Science.gov

Sample records for fusion materials program

  1. Neutron irradiation experiments for fusion reactor materials through JUPITER program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Kohyama, A.; Namba, C.; Wiffen, F. W.; Jones, R. H.

    1998-10-01

    A Japan-USA Program of irradiation experiments for fusion research, "JUPITER", has been established as a 6 year program from 1995 to 2000. The goal is to study "the dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment". This is phase-three of the collaborative program, which follows RTNS-II Program (Phase-1: 1982-1986) and FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase-2: 1987-1994). This program is to provide a scientific basis for application of materials performance data, generated by fission reactor experiments, to anticipated fusion environments. Following the systematic study on cumulative irradiation effects, done through FFTF/MOTA Program, JUPITER is emphasizing the importance of dynamic irradiation effects on materials performance in fusion systems. The irradiation experiments in this program include low activation structural materials, functional ceramics and other innovative materials. The experimental data are analyzed by theoretical modeling and computer simulation to integrate the above effects.

  2. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-05-15

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC{sub f}/SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors.

  3. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  4. A carbon-carbon composite materials development program for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P. ); Engle, G.B. ); Hollenberg, G.W. )

    1992-10-01

    Carbon-carbon composites increasingly are being used for plasma-facing component (PFC) applications in magnetic-confinement plasma-fusion devices. They offer substantial advantages such as enhanced physical and mechanical properties and superior thermal shock resistance compared to the previously favored bulk graphite. Next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), will require advanced carbon-carbon composites possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated extreme thermal heat loads. This report outlines a program that will facilitate the development of advanced carbon-carbon composites specifically tailored to meet the requirements of ITER and BPX. A strategy for developing the necessary associated design data base is described. Materials property needs, i.e., high thermal conductivity, radiation stability, tritium retention, etc., are assessed and prioritized through a systems analysis of the functional, operational, and component requirements for plasma-facing applications. The current Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Program on carbon-carbon composites is summarized. Realistic property goals are set based upon our current understanding. The architectures of candidate PFC carbon-carbon composite materials are outlined, and architectural features considered desirable for maximum irradiation stability are described. The European and Japanese carbon-carbon composite development and irradiation programs are described. The Working Group conclusions and recommendations are listed. It is recommended that developmental carbon-carbon composite materials from the commercial sector be procured via request for proposal/request for quotation (RFP/RFQ) as soon as possible.

  5. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  6. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  7. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  8. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  9. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the “Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities” [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP’s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  10. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  11. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  12. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  13. Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Project Staff

    2012-02-29

    Under this project, General Atomics (GA) was tasked to develop the experimental validation plans for two high priority ISAs, Boundary and Pedestal and Whole Device Modeling in collaboration with the theory, simulation and experimental communities. The following sections have been incorporated into the final FSP Program Plan (www.pppl.gov/fsp), which was delivered to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional deliverables by GA include guidance for validation, development of metrics to evaluate success and procedures for collaboration with experiments. These are also part of the final report.

  14. National Mirror Fusion Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    This Plan is current as of August 1982. The major milestones listed herein represent an aggressive, success-oriented program paced primarily by technical results. Consistent with applicable government policies and the overall program planning of the Department's Office of Fusion Energy, this Plan assumes approval of the Mirror Program's next major step beyond MFTF-B - a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning engineering reactor called the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) facility (formerly the Tandem Mirror Next Step). The near-term goal of the tandem mirror program is to lay the scientific and technical groundwork for an economically attractive, D-T fusion reactor design before the end of the 1980s. Construction of the FPD facility based on the tandem mirror could be initited around 1988. A second phase, complete with a nuclear power blanket demonstration, could be initiated in the mid-1990s, based on nuclear engineering data from a facility such as the Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) described below. The outline of an acceptable tandem mirror reactor (TMR) design was first published in 1981, and will be further developed and described in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) during FY 1982-1983.

  15. Neutron-source characterization for fusion-materials studies

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1981-06-01

    Neutron-flux and energy-spectrum measurements are conducted for all major fusion-materials irradiation facilities, including fission reactors and accelerators. Dosimetry-characterization experiments and integral cross section measurements have been performed. Multiple activation and helium-production measurements are performed routinely to provide materials experimenters with neutron-exposure parameters including fluence, spectrum, displacements, gas production, and transmutation with typical accuracies of 10 to 15%. Such data are crucial to the fusion-materials program in order to correlate materials-property changes between irradiations and facilities and to confidently predict the performance of materials in fusion reactors.

  16. (Fourth international conference on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.E.

    1990-01-24

    This report summarizes the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-4) which was held December 4--9, 1989, in Kyoto, Japan, as well as the results of several workshops, planning meetings, and laboratory visits made by the travelers. The ICFRM-4 is the major forum to present and exchange information on materials research and development in support of the world's fusion development efforts. About 360 papers were presented by the 347 conference attendees. Highlights of the conference are presented. A proposal by the United States to host ICFRM-5 was accepted by the International Advisory Committee. ORNL will be the host laboratory. A meeting of the DOE/JAERI Annex I Steering Committee to review the US/Japan Collaborative Testing of First Wall and Blanket Structural Materials with Mixed Spectrum Fission Reactors was held at JAERI Headquarters on December 1. The Japanese emphasized the critical importance of a resumption of HFIR operation. Even though the HFIR outage has lasted three plus years this program has continued to provide new and important data on materials behavior which has particular relevance to ITER.

  17. A program toward a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebut, P.-H.; Watkins, M. L.; Gambier, D. J.; Boucher, D.

    1991-08-01

    Near breakeven conditions have been attained in the JET tokamak [Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)], with beryllium as the first-wall material. A fusion triple product (nDτETi) of 8-9×1020 m-3 sec keV has been reached (within a factor of 8 of that required in a fusion reactor). However, this has only been achieved transiently. At high heating powers, an influx of impurities still limits the achievement of better performance and steady-state operation. In parallel, an improved quantitative understanding of fusion plasmas has emerged from the development of a particular plasma model. Good quantitative agreement is obtained between the model and JET data. The main predictions are also consistent with statistical scaling laws. With such a model, a predictive capability begins to emerge to define the parameters and operating conditions of a DEMO, including impurity levels. Present experimental results and model predictions suggest that impurity dilution is a major threat to a reactor. A divertor concept must be developed further to ensure impurity control before a DEMO can be constructed. A New Phase for JET is planned in which an axisymmetric pumped divertor configuration will be used to address the problems of impurity control, plasma fueling, and helium ash exhaust. It should demonstrate a concept of impurity control and the operational domain for such a device. A single Next Step facility (ITER) is a high risk strategy in terms of physics, technology, and management, since it does not provide a sufficiently sound foundation for a DEMO. A Next Step program is proposed, which could comprise several complementary facilities, each optimized with respect to specific clear objectives. In a minimum program, there could be two Next Step tokamaks, and a Materials Test Facility. Such a program would allow division of effort and sharing of risk across the various scientific and technical problems, permit cross comparison, and ensure continuity of results. It could even be

  18. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than

  19. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Wiffen, Frederick W.; Noe, Susan P.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  20. US/Japan collaborative program on fusion reactor materials: Summary of the tenth DOE/JAERI Annex I technical progress meeting on neutron irradiation effects in first wall and blanket structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1989-03-17

    This meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on March 17, 1989, to review the technical progress on the collaborative DOE/JAERI program on fusion reactor materials. The purpose of the program is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical behavior and dimensional stability of US and Japanese austenitic stainless steels. Phase I of the program focused on the effects of high concentrations of helium on the tensile, fatigue, and swelling properties of both US and Japanese alloys. In Phase II of the program, spectral and isotropic tailoring techniques are fully utilized to reproduce the helium:dpa ratio typical of the fusion environment. The Phase II program hinges on a restart of the High Flux Isotope Reactor by mid-1989. Eight target position capsules and two RB* position capsules have been assembled. The target capsule experiments will address issues relating to the performance of austenitic steels at high damage levels including an assessment of the performance of a variety of weld materials. The RB* capsules will provide a unique and important set of data on the behavior of austenitic steels irradiated under conditions which reproduce the damage rate, dose, temperature, and helium generation rate expected in the first wall and blanket structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  1. International strategy for fusion materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Karl; Bloom, E. E.; Kondo, T.

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, the results of an IEA-Workshop on Strategy and Planning of Fusion Materials Research and Development (R&D), held in October 1998 in Risø Denmark are summarised and further developed. Essential performance targets for materials to be used in first wall/breeding blanket components have been defined for the major materials groups under discussion: ferritic-martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and ceramic composites of the SiC/SiC-type. R&D strategies are proposed for their further development and qualification as reactor-relevant materials. The important role of existing irradiation facilities (mainly fission reactors) for materials testing within the next decade is described, and the limits for the transfer of results from such simulation experiments to fusion-relevant conditions are addressed. The importance of a fusion-relevant high-intensity neutron source for the development of structural as well as breeding and special purpose materials is elaborated and the reasons for the selection of an accelerator-driven D-Li-neutron source - the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) - as an appropriate test bed are explained. Finally the necessity to execute the materials programme for fusion in close international collaboration, presently promoted by the International Energy Agency, IEA is emphasised.

  2. Fusion power: a challenge for materials science.

    PubMed

    Duffy, D M

    2010-07-28

    The selection and design of materials that will withstand the extreme conditions of a fusion power plant has been described as one of the greatest materials science challenges in history. The high particle flux, high thermal load, thermal mechanical stress and the production of transmutation elements combine to produce a uniquely hostile environment. In this paper, the materials favoured for the diverse roles in a fusion power plant are discussed, along with the experimental and modelling techniques that are used to advance the understanding of radiation damage in materials. Areas where further research is necessary are highlighted. PMID:20566513

  3. Overview of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wiffen, F.W. ); Dowling, R.J.; Marton, W.A.; Eckstrand, S.A. . Office of Fusion Energy)

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1988 Symposium on Fusion Technology, steady progress has been made in the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. The large US tokamaks have reached new levels of plasma performance with associated improvements in the understanding of transport. The technology support for ongoing and future devices is similarly advancing with notable advances in magnetic, rf heating tubes, pellet injector, plasma interactive materials, tritium handling, structural materials, and system studies. Currently, a high level DOE review of the program is underway to provide recommendations for a strategic plan.

  4. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Wiffen, F. W.; Katoh, Yutai; Melton, Stephanie G.

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  5. Test design description for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly (Fusion MOTA-2A): Volume 1A, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    This document encompasses the test requirements, hardware design, fabrication, and safety analysis for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly experiment for irradiation in FFTF Cycle 11 (Fusion MOTA-2A). Fusion MOTA is equally shared by the US Fusion Material (DOE), Japanese Fusion Materials (MONBUSHO), and BEATRIX-II (IEA) programs. In the interest of providing optimum use of the irradiation space in the Fusion MOTA-2A and LMR MOTA-1G, eight of the Fusion MOTA canisters will be placed in MOTA-1G and an equal number of LMR canisters placed in Fusion MOTA-2A (Powell/Doran 1988). This eliminates the need to process Fusion MOTA-2A through the IEM cell prior to insertion for FFTF Cycle 11A. The LMR MOTA design and safety analysis (Greenslade 1984) is the basis for much of this design and safety analysis report. This design description and safety analysis for the Fusion MOTA-2A is presented per the outline given in Chapter IV of the FTR User`s Guide (Taylor 1978). 35 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  7. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m/sup 3/ versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m/sup 3/), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.).

  8. Visual programming environment for multisensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Kasmala, Gerald

    1996-06-01

    In recent years, numerous multisensor data fusion systems have been developed for a wide variety of applications. Defense related applications include; automatic target recognition systems, identification-friend-foe-neutral, automated situation assessment and threat assessment systems, and systems for smart weapons. Non-defense applications include; robotics, condition-based maintenance, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. For each of these applications, multiple sensor data are combined to achieve inferences which are not generally possible using only a single sensor. Implementation of these data fusion systems often involves a significant amount of effort. In particular, software must be developed for components such as data base access, human computer interfaces and displays, communication software, and data fusion algorithms. While commercial software packages exist to assist development of data bases, communications, and human computer interfaces, there are no general purpose packages available to support the implementation of the data fusion algorithms. This paper describes a visual programming tool developed to assist in rapid prototyping of data fusion systems. This toolkit is modeled after the popular tool, Khoros, used by the image processing community. The tool described here is written in visual C, and provides the capability to rapidly implement and apply data fusion algorithms. An application to condition based maintenance is described.

  9. Fusion programs in Applied Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) program at General Atomics (GA) described here includes four major elements: (a) Applied Plasma Physics Theory Program, (b) Alpha Particle Diagnostic, (c) Edge and Current Density Diagnostic, and (d) Fusion User Service Center (USC). The objective of the APP theoretical plasma physics research at GA is to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments and to significantly advance our ability to design a commercially-attractive fusion reactor. We categorize our efforts in three areas: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria and stability; plasma transport with emphasis on H-mode, divertor, and boundary physics; and radio frequency (rf). The objective of the APP alpha particle diagnostic is to develop diagnostics of fast confined alpha particles using the interactions with the ablation cloud surrounding injected pellets and to develop diagnostic systems for reacting and ignited plasmas. The objective of the APP edge and current density diagnostic is to first develop a lithium beam diagnostic system for edge fluctuation studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). The objective of the Fusion USC is to continue to provide maintenance and programming support to computer users in the GA fusion community. The detailed progress of each separate program covered in this report period is described in the following sections.

  10. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.

    2012-09-05

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents.

  11. Fusion reactor materials. Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee`, S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  12. Neutron irradiation facilities for fission and fusion reactor materials studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of energy-conversion machines based upon nuclear fission or fusion reactors is critically dependent upon the behavior of the engineering materials used to construct the full containment and primary heat extraction systems. The development of radiation damage-resistant materials requires irradiation testing facilities which reproduce, as closely as possible, the thermal and neutronic environment expected in a power-producing reactor. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reference core design for the Center for Neutron Research (CNR) reactor provides for instrumented facilities in regions of both hard and mixed neutron spectra, with substantially higher fluxes than are currently available. The benefits of these new facilities to the development of radiation damage resistant materials are discussed in terms of the major US fission and fusion reactor programs.

  13. Organic materials for fusion-reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, G.F.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Organic materials requirements for fusion-reactor magnets are described with reference to the temperature, radiation, and electrical and mechanical stress environment expected in these magnets. A review is presented of the response to gamma-ray and neutron irradiation at low temperatures of candidate organic materials; i.e. laminates, thin films, and potting compounds. Lifetime-limiting features of this response as well as needed testing under magnet operating conditions not yet adequately investigated are identified and recomendations for future work are made.

  14. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  15. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  16. RTNS-II fusion materials irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Tuckerman, D.B.; Davis, J.C.; Massoletti, D.J.; Short, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) facility provides an intense source of 14-MeV neutrons for the fusion energy programs of Japan and the United States. Each of the two identical accelerator-based neutron sources is capable of providing source strengths in excess of 3 x 10/sup 13/ n/s using deuteron beam currents up to 150 mA. The present status of the facility, as well as the various upgrade options, will be described in detail.

