0.52 T at about {ital z}=14.5 cm at a fixed radial distance of 2.65 cm. The magnetic field and velocity measurements indicate a current shedding effect{emdash}only 68.5{percent} of the total injected current flows into the focus region. The rapid drop of the magnetic field at {ital z}=8.0 cm suggests that further (initial shedding is at the insulator) current and mass shedding in the focus tube is significant after this value of {ital z}. Experimental values of velocity of the current sheet are compared with those of the snow plough theoretical model. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Mathuthu, M.; Zengeni, T.G. [Physics Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe)] [Physics Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe); Gholap, A.V. [Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)] [Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)

1996-12-01

291

Fusion Concept Exploration Experiments at PPPL  

SciTech Connect

Small ''concept exploration'' experiments have for many years been an important part of the fusion research program at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). this paper describes some of the present and planned fusion concept exploration experiments at PPPL. These experiments are a University-scale research level, in contrast with the larger fusion devices at PPPL such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which are at ''proof-of-principle'' and ''proof-of-performance'' levels, respectively.

Stewart Zweben; Samuel Cohen; Hantao Ji; Robert Kaita; Richard Majeski; Masaaki Yamada

1999-05-01

292

A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle

T. Kammash; T. Godfroy

1998-01-01

293

Thrust enhancement of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasdynamic mirror propulsion system is a device that utilizes a magnetic mirror configuration to confine a hot plasma to allow fusion reactions to take place while ejecting a fraction of the energetic charged particles through one end to generate thrust. Because the fusion fuel is generally an isotope of hydrogen, e.g., deuterium or tritium, this propulsion device is capable

Terry Kammash; Myoung-Jae Lee; David I. Poston

1997-01-01

294

Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

2013-10-01

295

Atomic data for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.) [eds.; Barnett, C.F.

1990-07-01

296

Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

Roth, R. J.

1976-01-01

297

Myoblast fusion in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)] [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

2010-11-01

298

Fusion of the ear bones  

MedlinePLUS

Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

299

Things that talk: Using sound for device-to-device and device-to-human communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlexical sound is explored as both a device-to-device and device-to-human communication medium. Considerations for device-to-device communication include robustness in various environments, potential interference, frequency limitations of conventional and piezoelectric devices, computational complexity, and strategies for ultrasonic and humanaudible frequencies. Algorithms include modem protocols, information-hiding techniques, impulse coding, and dual-tone modulation. Considerations for device-to-human communication include the use of sounds that

Vadim Gerasimov; Walter Bender

2000-01-01

300

Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

In Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices, a voltage difference between concentric, nearly transparent spherical grids accelerates ions to fusion-relevant velocities. The University of Wisconsin (UW) operates two IEC devices: a cylindrical aluminum chamber and a spherical, water-cooled, stainless-steel chamber, with a power supply capable of 75 mA and 200 kV. The research program aims to generate fusion reaction products for various applications, including protons for creating radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and neutrons for detecting clandestine materials. Most IEC devices worldwide, including the UW devices, presently operate primarily in a pressure range (1-10 mtorr) that allows ions to make only a few passes through the core before they charge exchange and lose substantial energy or they collide with cathode grid wires. It is believed that fusion rates can be raised by operating at a pressure where neutral gas does not impede ion flow, and a helicon ion source has been developed to explore operation at pressures of {approx}0.05 mtorr. The UW IEC research group uses proton detectors, neutron detectors, residual gas analyzers, and spectroscopic diagnostics. New diagnostic techniques have also been developed, including eclipse disks to localize proton production and chordwires to estimate ion fluxes using power balance.

Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Ashley, R.P.; Boris, D.R.; Cipiti, B.B.; Murali, S. Krupakar; Piefer, G.R.; Radel, R.F.; Radel, T.E.; Wehmeyer, A.L. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

2005-05-15

301

Humanitarian Use Devices\\/Humanitarian Device Exemptions in Cardiovascular Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Second Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2004 brought together leaders from the medical device community, including clinical investigators, senior representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, large and small device manufacturers, and representatives from the financial community to examine difficult issues confronting device development. The role of the Humanitarian Use Device\\/Humanitarian Device Exemption (HUD\\/HDE) pathway in

Aaron V. Kaplan; Elisa D. Harvey; Richard E. Kuntz; Hadas Shiran; John F. Robb; Peter Fitzgerald

302

STAR Power, an Interactive Educational Fusion CD with a Dynamic, Shaped Tokamak Power Plant Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an interactive, educational fusion adventure game developed within our fusion education program. The theme of the adventure is start-up of a state-of-the-art fusion power plant. To gain access to the power plant control room, the student must complete several education modules, including topics on building an atom, fusion reactions, charged particle motion in electric and magnetic fields, and building a power plant. Review questions, a fusion video, library material and glossary provide additional resources. In the control room the student must start-up a complex, dynamic fusion power plant. The simulation model contains primary elements of a tokamak based device, including a magnetic shaper capable of producing limited and diverted elongated plasmas. A zero dimensional plasma model based on ITER scaling and containing rate based conservation equations provides dynamic feedback through major control parameters such as toroidal field, fueling rate and heating. The game is available for use on PC and Mac. computers. Copies will be available at the conference.

Leuer, J. A.; Lee, R. L.; Kellman, A. G.; Chapman Nutt, G. C., Jr.; Holley, G.; Larsen, T. A.

2000-10-01

303

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

304

Intense fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-04-15

305

Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data Fusion: Outcome of the 2013 GRSS Data Fusion Contest  

E-print Network

Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data Fusion: Outcome of the 2013 GRSS Data Fusion Contest Christian Debes Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. The data sets distributed to the participants during the Contest investi- gated different approaches for the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, including a combined

Du, Jenny (Qian)

306

Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream  

SciTech Connect

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

Clayton, E.D.

1989-09-01

307

Cleaning devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

308

Detection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, J.E.

1981-02-27

309

Augmentation of intertransverse process lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Spinal fusion surgery for alleviation of intractable lower back pain in humans is currently a primary therapeutic technique, with failure rates averaging between 5 to 35%. Implanted and external source-based electrical stimulation devices have been investigated in an attempt to increase osteogenesis at the fusion site in an attempt to reduce spinal fusion failure rates. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of two co-processor systems and an additional system with an SIS generation field at 15.8 mA (rms) using biomechanical, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and histomorphometric analyses, in rabbits following dorsolateral (= posteriolateral [in humans]) spinal fusion. Fifty-six male New Zealand White underwent bilateral lumbar spinal fusion by performing decortication of the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae four and five with placement of autogenic cancellous bone graft harvested from the ilial wings. Four study groups were designated based on the type of IES device used for stimulation or as a control. Eight weeks after surgery all subjects were sacrificed and the quality and strength of the fusion masses were compared using radiographic, biomechanical, histomorphometry, and qualitative histological evaluation. While some variation existed within and between groups, Group 2 showed a significant improvement in all parameters measured as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The use of adjunct non-invasive surface IES for improving bony fusion rates for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion is supported by this study. PMID:16810348

Nawrocki, Michael A; Martinez, Steven A; Hughes, Joanne; Lincoln, James D; Shih, Mei-Shu; Zheng, Hellen; Carroll, William J

2006-01-01

310

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion  

E-print Network

of anatomical feature #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Types of Data to be Registered Anatomic CT, MRI, US Digitized; markers for repositioning Hybrid scanners, e.g. PET/CT #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Classification of imageRSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph

Pelizzari, Charles A.

311

Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program  

SciTech Connect

The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall. It will address the origins and structure of the plasma electric field, rotation, the L-H transition, and the wide variety of pedestal relaxation mechanisms. The Whole Device Model will predict the entire discharge evolution given external actuators (i.e., magnets, power supplies, heating, current drive and fueling systems) and control strategies. Based on components operating over a range of physics fidelity, the WDM will model the plasma equilibrium, plasma sources, profile evolution, linear stability and nonlinear evolution toward a disruption (but not the full disruption dynamics). The plan assumes that, as the FSP matures and demonstrates success, the program will evolve and grow, enabling additional science problems to be addressed. The next set of integration opportunities could include: 1) Simulation of disruption dynamics and their effects; 2) Prediction of core profile including 3D effects, mesoscale dynamics and integration with the edge plasma; 3) Computation of non-thermal particle distributions, self-consistent with fusion, radio frequency (RF) and neutral beam injection (NBI) sources, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and short-wavelength turbulence.

Jeffrey Brooks

2011-09-30

312

Pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion  

PubMed Central

The complex networks of nutritional, cellular, paracrine, and endocrine factors are closely related with pubertal growth and epiphyseal fusion. Important influencing factors include chondrocyte differentiation capacity, multiple molecular pathways active in the growth plate, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis activation and epiphyseal fusion through estrogen and its receptors. However, the exact mechanisms of these phenomena are still unclear. A better understanding of the detailed processes involved in the pubertal growth spurt and growth plate closure in longitudinal bone growth will help us develop methods to efficiently promote pubertal growth and delay epiphyseal fusion with fewer adverse effects.

