Science.gov

Sample records for fusion nuclear data

  1. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.

    1996-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron—photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon—atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2

  2. Nuclear-data needs for inertial-confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Motz, H.T.

    1983-05-09

    Our survey was limited to ICF programs in the United States. It included researchers in laser and heavy ion fusion, target design, target diagnostics, and conceptual reactor design. We asked each of these people to read the current data needs for magnetic fusion energy and to comment on additional data that they require.

  3. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  4. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  5. Low-energy nuclear fusion data and their relation to magnetic and laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmie, N.

    1980-04-01

    The accuracy of the basic fusion data for the T(d,n)/sup 4/He, /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He, T(t,2n)/sup 4/He, D(d,n)/sup 3/He, and D(d,p)T reactions was investigated in the 10- to 100-keV bombarding energy region, and the effects of inaccuracies on the design of fusion reactors were assessed. The data base for these reactions (particularly, the most critical T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction) rests on 25-year-old experiments the accuracy (often assumed to be +- 5%) of which has rarely been questioned: yet, in all except the d + d reactions, there are significant differences among data sets. The errors in the basic data sets may be considerably larger than previously expected, and the effect on design calculations should be significant. Much of the trouble apparently lies in the accuracy of the energy measurements, which are difficult at low energies. Systematic errors of up to 50% are possible in the reactivity values of the present T(d,n)/sup 4/He data base. The errors in the reactivity will propagate proportionately into the errors in fusion probabilities in reactor calculations. /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He reaction cross sections could be in error by as much as 50% in the low-energy region. The D(d,n)/sup 3/He and D(d,p)T cross sections appear to be well known and consistent. The T(t,2n)/sup 4/He cross section is poorly known and may be subject to large systematic errors. Improved absolute measurements for all the reactions in the low bombarding energy region (10 to 100 keV) are needed, but until they are done, the data sets should be left as they are (except for T(t,2n)/sup 4/He data, which could be lowered by about 50%). The apparent uncertainties of these data sets should be kept in mind. 14 figures.

  6. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  7. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  8. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  9. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  10. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  11. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  12. Synchronization in a PLC/VAX-based control and data-acquisition system of a nuclear-fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Hemming, O. N.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Vitturi, S.

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes the concept and implementation details of the synchronization mechanisms used in the control and data-acquisition system of the RFX (Reversed-Field Experiment) nuclear-fusion experimental device, at present under construction in Padova, Italy, within the framework of the co-ordinated nuclear-fusion research programme of the European Communities. The system employs industrial PLCs for the "slow" control and monitoring functions, and a VAX-based CAMAC for the "fast" functions of trigger-signal generation and data acquisition during the experiment pulses. All subsystems communicative via Ethernet, using compatible software protocols. The operational sequence of the complete system is governed by a single state machine implemented on a PLC-based supervisor system. Equivalent "slave" state machines are implemented on all other subsystems (PLC-and VAX-based). These state machines are synchronized by means of the exchange of messages via Ethernet. This paper deals in detail with the following components which are involved in system synchronization: - the Message Exchange System which implements the system-wide exchange of short messages; - the Scheduler programs which implement the state machine on the various computing nodes, and which make use of the Message Exchange System.

  13. Nuclear structure and sub-barrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H. . Cyclotron Lab. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1990-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on heavy-ion fusion and elastic scattering, at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier, is discussed within the coupled channels formalism. The coupled channels approach provides a consistent description of the enhancement of sub-barrier fusion and the energy dependence of the effective potential for elastic scattering. This is illustrated by comparison to the data for several systems. 48 refs., 4 figs.

  14. An efficient nonclassical quadrature for the calculation of nonresonant nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-08-01

    Nonclassical quadratures based on a new set of half-range polynomials, Tn(x) , orthogonal with respect to w(x) =e - x - b /√{ x } for x ∈ [ 0 , ∞) are employed in the efficient calculation of the nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data. The parameter b = B /√{kB T } in the weight function is temperature dependent and B is the Gamow factor. The polynomials Tn(x) satisfy a three term recurrence relation defined by two sets of recurrence coefficients, αn and βn. These recurrence coefficients define in turn the tridiagonal Jacobi matrix whose eigenvalues are the quadrature points and the weights are calculated from the first components of the eigenfunctions. For nonresonant nuclear reactions for which the astrophysical function can be expressed as a lower order polynomial in the relative energy, the convergence of the thermal average of the reactive cross section with this nonclassical quadrature is extremely rapid requiring in many cases 2-4 quadrature points. The results are compared with other libraries of nuclear reaction rate coefficient data reported in the literature.