  17. Fusion Safety Program annual report, Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in Fiscal Year 1993. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been designated by DOE as the lead laboratory for fusion safety, and EG&G Idaho, Inc., is the prime contractor for INEL operations. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations, including universities and private companies. Technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, activation product release, reactions involving potential plasma-facing materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions and edge physics modeling, risk assessment failure rates, computer codes for reactor transient analysis, and regulatory support. These areas include work completed in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed at the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and a summary of the technical support for the ARIES/PULSAR commercial reactor design studies.

  18. Programs, Materials and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alex, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Favorably reviewed are a prescriptive program model, a handbook containing educational therapy materials, a collection of large type books, and a psychophysical development program to be used with learning disabled children. (MC)

  19. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliff, A.F.; Burn, G.

    1999-04-01

    This is the twenty-fifth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately.

  20. Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1999-09-01

    This is the twenty-sixth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and its reported separately.

  1. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG&G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  2. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  3. Special purpose materials for fusion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. L.; Clinard, F. W.; Wiffen, F. W.

    1985-08-01

    Originally in 1978 the Special Purpose Materials Task Group was concerned with tritium breeding materials, coolants, tritium barriers, graphite and silicon carbide, ceramics, heat-sink materials, and magnet components. Since then several other task groups have been created, so that now the category includes only materials for superconducting magnets and ceramics. For the former application copper-stabilized Nb 3Sn (Ti) insulated with polyimides will meet the general requirements, so that testing of prototype components is the priority task. Ceramics are required for several critical components of fusion reactors either as dielectrics or as a structural material. Components near the first wall will receive exposures of 5-20 MW y/m 2. Other ceramic applications are well behind the first wall, with lower damage levels. Most insulators operate near room temperature, but ceramic blanket structures may operate up to 1000°C. Because of a meager data base, one cannot identify optimum ceramics for structural application; but MgAl 2O 4 is an attractive dielectric material.

  4. Special purpose materials for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.L.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Originally in 1978 the Special Purpose Materials Task Group was concerned with tritium breeding materials, coolants, tritium barriers, graphite and silicon carbide, ceramics, heat-sink materials, and magnet components. Since then several other task groups have been created, so now the category includes only materials for superconducting magnets and ceramics. For the former application copper-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn (Ti) insulated with polyimides will meet the general requirements, so that testing of prototype components is the priority task. Ceramics are required for several critical components of fusion reactors either as dielectrics or as a structural material. Components near the first wall will receive exposures of 5 to 20 MW.year/m/sup 2/. Other ceramic applications are well behind the first wall, with lower damage levels. Most insulators operate near room temperature, but ceramic blanket structures may operate up to 1000/sup 0/C. Because of a meager data base, one cannot identify optimum ceramics for structural application; but MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is an attractive dielectric material.

  5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  6. Review of progress on fusion materials technology, Harwell, December 1980. Irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, D. R.

    1981-03-01

    The evolution of the radiation damage structure, void and gas bubble swelling, and surface blistering effects in both model and potential first wall materials for a D-T fusion reactor system of the TOKAMAK type was investigated along with radiation effects in inorganic insulator materials. In addition, investigations were carried out into the effects of irradiation on organic insulators and on the performance of rubber seals. The principal achievements are summarized and a list of 50 references is given.

  7. Interactions between fusion materials R&D and other technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, A.; Seki, M.; Abe, K.; Muroga, T.; Matsui, H.; Jitsukawa, S.; Matsuda, S.

    2000-12-01

    The importance of interactions between fusion materials research and development (R&D) and other technologies is emphasized to make attractive and realistic fusion technology integration activities. The focuses are on: (1) materials design and processing, (2) safety issues relating to materials and (3) material performance evaluation methodologies, including 14 MeV neutron source utilization for fusion material R&D. As typical examples, material design activities on reduced activation ferritic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composite materials are provided. The safety assessment of reactor systems and reactor design code consideration including prediction methodologies of materials performance are also discussed.

  8. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Depart of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. Separate abstracts were prepared for each individual section.

  9. Surface erosion effects of candidate fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Navinsek, B.

    1984-09-01

    Some candidate fusion materials such as nickelbase alloys and graphites were studied, because of their importance as first wall components in CTR devices. Polycrystalline samples of Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Nimonic alloy PE 16, nuclear grade graphite ATJ and pyrolytic graphite were investigated. Results for surface damage and topography, blistering, flaking, ion erosion and sputtering yields are reported for irradiations with low energy He/sup +/ ions (5-12 keV) at room temperature, using total ion doses up to 2 x 10/sup 19/ ions cm/sup -2/. SEM, TEM and AES analyses were used to identify surface damage, structure and compositional changes after irradiation. Comparative studies of the ion erosion yield of nickel-base alloys, as measured by the step-height technique, were made. Total sputtering yields were determined dynamically for sputtered films of these alloys using a quartz crystal microbalance. The yields were studied as a function of ion dose, energy and surface roughness.

  10. Fusion reactor breeder material safety compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Cohen, S.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium breeder material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Breeder material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize breeder-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate the following. 1. Ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are chemically compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ reactions with water generate heat, aerosol, and hydrogen. 2. Lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release. 3. Liquid lithium reacts substantially, while 17Li83Pb alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen. 4. Liquid lithium-air reactions may present some major safety concerns. Additional scoping tests are needed, but the ternary oxides, lithium oxide, and 17Li-83Pb have definite safety advantages over liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/. The ternary oxides present minimal safetyrelated problems when used with water as coolant, air or concrete; but they do require neutron multipliers, which may have safety compatibility concerns with surrounding materials. The combined favorable neutronics and minor safety compatibility concerns of lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb make them prime candidates as breeder materials. Current safety efforts are directed toward assessing the compatibility of lithium oxide and the lithium-lead alloy with coolants and other materials.

  11. Review of the magnetic fusion program by the 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1987-09-01

    The 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel finds that fusion energy continues to be an attractive energy source with great potential for the future, and that the magnetic fusion program continues to make substantial technical progress. In addition, fusion research advances plasma physics, a sophisticated and useful branch of applied science, as well as technologies important to industry and defense. These factors fully justify the substantial expenditures by the Department of Energy in fusion research and development (R&D). The Panel endorses the overall program direction, strategy, and plans, and recognizes the importance and timeliness of proceeding with a burning plasma experiment, such as the proposed Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) experiment.

  12. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the twenty-fourth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-09-01

    This is the second in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities in the following areas: (1) Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; (2) Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and (3) Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. Separate analytics were prepared for the reports in this volume.

  14. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  15. Contribution to Fusion Materials Semiannual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, J; Meier, W

    2012-02-24

    The objectives of this work are the following: (1) The application of micro and mesoscale modeling techniques to study dislocation properties in ferritic and W-based materials; and (2) The development of computational models and tools to study damage accumulation in >1 dpa (fusion-like) conditions, both for Fe and W-based alloys. The high-temperature strength of structural ferritic alloys (ferritic/martensitic steels, ODS steels, bcc refractory alloys) hinges on the thermal stability of second phase particles and their interactions with dislocations. Irradiation damage can modify the structure and stability of both the particles and dislocations, particularly by the introduction of gas atoms, point defects and point defect clusters. The three aspects of materials strength that we are studying are: (a) Computation of dislocation mobility functions (stress-velocity relations) as a function of temperature and dislocation character. This will be done via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of single dislocation motion under applied shear stress. This is a fundamental input to dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations and also provides fundamental insights into the high-temperature plastic behavior of ferritic materials. (b) Simulations of dislocation-obstacle interactions using MD and DD. This subtask includes simulating the effect on dislocation glide of precipitates (e.g., {alpha}' Cr precipitates), ODS particles, and irradiation induced defect clusters (e.g. voids, dislocation loops, etc.). (c) Implementation of this information (dislocation mobilities and dislocation-defect interaction rules) into DD codes that will allow us to study plasticity of single crystals Fe alloys under relevant irradiation conditions.

  16. Fusion materials science: Overview of challenges and recent progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J.

    2005-05-15

    A brief review is given of fundamental materials science concepts important for development of structural materials for fusion energy systems. Particular attention is placed on displacement damage effects associated with the unique deuterium-tritium fusion environment. Recent examples of multiscale materials modeling results (closely coupled with experimental studies) are summarized. Fundamental differences in the behavior of body centered cubic versus face centered cubic crystal structures are highlighted. Finally, a brief overview is given of the high-performance reduced-activation materials being developed by fusion.

  17. Calculations of Proton Emission Cross Sections in Deuteron Induced Reactions of Some Fusion Structural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Tanır, G.

    2013-06-01

    The growing demands for energy consumption have led to the increase of the research and development activities on new energy sources. Fusion energy has the highest potential to become a very safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. To get energy from fusion are needed for development of fusion reactor technology. Particularly, the design and development of international facilities as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility requires for the cross-section data of deuteron induced reactions. Moreover, the selection of fusion structural materials are an indispensable component for this technology. Therefore, the cross-section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development of fusion reactor technology. In this study, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 59Co, 55Mn, 50Cr, 54Cr, 64Ni, 109Ag, 184W and 186W have been carried out for incident energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects for ( d, p) stripping reactions have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model and hybrid model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  18. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  19. Recent Accomplishments and Future Directions in US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Brad J. Merrill; Phillip Sharpe; L. C. Cadwallader; L. El-Guebaly; S. Reyes

    2006-07-01

    The US fusion program has long recognized that the safety and environmental (S&E) potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behavior of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state of the art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating S&E issues associated with current fusion designs. In this paper, recent accomplishments are reviewed and future directions outlined.

  20. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This is the ninth in series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development of Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  1. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-07-01

    This is the tenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance; damage analysis and fundamental studies; special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the test of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This is the twelfth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; and Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  3. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1988-03-01

    This is the third in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performances; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  4. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This is the seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following technical progress reports: alloy development for irradiation performance, damage analysis and fundamental studies, and special purpose materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide.

  5. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This is the eighteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: {sm_bullet} Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance. {sm_bullet} Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies. {sm_bullet} Special Purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. This report has been compiled and edited under the guidance of A.F. Rowcliffe by Gabrielle Burn, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their efforts, and the efforts of the many persons who made technical contributions, are gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    1998-03-01

    This is the twenty-third in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The Fusion Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. A large fraction of this work, particularly in relation to fission reactor experiments, is carried out collaboratively with their partners in Japan, Russia, and the European Union. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  8. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is limited and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical working experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, it is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium alloy option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  9. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  10. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1994. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions, including the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in this report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base development, and thermalhydraulics code development and their application to fusion safety issues. Much of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and of the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A major activity this year has been work to develop a DOE Technical Standard for the safety of fusion test facilities.

  11. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  12. Role of supercomputers in magnetic fusion and energy research programs

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1985-06-01

    The importance of computer modeling in magnetic fusion (MFE) and energy research (ER) programs is discussed. The need for the most advanced supercomputers is described, and the role of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center in meeting these needs is explained.

  13. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  14. Critical questions in materials science and engineering for successful development of fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, E. E.; Busby, J. T.; Duty, C. E.; Maziasz, P. J.; McGreevy, T. E.; Nelson, B. E.; Pint, B. A.; Tortorelli, P. F.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2007-08-01

    It is the general conclusion of all national programs that the development of high-performance reduced-activation structural materials is essential for the successful development of fusion power. In this paper, the experience gleaned from previous programs to develop materials for high temperature structural applications is used to identify and discuss some of the most critical issues that must be addressed in the development of candidate materials for fusion structural applications. Critical issues discussed include radiation-induced solute segregation and implications on phase stability in the development of high-performance alloys/ceramics; the effects of very large amounts of helium on mechanical properties and the implications for alloy design/development; development of high temperature design methodology and incorporation of radiation effects into this methodology; the effects of radiation damage on flow localization, and the implications and approach to control the phenomena; and considerations of mass transfer and corrosion in complex fusion systems.

  15. Presentation at FTP: A review. [ORNL Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This series of vugraphs presents some information concerning ORNL's involvement in the fusion energy research program. Recent and future experiments are named, and a rough estimate of funding is given. (JDH)

  16. Fusion reactor materials: Semiannual progress report for period ending September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-09-01

    These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials program being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the US Department of Energy. The major areas of concern covered in this report are irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; ceramics and superconducting magnet materials. There are 61 reports cataloged separately. (LSP)

  17. Activation product release from fusion structural materials in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maya, I.; Montgomery, F.; Trester, P.; Burnette, R.; Johnson, W.; Schultz, K.

    1985-08-01

    The release and transport of activated materials-of-construction in a fusion reactor during an accident scenario involving overheating and ingress of oxidants is an important area of safety research. This investigation quantified material release characteristics which result from surface oxide spallation and vaporization for the steel alloys PCA and HT-9 in impure helium and air environments.

  18. Fusion safety program annual report fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1997. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in FY 1979 to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEEL, different DOE laboratories, and other institutions. The technical areas covered in this report include chemical reactions and activation product release, tritium safety, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-2).

  19. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  20. Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.

  1. Designing Radiation Resistance in Materials for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    Proposed fusion and advanced (Generation IV) fission energy systems require high-performance materials capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 atomic displacements per atom with large amounts of transmutant hydrogen and helium isotopes. After a brief overview of fusion reactor concepts and radiation effects phenomena in structural and functional (nonstructural) materials, three fundamental options for designing radiation resistance are outlined: Utilize matrix phases with inherent radiation tolerance, select materials in which vacancies are immobile at the design operating temperatures, or engineer materials with high sink densities for point defect recombination. Environmental and safety considerations impose several additional restrictions on potential materials systems, but reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels (including thermomechanically treated and oxide dispersion-strengthened options) and silicon carbide ceramic composites emerge as robust structural materials options. Materials modeling (including computational thermodynamics) and advanced manufacturing methods are poised to exert a major impact in the next ten years.

  2. Designing Radiation Resistance in Materials for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Proposed fusion and advanced (Generation IV) fission energy systems require high performance materials capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 atomic displacements per atom with large amounts of transmutant hydrogen and helium isotopes. After a brief overview of fusion reactor concepts and radiation effects phenomena in structural and functional (non-structural) materials, three fundamental options for designing radiation resistance are outlined: Utilize matrix phases with inherent radiation tolerance, select materials where vacancies are immobile at the design operating temperatures, or construct high densities of point defect recombination sinks. Environmental and safety considerations impose several additional restrictions on potential materials systems, but reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (including thermomechanically treated and oxide dispersion strengthened options) and silicon carbide ceramic composites emerge as robust structural materials options. Materials modeling (including computational thermodynamics) and advanced manufacturing methods are poised to exert a major impact in the next ten years.