2015-01-01

313

Measuring D(d,p)T fusion reactant energy spectra with Doppler shifted fusion products  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium fusion reactant energy spectra have been measured using a diagnostic that records the Doppler shift imparted to charged particle fusion products of the D(d,p)T reaction by the center-of-mass velocity of the deuterium reactants. This diagnostic, known as the fusion ion Doppler shift diagnostic (FIDO) measures fast deuterium energy spectra in the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison {l_brace}Santarius et al. [Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]{r_brace}, a device to confine high energy light ions in a spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well. This article details the first measurements of the fusion reactant energy spectra in an IEC device as well as the design and principles of operation of the FIDO diagnostic. Scaling of reactant energy spectra with a variety of experimental parameters have been explored.

Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Donovan, D. C. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 8123 Forsythia Street, Suite 140, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

2010-06-15

314

Modeling UW Gridded Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices accelerate and focus ions using voltage differences between nearly transparent concentric grids in spherical or cylindrical geometry. High voltages can be produced relatively easily between the grids, giving the accelerated ions energies (>50 keV) suitable for producing fusion of advanced fuels, such as D-3He. The resulting fusion products potentially can produce radioisotopes useful for positron emission tomography and other applications. Research will be reported on the modeling effort for the UW gridded IEC device and diagnostics, including comparison to experiments. The following physics effects will be discussed: charge exchange, ionization, and dissociation cross-sections and reaction rates for hydrogen and helium isotopes; spherical Child-Langmuir radial electrostatic potential profile; attenuation by the cathode grid; multiple-pass ion and electron production due to charge exchange and ionization of the initial current; subsequent iterations of the resulting currents of particles; electron currents due to ionization, thermionic emission, and secondary electron emission; and fusion reactions due to several phenomena in the plasma.

Santarius, John F.

2002-11-01

315

Discharge Characteristics of Anode Size in an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IECF (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device is a very simple and safe neutron source using the glow discharge in deuterium gas and deuterium - deuterium fusion. The discharge characteristic is studied experimentally. The gas pressure - applied voltage characteristics are examined altering the device's anode size. The gas pressure range that the device is able to work is differed

H. Osawa; S. Yoshimura; Takehiro TABATA; M. Ohnishi

2006-01-01

316

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-01

317

Nuclear Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

2012-12-26

318

Fusion Engineering Device (FED) plasma heating  

SciTech Connect

The FED uses rf heating for startup assist and bulk heating. Neutral beam injection is retained as an alternate option for bulk heating. One MW of ECRH, generated by eight gyrotron-launcher equipment sets, is used for startup assist. The baseline bulk heating approach uses 50 MW of ICRH. The paper summarizes the requirements, design and studies done at the FEDC in the past year.

Metzler, D.H.

1981-01-01

319

Hydrogen inventories in nuclear fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen retention in tokamaks is due to implantation into plasma-facing materials and trapping in deposited layers. In the limiter tokamak TEXTOR-94 hydrogen-rich deposited layers with thicknesses up to 1 mm are observed on recessed parts of the limiters, areas perpendicular to the magnetic field in the scrape-off layer (SOL), neutralizer plates of the pumped limiter and inside the pumping ducts.

M. Mayer; V. Philipps; P. Wienhold; H. G Esser; J von Seggern; M. Rubel

2001-01-01

320

ProFusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally developed by the University of Kansas Information Telecommunication and Technology Center, and School of Engineering DesignLab (see the July 25, 1997 Scout Report), ProFusion is a meta-search and "deep Web" search engine. Purchased by Intelliseek and fitted with a new interface, ProFusion allows users to search over 1,000 search sites, "including search engines, Web directories, discussion groups, news sources, online publications, and archives." Visitors can also perform targeted searches of vertical search sources, selecting which databases to query. Two other new features include an alert service that tracks changes to selected pages and notifies users by email and a Search Assistant that suggests results from search engine groups relevant to a query in addition to the general Web results. Worth a spin around the block.

321

Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

Leonid E. Zakharov

2011-06-03

322

Numerical Study on Glow Discharge of IEC Fusion  

SciTech Connect

An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device is possibly used for the neutron source that has the ability to produce the neutrons of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8}/s by the glow discharge. It works more efficiently at the condition of the high voltage and the low pressure. It, however, is difficult to keep the continuous operation at the low-pressure because the glow discharge is apt to be unstable. We have made the three-dimensional Monte Carlo PIC code including atomic processes to investigate the glow discharge. The study reveals the spatial position where the ionization occurs and numerically reproduces the discharge called 'star mode'.

Osawa, Hodaka; Tabata, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan)

2005-05-15

323

Tritium in fusion: R and D in the EU  

SciTech Connect

Tritium as one of the two fuel components for fusion power plays a special role in any fusion device. Due to its volatile character, radioactivity and easy incorporation as HTO it needs to be controlled with special care and due to its scarcity on earth it has to be produced in-situ in future fusion power plants. The paper discusses the present tritium R and D activities in fusion ongoing in the EU and presents the various processes/techniques envisaged for controlling tritium in future fusion reactors focusing mainly on the issues of breeding blankets and the fuel cycle in DEMO. (authors)

Laesser, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Antipenkov, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Bekris, N. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 43DB (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, L. V.; Caldwell-Nichols, C. J.; Cristescu, I.; Day, Ch [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Gasparotto, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glugla, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Dell'Orco, G. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gabriel, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-surYvette (France); Gastaldi, O.; Grisolia, Ch [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Knipe, S. [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Magielsen, A. J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Murdoch, D.; Pearce, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Perevezentsev, A. [Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Piazza, G.; Poitevin, Y. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ricapito, I. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Salavy, J. F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-surYvette (France); Sedano, L. A. [CIEMAT, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zmitko, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2008-07-15

324

2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism and numerical techniques which enable efficient quantitative study of peeling-ballooning modes. More broadly, I would like to thank the full DIII-D, C-Mod and JET teams, the LLNL and General Atomics Theory groups, and the York Plasma Institute. In addition, I would like to thank the US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, EURATOM, and the UK EPSRC for supporting this research. On a more personal note, I would like to thank my mentors over the years, including Nat Fisch, Greg Hammett, Ron Waltz, Vincent Chan, and Tony Taylor, and numerous colleagues who provided insight related to this work, including Lang Lao, Alan Turnbull, Ming Chu, Bob Miller, Rip Perkins, John Greene, Keith Burrell, John Ferron, Mickey Wade, Wayne Solomon, George McKee, Zheng Yan, Andrea Garofalo, Raffi Nazikian, Jack Connor, Jim Hastie, Chris Hegna, Samuli Saarelma, Guido Huijsmans, Alberto Loarte, Yutaka Kamada, Naoyuki Oyama, Hajime Urano, Nobuyuki Aiba, Andrew Kirk, David Dickinson, Lorne Horton, Costanza Maggi, Wolfgang Suttrop, P.A. Schneider, Rajesh Maingi, Amanda Hubbard, Ahmed Diallo, John Walk, and Matthew Leyland. Recently, the model developed in this paper has been used to discover a new regime of operation, the Super H-Mode, and to shed light on mechanisms for suppressing Edge Localized Modes. I hope that the model will continue to be useful, both as a tool for predicting and optimizing pedestal and fusion performance, and as a platform on which the fusion community continues to build our understanding of the complex physics of the edge barrier region, which plays such an important role in overall confinement and stability.

Snyder, P. B.

2015-01-01

325

Tungsten Spectroscopy for Fusion Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten is one of very few candidate materials for plasma facing components in future fusion devices. Therefore, investigations have been started at fusion devices and EBITs to provide atomic data for W in fusion plasmas. Usually the influx of impurities is deduced from the intensity of spectral lines from neutrals or ions in a low ionisation state. For this purpose the appropriate ionisation rates and excitation rates have to be known. At the moment, a WI transition (7S-7P) at 400.9 nm is used, but an extension of the method to other lines is under investigation. In the core of present day plasmas ionisation states up to W56+ can be reached and in a reactor states up to around W68+ will be present. In order to extract information on the local W concentrations over the whole plasma radius atomic data (wavelength, excitation, ionisation, recombination) for all the charge states up to the maximum ionisation state are necessary. Similarly, a high sensitivity has to be achieved since the central W concentrations should stay below 10-4. For an unambiguous identification of the transitions EBIT measurements are of great advantage, but due to the lower electron density compared to fusion plasmas, investigations there are indispensable.

Neu, R.; Puetterich, T.; Dux, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr.2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2007-04-06

326

Current Status of IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) Fusion Neutron\\/Proton Source Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact fusion neutron\\/proton source, i.e., IEC (Inertial Electrostatic Confinement) fusion device is introduced with its principle, function, application and research history. 1. What is IEC? An IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device is an extremely compact, and simple configuration device as is shown in Fig. 1, running by electrical discharge on D-D\\/D- T\\/D-3He fuel gases. It basically consists of a

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

327

Electrochromic device  

DOEpatents

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A first electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive member. The first electrochromic material includes an organic material. A second conductive member is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. A second electrochromic material is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive member. The second electrochromic material includes an inorganic material. An ionic liquid is positioned between the first electrochromic material and the second electrochromic material.

Schwendemanm, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Kingsport, TN); Knowles, Julianna M. (Apollo, PA)

2011-03-15

328

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center; April 10 Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma

329

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

330

Performance modeling for multisensor data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, in multisensor fusion community, the research goal has been primarily focused on establishing a computational approach for fusion processing and algorithm. However, it would be very useful to be able to characterize the relationship between sensed information inputs available to the fusion system and the quality of fused information output. This will not only help us understand the fusion system performance but also provide high level performance bounds given sensor mix and quality for system control such as sensor resource allocation and estimate information requirements. This paper presents a fusion performance model (FPM) for a general multisensor fusion system. The model includes both kinematics and classification component and focuses on the two performance measures: positional error and classification error. The performance model is based on Bayesian theory and a combination of simulation and analytical approaches. Simulation results that validate the analytical performance predictions are also included.