  15. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  16. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  17. Office of Basic Energy Sciences program to meet high priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy 1983 review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Larson, D.C.

    1983-11-01

    This review was prepared during a coordination meeting held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 28-29, 1983. Participants included research scientists working for this program, a representative from the OFE's Coordination of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Nuclear Data Needs Activities, and invited specialists.

  18. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Already while making his famous contributions in uncontrolled nuclear fusion for wartime uses, Edward Teller contemplated how the abundant energy release through nuclear fusion might serve peacetime uses as well. His legacy in controlled nuclear fusion, and the associated physics of plasmas, spans both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches. His contributions in plasma physics, both the intellectual and the administrative, continue to impact the field.

  19. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work

  20. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  1. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  2. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  3. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  4. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  5. Sixth coordination meeting of the Division of Nuclear Physics Program to meet high-priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The Sixth Coordination Meeting of the Program to Meet Nuclear Data Needs for Fusion Energy was held in Athens, September 19--21, 1989. The principal change from the previous meeting at Argonne was the larger international participation. One scientist from Japan represented the only non-US participation at Argonne. The present meeting included about 20% non-US participants. This change is a welcome one since the data needs are international and the limited availability of manpower and facilities will likely make international cooperation increasingly important in the future. The organization of the meeting involved collecting and distributing to all participants progress reports from the Department of Energy laboratories in advance of the meeting. Twenty-five oral presentations were made at the meeting, including many from non-DOE labs. The meeting then divided into experimental and theoretical task force groups, which carried out assigned agenda items. The reports of these groups, abstracts of the talks presented at the meeting, and the progress reports are included in this report. The topics discussed will be very familiar to participants in past meetings, but continued progress in most areas was reported. One discussion topic which reflects continuing and perhaps worsening problems was the aging of facilities and personnel, coupled with a lack of programs to renew.

  6. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  8. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  9. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  10. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  11. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  12. Data-fusion receiver

    DOEpatents

    Gabelmann, Jeffrey M.; Kattner, J. Stephen; Houston, Robert A.

    2006-12-19

    This invention is an ultra-low frequency electromagnetic telemetry receiver which fuses multiple input receive sources to synthesize a decodable message packet from a noise corrupted telemetry message string. Each block of telemetry data to be sent to the surface receiver from a borehole tool is digitally encoded into a data packet prior to transmission. The data packet is modulated onto the ULF EM carrier wave and transmitted from the borehole to the surface and then are simultaneously detected by multiple receive sensors disbursed within the rig environment. The receive sensors include, but are not limited to, electric field and magnetic field sensors. The spacing of the surface receive elements is such that noise generators are unequally coupled to each receive element due to proximity and/or noise generator type (i.e. electric or magnetic field generators). The receiver utilizes a suite of decision metrics to reconstruct the original, non noise-corrupted data packet from the observation matrix via the estimation of individual data frames. The receiver will continue this estimation process until: 1) the message validates, or 2) a preset "confidence threshold" is reached whereby frames within the observation matrix are no longer "trusted".

  13. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  14. A Review of Data Fusion Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion. PMID:24288502

  15. Decoding the nuclear genome using nuclear binding and fusion energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2015-04-01

    In several publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q = 0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This presentation will systematically pull all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

  16. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant.

    PubMed

    Camplani, M; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Barbato, F; Antonelli, L; Poggi, L A; Ciparisse, J F; Salgado, L; Richetta, M; Gaudio, P

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach. PMID:26827318

  17. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camplani, M.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Barbato, F.; Antonelli, L.; Poggi, L. A.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Salgado, L.; Richetta, M.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  18. Passive-sensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolitz, Stephan E.

    1991-08-01

    Problems in multi-sensor data fusion are addressed for passive (angle-only) sensors; the example used is a constellation of IR sensors on satellites in low-earth orbit, viewing up to several hundred ballistic missile targets. The sensor data used in the methodology of the report is 'post-detection,' with targets resolved on single pixels (it is possible for several targets to be resolved on the same pixel). A 'scan' by a sensor is modeled by the formation of a rectangular focal plane image of lit pixels (bits with value 1), representing the presence of at least one target, and unlit pixels (bits with value 0), representing the absence of a target, at a particular time. Approaches and algorithmic solutions are developed which address the following passive sensor data fusion problems: scan-to-scan target association, and association classification. The ultimate objective is to estimate target states, for use in a larger battle management system. Results indicate that successful scan-to-scan target association is feasible at scan rates >=2 Hz, independent of resolution. Sensor-to-sensor target association is difficult at low resolution; even with high-resolution sensors the performance of a standard two-sensor single scan approach is variable and unpredictable, since it is a function of the relative geometry of sensors and targets. A single-scan approach using the Varad algorithm and three sensors is not as sensitive to this relative geometry, but is usable only for high-resolution sensors. Innovative multi-scan and multi-sensor modifications of the three- sensor Varad algorithm are developed which provide excellent performance for a wide range of sensor resolutions. The multi-sensor multi-scan methodology also provides accurate information on the classification of target associations as correct or incorrect. For the scenarios examined with resolution cell sizes ranging from 300 m to 2 km, association errors are less than 5% and essentially no classification errors