  3. RTNS-II - a fusion materials research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-09-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14 MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ˜ 400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm fwhm. An air-levitated vacuum seal permits rotation of the target at 5000 rpm with negligible impact on accelerator vacuum system gas load. Targets are cooled by chilled water flowing through internal channels in a copper alloy substrate. Substrates are produced by solid-state diffusion bonding of two sheets, one containing etched cooling channels. An electroforming process is being developed which will reduce substrate cost and improve reliability. Titanium tritide coating thickness is ˜ 10 μm giving an initial tritium inventory for the present 23 cm diameter targets of 3.7 × 10 7 MBq. Operating interval between target changes is typically about 80 h. Thirteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low-dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties assessment and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses.

  4. High power millimeter wave ECRH source needs for fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This document stems from the four-day Gyrotron Symposium held at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on June 13-16, 1983, and serves as a position paper for the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, on high-power millimeter wave source development for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas. It describes the fusion program needs for gyrotron as ECH sources, their current status, and desirable development strategies.

  5. Materials research and development for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1998-11-01

    Some of the critical issues associated with materials selection for proposed magnetic fusion reactors are reviewed, with a brief overview of refractory alloys (vanadium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten) and primary emphasis on ceramic materials. SiC/SiC composites are under consideration for the first wall and blanket structure, and dielectric insulators will be used for the heating, control and diagnostic measurement of the fusion plasma. Key issues for SiC/SiC composites include radiation-induced degradation in the strength and thermal conductivity. Recent work has focused on the development of radiation-resistant fibers and fiber/matrix interfaces (porous SiC, SiC multilayers) which would also produce improved SiC/SiC performance for applications such as heat engines and aerospace components. The key physical parameters for dielectrics include electrical conductivity, dielectric loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Ionizing radiation can increase the electrical conductivity of insulators by many orders of magnitude, and surface leakage currents can compromise the performance of some fusion energy components. Irradiation can cause a pronounced degradation in the loss tangent and thermal conductivity. Fundamental physical parameter measurements on ceramics which are of interest for both fusion and non-fusion applications are discussed.

  6. Calculations of ( n, α) Cross Sections on Some Structural Fusion Materials for Fusion Reactor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Tanır, G.

    2013-06-01

    The knowledge of cross section for emission of light charged particles ( p, d, t, and α) induced by fast neutrons on structural fusion materials has a critical importance on fusion reactors. The gas production arising from ( n, p) and ( n, α) reactions causes seriously radiation damage in fusion reactor structure. The radiation damage in fusion related materials is a large problem need to be overcome for development of fusion reactor technology. Particularly, the ( n, α) reaction cross section data are required to estimation of the radiation damage effects on structural fusion materials. Therefore, the cross section data for ( n, α) reaction induced by fast neutrons are of increasing importance for the success of future fusion reactors. In this study, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of neutron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as 29 Si, 30 Si, 48 Ti, 50 Ti, 50 Cr, 54 Cr, 54 Fe and 58 Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 29 Si ( n, α) 26 Mg, 30 Si ( n, α) 27 Mg, 48 Ti ( n, α) 45 Ca, 50 Ti ( n, α) 47 Ca, 50 Cr ( n, α) 47 Ti, 54 Cr ( n, α) 51 Ti, 54 Fe ( n, α) 51 Cr and 58 Fe ( n, α) 55 Cr have been carried out for incident neutron energies up to 30 MeV. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects for ( n, α) reactions have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects of the excitation functions for the investigated reactions are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, α) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other.

  7. A fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-{sup 11}B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field-reversed configuration (FRC), anchored in a gas-dynamic trap (GDT). The plasma outflow on the open magnetic-field lines is cooled by radiation in the GDT, then channeled through a magnetic nozzle, promoting 3-body recombination in the expansion region. The resulting supersonic neutral exhaust stream flows through a turbine, generating electricity.

  8. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for the period ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This is the twenty-first in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components. This effort forms one element of the materials program being conducted in support of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the US Department of Energy. The other major element of the program is concerned with the interactions between reactor materials and the plasma and is reported separately. The report covers the following topics: vanadium alloys; silicon carbide composite materials; ferritic/martensitic steels; copper alloys and high heat flux materials; austenitic stainless steels; insulating ceramics and optical materials; solid breeding materials; radiation effects, mechanistic studies and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; and irradiation facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods.

  9. Coating materials for fusion application in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.-N.; Li, Q.; Liu, M.; Zheng, X. B.; Chen, J. L.; Guo, Q. G.; Liu, X.

    2011-10-01

    Thick SiC coatings of ˜100 μm on graphite tiles, prepared by chemical vapor infiltration of Si into the tiles and the following reactions between Si and C, are used as plasma facing material (PFM) on HT-7 superconducting tokamak and Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With increase in the heating and driving power in EAST, the present plasma facing component (PFC) of the SiC/C tiles bolted to heat sink will be replaced by W coatings on actively cooled Cu heat sink, prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) adopting different interlayer. The VPS-W/Cu PFC with built-in cooling channels were prepared and mounted into the HT-7 acting as a movable limiter. Behavior of heat load onto the limiter and the material was studied. The Cu coatings on the Inconel 625 tubes were successfully prepared by high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) thermal spraying, being used as the liquid nitrogen (LN2) shields of the in-vessel cryopump for divertor pumping in EAST.

  10. Fusion Safety Program Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1996. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. The objective is to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non- Site- Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). A final area of activity described is development of the new DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities.

  11. THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    PROJECT STAFF

    2004-12-01

    The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  12. US-DOE Fusion-Breeder Program: blanket design and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of fusion's potential to produce fissile fuel. A reference design of a fission-suppressed blanket using conventional materials is under development. Theoretically, a fusion breeder that incorporates this fusion-suppressed blanket surrounding a 3000-MW tandem mirror fusion core produces its own tritium plus 5600 kg of /sup 233/U per year. The /sup 233/U could then provide fissile makeup for 21 GWe of light-water reactor (LWR) power using a denatured thorium fuel cycle with full recycle. This is 16 times the net electric power produced by the fusion breeder (1.3 GWe). The cost of electricity from this fusion-fission system is estimated to be only 23% higher than the cost from LWRs that have makeup from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at present costs (55 $/kg). Nuclear performance, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation effects, and other issues concerning the fission-suppressed blanket are summarized, as are some of the present and future objectives of the fusion breeder program.

  13. The value of materials R&D in the fast track development of fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. J.; Taylor, N. P.; Cook, I.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the international fusion program is the creation of power plants with attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. There is a range of possible plants that can meet these objectives, as studied for instance in the recent EU studies of power plant concepts. All of the concepts satisfy safety and environmental objectives but the economic performance is interpreted differently in different world regions according to the perception of future energy markets. This leads to different materials performance targets and the direction and timescales of the materials development programme needed to meet those targets. In this paper, the implications for materials requirements of a fast track approach to fusion development are investigated. This includes a quantification of the overall benefits of more advanced materials: including the effect of trading off an extended development time against a reduced cost of electricity for resulting power plants.

  14. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  15. Tungsten-based composite materials for fusion reactor shields

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1985-11-01

    Composite tungsten-based materials were recently proposed for the heavy constituent of compact fusion reactor shields. These composite materials will enable the incorporation of tungsten - the most efficient nonfissionable inelastic scattering (as well as good neutron absorbing and very good photon attenuating) material - in the shield in a relatively cheap way and without introducing voids (so as to enable minimizing the shield thickness). It is proposed that these goals be achieved by bonding tungsten powder, which is significantly cheaper than high-density tungsten, with a material having the following properties: good shielding ability and relatively low cost and ease of fabrication. The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of the composite materials as a function of their composition, and to estimate the economic benefit that might be gained by the use of these materials. Two materials are being considered for the binder: copper, second to tungsten in its shielding ability, and iron (or stainless steel), the common fusion reactor shield heavy constituent.

  16. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleskiewicz, Ted; Lightner, G. Samuel; Reiland, Robert

    1998-11-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists. The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION - Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". This chart is available in WallSize, PosterSize and StudentSize versions. Ancillary materials - - including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, and the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion WebSite (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html).

  17. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, T. P.; Reiland, Robert

    2001-10-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists (see http://cpepweb.org). The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, ``FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source''. Ancillary materials including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, The Allegheny Intermediate Unit, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. The chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Laminated versions of the poster and notebook size charts are also available as well as an overhead transparency of the chart. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.llnl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  18. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, Ted; Reiland, Robert

    1999-11-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists. The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". This chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Ancillary materials, including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities, are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjuction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  19. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, P. T.; Reiland, Robert

    2000-10-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists (see http://cpepweb.org). The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". Ancillary materials including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. The chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Laminated versions of the poster and notebook size charts are also available as well as an overhead transparency of the chart. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  20. Overview of the Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program endeavors to quickly develop a compact fusion power plant with favorable commercial economics and military utility. An overview of the concept and its diamagnetic, high beta magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp confinement scheme will be given. The analytical model of the major loss mechanisms and predicted performance will be discussed, along with the major physics challenges. Key features of an operational CFR reactor will be highlighted. The proposed developmental path following the current experimental efforts will be presented. ©2015 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Depth profiling of tritium in materials for fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    The paper outlines recent progress in depth profiling of tritium distribution near the surface of materials by two ion beam techniques; elastic recoil detection (ERD) and T(d,/alpha/)n nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The sensitivity and depth-resolution of both methods are examined for a series of tritiated titanium films. Calculated depth profiles and ranges of implanted tritium ions in selected candidate materials for thermonuclear fusion devices are also given. Depth profiles of tritium implanted into specimens of graphite and lithium oxides as a function of temperature are discussed as the examples of applications.

  2. Recology: Material Conservation Program Fieldbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwood, Bill

    Recology is the combination of teaching and learning through the interaction of conservation (waste management and recycling) and ecology. This fieldbook is designed to provide an overview of the development of a Recology environmental education program. The program facilitates infusion of material conservation education into existing curriculum.…

  3. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  4. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Materials Science research programs are funded by NASA through the Microgravity Research Division. Such programs are normally designated as flight definition or ground based and can be awarded initially for up to four years. Selection is through a peer review process in response to a biennial NASA Research Announcement (NRA). The next announcement is due in November 1998 with proposals due in March 1999. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the guidelines for proposal writing within the NRA. NASA's interest in materials is wide and covers a range which includes metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, non-linear optics, aerogels and nanostructures. With increasing interest in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program, the materials research funded will not be exclusively devoted to processes dependent on microgravity, but will also support materials of strategic interest in meeting NASA's long range plans of interplanetary travel.

  5. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  6. Neutron dosimetry qualification experiments for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Lithium Blanket Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Harker, Y.D.; Anderi, R.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket module (LBM) program is a first-of-kind neutronics experiment involving a toroidal fusion neutron source. Qualification experiments have been conducted to develop primary measurement techniques and verify dosimetry materials that will be used to characterize the neutron environment inside and on the surfaces of the LBM. The deuterium-tritium simulation experiments utilizing a 14-MeV neutron generator and a fusion blanket mockup facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Results and discussions are presented that identify the quality and limitations of the measured integral reaction data, including the minimum fluence requirement for the TFTR experiment and the use of such data in neutron spectrum adjustment and in predicting integral performance parameters, e.g., tritium production.

  7. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m/sup 2/. A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW/sup 2/, provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys.

  8. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Tang

    2011-02-09

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  9. The need for a fusion technology information program

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    In providing an adequate energy technology for the future, which new programs should be considered by the Department of Energy national laboratories to ensure that the US remains in the forefront of international science and technology is an important question. This paper suggests that the urgency for energy independence demands an active communication program that would increase awareness of energy as a critical national issue and would present fusion, with its benefits and risks, as one of the long-term alternative energy sources.

  10. Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the 1985-1986 progress of the Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program (MFSF). The program was established in January of 1985 by the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage talented undergraduate and first-year graduate students to enter qualified graduate programs in the sciences related to fusion energy development. The program currently has twelve fellows in participating programs. Six new fellows are being appointed during each of the program's next two award cycles. Appointments are for one year and are renewable for two additional years with a three year maximum. The stipend level also continues at a $1000 a month or $12,000 a year. The program pays all tuition and fee expenses for the fellows. Another important aspect of the fellowship program is the practicum. During the practicum fellows receive three month appointments to work at DOE designated fusion science research and development centers. The practicum allows the MFSF fellows to directly participate in on-going DOE research and development programs.

  11. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1997-07-01

    The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds materials science research through biannual research programs known as NASA Research Announcements (NRA). Selection is via external peer review with proposals being categorized for ground based research or flight definition status. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the NRAs and guidelines for successful proposals are outlined. The procedure for progressing from selection to a manifested flight experiment will involve further reviews of the science and also of the engineering needed to complete the experiment successfully. The topics of interest to NASA within the NRAs cover a comprehensive range of subjects, but with the common denominator that the proposed work must necessitate access to the microgravity environment for successful completion. Understanding of the fundamental nature of microstructure and its effects on properties is a major part of the program because it applies to almost all fields of materials science. Other important aspects of the program include non-linear optical materials, glasses and ceramics, metal and alloys and the need to develop materials science specifically to support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The transition to the International Space Station (ISS) represents the next stage of the Materials Science program.

  12. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO/sub 2/-laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized.

  13. Conductive spacecraft materials development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  14. Fusion materials irradiation test facility test-cell instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, J. L.; Burke, R. J.

    1982-05-01

    Many of the facility instrumentation components and systems currently under development, though specifically designed for FMIT purposes, are similar to those useful for fusion reactors. Various ceramic-insulated signal-cable components are being evaluated for 14-MeV neutron tolerance. Thermocouples are shown to decalibrate in high energy fields. Nondestructive optical viewing of deuteron-induced residual gas flow is planned for beam profiling in real space and phase space. Various optics were irradiated to 10(18) n/cm(2) at 14 MeV with good results. Feasibility of neutron and gamma field imaging was demonstrated using pinhole collimator and microchannel plate devices. Infrared thermography and optical monitoring of the target surface is being investigated. Considerable experience on the compatibility of optical and insulator materials with (highly reactive) lithium was obtained.

  15. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns.

  16. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials. PMID:27587118

  17. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  18. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics and development and technology at GA Technologies, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overskei, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    Research carried out by GA for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy provides key information and insight necessary for the development of fusion power systems. Highlights of the fusion theory effort described in this report include progress in numerical simulations of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas, extension of novel theories of the H-mode, development and application of advanced codes for evaluating ECRF current drive efficiency, and new understanding and techniques for dealing with high beta tokamak equilibria. Experimental plasma research efforts are addresssing several important issues in fusion research. Neutron and alpha particle spectroscopy and triton confinement diagnostics are being developed to enable fusion researchers to understand alpha particle confinement and slowdown in burning plasmas. Development of Li beam diagnostic systems continued and has shown a capability for measuring both magnetic field pitch angle and relative current density profiles. Experiments on Ergodic Magnetic Divertor (EMD) phenomena on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) continued to demonstrate low plasma edge temperatures and impurity reduction that make the concept attractive for reactor applications. GA led efforts continuing the Resonant Island Divertor (RID) experiments on TEXT using the EMD as a controlled magnetic perturbation. Research carried out in GA's Development and Technology programs included reactor systems design studies, and development of ferritic steels suitable for use as a structural material in fusion reactors. In the reactor systems design area, GA participated in the TITAN Reserved Field Pinch (RFP) Reactor Design Study. GA is responsible for project operation, safety design and analysis, and blanket shield neutronics calculations for this study.