Chang, Kuo Chu; Song, Ying; Liggins, Martin E., II

2003-08-01

331

and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYIOP PUBLISHING NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 024016 (13pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/48/2/024016  

E-print Network

and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYIOP PUBLISHING NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 024016 devices Milan Rajkovi´c1 , Milos Skori´c2 , Knut Sølna3 and Ghassan Antar4 1 Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade, Serbia 2 National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu

Solna, Knut

332

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-19

333

Energetic particle physics in fusion research in preparation for burning plasma experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium–tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the ‘sea’ of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

Gorelenkov, N. N.; Pinches, S. D.; Toi, K.

2014-12-01

334

Alternate Applications of Fusion - Production of Radioisotopes  

SciTech Connect

A major effort to find near-term, non-electric applications of fusion energy has shown that the production of radioisotopes is attractive. The use of the D{sup 3}He fusion reaction to produce Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes is described. An Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is particularly well suited to produce low levels of high-energy (14.7 MeV) protons, which in turn, can produce short-lived PET isotopes. The IEC device at University of Wisconsin has been modified to investigate the potential of this process to be commercially attractive.

Kulcinski, G.L.; Weidner, J.; Cipiti, B.; Ashley, R.P.; Santarius, J.F.; Murali, S.K.; Piefer, G.; Radel, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

2003-09-15

335

Medical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

, and consistency of active implantable medical devices. These devices, including pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators million life-saving cardiac-assist devices have been implanted. Improved acceptance testing will reduce-El, Advanced Bionics, Vishay, AVX, and Kemet. Approach Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory Our bodies

336

Articulating feedstock delivery device  

DOEpatents

A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

Jordan, Kevin

2013-11-05

337

Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

Lee, J.D.

1981-01-01

338

LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.  

PubMed

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant is being designed at LLNL in partnership with other institutions with the goal to deliver baseload electricity from safe, secure, sustainable fusion power in a time scale that is consistent with the energy market needs. For this purpose, the LIFE design takes advantage of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology and adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units used on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. The LIFE market entry plant will demonstrate the feasibility of a closed fusion fuel cycle, including tritium breeding, extraction, processing, refueling, accountability, and safety, in a steady-state power-producing device. While many fusion plant designs require large quantities of tritium for startup and operations, a range of design choices made for the LIFE fuel cycle act to reduce the in-process tritium inventory. This paper presents an overview of the delivery plan and the preconceptual design of the LIFE facility with emphasis on the key safety design principles being adopted. In order to illustrate the favorable safety characteristics of the LIFE design, some initial accident analysis results are presented that indicate potential for a more attractive licensing regime than that of current fission reactors. PMID:23629070

Reyes, Susana; Dunne, Mike; Kramer, Kevin; Anklam, Tom; Havstad, Mark; Mazuecos, Antonio Lafuente; Miles, Robin; Martinez-Frias, Joel; Deri, Bob

2013-06-01

339

Multiscale Medical Image Fusion in Wavelet Domain  

PubMed Central

Wavelet transforms have emerged as a powerful tool in image fusion. However, the study and analysis of medical image fusion is still a challenging area of research. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a multiscale fusion of multimodal medical images in wavelet domain. Fusion of medical images has been performed at multiple scales varying from minimum to maximum level using maximum selection rule which provides more flexibility and choice to select the relevant fused images. The experimental analysis of the proposed method has been performed with several sets of medical images. Fusion results have been evaluated subjectively and objectively with existing state-of-the-art fusion methods which include several pyramid- and wavelet-transform-based fusion methods and principal component analysis (PCA) fusion method. The comparative analysis of the fusion results has been performed with edge strength (Q), mutual information (MI), entropy (E), standard deviation (SD), blind structural similarity index metric (BSSIM), spatial frequency (SF), and average gradient (AG) metrics. The combined subjective and objective evaluations of the proposed fusion method at multiple scales showed the effectiveness and goodness of the proposed approach. PMID:24453868

Khare, Ashish

2013-01-01

340

MICF: A fusion propulsion system for interstellar missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very promising propulsion device that could open up the solar system and beyond to human exploration is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) system. This scheme combines the favorable aspects of inertial and magnetic fusion into one where physical containment of the hot plasma is provided by a metal shell while its thermal energy is insulated from this

Terry Kammash; Brice N. Cassenti

2000-01-01

341

Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems  

SciTech Connect

Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices.

Hurley, C.A.

1980-09-03

342

A data fusion framework for context-aware mobile services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of some context-aware services, in which the central element comes to be the user and its mobile device plunged in a rich and heterogeneous sensing environment, has driven us to face the design of context-aware systems as a multisensor data fusion process. In this paper we propose a fusion framework that describes the information flows and identifies the

Ana M. Bernardos; Paula Tarrío; José R. Casar

2008-01-01

343

IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

OF WISCONSIN MADISON WISCONSIN Composition of the Source Region Plasma in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement. #12;I. INTRODUCTION The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion concept was first patented Electrostatic Confinement Devices D.R. Boris and G.A. Emmert Fusion Technology Institute University of Wisconsin

344

Human Sensing Fusion Project for Safety and Health Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces objectives and status of “Human sensing fusion project” in the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) scheme produced by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This project was started in December 2007 and the laboratory with 11 members opened on April 2008. The aim of this project is to realize a human activity-monitoring device with many kinds of sensors in ultimate small size so that the device can be pasted or patched to the human body, and to establish the algorism for understanding human condition including both physical and mental conditions from obtained data. This system can be used towards the prevention of the danger of accidents and the maintenance of health. The actual research has just begun and preparations for project are well under way.

Maenaka, Kazusuke

345

Signaling Mechanisms in Mammalian Myoblast Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skeletal muscles are formed by the fusion of multiple myoblasts during development. Myoblast fusion is also essential for the growth and repair of injured myofibers. Recent investigations have shown that the process of myoblast fusion involves the activation of several cell signaling pathways, including those mediated by nuclear factor ?B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells c2, transforming growth factor–?–Smad4, and the Rho guanosine triphosphatases. In this Review, which contains 2 figures and 84 references, we summarize the mechanisms by which the activation of these signaling pathways stimulates myoblast fusion.

Ashok Kumar (University of Louisville; School of Medicine REV)

2013-04-23

346

Radiation hardening of diagnostics for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A list of the diagnostic systems presently used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is compiled herein. The radiation-sensitive components are identified, and their locations in zones around the machine are indicated. A table of radiation sensitivities of components is included to indicate the data available from previous work in fission reactor, space probe, and defense-related programs. Extrapolation and application to hardening of fusion diagnostic systems requires additional data that are more specific to the fusion radiation environment and fusion components. A list is also given of present radiation-producing facilities where near-term screening tests of materials and components can be performed.

Baur, J.F.; Engholm, B.A.; Hacker, M.P.; Maya, I.; Miller, P.H.; Toffolo, W.E.; Wojtowicz, S.S.

1981-12-01

347

Magnetic fusion 1985: what next  

SciTech Connect

Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

Fowler, T.K.

1985-03-01

348

COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

Chang, Choong Seock

2012-06-05

349

About sponsorship Fusion power  

E-print Network

About sponsorship Fusion power Nuclear ambitions Jun 30th 2005 From The Economist print edition project to build a nuclear-fusion reactor came a step closer to reality when politicians agreed it should century, fusion advocates have claimed that achieving commercial nuclear fusion is 30 years away

350

Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods  

SciTech Connect

Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

2014-05-27

351

The Role of Controls in Nuclear Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Although controlled fusion is a very challenging technology, a fusion power reactor would offer significant advantages over existing energy sources, including no air pollution or greenhouse gases, no risk of nuclear accident, no generation of material for nuclear weapons, low-level radioactive

Eugenio Schuster; Marco Ariola

2006-01-01

352

Socio-economic Aspects of Fusion  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper, we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production.

J.A. Schmidt

2004-10-21

353

COMMENTARIES ON CRITICISMS OF MAGNETIC FUSION  

E-print Network

of magnetic fusion which have been published over the years and includes annexes which summarize technical in the Summer, 1997 issue of Issues in Science and Technology and a series of responses in the Fall, 1997 issue fusion reactors are within less than a factor of two of costs projected for other energy sources, without

354

Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents the results and recommendations of the deliberations of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Panel on the Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program carried out during 1998. Metrics evaluated included evidence of recognition, publications per worker, new people attracted to the work and significance of recent accomplishments.

Harkness, Samuel D.; Baker, Charles C.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Davis, John W.; Hogan, William; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mauel, Michael; McHargue, Carl; Odette, Robert; Petti, David A.; Shewmon, Paul; Zweben, Stewart J.

2000-03-01

355

76 FR 17422 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the device is as an alternative bone grafting substitute to autologous bone graft in applications to facilitate fusion in the ankle and foot without necessitating an additional invasive procedure to harvest the graft. FDA intends to make background...