  19. An overview of safety and environmental considerations in the selection of materials for fusion facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, D. A.; McCarthy, K. A.; Gulden, W.; Piet, S. J.; Seki, Y.; Kolbasov, B.

    1996-10-01

    Safety and environmental considerations can play a large role in the selection of fusion materials. In this paper, we review the attributes of different structural, plasma facing, and breeding materials from a safety perspective and discuss some generic waste management issues as they relate to fusion materials in general. Specific safety concerns exist for each material that must be dealt with in fusion facility design. Low activation materials offer inherent safety benefits compared with conventional materials, but more work is needed before these materials have the requisite certified databases. In the interim, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has selected more conventional materials and is showing that the safety concerns with these materials can be addressed by proper attention to design. In the area of waste management disposal criteria differ by country. However, the criteria are all very strict making disposal of fusion components difficult. As a result, recycling has gained increasing attention.

  20. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques—A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.; Nielsen, S. F.; Mergia, K.; Schäublin, R.; Lindau, R.; Bolt, H.; Buffière, J.-Y.; Caturla, M. J.; Décamps, B.; Ferrero, C.; Greuner, H.; Hébert, C.; Höschen, T.; Hofmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Jourdan, T.; Köppen, M.; Płociński, T.; Riesch, J.; Scheel, M.; Schillinger, B.; Vollmer, A.; Weitkamp, T.; Yao, W.; You, J.-H.; Zivelonghi, A.

    2013-11-01

    advanced materials characterization methods, as well as users of these methods with a background in fusion materials science.The objectives of FEMaS-CA are: increase the involvement of experts from the non-fusion materials area especially with respect to the application of advanced materials characterization methods, strongly foster the application of those advanced materials characterization methods across the fusion materials community. Which is essential for fusion material science and development and which is presently not applied in full breadth and depth, and improve the fundamental understanding of radiation damage by strengthening the experimental basis for benchmark experiments to validate numerical simulation results and by the enhanced application of materials characterization methods for the quantification of irradiation damage at the nanoscopic and microscopic level. The FEMaS-CA activities are carried out in close coordination with EFDA to make it an integrated part of the European fusion development effort.The following detailed objectives are to be reached by the CA activities. Corresponding to objective (1): Approximately half of the 27 institutions participating in the CA have not been or are only marginally involved in fusion materials research and development. By joining the CA these institutions were enabled to become part of the fusion materials community and provide contributions which are essential for the further progress of fusion materials research. Several large-scale facilities with open access programs to users are also part of the CA consortium. This enhances the use of these facilities by the fusion materials community. Corresponding to objectives (2) and (3):Irradiation damage of fusion reactor materials: The materials modeling community has to be closely connected with results from benchmark experiments. This comprises the joint selection of materials, irradiation facilities, irradiation conditions as well as post

  1. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  2. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srikumar

    2014-12-01

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu-1 wt%Cr-0.1 wt%Zr - an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall - was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead-lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li2TiO3 pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb-Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U-shaped first wall of the TBM box

  3. Material classification based on multi-band polarimetric images fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongqiang; Pan, Quan; Zhang, Hongcai

    2006-05-01

    Polarization imparted by surface reflections contains unique and discriminatory signatures which may augment spectral target-detection techniques. With the development of multi-band polarization imaging technology, it is becoming more and more important on how to integrate polarimetric, spatial and spectral information to improve target discrimination. In this study, investigations were performed on combining multi-band polarimetric images through false color mapping and wavelet integrated image fusion method. The objective of this effort was to extend the investigation of the use of polarized light to target detection and material classification. As there is great variation in polarization in and between each of the bandpasses, and this variation is comparable to the magnitude of the variation intensity. At the same time, the contrast in polarization is greater than for intensity, and that polarization contrast increases as intensity contrast decreases. It is also pointed out that chromaticity can be used to make targets stand out more clearly against background, and material can be divided into conductor and nonconductor through polarization information. So, through false color mapping, the difference part of polarimetric information between each of the bandpasses and common part of polarimetric information in each of the bandpasses are combined, in the resulting image the conductor and nonconductor are assigned different color. Then panchromatic polarimetric images are fused with resulting image through wavelet decomposition, the final fused image have more detail information and more easy identification. This study demonstrated, using digital image data collected by imaging spectropolarimeter, multi-band imaging polarimetry is likely to provide an advantage in target detection and material classification.

  4. Activation and waste management considerations of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.; Saji, G.

    1994-09-01

    Inconel-625 (Ni625), SS316, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), ferritic steel (FS), reduced activity ferritic steel (RAFS), manganese steel (Mn-steel), and V5Cr5Ti (V55), were examined for a near-term experimental D-T fueled fusion power reactor with respect to waste management. Activation calculations for these materials were performed assuming one year continuous operation at 1 MW/m 2 wall loading. The results show that the blanket components made of V55, Ti64, Mn-steel, and FS will be allowed for transfer to an on-site dry storage facility after 10 years of cooling after discharge. To transport the discharged blanket components to a permanent disposal site, the cooling time needed can be within 10 years for Ti64 and V55, provided that the impurities (mainly Ni, Nb and Mo) be controlled to an acceptable level. The RAFS and Mn-steel will need about 30 y cooling time because of its Fe and Mn contents. Ni625, 316SS, and FS, however, will require more than 50000 y cooling time because of their Nb and Mo contents. The RAFS, Mn-steel, Ti64 and V55 can be shallow-land wastes if the impurity level for Nb and Mo is dropped below 10 ppm.

  5. Graphite as a plasma-facing material in fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Graphite is now used extensively in most of the major fusion experiments in the world and will be used more extensively in future devices. In addition to its excellent tolerance of high heat fluxes, graphite has many unusual characteristics that pertain to its use as a plasma-facing material; these are its propensity for releasing gases when heated and when exposed to ion fluxes, its ability to absorb copious quantities of hydrogen during hydrogen bombardment, and its ability to pump hydrogen after noble gas bombardment. The graphite used in existing machines and considered for use in future machines is isotropic on a macroscopic scale and anisotropic on a microscopic scale; it has a large open porosity, up to 20%. This leads to enormous internal surface areas for adsorption and desorption of gases. Most early hydrogen-graphite interaction experiments were incorrectly analyzed because of this property. In addition, interaction of energetic hydrogen ions with graphite can lead to erosion, with concomitant deposition of carbon films with high hydrogen content on chamber surfaces. These effects are observed experimentally and have been modeled with some success. This paper presents experimental data dealing with these topics and their influences on present-day plasma operations and on graphite use in future machines. 34 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Material classification through distance aware multispectral data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaneberg, O.; Köckemann, U.; Steiner, H.; Sporrer, S.; Kolb, A.; Jung, N.

    2013-04-01

    Safety applications require fast, precise and highly reliable sensors at low costs. This paper presents signal processing methods for an active multispectral optical point sensor instrumentation for which a first technical implementation exists. Due to the very demanding requirements for safeguarding equipment, these processing methods are targeted to run on a small embedded system with a guaranteed reaction time T < 2 ms and a sufficiently low failure rate according to applicable safety standards, e.g., ISO-13849. The proposed data processing concept includes a novel technique for distance-aided fusion of multispectral data in order to compensate for displacement-related alteration of the measured signal. The distance measuring is based on triangulation with precise results even for low-resolution detectors, thus strengthening the practical applicability. Furthermore, standard components, such as support vector machines (SVMs), are used for reliable material classification. All methods have been evaluated for variants of the underlying sensor principle. Therefore, the results of the evaluation are independent of any specific hardware.

  7. Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Muroga, Takeo; Sze, Dai-Kai; Sokolov, Mikhail; Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose principal functions are extraction of heat and tritium. Thus it is crucial to clarify the potentiality for controlling heat and tritium flow throughout the first wall, blanket and out-of-vessel recovery systems. The TITAN project continues the JUPITER-II activity but extends its scope including the first wall and the recovery systems with the title of 'Tritium and thermofluid control for magnetic and inertial confinement systems'. The objective of the program is to clarify the mechanisms of tritium and heat transfer throughout the first-wall, the blanket and the heat/tritium recovery systems under specific conditions to fusion such as irradiation, high heat flux, circulation and high magnetic fields. Based on integrated models, the breeding, transfer, inventory of tritium and heat extraction properties will be evaluated for some representative liquid breeder blankets and the necessary database will be obtained for focused research in the future.

  8. Investigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Materials for use in Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Jaworski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metals can provide a continually replenished material for the first wall and extraction blankets of fusion reactors. However, research has shown that solid metal surfaces will experience embrittlement when exposed to liquid metals under stress. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes in structural strength of the solid metal materials and test different surface treatments that can limit embrittlement. Research was conducted to design and build an apparatus for exposing solid metal samples to liquid metal under high stress and temperature. The apparatus design, results of tensile testing, and surface imaging of fractured samples will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  9. Material compatibility issues in EU fusion fuel cycle R&D and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, D. K.; Cristescu, I.; Day, C.; Glugla, M.; Lässer, R.; Mack, A.

    2007-08-01

    Many material selections for fusion Fuel Cycle systems are determined by the properties of tritium, including its behaviour as a hydrogen isotope, and its decay product, 3He. Within the EU R&D program, the following issues related to tritium service have been addressed. The mechanical integrity and longevity of the sorbent/bonding agent/substrate system used for cryosorption pumping have been extensively tested under tritium exposure. Extended testing of palladium/silver membranes used for separation of elemental hydrogens from impurities has been carried out to confirm longevity in tritium service. For all high temperature (˜150 °C) components, tritium permeation through primary containments must be confined by outer (low temperature) jackets, and designs have been developed to achieve this. For wetproof catalysts and solid polymer electrolysers used for water detritiation, tests are in progress to determine the operating life. Testing of the ITER reference tritium storage getter material is under way.

  10. Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

    2013-10-01

    Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

  11. DEVELOPING PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, A HANDBOOK FOR PROGRAM WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ESPICH, JAMES E.; WILLIAMS, BILL

    THEORIES BEHIND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, STEPS REQUIRED FOR PROGRAMING, AND THE MAJOR PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES OF EDITING, TESTING, AND ANALYSIS ARE DISCUSSED. TOPICS INCLUDE--HOW TO ANALYZE MATERIAL TO BE PROGRAMED, HOW TO DIAGRAM MATERIAL, AND HOW TO USE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES--DISCRIMINATION, CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE, BRANCHING, BABOON…

  12. Hazardous Materials Management Program Report- 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2005-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Hazardous Materials Management Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  13. Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magad, Eugene L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

  14. Size limitations for microwave cavity to simulate heating of blanket material in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.

    1987-01-01

    The power profile in the blanket material of a nuclear fusion reactor can be simulated by using microwaves at 200 MHz. Using these microwaves, ceramic breeder materials can be thermally tested to determine their acceptability as blanket materials without entering a nuclear fusion environment. A resonating cavity design is employed which can achieve uniform cross sectional heating in the plane transverse to the neutron flux. As the sample size increases in height and width, higher order modes, above the dominant mode, are propagated and destroy the approximation to the heating produced in a fusion reactor. The limits at which these modes develop are determined in the paper.

  15. Mast material test program (MAMATEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The Mast Material Test Program (MAMATEP) at NASA Lewis is discussed. Objectives include verifying the need for, and evaluating the performance of, various protection techniques for the Solar Array Assembly mast of the Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module. Mast material samples were evaluated in terms of mass and bending modulus, measured before and after environmental exposure. Test environments included atomic oxygen exposure (RF plasma asher), thermal cycling, and mechanical flexing. Protective coatings included CV-1144 silicon, a Ni/Au/InSn eutectic, and an open weave, Al braid. Results indicate that unprotected samples degrade in an atomic oxygen environment at a steady rate. Open weave, Al braid offers little protection for the fiberglass-epoxy sample in an asher environment. Ni/Au/InSn eutectic offers excellent protection in an asher environment prior to thermal cycling and mechanical flexing. Long duration asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though the fiberglass-epoxy degrades, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. However, a protection technique may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  16. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  17. In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    2005-11-15

    This final report on "In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation" (DE-FG03-01ER54632) consists of a series of summaries of work that has been published, or presented at meetings, or both. It briefly describes results on the following topics: 1) A Transport and Fate Model for Helium and Helium Management; 2) Atomistic Studies of Point Defect Energetics, Dynamics and Interactions; 3) Multiscale Modeling of Fracture consisting of: 3a) A Micromechanical Model of the Master Curve (MC) Universal Fracture Toughness-Temperature Curve Relation, KJc(T - To), 3b) An Embrittlement DTo Prediction Model for the Irradiation Hardening Dominated Regime, 3c) Non-hardening Irradiation Assisted Thermal and Helium Embrittlement of 8Cr Tempered Martensitic Steels: Compilation and Analysis of Existing Data, 3d) A Model for the KJc(T) of a High Strength NFA MA957, 3e) Cracked Body Size and Geometry Effects of Measured and Effective Fracture Toughness-Model Based MC and To Evaluations of F82H and Eurofer 97, 3-f) Size and Geometry Effects on the Effective Toughness of Cracked Fusion Structures; 4) Modeling the Multiscale Mechanics of Flow Localization-Ductility Loss in Irradiation Damaged BCC Alloys; and 5) A Universal Relation Between Indentation Hardness and True Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior. Further details can be found in the cited references or presentations that generally can be accessed on the internet, or provided upon request to the authors. Finally, it is noted that this effort was integrated with our base program in fusion materials, also funded by the DOE OFES.

  18. Fusion Materials Science and Technology Research Needs: Now and During the ITER era

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.

    2013-09-30

    The plasma facing components, first wall and blanket systems of future tokamak-based fusion power plants arguably represent the single greatest materials engineering challenge of all time. Indeed, the United States National Academy of Engineering has recently ranked the quest for fusion as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st Century. These challenges are even more pronounced by the lack of experimental testing facilities that replicate the extreme operating environment involving simultaneous high heat and particle fluxes, large time varying stresses, corrosive chemical environments, and large fluxes of 14-MeV peaked fusion neutrons. This paper will review, and attempt to prioritize, the materials research and development challenges facing fusion nuclear science and technology into the ITER era and beyond to DEMO. In particular, the presentation will highlight the materials degradation mechanisms we anticipate to occur in the fusion environment, the temperature- displacement goals for fusion materials and plasma facing components and the near and long-term materials challenges required for both ITER, a fusion nuclear science facility and longer term ultimately DEMO.

  19. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  20. Catalog of Programmed Instructional Material, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Personnel and Training Branch.

    A supplement to the NavPers 93826 Catalog of Programed Instructional Material provides a full description of instructional material programed within the Navy since April, 1967. Summaries are given of all courses, including information on the specific learners for whom the course's instruction is intended, the type of program, the projected time…

  1. Sensor fusion and damage classification in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenfan; Reynolds, Whitney D.; Moncada, Albert; Kovvali, Narayan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Cochran, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We describe a statistical method for the classification of damage in complex structures. Our approach is based on a Bayesian framework using hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model time-frequency features extracted from structural data. We also propose two different methods for sensor fusion to combine information from multiple distributed sensors such that the overall classification performance is increased. The proposed approaches are applied to the classification and localization of delamination in a laminated composite plate. Results using both discrete and continuous observation density HMMs, together with the sensor fusion, are presented and discussed.

  2. Fusion-neutron effects on magnetoresistivity of copper stabilizer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guinan, M.W.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1983-02-24

    The objective of this work is to quantify the changes which occur in the magnetoresistivity of coppers (having various purities and pretreatments, and at magnetic fields up to 12 T during the course of sequential fusion neutron irradiations at about 4/sup 0/K and anneals to room temperature. In conjunction with work in progress by Coltman and Klabunde of ORNL, the results should lead to engineering design data for the stabilizers of superconducting magnets in fusion reactors. These magnets are expected to be irradiated during reactor operation and warmed to room temperature periodically during maintenance.

  3. Evaluation of irradiation facility options for fusion materials research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Möslang, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Successful development of fusion energy will require the design of high-performance structural materials that exhibit dimensional stability and good resistance to fusion neutron degradation of mechanical and physical properties. The high levels of gaseous (H, He) transmutation products associated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion neutron transmutation reactions, along with displacement damage dose requirements up to 50-200 displacements per atom (dpa) for a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO), pose an extraordinary challenge. The intense neutron source(s) is needed to address two complimentary missions: 1) Scientific investigations of radiation degradation phenomena and microstructural evolution under fusion-relevant irradiation conditions (to provide the foundation for designing improved radiation resistant materials), and 2) Engineering database development for design and licensing of next-step fusion energy machines such as a fusion DEMO. A wide variety of irradiation facilities have been proposed to investigate materials science phenomena and to test and qualify materials for a DEMO reactor. Currently available and proposed facilities include fission reactors (including isotopic and spectral tailoring techniques to modify the rate of H and He production per dpa), dual- and triple-ion accelerator irradiation facilities that enable greatly accelerated irradiation studies with fusion-relevant H and He production rates per dpa within microscopic volumes, D-Li stripping reaction and spallation neutron sources, and plasma-based sources. The advantages and limitations of the main proposed fusion materials irradiation facility options are reviewed. Evaluation parameters include irradiation volume, potential for performing accelerated irradiation studies, capital and operating costs, similarity of neutron irradiation spectrum to fusion reactor conditions, temperature and irradiation flux stability/control, ability to perform multiple-effect tests (e.g., irradiation in

  4. Toward a space materials systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    A program implementation model is presented which covers the early stages of space material processing and manufacturing. The model includes descriptions of major program elements, development and experiment requirements in space materials processing and manufacturing, and an integration of the model into NASA's long range plans as well as its evolution from present Materials Processing in Space plans.

  5. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti; Susana Reyes; Lee C. Cadwallader; Jeffery F. Latkowski

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  6. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D A; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Latkowski, J F

    2004-09-02

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  7. Fusion reactor materials semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  8. Fusion materials semiannual progress report for period ending December 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, G.

    2000-03-01

    This is the twenty-seventh in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion materials. This report combines the full spectrum of research and development activities on both metallic and non-metallic materials with primary emphasis on the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of materials for in-vessel components.

  9. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the <110> and <111> formation energies is 0.05–0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, <110> SIAs are more likely to exist, <111> SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  10. The Current Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    A description will be made of the current materials science program within the microgravity research division. This presentation will be made at a plenary session of the biennial materials Science Conference.

  11. Materials Characterization Center program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.D.; Ross, W.A.; Hill, O.F.; Mendel, J.E.; Merz, M.D.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) has been established at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Materials Characterization Organization for providing an authoritative, referenceable basis for establishing nuclear waste material properties and test methods. The MCC will provide a data base that will include information on the components of the waste emplacement package - the spent fuel or processed waste form and the engineered barriers - and their interaction with each other and as affected by the environment. The MCC will plan materials testing, develop and document procedures, collect and analyze existing materials data, and conduct tests as necessary.

  12. Coating Processes Group (Electrochemical Processes Lab and Vacuum Processes Lab) Materials Fabrication Division. Progress report, November 1982-January 1983. [Coatings development for weapons, lasers, magnetic fusion, and other programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Romo, J.G.

    1983-01-31

    Some technical highlights are given for the following programs: Weapons Program - we are continuing to support the aluminum ion plating effort for the W-84 both at Y-12 and in-house; Weapons Program - a number of electroformed parts have been supplied for Crowdie; Nuclear Test Program - heavy support from VPL in vacuum engineering activities for Diamond Ace, Tomme and Cabra; Nuclear Design Program - heavy effort was supplied by VPL in the coating of various foils with lithium fluoride; Laser Program - we are gradually optimizing procedures for producing boron foils for Argus/Dante experiments; MFE Program - a pyrophosphate copper deposit shows potentially interesting properties for RTNS-II applications; Soft X-ray Multilayer Coatings - preliminary results with alternate layers of carbon and tungsten look promising; PERL - chemical milling is being used to mill channels in hydrostatic bearings; and Alpha Claddings - we are actively involved in generating data and providing consultation on this program in conjunction with LODTM.

  13. The properties and weldability of materials for fusion reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, B.A.; Kee, C.K.; Wilcox, R.C.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1991-11-15

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steels have been suggested for applications within fusion reactors. The use of these nickel-free steels will help to reduce the radioactive waste management problem after service. one requirement for such steels is the ability to obtain sound welds for fabrication purposes. Thus, two austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn alloys were studied to characterize the welded microstructure and mechanical properties. The two steels investigated were a Russian steel (Fe-11.6Cr19.3Mn-0.181C) and an US steel (Fe-12.lCr-19.4Mn-0.24C). Welding was performed using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Microscopic examinations of the structure of both steels were conducted. The as-received Russian steel was found to be in the annealed state. Only the fusion zone and the base metal were observed in the welded Russian steel. No visible heat affected zone was observed. Examination revealed that the as-received US steel was in the cold rolled condition. After welding, a fusion zone and a heat affected zone along with the base metal region were found.

  14. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMMED MATERIALS--1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIKS, ALFRED I.

    A LIST OF 26 FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IS PRESENTED. THE LIST INCLUDES SUCH INFORMATION AS PRICE, COMPLETION TIME, STUDENT LEVEL AND FORMAT OF EACH PROGRAM AND AN "ATOMY" INDEX. "ATOMY" IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF FRAMES PER HOUR AND THE INDEX IS USED TO PROVIDE SOME INDICATION OF THE DEGREE OF FRACTIONATION OR ATOMIZATION OF THE COURSE CONTENT.…

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  16. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  17. Surface modifications of fusion reactor relevant materials on exposure to fusion grade plasma in plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, R.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Mishra, P.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-11-01

    An 11.5 kJ plasma focus (PF) device was used here to irradiate materials with fusion grade plasma. The surface modifications of different materials (W, Ni, stainless steel, Mo and Cu) were investigated using various available techniques. The prominent features observed through the scanning electron microscope on the sample surfaces were erosions, cracks, blisters and craters after irradiations. The surface roughness of the samples increased multifold after exposure as measured by the surface profilometer. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the changes in the microstructures and the structural phase transformation in surface layers of the samples. We observed change in volumes of austenite and ferrite phases in the stainless steel sample. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis suggested alloying of the surface layer of the samples with elements of the PF anode. We report here the comparative analysis of the surface damages of materials with different physical, thermal and mechanical properties. The investigations will be useful to understand the behavior of the perspective materials for future fusion reactors (either in pure form or in alloy) over the long operations.

  18. Simulation of Carbon Production from Material Surfaces in Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, J.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2005-10-01

    Impurity production at carbon surfaces by plasma bombardment is a key issue for fusion devices as modest amounts can lead to excessive radiative power loss and/or hydrogenic D-T fuel dilution. Here results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of physical and chemical sputtering of hydrocarbons are presented for models of graphite and amorphous carbon, the latter formed by continuous D-T impingement in conditions that mimic fusion devices. The results represent more extensive simulations than we reported last year, including incident energies in the 30-300 eV range for a variety of incident angles that yield a number of different hydrocarbon molecules. The calculated low-energy yields clarify the uncertainty in the complex chemical sputtering rate since chemical bonding and hard-core repulsion are both included in the interatomic potential. Also modeled is hydrocarbon break-up by electron-impact collisions and transport near the surface. Finally, edge transport simulations illustrate the sensitivity of the edge plasma properties arising from moderate changes in the carbon content. The models will provide the impurity background for the TEMPEST kinetic edge code.

  19. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  20. A U.S. high-flux neutron facility for fusion materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Rei, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Materials for a fusion reactor first wall and blanket structure must be able to reliably function in an extreme environment that includes 10-15 MW-year/m{sup 2} neutron and heat fluences. The various materials and structural challenges are as difficult and important as achieving a burning plasma. Overcoming radiation damage degradation is the rate-controlling step in fusion materials development. Recent advances with oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels show promise in meeting reactor requirements, while multi-timescale atomistic simulations of defect-grain boundary interactions in model copper systems reveal surprising self-annealing phenomenon. While these results are promising, simultaneous evaluation of radiation effects displacement damage ({le} 200 dpa) and in-situ He generation ({le} 2000 appm) at prototypical reactor temperatures and chemical environments is still required. There is currently no experimental facility in the U.S. that can meet these requirements for macroscopic samples. The E.U. and U.S. fusion communities have recently concluded that a fusion-relevant, high-flux neutron source for accelerated characterization of the effects of radiation damage to materials is a top priority for the next decade. Data from this source will be needed to validate designs for the multi-$B next-generation fusion facilities such as the CTF, ETF, and DEMO, that are envisioned to follow ITER and NIF.

  1. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  2. Inertial fusion program, January 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-06-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements are outlined for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Gemini System, which permitted over 500 shots in support of 10 different target experiments; the transformation of our eight-beam system, Helios, from a developmental to an operational facility that is capable of irradiating targets on a routine basis is described; and progress made toward completion of Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is detailed. Investigations of phenomena such as phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion systems, and frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction are summarized. Also discussed are experiments with targets designed for adiabatic compression. Progress is reported in the development of accurate diagnostics, especially for the detection of expanding ions, of neutron yield, and of x-ray emission. Significant advances in our theoretical efforts are summarized, such as the adaptation of our target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer, and new results leading to a better understanding of implosion phenomena are reported. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, including the development of an ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket, and the formulation of a capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors to permit meaningful comparisons with other technologies.

  3. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  4. The impact of materials selection on long-term activation in fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. P.; Forty, C. B. A.; Petti, D. A.; McCarthy, K. A.

    2000-12-01

    Neutron-induced transmutation of materials in a D-T fusion power plant will give rise to the potential for long-term activation. To ensure that the attractive safety and environmental characteristics of fusion power are not degraded, careful design choices are necessary. An aim of optimising power plant design must be to minimise both the level of activation and the total volume of active material that might ultimately be categorised as waste requiring disposal. Materials selection is central to this optimisation. In this paper we assess the influence of materials choices for a power plant on the waste volume and the potential to clear (i.e. remove from regulatory control) and recycle material. Although the use of low activation materials in regions of high neutron flux is an important part of the strategy to minimise the level of activation, different choices may result from a strategy aimed at minimising the volume of active waste.

  5. Neutronic analysis of alternative structural materials for fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1988-07-01

    The neutronic performance of the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) blanket was studied when several alternative structural materials were used instead of the INTOR reference structural material, type 316 stainless steel. The alternative structural materials included: ferritic-, vanadium-, titanium-, long range ordered-, manganese austenitic-, and nimonic-alloys. All were treated both with and without a first-wall coating of beryllium or graphite. The tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, and the gas (hydrogen and helium) production rates in the structural materials were calculated for the possible combinations of structural material and first-wall coating. These parameters were compared with those obtained by using SS-316. The nimonic alloy was the only one with worse neutronic performance than the SS-316.

  6. New Directions in NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, NASA's Microgravity Research Division was re-aligned to match the Agency's increasing awareness of the importance of biological and nano-structural sciences. The Division has become the Physical Sciences Research section within the newly created Office of Biological and Physical Research. Within materials science and in the last few years, new programs aimed at biomaterials have been initiated. Results from these programs and also new research pertaining to materials for radiation protection will be discussed.

  7. Planning for U.S. Fusion Community Participation in the ITER Program

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Charles; Berk, Herbert; Greenwald, Martin; Mauel, Michael E.; Najmabadi, Farrokh; Nevins, William M.; Stambaugh, Ronald; Synakowski, Edmund; Batchelor, Donald B.; Fonck, Raymond; Hawryluk, Richard J.; Meade, Dale M.; Neilson, George H.; Parker, Ronald; Strait, Ted

    2006-06-07

    A central step in the mission of the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences program is the creation and study of a fusion-powered "star on earth", where the same energy source that drives the sun and other stars is reproduced and controlled for sustained periods in the laboratory. This “star” is formed by an ionized gas, or plasma, heated to fusion temperatures in a magnetic confinement device known as a tokamak, which is the most advanced magnetic fusion concept. The ITER tokamak is designed to be the premier scientific tool for exploring and testing expectations for plasma behavior in the fusion burning plasma regime, wherein the fusion process itself provides the dominant heat source to sustain the plasma temperature. It will provide the scientific basis and control tools needed to move toward the fusion energy goal. The ITER project confronts the grand challenge of creating and understanding a burning plasma for the first time. The distinguishing characteristic of a burning plasma is the tight coupling between the fusion heating, the resulting energetic particles, and the confinement and stability properties of the plasma. Achieving this strongly coupled burning state requires resolving complex physics issues and integrating challenging technologies. A clear and comprehensive scientific understanding of the burning plasma state is needed to confidently extrapolate plasma behavior and related technology beyond ITER to a fusion power plant. Developing this predictive understanding is the overarching goal of the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences program. The burning plasma research program in the U.S. is being organized to maximize the scientific benefits of U.S. participation in the international ITER experiment. It is expected that much of the research pursued on ITER will be based on the scientific merit of proposed activities, and it will be necessary to maintain strong fusion research capabilities in the U.S. to successfully contribute to the success of ITER and optimize

  8. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  10. PROGRAMMED LEARNING MATERIALS FOR THE BLIND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALLINSON, GEORGE G.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED AS A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF USING PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WITH BLIND STUDENTS. FOUR TYPES OF STIMULUS-REPONSE MODES FOR PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WERE DEVELOPED--AUDIO STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, AUDIO STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-BRAILLE…

  11. Lightweight materials for transportation: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This Program Plan has been prepared by the Office of Transportation Materials in response to a request by the House Committee on Appropriations. It recognizes that a significant commitment to long-term, stable materials research and development (R&D) is required to realize the benefits of lighter weight vehicles, including economic, environmental and energy related benefits. Extensive input was obtained from the major US automakers and from representative materials and component suppliers. Considerable interaction with the key members of the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has ensured consistency of technical direction. The program will support R&D activity at industrial sites through competitively bid subcontracts with cost sharing anticipated at 30--50%, with the higher amounts in process scale-up and manufacturing technology development. The recommended LWM Program will enable industry to develop pecessary technology by utilizing their capabilities as well as accessing supporting technology at national laboratories, universities, ongoing program activity at NASA, DoD, DOT, NIST, etc., and thereby leverage industry resources through integrated team approaches. Many individual program efforts are currently in place that address small portions of the overall needs of the LWM Program, both within DOE and in other agencies. Cognizance of these and overall integration of research activities are planned as significant program management tasks. Because of the international nature of the automobile business, benchmarking of foreign technology and tracking of worldwide developments are also key program elements.