2011-03-29

356

Complications with axial presacral lumbar interbody fusion: A 5-year postmarketing surveillance experience  

PubMed Central

Background Open and minimally invasive lumbar fusion procedures have inherent procedural risks, with posterior and transforaminal approaches resulting in significant soft-tissue injury and the anterior approach endangering organs and major blood vessels. An alternative lumbar fusion technique uses a small paracoccygeal incision and a presacral approach to the L5-S1 intervertebral space, which avoids critical structures and may result in a favorable safety profile versus open and other minimally invasive fusion techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate complications associated with axial interbody lumbar fusion procedures using the Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion (AxiaLIF) System (TranS1, Wilmington, North Carolina) in the postmarketing period. Methods Between March 2005 and March 2010, 9,152 patients underwent interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF System through an axial presacral approach. A single-level L5-S1 fusion was performed in 8,034 patients (88%), and a 2-level (L4-S1) fusion was used in 1,118 (12%). A predefined database was designed to record device- or procedure-related complaints via spontaneous reporting. The complications that were recorded included bowel injury, superficial wound and systemic infections, transient intraoperative hypotension, migration, subsidence, presacral hematoma, sacral fracture, vascular injury, nerve injury, and ureter injury. Results Complications were reported in 120 of 9,152 patients (1.3%). The most commonly reported complications were bowel injury (n = 59, 0.6%) and transient intraoperative hypotension (n = 20, 0.2%). The overall complication rate was similar between single-level (n = 102, 1.3%) and 2-level (n = 18, 1.6%) fusion procedures, with no significant differences noted for any single complication. Conclusions The 5-year postmarketing surveillance experience with the AxiaLIF System suggests that axial interbody lumbar fusion through the presacral approach is associated with a low incidence of complications. The overall complication rates observed in our evaluation compare favorably with those reported in trials of open and minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery.

Gundanna, Mukund I.; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2011-01-01

357

Modeling and analysis of tritium dynamics in a DT fusion fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of crucial design issues have a profound effect on the dynamics of the tritium fuel cycle in a DT fusion reactor, where the development of appropriate solutions to these issues is of particular importance to the introduction of fusion as a commercial system. Such tritium-related issues can be classified according to their operational, safety, and economic impact to the operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Given such key design issues inherent in next generation fusion devices using the DT fuel cycle development of appropriate models can then lead to optimized designs of the fusion fuel cycle for different types of DT fusion reactors. In this work, two different types of modeling approaches are developed and their application to solving key tritium issues presented. For the first approach, time-dependent inventories, concentrations, and flow rates characterizing the main subsystems of the fuel cycle are simulated with a new dynamic modular model of a fusion reactor's fuel cycle, named X-TRUFFLES (X-Windows TRitiUm Fusion Fuel cycLE dynamic Simulation). The complex dynamic behavior of the recycled fuel within each of the modeled subsystems is investigated using this new integrated model for different reactor scenarios and design approaches. Results for a proposed fuel cycle design taking into account current technologies are presented, including sensitivity studies. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed by examining various design options that could be used to minimize local and global tritium inventories. The second modeling approach involves an analytical model to be used for the calculation of the required tritium breeding ratio, i.e., a primary design issue which relates directly to the feasibility and economics of DT fusion systems. A time-integrated global tritium balance scheme is developed and appropriate analytical expressions are derived for tritium self-sufficiency relevant parameters. The easy exploration of the large parameter space of the fusion fuel cycle can thus be conducted as opposed to previous modeling approaches. Future guidance for R&D (research and development) in fusion nuclear technology is discussed in view of possible routes to take in reducing the tritium breeding requirements of DT fusion reactors.

Kuan, William

1998-11-01

358

Designing a data fusion system using a top-down approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are multiple reference models for data fusion, there are no formal processes in which to design a complete fusion system. Even though high-level fusion, i.e., impact and threat assessment, is included in the various models, the majority of data fusion research has focused on low-level data fusion such as sensing and correlation. More importantly, low-level fusion technologies have

Jared Holsopple; Shanchieh Jay Yang

2009-01-01

359

Annual Report of the EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Programme 2009/10 10 Publications  

E-print Network

fusion devices Rubel M, Coad J P, Likonen J, Philipps V Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research-driven current Cottrell G A, Kemp R Nuclear Fusion 49, 042001 (2009) 18. Revised scaling equation for the prediction of tritium retention in beryllium co-deposited layers De Temmerman G, Doerner R P Nuclear Fusion

360

InFusionIssue 01 |Spring 2011 www.ccfe.ac.uk  

E-print Network

How remote handling technology is transforming the world's largest fusion machine #12;CP09c-428, JET the European device and world's largest fusion machine and the UK's own machine MAST. Now experiment ITER, currently being built in Cadarache, southern France. The UK's fusion programme machine MAST

361

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ``International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)`` will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-09-01

362

Magnetic fusion and project ITER  

SciTech Connect

It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

Park, H.K.

1992-01-01

363

Fusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg  

E-print Network

Fusion Cons: · It doesn't work yet 8 #12;How does fusion work? Science · Nuclear physics · Plasma physicsFusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg PSFC & NSE January 2012 1 #12;Outline 1. What is fusion's role in energy production 2. How does fusion work? 3. Where is fusion research now? 4. Where might fusion

364

Device and SPICE modeling of RRAM devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of physics based models for resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices. The models are based on a generalized memristive system framework and can explain the dynamic resistive switching phenomena observed in a broad range of devices. Furthermore, by constructing a simple subcircuit, we can incorporate the device models into standard circuit simulators such as SPICE. The SPICE models can accurately capture the dynamic effects of the RRAM devices such as the apparent threshold effect, the voltage dependence of the switching time, and multi-level effects under complex circuit conditions. The device and SPICE models can also be readily expanded to include additional effects related to internal state changes, and will be valuable to help in the design and simulation of memory and logic circuits based on resistive switching devices.

Sheridan, Patrick; Kim, Kuk-Hwan; Gaba, Siddharth; Chang, Ting; Chen, Lin; Lu, Wei

2011-09-01

365

Fission and Fusion Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

366

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

1988-01-01

367

Results at 24 months from the prospective, randomized, multicenter Investigational Device Exemption trial of ProDisc-C versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with 4-year follow-up and continued access patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical total disk replacement (TDR) is intended to address pain and preserve motion between vertebral bodies in patients with symptomatic cervical disk disease. Two-year follow-up for the ProDisc-C (Synthes USA Products, LLC, West Chester, Pennsylvania) TDR clinical trial showed non-inferiority versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), showing superiority in many clinical outcomes. We present the 4-year interim follow-up results. Methods Patients were randomized (1:1) to ProDisc-C (PDC-R) or ACDF. Patients were assessed preoperatively, and postoperatively at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. After the randomized portion, continued access (CA) patients also underwent ProDisc-C implantation, with follow-up visits up to 24 months. Evaluations included Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain/satisfaction, and radiographic and physical/neurologic examinations. Results Randomized patients (103 PDC-R and 106 ACDF) and 136 CA patients were treated at 13 sites. VAS pain and NDI score improvements from baseline were significant for all patients (P < .0001) but did not differ among groups. VAS satisfaction was higher at all time points for PDC-R versus ACDF patients (P = .0499 at 48 months). The percentage of patients who responded yes to surgery again was 85.6% at 24 months and 88.9% at 48 months in the PDC-R group, 80.9% at 24 months and 81.0% at 48 months in the ACDF group, and 86.3% at 24 months in the CA group. Five PDC-R patients (48 months) and no CA patients (24 months) had index-level bridging bone. By 48 months, approximately 4-fold more ACDF patients required secondary surgery (3 of 103 PDC-R patients [2.9%] vs 12 of 106 ACDF patients [11.3%], P = .0292). Of these, 6 ACDF patients (5.6%) required procedures at adjacent levels. Three CA patients required secondary procedures (24 months). Conclusions Our 4-year data support that ProDisc-C TDR and ACDF are viable surgical options for symptomatic cervical disk disease. Although ACDF patients may be at higher risk for additional surgical intervention, patients in both groups show good clinical results at longer-term follow-up.

Delamarter, Rick B.; Murrey, Daniel; Janssen, Michael E.; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Zigler, Jack; Tay, Bobby K-B; Darden, Bruce

2010-01-01

368

Biometric Authentication System on Mobile Personal Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a secure, robust, and low-cost biometric authentication system on the mobile personal device for the personal network. The system consists of the following five key modules: 1) face detection; 2) face registration; 3) illumination normalization; 4) face verification; and 5) information fusion. For the complicated face authentication task on the devices with limited resources, the emphasis is largely

Qian Tao; Raymond N. J. Veldhuis

2010-01-01

369

Use of a spinal cage for creating stable constructs in ankle and subtalar fusion.  

PubMed

In complicated foot surgery with reconstruction of the hindfoot, a gap will sometimes be present between the bones that must be filled and stabilized. Bone grafting with structural bone graft is 1 alternative; however, it can collapse and must be stabilized with screws or a nail. A locking intramedullary nail can be used but could lead to nonunion owing to distraction. Newer nails include a compression device but that can result in shortening. We developed a technique that includes distraction of the fusion area with a spinal cage and then compression of the construct by inserting a compression screw through the cage. We present our experience with this technique.We reviewed the data from 7 patients who had undergone surgery using this technique. The technique included distraction of the fusion area and insertion of a titanium cylindrical spinal cage filled with autologous cancellous bone graft. A cannulated compression screw was then inserted through the cage, creating compression of the fusion area against the cage and achieving stabilization of the fusion area. Postoperatively, a non-weightbearing cast was applied for 3 months, followed by a full weightbearing cast until radiographic fusion was apparent. Complete radiographic union was observed in all 7 patients within 6 to 12 months postoperatively. At the latest follow-up visit, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score was 54 ± 16 (range 30 to 71) points. The use of a cylindrical titanium cage with a local bone graft and stabilization by distraction and compression provided a stable construct, avoided shortening, and led to good fusion. In addition, donor site complications and unpredictable strength loss and lysis of bone allograft were avoided. PMID:25631194

Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron S; Ben David, Dror; Massarwe, Sabri; Stern, Abraham; Nyska, Meir; Hetsroni, Iftach

2015-01-01

370

Recently Approved Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... products listed here include some of the newest medical technology available. For each product, you can find information about what the device is, how it works, when it can be used, and when it ... do not include every new medical device that has been cleared or approved for ...

371

Numerical simulations in laser controlled fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various theoretical models for the events which occur in laser targets are discussed. Difference methods are used to solve the corresponding problems. The results calculated by the LUCH program at the Institute of Applied Mathematics are compared with experiments carried out in the Kal'mar device (Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow) and in the USA (at the KMS Fusion laboratory) in the

Y. V. Afanasev; L. N. Busurina; P. P. Volosevich; I. I. Galiguzova; E. G. Gamalii; S. Y. Guskov; G. V. Danilova; O. N. Krokhin; S. P. Kurdyumov; E. I. Levanov

1983-01-01

372

Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-ended fusion system in which a high-density plasma is confined and heated to thermonuclear temperatures is examined as a potential high specific power propulsion device that can be used for space exploration. With a collision mean free path much smaller than a characteristic dimension of the system, the plasma behaves much like a continuous medium (fluid) for which the

Terry Kammash; Myoung-Jae Lee

1995-01-01

373

ECR-GDM Thruster for Fusion Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) device for fusion propulsion was proposed by and Lee (1995) over a decade ago and several theoretical papers has supported the feasibility of the concept. A new ECR plasma source has been built to supply power to the GDM experimental thruster previously tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The new plasma

Jerome J. Brainerd; Al Reisz

2009-01-01

374

Apparatus for initiating deuterium--tritium fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is described for initiation of a nuclear fusion reaction ; between D and T, in a controlled manner. It comprises a cylindrical shell made ; of steel, or some other suitable material, having a high gloss on its bore, into ; which may be injected streams of radiant energy from a laser device. The laser ; beams are directed

Pedrick

1973-01-01

375

Overview of Fusion Nuclear Technology in the US  

SciTech Connect

Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) research in the United States encompasses many activities and requires expertise and capabilities in many different disciplines. The US Enabling Technology program is divided into several task areas, with aspects of fusion nuclear technology being addressed mainly in the Plasma Chamber, Neutronics, Safety, Materials, Tritium and Plasma Facing Component Programs. These various programs work together to address key FNT topics, including support for the ITER basic machine and the ITER Test Blanket Module, support for domestic plasma experiments, and development of DEMO relevant material and technological systems for blankets, shields, and plasma facing components. While it is difficult to describe all these activities in adequate detail, this paper gives an overview of critical FNT activities. With the recent return of the US to the ITER collaboration, several activities in support of the ITER machine have been initiated, including development of the first wall shielding blanket baffle module (module 18), testing of plasma facing components, ITER tokamak exhaust tritium processing system development, and 3-D neutronics and activation code advances. The ITER test blanket module development activity has also been restarted in the US, and critical R&D is proceeding on ceramic breeder thermomechanical systems and lead-lithium breeder systems utilizing SiC composite flow channel inserts for thermal and MHD electrical insulation. Novel research on free surface liquid metal divertors is also continuing, with the goal of fielding a lithium free surface divertor in the National Spherical Torus eXperimental device (NSTX) and aiding the development of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton. Materials research in the long term is focused on coupled computational materials science and carefully designed experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms that control the mechanical and physical behavior of advanced body-centered cubic metals and ceramic composites in the harsh fusion environment. In addition, two inertial fusion energy (IFE) research programs conducting FNT-related research for IFE are also described.

Morley, Neil B.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Anderson, Mark; Calderoni, P.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Nygren, R N.; Raffray, R; Sawan, M.; Sharpe, Peter J.; Smolentsev, S.; Willms, Scott; Ying, A Y.

2006-02-01

376

Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic and inertial confinement, alternative approaches-such as Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters and ultrafast laser-plasma interactions-also provide insight into basic processes and technological applications. However, attempts to produce fusion in a room temperature solid-state setting, including `cold' fusion and `bubble' fusion, have met with deep scepticism. Here we report that gently heating a

B. Naranjo; J. K. Gimzewski; S. Putterman

2005-01-01

377

Young Fusion Scientists Address the FY06 Budget Proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Administration's FY06 budget proposal calls for a large reduction in funding for the domestic fusion energy sciences program. This paper describes the reaction of a group of young fusion scientists to this budget proposal. Included are a description of the federal budgetary agencies and processes, a description of a new forum for young fusion scientists, and a reprint of a letter to select Senate and House leaders from young fusion scientists.

Woodruff, S.; McCollam, K. J.; Rosenberg, A.; Smith, D.

2005-06-01

378

Comparison and analysis of fusion algorithms of high resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion techniques have been developed quickly in recent years and become an important remote sensing research topic. This paper systematically discusses the technique used in pixel level image fusion including IHS transform, YIQ transform, HLS transform, HSV transform, PCA transform, HPF transform and wavelet transform image fusion method. Then a fusion experiment of IKONOS image is made to compares the different merging methods from spectral quality and the spatial quality in order to choose the suitable method for the high resolution image.

Dong, Guangjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Dai, Chenguang

2008-03-01

379

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

French, P.D.

1996-06-11

380

Portable data collection device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

French, Patrick D. (Aurora, CO)

1996-01-01

381

Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"  

E-print Network

Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

Rainer W. Kuehne

2006-04-14

382

23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

Richard J. Hawryluk

2011-01-05

383

Prospective, randomized, multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study of lumbar total disc replacement with the CHARITÉ artificial disc versus lumbar fusion: Five-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextThe CHARITÉ artificial disc, a lumbar spinal arthroplasty device, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2004 based on two-year safety and effectiveness data from a multicenter, prospective, randomized investigational device exemption (IDE) study. No long-term, randomized, prospective study on the CHARITÉ disc or any other artificial disc has been published to date.

Richard D. Guyer; Paul C. McAfee; Robert J. Banco; Fabian D. Bitan; Andrew Cappuccino; Fred H. Geisler; Stephen H. Hochschuler; Richard T. Holt; Louis G. Jenis; Mohamed E. Majd; John J. Regan; Scott G. Tromanhauser; Douglas C. Wong; Scott L. Blumenthal

2009-01-01

384

Hybrid dynamic stabilization with posterior spinal fusion in the lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Background Instrumented lumbar arthrodesis has been established as the gold standard in the care of patients with degenerative disc disease. However, spinal fusion results in the elimination of motion of the functional spinal unit and has been implicated in the development of adjacent-level degeneration. Motion-preserving devices such as the dynamic rod allow for stabilization of a pathologic motion segment above a fused segment and create a transitional zone (index level) that decreases the loads applied to the supra-adjacent normal segment. Methods After institutional review board approval, 28 patients were included in this prospective, consecutive, nonrandomized clinical trial. Each subject was consented for dynamic stabilization. There was no attempt at fusion at the dynamic level. The cohort underwent a posterior lateral spinal fusion with single- or 2-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by use of a cage, with superior-level posterior dynamic instrumentation. Functional clinical outcomes were measured with a 100-point visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and Short Form 36 questionnaire. Radiographic measurements, fusion evaluation, complications, and screw loosening were recorded. Results A minimum of 24 months’ follow-up data included 22 patients. No device failure or screw breakage was identified. Postoperative range of motion averaged 2.5° at the index level, and the superior adjacent-level range of motion remained unchanged (P > .05). Disc height was preserved at all levels (P > .05). Of 180 screws, 6 (3%) showed radiographic loosening. Functional outcomes showed significant improvement in mean postoperative visual analog scale score by 24.7 points (P < .01) and Oswestry Disability Index by 27.6 points (P < .01), as well as the Short Form 36 physical (P < .01) and mental (P < .05) components from baseline to 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Our preliminary results at 2 years are satisfactory. Clinical Relevance Ultimately, further follow-up will assess the potential for this treatment to delay adjacent-level changes in the long term.

Hudson, William R. S.; Gee, John Eric; Billys, James B.; Castellvi, Antonio E.

2011-01-01

385

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review  

SciTech Connect

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

386

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research  

SciTech Connect

The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

Masayuki Ono

2012-09-10

387

EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S&E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selecti

Kolbasov, B. N.