  12. Materials processing in space program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Activities in support of NASA's Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program are reported. The overall task of the MPS project support contract was to provide the organization and administration of colloquiums, science reviews, workshops, technical meetings, bibliographic services, and visiting scientist programs. The research objectives and accomplishments of the University Space Research Association visiting scientist team are also summarized.

  13. BEATRIX-II program: First annual progress report, January 1988--December 1988: Annex-III to IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on radiation damage in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of the BEATRIX-II experiment is to design, conduct, and evaluate a Collaborative, in-situ tritium-recovery experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Continuous monitoring of candidate solid breeder material's performance with respect to thermal conductivity, temperature stability, and tritium release is to be accomplished up to extended lithium burnup levels under simulated blanket environments. 6 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. "Foreign material" to verify root fusion in welded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Foil or thin wire at weld root is used to verify weld penetration. When weld is adequate, material mixes with weld and traces of it diffuse to weld crown. Spectroscopic analysis of samples identifies foreign material and verifies root has fused. Weld roots are usually inaccessible to visual inspection, and X-ray and ultrasonic inspection techniques are not always reliable. Good results are obtained with use of gold/nickel alloy.

  15. Curriculum Materials in the Hawaii English Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy M.

    Contrary to the usual design of curriculum materials, those of the Hawaii English Program (H.E.P.) are not handbooks for teachers. The H.E.P. materials--literature, in this case--consist of booklets for students who thus bear the responsibility for setting their own pace according to their interests, needs, and abilities. The total classroom…

  16. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops` as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems.

  17. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  18. Deuteron-Induced Cross Section Calculations of Some Structural Fusion Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, A.; Özdoğan, H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-02-01

    The development of fusion materials for the safety of fusion power systems and understanding nuclear properties is important. The reaction cross-section data have a critical importance on fusion reactors and development for fusion reactor technology. In this study, the theoretical cross sections of some structural fusion materials such as Cr, V, Fe, Ni, Zr and Ta in deuteron-induced reactions have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 50Cr(d, α)48V, 51V(d, 2n)51Cr, 51V(d, 4n)49Cr, 54Fe(d, α)52Mn, 54Fe(d, n)55Co, 58Ni(d, α)56Co, 96Zr(d, n)97Nb, 96Zr(d, 2n)96Nb and 181Ta(d, 2n)181W reactions have been carried out up to 90 MeV incident deuteron energies. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the geometry dependent hybrid model and hybrid model. Equilibrium effects have been calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. The ALICE/ASH computer code has been used in all calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data existing in EXFOR database and found to be in good agreement.

  19. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  20. Nuclear Materials Management Program at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-08

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, was established in 1951 mainly for weapons testing; because special nuclear materials (SNM) were expended during the tests, a nuclear material management program was not required. That changed in December 2004 with the receipt of Category I SNM for purposes other than weapons testing. At that time, Material Control and Accountability and Nuclear Material Management were a joint laboratory (Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore) effort with nuclear material management being performed at the laboratories. That changed in March 2006 when the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office appointed sole responsibility to the Management and Operations (M&O) contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). Since 2006 the basic nuclear material management work was completed by a combination of M&O employees and subcontractors, but a true Nuclear Material Management (NMM) Program was not determined to be necessary until recently. With expanding missions and more nuclear material (NM) coming to the NNSS, it became imperative to have an organization to manage these materials; therefore, an NMM Manager was officially appointed by NSTec in 2012. In June 2011 a Gap Analysis and white paper was completed by a subcontractor; this presentation will include highlights from those documents along with our plans to resolve the “gaps” and stand up a functional and compliant NMM Program at the NNSS.

  1. Compatibility of materials for use in liquid-metal blankets of fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-11-01

    A review of corrosion and environmental effects on the mechanical properties of austenitic and ferritic steels for use with liquid metals in fusion reactors is presented. The mechanisms and kinetics of the corrosion processes in liquid lithium and Pb-17Li systems are examined and their influence on degradation of structural material is discussed. Requirements for additional data are identified.

  2. Materials for the plasma-facing components of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, H.; Barabash, V.; Krauss, W.; Linke, J.; Neu, R.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, N.; ASD. E. X. Upgrade Team

    2004-08-01

    During reactor operation the plasma-facing materials have to fulfil very complex and sometimes contradicting requirements. At present, tungsten shows the highest promise as plasma-facing material. Experiments in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak indicate that plasma operation is feasible with walls and divertor surfaces mostly covered with tungsten. Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by plasma spraying on EUROFER first wall mock-ups and show good adhesion and stability. The performance of tungsten surfaces under intense transient thermal loads is another critical issue, since the formation of a melt layer may favour the generation of highly activated dust particles. Work on `nanocrystalline' tungsten shall improve the mechanical properties under neutron irradiation which is especially important for designs, where tungsten has also to fulfil structural functions. Alternative divertor heat sink materials with very high thermal conductivity like SiC-fibre reinforced copper composites are presently being developed and should allow operation at reactor relevant coolant temperatures.

  3. The NASA-Lewis program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion, 1958-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Roth, J. Reece

    1990-01-01

    An historical synopsis is provided of the NASA-Lewis research program on fusion energy for space power and propulsion systems. It was initiated to explore the potential applications of fusion energy to space power and propulsion systems. Some fusion related accomplishments and program areas covered include: basic research on the Electric Field Bumpy Torus (EFBT) magnetoelectric fusion containment concept, including identification of its radial transport mechanism and confinement time scaling; operation of the Pilot Rig mirror machine, the first superconducting magnet facility to be used in plasma physics or fusion research; operation of the Superconducting Bumpy Torus magnet facility, first used to generate a toroidal magnetic field; steady state production of neutrons from DD reactions; studies of the direct conversion of plasma enthalpy to thrust by a direct fusion rocket via propellant addition and magnetic nozzles; power and propulsion system studies, including D(3)He power balance, neutron shielding, and refrigeration requirements; and development of large volume, high field superconducting and cryogenic magnet technology.

  4. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  5. Graphites as plasma facing material of a large fusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Tomoaki; Yamashina, Toshiro

    1990-03-01

    Several graphites, such as the first wall materials of the Large Helical System, are evaluated in terms of erosion, thermal shock resistance, and recycling. Adequate graphites are suggested, and the required conditions such as baking, cooling, and the discharge cleaning are discussed.

  6. FOREWORD: 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Wolfgang; Linsmeier, Christian; Rubel, Marek

    2011-12-01

    The 13th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components (PFMC-13) jointly organized with the 1st International Conference on Fusion Energy Materials Science (FEMaS-1) was held in Rosenheim (Germany) on 9-13 May 2011. PFMC-13 is a successor of the International Workshop on Carbon Materials for Fusion Applications series. Between 1985 and 2003 ten 'Carbon Workshops' were organized in Jülich, Stockholm and Hohenkammer. Then it was time for a change and redefinition of the scope of the symposium to reflect the new requirements of ITER and the ongoing evolution in the field. Under the new name (PFMC-11), the workshop was first organized in 2006 in Greifswald, Germany and PFMC-12 took place in Jülich in 2009. Initially starting in 1985 with about 40 participants as a 1.5 day workshop, the event has continuously grown to about 220 participants at PFMC-12. Due to the joint organization with FEMaS-1, PFMC-13 set a new record with more than 280 participants. The European project Fusion Energy Materials Science, FEMaS, coordinated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), organizes and stimulates cooperative research activities which involve large-scale research facilities as well as other top-level materials characterization laboratories. Five different fields are addressed: benchmarking experiments for radiation damage modelling, the application of micro-mechanical characterization methods, synchrotron and neutron radiation-based techniques and advanced nanoscopic analysis based on transmission electron microscopy. All these fields need to be exploited further by the fusion materials community for timely materials solutions for a DEMO reactor. In order to integrate these materials research fields, FEMaS acted as a co-organizer for the 2011 workshop and successfully introduced a number of participants from research labs and universities into the PFMC community. Plasma-facing materials experience particularly hostile conditions as they are

  7. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  8. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Skoberne, F.

    1980-05-01

    Studies and experiments aimed at investigating the possibility of restoring wavefront quality in optical systems through phase conjugation are summarized, and work that could lead to the development of highly damage-resistant isolators is discussed. The effects of various parameters on pulse-energy uniformity and of multipass extraction on laser efficiency are reported. Results of equation-of-state, shock propagation, multiburst simulation, and opacity measurements are discussed. Target designs are described that should provide a smooth transition from the exploding-pusher regime of experiments to that of isentropic compression. Progress in target fabrication techniques toward creating a 20-times-liquid-density target are outlined, and efforts that led to the extension of our neutron detection capability to levels of less than 10/sup 3/ n are summarized. The results of various studies of laser fusion application, e.g., for producing ultrahigh-temperature process heat or hydrogen from water decomposition are presented, as well as investigations of fusion-fission hybrids for the production of /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th.

  9. Apparatus and method for simulating material damage from a fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Dale L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Loomis, Benny A.

    1989-03-07

    An apparatus and method for simulating a fusion environment on a first wall or blanket structure. A material test specimen is contained in a capsule made of a material having a low hydrogen solubility and permeability. The capsule is partially filled with a lithium solution, such that the test specimen is encapsulated by the lithium. The capsule is irradiated by a fast fission neutron source.

  10. Apparatus and method for simulating material damage from a fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Dale L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Loomis, Benny A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for simulating a fusion environment on a first wall or blanket structure. A material test specimen is contained in a capsule made of a material having a low hydrogen solubility and permeability. The capsule is partially filled with a lithium solution, such that the test specimen is encapsulated by the lithium. The capsule is irradiated by a fast fission neutron source.

  11. Apparatus and method for simulating material damage from a fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.L.; Greenwood, L.R.; Loomis, B.A.

    1988-05-20

    This paper discusses an apparatus and method for simulating a fusion environment on a first wall or blanket structure. A material test specimen is contained in a capsule made of a material having a low hydrogen solubility and permeability. The capsule is partially filled with a lithium solution, such that the test specimen is encapsulated by the lithium. The capsule is irradiated by a fast fission neutron source.

  12. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  13. Advances in fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2000-12-01

    The US fusion technology program is an essential element in the development of the knowledge base for an attractive fusion power source. The technology program incorporates both near and long term R&D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, ranges from hardware production to theory and modeling, contributes significantly to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies.

  14. Long-Term Materials Test Program: materials exposure test plan

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    The Long Term Materials Test Program is designed to identify promising corrosion resistant materials for coal-fired gas turbine applications. Resistance of materials to long term accelerated corrosion will be determined through realistic PFB environmental exposure of candidate turbine materials for up to 14,000 hours. Selected materials also will be evaluated for their ability to withstand the combined erosive and corrosive aspects of the PFB effluent. A pressurized fluidized bed combustor facility has been constructed at the General Electric Coal Utilization Research Laboratory at Malta, New York. The 12-inch diameter combustor will burn high sulfur coal with moderate-to-high chlorine and alkali levels and utilize dolomite as the sulfur sorbent. Hot gas cleanup is achieved using three stages of cyclone separators. Downstream of the cylone separators, a low velocity test section (approx. 30 ft/s) capable of housing 180 pin specimens 1/4'' diameter has been installed to assess the corrosion resistance of the various materials at three different temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1600/sup 0/F. Following the low velocity test section is a high velocity test section consisting of four cascades of airfoil shaped specimens, six specimens per cascade. This high velocity test section is being used to evaluate the combined effects of erosion and corrosion on the degradation of gas turbine materials at gas velocities of 800 to 1400 ft/s. This report summarizes the materials selection and materials exposure test plan for the Long Term Materials Test.

  15. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  16. Low-activation properties of novel Cr-based materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Merola, Mario

    1996-10-01

    Due to the low neutron-induced radioactivity of their main constituent, two novel Cr-based structural materials are examined, from the low-activation properties viewpoint, as candidate first-wall materials for fusion reactors. The two alloys are Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, and Cr sbnd 44Fe sbnd 5Al sbnd 0.3Ti sbnd 0.5Y 2O 3. Their low-activation properties have been compared with those of some reference materials, in particular the austenitic steel AISI 316L, the Mn-based reduced-activation steel OPTSTAB, a V sbnd 5Ti alloy and a ceramic matrix composite (SiC/SiC). Impurities and tramp elements have been included in the calculations. Irradiation conditions envisaged for the SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) study have been adopted. Advantages of the proposed materials with respect to steels, either reference alloys or reduced-activation ones, appear evident from the results of the activation analysis. Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, in particular, show excellent low-activation characteristics. This material can be a good choice for further development and characterization of first-wall and blanket structural materials for fusion power reactors.

  17. The US Program of Fusion Energy Research and Development: Report of the Fusion Review Panel of the President`s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, J.P.; Conn, R.W.; MacArthur, D.; Papay, L.T.

    1995-06-01

    Funding for fusion energy R&D by the Federal government is an important investment in the development of an attractive and possibly essential new energy source for this country and the world in the middle of the next century and beyond. This funding also sustains an important field of scientific research - plasma science - in which the United States is the world leader and which has generated a panoply of insights and techniques widely applicable in other fields of science and in industry. And U.S. funding has been crucial to a productive, equitable, and durable international collaboration in fusion science and technology that represents the most important instance of international scientific cooperation in history as well as the best hope for timely commercialization of fusion at this time because the development costs are too high and the potential economic returns too distant. But funding fusion is a bargain for society as a whole. However, in light of present congressional funding climates the authors are suggesting a program which falls far short of what US DOE is proposing, but provides monies to keep the program alive, and to retain limited participation in the international program which currently is aimed at the construction of ITER. This limited funding will severly strain the program as it exists domestically at present, will limit industrial participation, will stretch the reasonable date for an operating demonstation fusion reactor, but will maintain the basic stucture of a domestic fusion research program.