2007-07-01

388

High efficiency photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Xu, Xi Xiang (Findlay, OH)

1999-11-02

389

Fusion power for space propulsion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

1972-01-01

390

Applications of Neural Networks to Data Analysis and Control of Fusion Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of neural networks to data analysis and control of fusion plasmas are reviewed. First, a brief introduction to the general features of a neural network is presented, where the neural network is considered as a continuous mapping device, a classification device, a statistical processing device, and a time series predicition device. Then, the applications of neural networks to the

Tatsuoki Takeda; Atsuhiroi Iyomasa

2002-01-01

391

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz, P close #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Dimensionally No , Yes No #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Ip

392

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz M Point Studies #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division A New on assumed p*/E #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Calibration

393

78 FR 11612 - Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices; Requirement for Submission of Information on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2009-N-0458] RIN 0910-AG29 Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices...regulations on premarket approval of medical devices to include requirements relating...purpose of the regulation of medical devices. Furthermore, the comment...

2013-02-19

394

75 FR 16347 - Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices; Requirement for Submission of Information on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2009-N-0458] RIN 0910-AG29 Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices...regulations on premarket approval of medical devices to include requirements relating...Premarket Assessment of Pediatric Medical Devices (May 14, 2004);...

2010-04-01

395

75 FR 16365 - Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices; Requirement for Submission of Information on...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2009-N-0458] RIN 0910-AG29 Medical Devices; Pediatric Uses of Devices...regulations on premarket approval of medical devices to include requirements relating...Premarket Assessment of Pediatric Medical Devices (May 14, 2004);...

2010-04-01

396

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-07-10

397

Laser device  

DOEpatents

A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

2004-11-23

398

Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

2013-06-01

399

Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree. This paper describes our findings and offers insights into the role of data representation in hard/soft fusion.

Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

2012-06-01

400

Visual sensor fusion for active security in robotic industrial environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a method of information fusion involving data captured by both a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a time-of-flight (ToF) camera to be used in the detection of the proximity between a manipulator robot and a human. Both cameras are assumed to be located above the work area of an industrial robot. The fusion of colour images and time-of-flight information makes it possible to know the 3D localization of objects with respect to a world coordinate system. At the same time, this allows to know their colour information. Considering that ToF information given by the range camera contains innacuracies including distance error, border error, and pixel saturation, some corrections over the ToF information are proposed and developed to improve the results. The proposed fusion method uses the calibration parameters of both cameras to reproject 3D ToF points, expressed in a common coordinate system for both cameras and a robot arm, in 2D colour images. In addition to this, using the 3D information, the motion detection in a robot industrial environment is achieved, and the fusion of information is applied to the foreground objects previously detected. This combination of information results in a matrix that links colour and 3D information, giving the possibility of characterising the object by its colour in addition to its 3D localisation. Further development of these methods will make it possible to identify objects and their position in the real world and to use this information to prevent possible collisions between the robot and such objects.

Robla, Sandra; Llata, Jose R.; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Sarabia, Esther G.; Becerra, Victor; Perez-Oria, Juan

2014-12-01

401

Slow liner fusion  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

Shaffer, M.J.

1997-08-01

402

Exhaust gas purification device  

SciTech Connect

The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

1980-02-19

403

Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

1989-01-01

404

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), are derived from water and the metal lithium, a relatively abundant resource. The fuels are virtually inexhaustible and they are available worldwide. Deuterium from one gallon of seawater would provide the equivalent energy of 300 gallons of gasoline, or over a half ton of coal. This energy is released when deuterium and tritium nuclei are fused together to form a helium nucleus and a neutron. The neutron is used to breed tritium from lithium. The energy released is carried by the helium nucleus (3.5 MeV) and the neutron (14 MeV). The energetic helium nucleus heats the fuel, helping to sustain the fusion reaction. Once the helium cools, it is collected and becomes a useful byproduct. A fusion power plant would produce no climate-changing gases.

Moses, E

2010-06-09

405

Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the underlying principles involved in MTF. Magnetized Target Fusion is an attempt to combine MCF (magnetic confinement fusion) for energy confinement and ICF (inertial confinement fusion) for efficient compression heating and wall free containment of the fusing plasma. It also seeks to combine the best features to these two main commonplace approaches to fusion.

Cylar, Rashad

2003-01-01

406

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

407

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

408

Deformability-based microfluidic cell pairing and fusion.  

PubMed

We present a microfluidic cell pairing device capable of sequential trapping and pairing of hundreds of cells using passive hydrodynamics and flow-induced deformation. We describe the design and operation principles of our device and show its applicability for cell fusion. Using our device, we achieved both homotypic and heterotypic cell pairing, demonstrating efficiencies up to 80%. The platform is compatible with fusion protocols based on biological, chemical and physical stimuli with fusion yields up to 95%. Our device further permits its disconnection from the fluidic hardware enabling its transportation for imaging and culture while maintaining cell registration on chip. Our design principles and cell trapping technique can readily be applied for different cell types and can be extended to trap and fuse multiple (>2) cell partners as demonstrated by our preliminary experiments. PMID:24898933

Dura, Burak; Liu, Yaoping; Voldman, Joel

2014-08-01

409

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

410

Prospects for a high field ITER device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scoping studies of a high-field ITER device have been performed. Possible advantages of high field operation include: reduced machine size and cost, decreased fusion power and tritium consumption, lower current, and higher density operation (which may increase the design window for the divertor targets). The use of high aspect ratio minimizes the need for increased field at the superconductor by increasing the ratio between the field at the plasma and the peak field at the coil. Higher aspect ratio also results in stresses in the magnet structure that are within present ITER design limits. The current densities in the conductors are consistent with the use of Nb3Sn. The impact of high field on steady-state current drive is evaluated.

Bromberg, L.; Myer, R. C.; Cohn, D. R.; Schwartz, J.; Williams, J. E. C.

1990-12-01

411

Device-directed rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rendering systems can produce images that include the entire range of visible colors. Imaging hardware, however, can reproduce only a subset of these colors: the device gamut. An image can only be correctly displayed if all of its colors lie inside of the gamut of the target device. Current solutions to this problem are either to correct the scene colors

Andrew S. Glassner; Kenneth P. Fishkin; David H. Marimont; Maureen C. Stone

1995-01-01

412

Capillary interconnect device  

DOEpatents

An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

Renzi, Ronald F

2013-11-19

413

Advanced resistive exercise device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

414

Liquid mixing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the

OLeary

1985-01-01

415

Electrophoresis device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (inventors)

1982-01-01

416

Daydreaming Devices  

E-print Network

Daydreaming Devices is a project on aspects of daydream and the design of convertible furniture within the context of art. This thesis addresses the concepts and the design of two daydreaming devices developed during my ...

Da Ponte, Ana Sofia Lopes

2008-01-01

417

The fusion breeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

Moir, Ralph W.

1982-10-01

418

INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major milestone on the path to fusion energy was reached in June 2005 on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of all parties to the ITER negotiations, agreeing on future arrangements and on the construction site at Cadarache in France. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting fusion activities since the late 1950s; it took over the auspices of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities in 1988, and of the ITER Engineering and Design Activities in 1992. The Agency continues its support to Member States through the organization of consultancies, workshops and technical meetings, the most prominent being the series of International Fusion Energy Conferences (formerly called the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research). The meetings serve as a platform for experts from all Member States to have open discussions on their latest accomplishments as well as on their problems and eventual solutions. The papers presented at the meetings and conferences are routinely published, many being sent to the journal it Nuclear Fusion, co-published monthly by Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. The journal's reputation is reflected in the fact that it is a world-renowned publication, and the International Fusion Research Council has used it for the publication of a Status Report on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in 1978 and 1990. This present report marks the conclusion of the preparatory phases of ITER activities. It provides background information on the progress of fusion research within the last 15 years. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), which initiated the report, was fully aware of the complexities of including all scientific results in just one paper, and so decided to provide an overview and extensive references for the interested reader who need not necessarily be a fusion specialist. Professor Predhiman K. Kaw, Chairman, prepared the report on behalf of the IFRC, reflecting members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has been widely and expertly disseminated. We further acknowledge the efforts of the Chairman of

Burkart, Werner

2005-10-01

419

A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

2012-01-01

420

A smartphone-based driver safety monitoring system using data fusion.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver's capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

2012-01-01

421

Neutron-induced transmutation effects in W and W-alloys in a fusion environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W and W-alloys are among the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the design of fusion reactors, particularly in high-heat-flux regions such as the divertor. Under neutron irradiation W undergoes transmutation to its near-neighbours in the periodic table. Additionally He and H are particles emitted from certain neutron-induced reactions, and this is particularly significant in fusion research since the presence of helium in a material can cause both swelling and a strong increase in brittleness. This paper presents the results of inventory burn-up calculations on pure W and gives quantitative estimates for He production rates in both a fusion-reactor environment and under conditions expected in the ITER experimental device. Transmutation reactions in possible alloying elements (Re, Ta, Ti and V), which could be used to reduce the brittleness of pure W, are also considered. Additionally, for comparison, the transmutation of other fusion-relevant materials, including Fe and SiC, are presented.

Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

2011-04-01

422

Multisensor data fusion in an integrated tracking system for endoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Surgical planning and navigation systems are vital for minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries but it is challenging to track the position and orientation of intrabody surgical instruments in these procedures. In order to address this problem, we propose a tracking system including multiple-sensor integration and data fusion. The proposed tracking approach is free of the constraints of line-of-sight, less subject to environmental distortion, and with higher update rate. By incorporating electromagnetic and inertial sensors, the system yields continuous 6-DOF information. Based on a system dynamic model and estimation theories, a new multisensor fusion algorithm, cascade orientation and position-estimation algorithm, is proposed for the integrated tracking device. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms achieve accurate orientation and position tracking with robustness. PMID:21827975

Ren, Hongliang; Rank, Denis; Merdes, Martin; Stallkamp, Jan; Kazanzides, Peter

2012-01-01

423

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

Jassby, D.L.

1987-09-04

424

Fusion pumped light source  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

425

75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice...certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by...of authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices,...

2010-01-05

426

Device for cutting protrusions  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05

427

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)  

E-print Network

FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF ELEMENTS OF THE FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

428

Proton Detector Calibration in a Gridded Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work [S. Krupakar Murali, J. F. Santarius, and G. L. Kulcinski, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 122702, (2008)] indicates that fusion reactions in an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device primarily occur in microchannels. Since microchannels form discretely all around the cathode, the proton calibration procedure necessitated the estimation of fusion reactivity within the microchannels. Unlike neutron detectors that see a point

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

429

Fusion tritium program in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The fusion technology development program for tritium in the US is centered around the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Labortory. Objectives of this project are to develop and demonstrate the fuel cycle for processing the reactor exhaust gas (unburned deuterium and tritium plus impurities), and the necessary personnel and environemntal protection systems for the next generation of fusion devices. The TSTA is a full-scale system for an INTOR/ITER sized machine. That is, TSTA has the capacity to process tritium in a closed loop mode at the rate of 1 kg per day, requiring a tritium inventory of about 100 g. The TSTA program also interacts with all other tritium-related fusion technology programs in the US and all major programs abroad. This report is a summary of the results and interactions of the TSTA program since a previous summary was published and an overview of related tritium programs.

Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

1988-01-01

430

Model Fusion and Joint Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse problems are inherently non-unique, and regularization is needed to obtain stable and reasonable solutions. The regularization adds information to the problem and determines which solution, out of the infinitely many, is obtained. In this paper, we review and discuss the case when a priori information exists in the form of either known structure or in the form of another inverse problem for a different property. The challenge is to include such information in the inversion process. To use existing known structure, we review the concept of model fusion, where we build a regularization functional that fuses the inverted model to a known one. The fusion is achieved by four different techniques. Joint inversion of two data sets is achieved by using iterative data fusion. The paper discusses four different methods for joint inversion. We discuss the use of correspondence maps or the petrophysics of the rocks, as well as structure. In particular, we suggest to further stabilize the well-known gradient cross product and suggest a new technique, Joint Total Variation, to solve the problem. The Joint Total Variation is a convex functional for joint inversion and, as such, has favorable optimization properties. We experiment with the techniques on the DC resistivity problem and the borehole tomography and show how model fusion and joint inversion can significantly improve over existing techniques.

Haber, Eldad; Holtzman Gazit, Michal

2013-09-01

431

Visualize Your Data with Google Fusion Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Google Fusion Tables is a modern data management platform that makes it easy to host, manage, collaborate on, visualize, and publish tabular data online. Fusion Tables allows users to upload their own data to the Google cloud, which they can then use to create compelling and interactive visualizations with the data. Users can view data on a Google Map, plot data in a line chart, or display data along a timeline. Users can share these visualizations with others to explore and discover interesting trends about various types of data, including scientific data such as invasive species or global trends in disease. Fusion Tables has been used by many organizations to visualize a variety of scientific data. One example is the California Redistricting Map created by the LA Times: http://goo.gl/gwZt5 The Pacific Institute and Circle of Blue have used Fusion Tables to map the quality of water around the world: http://goo.gl/T4SX8 The World Resources Institute mapped the threat level of coral reefs using Fusion Tables: http://goo.gl/cdqe8 What attendees will learn in this session: This session will cover all the steps necessary to use Fusion Tables to create a variety of interactive visualizations. Attendees will begin by learning about the various options for uploading data into Fusion Tables, including Shapefile, KML file, and CSV file import. Attendees will then learn how to use Fusion Tables to manage their data by merging it with other data and controlling the permissions of the data. Finally, the session will cover how to create a customized visualization from the data, and share that visualization with others using both Fusion Tables and the Google Maps API.

Brisbin, K. E.

2011-12-01

432

Laser driven instabilities in inertial confinement fusion  

SciTech Connect

Parametric instabilities excited by an intense electromagnetic wave in a plasma is a fundamental topic relevant to many applications. These applications include laser fusion, heating of magnetically-confined plasmas, ionospheric modification, and even particle acceleration for high energy physics. In laser fusion, these instabilities have proven to play an essential role in the choice of laser wavelength. Characterization and control of the instabilities is an ongoing priority in laser plasma experiments. Recent progress and some important trends will be discussed. 8 figs.

Kruer, W.L.

1990-06-04

433

Identification of Targetable FGFR Gene Fusions in Diverse Cancers  

PubMed Central

Through a prospective clinical sequencing program for advanced cancers, four index cases were identified which harbor gene rearrangements of FGFR2 including patients with cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. After extending our assessment of FGFR rearrangements across multiple tumor cohorts, we identified additional FGFR gene fusions with intact kinase domains in lung squamous cell cancer, bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, oral cancer, glioblastoma, and head and neck squamous cell cancer. All FGFR fusion partners tested exhibit oligomerization capability, suggesting a shared mode of kinase activation. Overexpression of FGFR fusion proteins induced cell proliferation. Two bladder cancer cell lines that harbor FGFR3 fusion proteins exhibited enhanced susceptibility to pharmacologic inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Due to the combinatorial possibilities of FGFR family fusion to a variety of oligomerization partners, clinical sequencing efforts which incorporate transcriptome analysis for gene fusions are poised to identify rare, targetable FGFR fusions across diverse cancer types. PMID:23558953

Wu, Yi-Mi; Su, Fengyun; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Khazanov, Nick; Ateeq, Bushra; Cao, Xuhong; Lonigro, Robert J.; Vats, Pankaj; Wang, Rui; Lin, Su-Fang; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Siddiqui, Javed; Tomlins, Scott A.; Wyngaard, Peter; Sadis, Seth; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Hussain, Maha H.; Feng, Felix Y.; Zalupski, Mark M.; Talpaz, Moshe; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Robinson, Dan R.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

2013-01-01

434

Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

2010-11-30

435

Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy systems  

E-print Network

Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: Analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model and understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. We extract nucleus--nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, we analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: Extracted potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance...

Washiyama, Kouhei

2015-01-01

436

Fusion Power: A Strategic Choice for the Future Energy Provision. Why is So Much Time Wasted for Decision Making?  

SciTech Connect

From a general analysis of the world energy issue, it is argued that an affordable, clean and reliable energy supply will have to consist of a portfolio of primary energy sources, a large fraction of which will be converted to a secondary carrier in large baseload plants. Because of all future uncertainties, it would be irresponsible not to include thermonuclear fusion as one of the future possibilities for electricity generation.The author tries to understand why nuclear-fusion research is not considered of strategic importance by the major world powers. The fusion programs of the USA and Europe are taken as prime examples to illustrate the 'hesitation'. Europe is now advocating a socalled 'fast-track' approach, thereby seemingly abandoning the 'classic' time frame towards fusion that it has projected for many years. The US 'oscillatory' attitude towards ITER in relation to its domestic program is a second case study that is looked at.From the real history of the ITER design and the 'siting' issue, one can try to understand how important fusion is considered by these world powers. Not words are important, but deeds. Fast tracks are nice to talk about, but timely decisions need to be taken and sufficient money is to be provided. More fundamental understanding of fusion plasma physics is important, but in the end, real hardware devices must be constructed to move along the path of power plant implementation.The author tries to make a balance of where fusion power research is at this moment, and where, according to his views, it should be going.

D'haeseleer, William D

2005-04-15

437

ACE Mission - Fusion and Nucleosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief explains the idea that nuclear fusion is thought to be the mechanism by which virtually all of the elements around us are created. Topics include the proton-proton cycle, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle, and endothermic reactions in supernova explosions. There is also a discussion of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a spacecraft intended to study the origin and evolution of the elements produced by our Sun.

438

Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a center for information exchange, nationally and internationally, by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results that are obtained by the Institute contribute mainly to the progress of national and international efforts in nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power.as a basic energy source. In addition to its primary focus on fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in related fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, plasma astrophysics, and accelerator physics. The work of EFS scientists continued to receive national and international recognition. Numerous invited papers were given during the past year at workshops, conferences, and scientific meetings. Last year IFS scientists published 95 scientific articles in technical journals and monographs.

Hazeltine, R.D.