  18. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion — Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite; Freeman, Richard R.; Van Woekom, L. D.; Key, M.; MacKinnon, Andrew J.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2014-02-27

    give numerous talks at national and international conferences (including APS-DPP, IAEA, FIW). The advent of PW capabilities – at Rutherford Appleton Lab (UK) and then at Titan (LLNL) (2005 and 2006, respectively), was a major step toward experiments in ultra-high intensity high-energy FI relevant regime. The next step comes with the activation of OMEGA EP at LLE, followed shortly by NIF-ARC at LLNL. These capabilities allow production of hot dense material for electron transport studies. In this transitional period, considerable effort has been spent in developing the necessary tools and experiments for electron transport in hot and dense plasmas. In addition, substantial new data on electron generation and transport in metallic targets has been produced and analyzed. Progress in FI detailed in §2 is related to the Concept Exploration Program (CEP) objectives; this section is a summary of the publications and presentations listed in §5. This work has benefited from the synergy with work on related Department of Energy (DOE) grants, the Fusion Science Center and the Fast Ignition Advanced Concept Exploration grant, and from our interactions with overseas colleagues, primarily at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan.

  19. Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  20. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  1. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  2. LANL material control indicator analysis program

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Several methods have been put in place to deter and or detect losses of SNM. These include inventory, material control physical barriers and the use of material control indicators (MCI). This paper will discuss the multi-tier LANL review mechanism for detecting and isolating missing SNM by the use of Material Control Indicators. Los Alamos MCI include daily analysis and review of item adjustments, weekly review of item adjustments, monthly analysis and review of inventory differences by Process Status and by Material Balance Areas, and quarterly analysis and review of Propagation of Variance. This paper, by providing an introduction to a site-specific application of MCI's, assists safeguards professionals in understanding the importance of an MCI Program in detecting accumulation for subsequent diversion/theft of special nuclear material.

  3. Large area imaging of hydrogenous materials using fast neutrons from a DD fusion generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, J. T.; Williams, D. L.; Gary, C. K.; Piestrup, M. A.; Faber, D. R.; Fuller, M. J.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Apodaca, M.; Pantell, R. H.; Feinstein, J.

    2012-05-01

    A small-laboratory fast-neutron generator and a large area detector were used to image hydrogen-bearing materials. The overall image resolution of 2.5 mm was determined by a knife-edge measurement. Contact images of objects were obtained in 5-50 min exposures by placing them close to a plastic scintillator at distances of 1.5 to 3.2 m from the neutron source. The generator produces 109 n/s from the DD fusion reaction at a small target. The combination of the DD-fusion generator and electronic camera permits both small laboratory and field-portable imaging of hydrogen-rich materials embedded in high density materials.

  4. Rheological behavior and cryogenic properties of cyanate ester/epoxy insulation material for fusion superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. X.; Li, L. F.; Li, J. W.; Huang, C. J.; Tan, R.; Tu, Y. P.

    2014-01-01

    In a Tokamak fusion reactor device like ITER, insulation materials for superconducting magnets are usually fabricated by a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. Thus these insulation materials must exhibit low viscosity, long working life as well as good radiation resistance. Previous studies have indicated that cyanate ester (CE) blended with epoxy has an excellent resistance against neutron irradiation which is expected to be a candidate insulation material for a fusion magnet. In this work, the rheological behavior of a CE/epoxy (CE/EP) blend containing 40% CE was investigated with non-isothermal and isothermal viscosity experiments. Furthermore, the cryogenic mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were evaluated in terms of interlaminar shear strength and electrical breakdown strength. The results showed that CE/epoxy blend had a very low viscosity and an exceptionally long processing life of about 4 days at 60 °C.

  5. Rheological behavior and cryogenic properties of cyanate ester/epoxy insulation material for fusion superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z. X.; Huang, C. J.; Li, L. F.; Li, J. W.; Tan, R.; Tu, Y. P.

    2014-01-27

    In a Tokamak fusion reactor device like ITER, insulation materials for superconducting magnets are usually fabricated by a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process. Thus these insulation materials must exhibit low viscosity, long working life as well as good radiation resistance. Previous studies have indicated that cyanate ester (CE) blended with epoxy has an excellent resistance against neutron irradiation which is expected to be a candidate insulation material for a fusion magnet. In this work, the rheological behavior of a CE/epoxy (CE/EP) blend containing 40% CE was investigated with non-isothermal and isothermal viscosity experiments. Furthermore, the cryogenic mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were evaluated in terms of interlaminar shear strength and electrical breakdown strength. The results showed that CE/epoxy blend had a very low viscosity and an exceptionally long processing life of about 4 days at 60 °C.

  6. A study on nuclear properties of Zr, Nb, and Ta nuclei used as structural material in fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, Halide; Tel, Eyyup; Sahan, Muhittin; Aydin, Abdullah; Hakki Sarpun, Ismail; Kara, Ayhan; Doner, Mesut

    2015-07-01

    Fusion has a practically limitless fuel supply and is attractive as an energy source. The main goal of fusion research is to construct and operate an energy generating system. Fusion researches also contains fusion structural materials used fusion reactors. Material issues are very important for development of fusion reactors. Therefore, a wide range of fusion structural materials have been considered for fusion energy applications. Zirconium (Zr), Niobium (Nb) and Tantalum (Ta) containing alloys are important structural materials for fusion reactors and many other fields. Naturally Zr includes the 90Zr (%51.5), 91Zr (%11.2), 92Zr (%17.1), 94Zr (%17.4), 96Zr (%2.80) isotopes and 93Nb and 181Ta include the 93Nb (%100) and 181Ta (%99.98), respectively. In this study, the charge, mass, proton and neutron densities and the root-mean-square (rms) charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, and neutron radii have been calculated for 87-102Zr, 93Nb, 181Ta target nuclei isotopes by using the Hartree-Fock method with an effective Skyrme force with SKM*. The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental taken from Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables and theoretical values of other studies.

  7. Fusion Material Studies Relating to Safety in Russia in 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.; Guseva, M. I.; Khripunov, B. I.; Martynenko, Y. V.; Romanov, P. V.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Bartenev, S. A.

    2004-10-01

    The paper is a summary of Russian material studies performed in frames of activities aiming at substantiation of safety of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) after 2001. Subthreshold sputtering of tungsten by 5 eV deuterons was revealed at temperatures above 1150°C. Mechanism of globular films formation was further studied. Computations of tritium permeation into vacuum vessel coolant confirmed the acceptability of vacuum vessel cooling system for removal of the decay heat. The most dangerous accident with high-current arc in toroidal superconducting magnets able to burn out a bore up to 0.6 m in diameter in the cryostat vessel was determined. Radiochemical reprocessing of V-Cr-Ti alloy and its purification from activation products down to a contact dose rate of ~10 μSv/h was developed.

  8. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  9. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  10. Fusion programs in Applied Plasma Physics. Contract extension report, October 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) program at General Atomics (GA) described here includes four major elements: (a) Applied Plasma Physics Theory Program, (b) Alpha Particle Diagnostic, (c) Edge and Current Density Diagnostic, and (d) Fusion User Service Center (USC). The objective of the APP theoretical plasma physics research at GA is to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments and to significantly advance our ability to design a commercially-attractive fusion reactor. We categorize our efforts in three areas: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria and stability; plasma transport with emphasis on H-mode, divertor, and boundary physics; and radio frequency (rf). The objective of the APP alpha particle diagnostic is to develop diagnostics of fast confined alpha particles using the interactions with the ablation cloud surrounding injected pellets and to develop diagnostic systems for reacting and ignited plasmas. The objective of the APP edge and current density diagnostic is to first develop a lithium beam diagnostic system for edge fluctuation studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). The objective of the Fusion USC is to continue to provide maintenance and programming support to computer users in the GA fusion community. The detailed progress of each separate program covered in this report period is described in the following sections.

  11. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  12. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history, strategy, and overall goal of NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications program for materials processing in space are described as well as the organizational structures and personnel involved. An overview of each research task is presented and recent publications are listed.

  13. Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    This report provides a compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs; the compilation is to assist administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into 7 sections: laboratory projects, contract research projects, small business innovation research, major user facilities, other user facilities, funding level distributions, and indexes.

  14. Environmental Education Programs and Materials. PREP-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L.; And Others

    Information concerning programs and materials for environmental education is provided. In the report, environmental education is defined as: ". . . the educational process dealing with man's relationship with his natural and manmade surroundings, and including the relation of population, pollution, resource allocation and depletion, conservation,…

  15. Graphene Biosensor Programming with Genetically Engineered Fusion Protein Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Soikkeli, Miika; Kurppa, Katri; Kainlauri, Markku; Arpiainen, Sanna; Paananen, Arja; Gunnarsson, David; Joensuu, Jussi J; Laaksonen, Päivi; Prunnila, Mika; Linder, Markus B; Ahopelto, Jouni

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a label-free biosensor concept based on specific receptor modules, which provide immobilization and selectivity to the desired analyte molecules, and on charge sensing with a graphene field effect transistor. The receptor modules are fusion proteins in which small hydrophobin proteins act as the anchor to immobilize the receptor moiety. The functionalization of the graphene sensor is a single-step process based on directed self-assembly of the receptor modules on a hydrophobic surface. The modules are produced separately in fungi or plants and purified before use. The modules form a dense and well-oriented monolayer on the graphene transistor channel and the receptor module monolayer can be removed, and a new module monolayer with a different selectivity can be assembled in situ. The receptor module monolayers survive drying, showing that the functionalized devices can be stored and have a reasonable shelf life. The sensor is tested with small charged peptides and large immunoglobulin molecules. The measured sensitivities are in the femtomolar range, and the response is relatively fast, of the order of one second. PMID:26960769

  16. Maryland Controlled Fusion Research Program. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.; Hassam, A.; Liu, C.S.; Ott, E.

    1995-05-01

    In the past three years, members of the Maryland Plasma Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory program, and, in many cases, these theoretical developments helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In this report, they summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of micro-turbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  17. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.; Hassam, A.; Liu, C.S.; Ott, E.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, members of the Maryland Plasma Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory program, and, in many cases, these theoretical developments helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of micro-turbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  18. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-10-09

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed.

  19. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of /sup 233/U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490/sup 0/C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year).

  20. High-performance deuterium-lithium neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Blind, B.; Guy, F.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Schnurr, N.M.; Schriber, S.O.; Varsamis, G.L.; Wangler, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in high-current linear-accelerator technology since the design of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility have increased the attractiveness of a deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing. This paper discusses a new approach to such a source aimed at meeting the near-term requirements of a high-flux high-energy International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The concept employs multiple accelerator modules providing deuteron beams to two liquid-lithium jet targets oriented at right angles. This beam/target geometry provides much larger test volumes than can be attained with a single beam and target and produces significant regions of low neutron-flux gradient. A preliminary beam-dynamics design has been obtained for a 250-mA reference accelerator module. Neutron-flux levels and irradiation volumes were calculated for a neutron source incorporating two such modules, and interaction of the beam with the lithium jet was studied using a thermal-hydraulic computer simulation. Cost estimates are provided for a range of beam currents and a possible facility staging sequence is suggested. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Measurements and analyses of decay radioactivity induced in simulated deuterium-tritium neutron environments for fusion reactor structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H.; Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    To meet urgent requirements for data validation, an experimental analysis has been carried out for isotopic radioactivity induced by deuterium-tritium neutron irradiation in structural materials. The primary objective is to examine the adequacy of the activation cross sections implemented in the current activation calculation codes considered for use in fusion reactor nuclear design. Four activation cross-section libraries, namely, JENDL, LIB90, REAC{sup *}63, and REAC{sup *}175 were investigated in this current analysis. The isotopic induced radioactivity calculations using these four libraries are compared with experimental values obtained in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute/U.S. Department of Energy collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics. The nine materials studied are aluminum, silicon, titanium, vanadium, chromium, MnCu alloy, iron, nickel, niobium, and Type 316 stainless steel. The adequacy of the cross sections is investigated through the calculation to experiment analysis. As a result, most of the discrepancies in the calculations from experiments can be explained by inadequate activation cross sections. In addition, uncertainties due to neutron energy groups and neutron transport calculation are considered. The JENDL library gives the best agreement with experiments, followed by REAC{sup *}175, LIB90, and REAC{sup *}63, in this order. 45 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  3. Initial progress in the first wall, blanket, and shield Engineering Test Program for magnetically confined fusion-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Baker, C.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1981-10-01

    The first wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program (ETP) progressed from the planning stage into implementation during July, 1981. The program, generic in nature, comprises four Test Program Elements (TPE's), the emphasis of which is on defining the performance parameters for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) and the major fusion device to follow FED. These elements are: (1) nonnuclear thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing of first wall and component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads and heat transient (i.e., plasma disruption) effects; (2) nonnuclear and nuclear testing of FW/B/S components and assemblies with emphasis on bulk (nuclear) heating effects, integrated FW/B/S hydraulics and mechanics, blanket coolant system transients, and nuclear benchmarks; (3) FW/B/S electromagnetic and eddy current effects testing, including pulsed field penetration, torque and force restraint, electromagnetic materials, liquid metal MHD effects and the like; and (4) FW/B/S Assembly, Maintenance and Repair (AMR) studies focusing on generic AMR criteria, with the objective of preparing an AMR designers guidebook; also, development of rapid remote assembly/disassembly joint system technology, leak detection and remote handling methods.

  4. An evaluation of potential material coolant compatibility for applications in advanced fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yi, Y. S.; Hishinuma, A.

    1998-10-01

    In assessing possible potential issues for fusion applications, the compatibility of several metallic structural materials was examined using high temperature/pressure steam as test environment. High corrosion resistance associated with protective oxide film formation was regarded as essential for the function of protecting from tritium permeation and corrosion damage. A Ti-Al-based intermetallic compound with V addition, recently developed, showed excellent performance. A low-activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82-H, was comparable with the current advanced materials for modern supercritical fossil boilers, while some potential vanadium alloys, although not intended for use in steam, were found less compatible.

  5. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D K

    2003-04-22

    The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles' Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

  6. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Active research areas as of the end of the fiscal year 1982 of the Materials Processing in Space Program, NASA-Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are highlighted to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program is described as well as its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved are identified and each research task is described together with a list of recent publications. The tasks are grouped into four categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; and ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies.

  7. Transmutation and activation analysis for divertor materials in a HCLL-type fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Möslang, A.; Rieth, M.