1992-07-01

439

Design Considerations for Clean QED Fusion Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct production of electric power appears possible from fusion reactions between fuels whose products consist solely of charged particles and thus do not present radiation hazards from energetic neutron production, as do reactions involving deuteron-bearing fuels. Among these are the fuels p, 11B, 3He, and 6Li. All of these can be ``burned'' in inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) devices to power QED

Robert W. Bussard; Lorin W. Jameson

1994-01-01

440

Design Considerations for Clean QED Fusion Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct production of electric power appears possible from fusion reactions between fuels whose products consist solely of charged particles and thus do not present radiation hazards from energetic neutron production, as do reactions involving deuteron-bearing fuels. Among these are the fuels p, 11B, 3He, and 6Li. All of these can be “burned” in inertial-electrostatic-fusion (IEF) devices to power QED

Robert W. Bussard; Lorin W. Jameson

1994-01-01

441

Viral membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral 'fusion proteins' facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the

Stephen C Harrison

2008-01-01

442

Fusion propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a US Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL)-sponsored study of fusion propulsion are summarized. The study explored the potential of fusion propulsion for Air Force missions. Fusion fuels and existing confinement concepts were evaluated according to elaborate criteria. Two fuels, deuterium-tritium and deuterium-helium 3 (D-3He), were considered worthy of further consideration. D-3He was selected as the most attractive

V. E. Haloulakos

1989-01-01

443

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

444

Intense fusion neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects\\u000a of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015–1021 neutrons\\/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes\\u000a and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of\\u000a fusion

B. V. Kuteev; P. R. Goncharov; V. Yu. Sergeev; V. I. Khripunov

2010-01-01

445

Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) motivation and required capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact (R0˜1.2-1.3m), low aspect ratio, low-Q (<3) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) was recently assessed to provide a fully integrated, D-T-fueled, continuously driven plasma, volumetric nuclear environment of copious neutrons. This environment would be used to carry out, for the first time, discovery-driven research in fusion nuclear science and materials, in parallel with and complementary to ITER. This research would aim to test, discover, and understand new nuclear-nonnuclear synergistic interactions involving plasma material interactions, neutron material interactions, tritium fuel breeding and transport, and power extraction, and innovate and develop solutions for DEMO components. Progress will be reported on the fusion nuclear-nonnuclear coupling effects identified that motivate research on such an FNSF, and on the required capabilities in fusion plasma, device operation, and fusion nuclear science and engineering to fulfill its mission.

Peng, Y. K. M.; Park, J. M.; Canik, J. M.; Diem, S. J.; Sontag, A. C.; Lumsdaine, A.; Murakami, M.; Katoh, Y.; Burgess, T. W.; Korsah, K.; Patton, B. D.; Wagner, J. C.; Yoder, G. L.; Cole, M. J.; Fogarty, P. J.; Sawan, M.

2011-11-01

446

Preloaded latching device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A latching device is disclosed which is lever operated sequentially to actuate a set of collet fingers to provide a radial expansion and to actuate a force mechanism to provide a compressive gripping force for attaching first and second devices to one another. The latching device includes a body member having elongated collet fingers which, in a deactuated condition, is insertable through bores on the first and second devices so that gripping terminal portions on the collet fingers are proximate to the end of the bore of the first device while a spring assembly on the body member is located proximate to the outer surface of a second device. A lever is rotatable through 90 deg to move a latching rod to sequentially actuate and expand collet fingers and to actuate the spring assembly by compressing it. During the first 30 deg of movement of the lever, the collet fingers are actuated by the latching rod to provide a radial expansion and during the last 60 deg of movement of the lever, the spring assembly acts as a force mechanism and is actuated to develop a compressive latching force on the devices. The latching rod and lever are connected by a camming mechanism. The amount of spring force in the spring assembly can be adjusted; the body member can be permanently attached by a telescoping assembly to one of the devices; and the structure can be used as a pulling device for removing annular bearings or the like from blind bores.

Wesselski, Clarence J. (inventor); Nagy, Kornel (inventor)

1992-01-01

447

The C. elegans developmental fusogen EFF-1 mediates homotypic fusion in heterologous cells and in vivo.  

PubMed

During cell-cell fusion, two cells' plasma membranes merge, allowing the cytoplasms to mix and form a syncytium. Little is known about the mechanisms of cell fusion. Here, we asked whether eff-1, shown previously to be essential for fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans, acts directly in the fusion machinery. We show that expression of EFF-1 transmembrane protein drives fusion of heterologous cells into multinucleate syncytia. We obtained evidence that EFF-1-mediated fusion involves a hemifusion intermediate characterized by membrane mixing without cytoplasm mixing. Furthermore, syncytiogenesis requires EFF-1 in both fusing cells. To test whether this mechanism also applies in vivo, we conducted genetic mosaic analysis of C. elegans and found that homotypic epidermal fusion requires EFF-1 in both cells. Thus, although EFF-1-mediated fusion shares characteristics with viral and intracellular fusion, including an apparent hemifusion step, it differs from these reactions in the homotypic organization of the fusion machinery. PMID:17011487

Podbilewicz, Benjamin; Leikina, Evgenia; Sapir, Amir; Valansi, Clari; Suissa, Meital; Shemer, Gidi; Chernomordik, Leonid V

2006-10-01

448

Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

McCown, Steven H. (Rigby, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-05-08

449

Magnetic fusion reactor economics  

SciTech Connect

An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-12-01

450

Synergistic effects in fusion machines, session summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A definition of synergistic effects in fusion devices is proposed and anticipated causal agents for such effects are discussed. Two presentations are summarized which describe observation of possible synergistic effects in the area of plasma-wall interactions. Evidence for enhanced erosion on a graphite probe cap during radio frequency heating of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) is presented. Also, the erosion of graphite in the ASDEX divertor and simultaneous deposition of impurities both with and without neutral beam injection heating is discussed.

Langley, R. A.; Manos, D.; Roth, J.

1984-10-01

451

A direct fusion drive for rocket propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Direct Fusion Drive (DFD), a compact, anuetronic fusion engine, will enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system. The engine proposed here uses a deuterium-helium-3 reaction to produce fusion energy by employing a novel field-reversed configuration (FRC) for magnetic confinement. The FRC has a simple linear solenoid coil geometry yet generates higher plasma pressure, hence higher fusion power density, for a given magnetic field strength than other magnetic-confinement plasma devices. Waste heat generated from the plasma's Bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation is recycled to maintain the fusion temperature. The charged reaction products, augmented by additional propellant, are exhausted through a magnetic nozzle. A 1 MW DFD is presented in the context of a mission to deploy the James Webb Space Telescope (6200 kg) from GPS orbit to a Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit in 37 days using just 353 kg of propellant and about half a kilogram of 3He. The engine is designed to produce 40 N of thrust with an exhaust velocity of 56.5 km/s and has a specific power of 0.18 kW/kg.

Razin, Yosef S.; Pajer, Gary; Breton, Mary; Ham, Eric; Mueller, Joseph; Paluszek, Michael; Glasser, Alan H.; Cohen, Samuel A.

2014-12-01

452

Superconductivity and fusion energy—the inseparable companions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although superconductivity will never produce energy by itself, it plays an important role in energy-related applications both because of its saving potential (e.g., power transmission lines and generators), and its role as an enabling technology (e.g., for nuclear fusion energy). The superconducting magnet’s need for plasma confinement has been recognized since the early development of fusion devices. As long as the research and development of plasma burning was carried out on pulsed devices, the technology of superconducting fusion magnets was aimed at demonstrations of feasibility. In the latest generation of plasma devices, which are larger and have longer confinement times, the superconducting coils are a key enabling technology. The cost of a superconducting magnet system is a major portion of the overall cost of a fusion plant and deserves significant attention in the long-term planning of electricity supply; only cheap superconducting magnets will help fusion get to the energy market. In this paper, the technology challenges and design approaches for fusion magnets are briefly reviewed for past, present, and future projects, from the early superconducting tokamaks in the 1970s, to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and W7-X projects and future DEMO (Demonstration Reactor) projects. The associated cryogenic technology is also reviewed: 4.2 K helium baths, superfluid baths, forced-flow supercritical helium, and helium-free designs. Open issues and risk mitigation are discussed in terms of reliability, technology, and cost.

Bruzzone, Pierluigi

2015-02-01

453

Prospects for bubble fusion  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

454

Soldier systems sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

Brubaker, Kathryne M.

1998-08-01

455

Superconducting quantum-interference devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Published document discusses devices which are based on weak-link Josephson elements that join superconductors. Links can take numerous forms, and circuitry utilizing links can perform many varied functions with unprecedented sensitivity. Theoretical review of Josephson's junctions include tunneling junctions, point contact devices, microbridges, and proximity-effect devices.

Peters, P. N.; Holdeman, L. B.

1975-01-01

456

Inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion for space power  

SciTech Connect

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. Here we discuss a new approach for space fusion power, namely Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct energy conversion.

Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.H.; Hochberg, T.K.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. (Fusion Studies Laboratory, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (US))

1991-01-01

457

Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device  

DOEpatents

A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

Ellison, Timothy

2005-07-12

458

Fusion tritons and plasma-facing components in a fusion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to discuss the role that 1 MeV tritons produced in deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions might play in a long-pulse or steady-state fusion reactor. Albeit a small minority in quantity compared to the fuel tritium, the fusion tritons have significantly longer penetration length in materials and can have detrimental consequences for the integrity of the components. Because deeply deposited atoms are not easily removed from the plasma-facing components, the fusion tritium inventory in a steady-state device is expected to be limited only by decay. Furthermore, unlike fuel tritium, it is not evenly distributed on the plasma-facing components. We conclude that, of the materials considered here, tungsten appears better than carbon or beryllium in this respect. Nonetheless, 1 MeV tritons from deuterium fusion should not be neglected when making material choices for ITER and, especially, for future fusion reactors. In particular, studies on the bulk effects of deeply penetrated tritium in tungsten are urgently needed if metal-wall reactors are considered for the future. This is an interdisciplinary problem needing the attention of material scientists and plasma physicists.

Kurki-Suonio, T.; Hynönen, V.; Ahlgren, T.; Nordlund, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Dux, R.

2007-06-01