    2009-04-01

    The activation and transmutation of tungsten and tantalum as plasma facing materials was assessed for a helium cooled divertor irradiated in a typical fusion power reactor based on the use of Helium-cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blankets. 3D activation calculations were performed by applying a programme system linking the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP and the fusion inventory code FISPACT through an appropriate interface. Special attention was given to the proper treatment of the resonance shielding of tungsten and tantalum by using reaction rates provided directly by MCNP on the basis of continuous energy activation cross-section data. It was shown that the long-term activation behaviour is dominated by activation products of the assumed tramp material while the short-term behaviour is due to the activation of the stable Ta and W isotopes. The recycling limit for remote handling of 100 mSv/h can be achieved after decay times of 10 and 50 years for Ta and W, respectively. The elemental transmutation rates of Ta and W were shown to be on a moderate level for the HCLL-type fusion power reactor.

  8. Design of spectrally tailored fusion reactor materials experiments in the HFIR RB∗ capsule irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longest, A. W.; Corum, J. E.; Heatherly, D. W.; Thoms, K. R.

    1988-07-01

    Design of four spectrally tailored capsules to irradiate magnetic fusion energy (MFE) materials specimens in the new High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) removable beryllium (RB∗) facility at temperatures of 60, 200, 330 and 400°C, is described. These designs incorporate provisions for removal, examination and reencapsulation of the specimens at intermediate exposure levels en route to a target exposure level of 30 displacements per atom (dpa). With the exception of the 60°C capsule, where the test specimens are in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, the specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a small gap region between the specimen holder and the containment tube. Hafnium shields are used to tailor the neutron spectrum to closely match the helium production-to-atom displacement ratio ( {14 appm}/{dpa}) expected in an austenitic stainless steel fusion reactor first wall. These MFE capsule irradiations will begin in early 1988.

  9. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klix, Axel; Fischer, Ulrich; Gehre, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  10. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  11. Thermal analysis of coatings and substrate materials during a disruption in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.

    1993-06-01

    In a tokamak fusion reactor, the frequency of occurrence and the severity of a plasma disruption event will determine the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Disruptions are plasma instabilities which result in rapid loss of confinement and termination of plasma current Intense energy fluxes to components like the rust wall and the divertor plate are expected during the disruptions. This high energy deposition in short times may cause severe surface erosion of these components resulting from melting and vaporization. Coatings and tile materials are proposed to protect and maintain the integrity of the underneath, structural materials from both erosion losses as well as from high thermal stresses encountered during a disruption. The coating thickness should be large enough to withstand both erosion losses and to reduce the temperature rise in the substrate structural material. The coating thickness should be minimized to enhance the structural integrity, to reduce potential problems from radioactivity, and to minimize materials cost. Tile materials such as graphite and coating materials such as beryllium and tungsten on structural materials like copper, steel, and vanadium are analyzed and compared as potential diverter and first wall design options. The effect of the sprayed coating properties during the disruption is investigated. Porous sprayed material may be found to protect the structure better than condensed phase properties. The minimum coating thickness required to protect the structural material during disruption is discussed. The impact of self shielding effect by the eroded material oil the response of both the type/coating and the substrate is discussed.

  12. Program status 2. quarter -- FY 1990: Fusion technology development

    SciTech Connect

    1990-05-01

    During this period, the ARIES-I blanket design team has concentrated its efforts on preparation of the final report. For the ARIES-II blanket design, two concepts are being evaluated. They are the Li self-cooled and the helium-cooled lithium breeder designs. The scoping design of the second concept has been completed. Varian EIMAC has had two tube failures in trying to assemble the X2274 tetrodes for the tests in Japan. Despite the failures it is still possible for the tubes to be ready as scheduled. Also during this quarter, the joint US/PRC integral experiment on beryllium was completed in March and the analysis of results has begun. Finally, the final design of DIII-D Divertor Material Exposure System (DiMES) was completed. Preliminary analysis by ANL of DIII-D divertor erosion, using measured plasma conditions, predicts maximum net erosion of 50 {micro}m and maximum net deposition of 23 {micro}m. Measurement by SNL-L of the 12 tiles removed in December 1989 is still pending.

  13. Thin film phase transition materials development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, W. E.

    1985-04-01

    A number of application concepts have emerged based on the idea that a phase transition thin film such as vanadium dioxide provides a high resolution, two-dimensional format for switching, recording, and processing optical signals. These applications range from high density optical disk recording systems and optical data processing to laser protection devices, infrared FLIRS and seekers, laser radar systems and IR scene simulators. All application candidates have a potential for providing either a totally new capability, an improved performance, a lower cost, or combinations of the three. Probably of greatest significance is the emergence of agile sensor concepts arising out of some of the film's special properties. These are represented by the above FLIRs, seekers and laser radar systems. A three year research program has been completed to advance the state-of-the-art in the preparation and characterization of selected thin film phase transition materials. The objectives of the program were: (1) to expand the data base and improve operational characteristics of Vought prepared vanadium dioxide thin films, (2) to evolve process chemistry and subsequently characterize several new program materials, including rare-earth chalcogenides, organic semiconductor charge complexes, alloys of transition metal oxides, and metal-insulator cermets, and (3) to spin-off new applications and concepts.

  14. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  15. High-flux source of fusion neutrons for material and component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D. E.; Hooper, E. B.; Ryutov, D. D.; Thomassen, K. I.

    1999-01-07

    The inner part of a fusion reactor will have to operate at very high neutron loads. In steady-state reactors the minimum fluence before the scheduled replacement of the reactor core should be at least l0-15 Mw.yr/m2. A more frequent replacement of the core is hardly compatible with economic constraints. A most recent summary of the discussions of these issues is presented in Ref. [l]. If and when times come to build a commercial fusion reactor, the availability of information on the behavior of materials and components at such fluences will become mandatory for making a final decision. This makes it necessary an early development and construction of a neutron source for fusion material and component testing. In this paper, we present information on one very attractive concept of such a source: a source based on a so called Gas Dynamic Trap. This neutron source was proposed in the mid 1980s (Ref. [2]; see also a survey [3] with discussion of the early stage of the project). Since then, gradual accumulation of the relevant experimental information on a modest-scale experimental facility GDT at Novosibirsk, together with a continuing design activity, have made initial theoretical considerations much more credible. We believe that such a source can be built within 4 or 5 years. Of course, one should remember that there is a chance for developing steady-state reactors with a liquid (and therefore continuously renewable) first wall [4], which would also serve as a tritium breeder. In this case, the need in the neutron testing will become less pressing. However, it is not clear yet that the concept of the flowing wall will be compatible with all types of steady-state reactors. It seems therefore prudent to be prepared to the need of a quick construction of a neutron source. It should also be mentioned that there exist projects of the accelerator-based neutron sources (e.g., [5]). However, they generally have two major disadvantages: a wrong neutron spectrum

  16. The Role of Theory and Modeling in the Development of Materials for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    The environmental and operational conditions of First Wall/ Blanket (FW/B) structural materials in fusion energy systems are undoubtedly amongst the harshest in any technological application. These materials must operate reliably for extended periods of times without maintenance or repair. They must withstand the assaults of high particle and heat fluxes, as well as significant thermal and mechanical forces. Rival conditions have not been experienced in other technologies, with possible exceptions in aerospace and defense applications. Moreover, the most significant dilemma here is that the actual operational environment cannot be experimentally established today, with all of the synergistic considerations of neutron spectrum, radiation dose, heat and particle flux, and gigantic FW/B module sizes. Because of these considerations, we may rely on a purely empirical and incremental boot-strapping approach (as in most human developments so far), or an approach based on data generation from non prototypical setups (e.g., small samples, fission spectra, ion irradiation, etc.), or a theoretical/computational methodology. The first approach would have been the most direct had it not been for the unacceptable risks in the construction of successively larger and more powerful fusion machines, learning from one how to do it better for the next. The last approach (theory and modeling alone) is not a very viable option, because we are not now in a position to predict materials behavior in all its aspects from purely theoretical grounds.

  17. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  18. Second Review of the Department of Energy's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report of the second review by the National Research Council of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) contains the appointed committee's final conclusions and recommendations. An interim report was issued in January 1990. The charge to the committee was as follows: determine whether the recommendations of the 1985 NAS review are still appropriate to advance the technology efficaciously. Provide an assessment of the most promising technologies for continuation of the program. Assess the potential contributions of the program under the following scenarios: a comprehensive test ban on underground nuclear testing and prohibition of underground nuclear testing to levels of 1 kiloton, 5 kilotons, and 10 kilotons. Assess the civilian energy potential of ICF. Assess the adequacy of the ICF target performance data base for supporting program plans and decision milestones. Identify major technical and programmatic issues facing the program. Determine the status of each major candidate inertial fusion driver, and specify the critical issues involved in the development of each. Recommend program priorities, particularly with regard to the Centurion/halite program, driver development, and laboratory experiments and theory. Recommend relative priorities of individual support laboratory activities. Examine the strategies and plans of the ICF Program, comment on their soundness, cohesiveness, and programmatic effectiveness, and recommend management initiatives that could improve the progress of the program toward achieving of its goals. The major difference between the 1985 and 1989 reviews is the request for greater attention to the energy potential of the ICF Program and the heavy-ion work being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California.

  19. Fast Ignition: Physics Progress in the US Fusion Energy Program and Prospects for Achieving Ignition.

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M H; Andersen, C; Cowan, T; Fisch, N; Freeman, R; Hatchett, S; Hill, J; King, J; Koch, J; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; MacKinnon, A; Parks, P; Rosenbluth, M; Ruhl, H; Snavely, R; Stephens, R; Tabak, M; Town, R

    2002-10-16

    Fast ignition (FI) has significant potential advantages for inertial fusion energy and it is therefore being studied as an exploratory concept in the US fusion energy program. FI is based on short pulse isochoric heating of pre-compressed DT by intense beams of laser accelerated MeV electrons or protons. Recent experimental progress in the study of these two heating processes is discussed. The goal is to benchmark new models in order to predict accurately the requirements for full-scale fast ignition. An overview is presented of the design and experimental testing of a cone target implosion concept for fast ignition. Future prospects and conceptual designs for larger scale FI experiments using planned high energy petawatt upgrades of major lasers in the US are outlined. A long-term roadmap for FI is defined.

  20. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C.

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  1. Hydrogeologic Data Fusion. Industry Programs/Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscut Program. OST Reference #2944

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: The fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface requires knowledge of the hydrogeologic system. Site characterization typically involves the collection of various data sets needed to create a conceptual model that represents what’s known about contaminant migration in the subsurface at a particular site. How Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Works Hydrogeologic Data Fusion is a mathematical tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It can be especially useful at hazardous waste sites where the hydrology, geology, or contaminant distribution is significantly complex such that groundwater modeling is required to enable a reasonable and accurate prediction of subsurface conditions.

  2. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  3. Study of Tungsten as a Plasma-facing Material for a Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, B. I.; Koidan, V. S.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Gureev, V. M.; Kornienko, S. N.; Latushkin, S. T.; Rupyshev, A. S.; Semenov, E. V.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Zatekin, V. V.

    The paper presents the development of experimental investigations and recent results of the impact on tungsten at high level of radiation damage under steady-state deuterium plasma. Tungsten is considered as a plasma facing material for a fusion reactor. The effect of fusion neutron impact is simulated by surrogate irradiations with high-energy ions. The primary defects at 1-100 dpa were produced in tungsten samples by He and C ions accelerated in the Kurchatov cyclotron to 3-10 MeV at the total fluence of 1017-1019 cm-2. The irradiated material was studied in deuterium plasma on the LENTA linear divertor simulator at the plasma fluence 1021-1022 D/cm2. Erosion dynamics, development of the surface microstructure and deuterium retention were analyzed. Increased deuterium retention detected previously in tungsten pre-irradiated by He ions was also registered (ERDA) on C-irradiated samples at 2-3 dpa. In contrast, a significant decrease in the D uptake has been observed on those samples operated in the experiments at 500 °C.

  4. Investigation of oxidation resistance of carbon based first-wall liner materials of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moormann, R.; Hinssen, H. K.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Stauch, B.; Wu, C. H.

    1994-09-01

    One important aspect in selection of carbon based first-wall liner materials in fusion reactors is a sufficient oxidation resistance against steam and oxygen; this is because during accidents like loss of coolant into vacuum or loss of vacuum these oxidizing media can enter the vacuum vessel and may cause some corrosion of carbon followed by release of adsorbed tritium; in addition other consequences of oxidation like formation of burnable gases and their explosions have to be examined. Based on extensive experience on nuclear graphite oxidation in HTRs KFA has started in cooperation with NET some experimental investigations on oxidation of fusion reactor carbons. Results of first experiments on CFCs, Ti- and Si-doped carbons and graphites in steam (1273-1423 K) and oxygen (973 K) are reported. It was found that most materials have a similar reactivity as HTR nuclear graphites (which is much smaller than those of usual technical carbons); Si-doped CFCs however have a remarkably better oxidation resistance than those, which is probably due to the formation of a protecting layer of SiO 2. The measured kinetic data will be used in safety analyses for above mentioned accidents.

  5. Reaction-Based SiC Materials for Joining Silicon Carbide Composites for Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lewinsohn, Charles A.; Jones, Russell H.; Singh, M.; Serizawa, H.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2000-09-01

    The fabrication of large or complex silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) components for fusion energy systems requires a method to assemble smaller components that are limited in size by manufacturing constraints. Previous analysis indicates that silicon carbide should be considered as candidate joint materials. Two methods to obtain SiC joints rely on a reaction between silicon and carbon to produce silicon carbide. This report summarizes preliminary mechanical properties of joints formed by these two methods. The methods appear to provide similar mechanical properties. Both the test methods and materials are preliminary in design and require further optimization. In an effort to determine how the mechanical test data is influenced by the test methodology and specimen size, plans for detailed finite element modeling (FEM) are presented.

  6. Equations of State for Ablator Materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterne, P. A.; Benedict, L. X.; Hamel, S.; Correa, A. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Fratanduono, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the development of the tabular equation of state (EOS) models for ablator materials in current use at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in simulations of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We illustrate the methods with a review of current models for ablator materials and discuss some of the challenges in performing hydrocode simulations with high-fidelity multiphase models. We stress the importance of experimental data, as well as the utility of ab initio electronic structure calculations, in regions where data is not currently available. We illustrate why Hugoniot data alone is not sufficient to constrain the EOS models. These cases illustrate the importance of experimental EOS data in multi-megabar regimes, and the vital role they play in the development and validation of EOS models for ICF simulations.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated.

  8. Need for development of higher strength cryogenic structural materials for fusion magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Arata

    2014-01-01

    A prototype fusion reactor is targeted as a beyond ITER project which is so called DEMO. Several conceptual designs have been carried out. Recently, in order to recognize practical aspects on maintenance of the prototype reactor, the replacement procedure of in-vessel components was focused and "sector process" was proposed. The process is that the reactor consists of sectors and all sectors will be drowned and replaced in a short time. The slim coil which generated higher magnetic field is required to realize the sector process. From the point of coil design, the occupancy of the structural material on the cross section of the coil increases with an increase of magnetic field. To realize the slim coil, the cryogenic structural material with higher yield strength and the proper toughness is desired.

  9. Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600/sup 0/C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.