  19. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  20. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  1. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  2. Space-Time Data Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, Hai; Olsen, Edward; Cressie, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Space-time Data Fusion (STDF) is a methodology for combing heterogeneous remote sensing data to optimally estimate the true values of a geophysical field of interest, and obtain uncertainties for those estimates. The input data sets may have different observing characteristics including different footprints, spatial resolutions and fields of view, orbit cycles, biases, and noise characteristics. Despite these differences all observed data can be linked to the underlying field, and therefore the each other, by a statistical model. Differences in footprints and other geometric characteristics are accounted for by parameterizing pixel-level remote sensing observations as spatial integrals of true field values lying within pixel boundaries, plus measurement error. Both spatial and temporal correlations in the true field and in the observations are estimated and incorporated through the use of a space-time random effects (STRE) model. Once the models parameters are estimated, we use it to derive expressions for optimal (minimum mean squared error and unbiased) estimates of the true field at any arbitrary location of interest, computed from the observations. Standard errors of these estimates are also produced, allowing confidence intervals to be constructed. The procedure is carried out on a fine spatial grid to approximate a continuous field. We demonstrate STDF by applying it to the problem of estimating CO2 concentration in the lower-atmosphere using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Japanese Greenhouse Gasses Observing Satellite (GOSAT) over one year for the continental US.

  3. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion. [Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam ..gamma..-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on /sup 10/B + /sup 16/O and /sup 12/C + /sup 14/N ..-->.. /sup 26/Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table.

  4. Is Deuterium Nuclear Fusion Catalyzed by Antineutrinos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shomer, Isaac

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of Fischbach and Jenkins that neutrinos emitted from the sun accelerate radioactive decay is noted. It is thought that neutrinos accelerate beta decay by reacting with neutron-rich nuclides to form a beta particle and a daughter product, with no antineutrino emitted. Conversely, it is proposed that antineutrinos can react with proton-rich nuclides to cause positron decay, with no neutrino emitted. It is also proposed that the nuclear fusion of the hydrogen bomb is triggered not only by the energy of the igniting fission bomb, but by the antineutrinos created by the rapid beta decay of the daughter products in the fission process. The contemplated mechanism for antineutrino initiated fusion is the following: 1. The antineutrinos from the fission daughter products cause positron decay of deuterium by the process outlined above. 2. In a later fusion step, these positrons subsequently react with neutrons in deuterium to create antineutrinos. Electrons are unavailable to annihilate positrons in the plasma of the hydrogen bomb. 3. These antineutrinos thereafter react with more deuterium to form positrons, thereby propagating a chain reaction. )

  5. Spatial Statistical Data Fusion (SSDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy J.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Cressie, Noel

    2013-01-01

    fundamentally different than other approaches to data fusion for remote sensing data because it is inferential rather than merely descriptive. All approaches combine data in a way that minimizes some specified loss function. Most of these are more or less ad hoc criteria based on what looks good to the eye, or some criteria that relate only to the data at hand.

  6. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  7. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Visual programming environment for multisensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Kasmala, Gerald

    1996-06-01

    In recent years, numerous multisensor data fusion systems have been developed for a wide variety of applications. Defense related applications include; automatic target recognition systems, identification-friend-foe-neutral, automated situation assessment and threat assessment systems, and systems for smart weapons. Non-defense applications include; robotics, condition-based maintenance, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. For each of these applications, multiple sensor data are combined to achieve inferences which are not generally possible using only a single sensor. Implementation of these data fusion systems often involves a significant amount of effort. In particular, software must be developed for components such as data base access, human computer interfaces and displays, communication software, and data fusion algorithms. While commercial software packages exist to assist development of data bases, communications, and human computer interfaces, there are no general purpose packages available to support the implementation of the data fusion algorithms. This paper describes a visual programming tool developed to assist in rapid prototyping of data fusion systems. This toolkit is modeled after the popular tool, Khoros, used by the image processing community. The tool described here is written in visual C, and provides the capability to rapidly implement and apply data fusion algorithms. An application to condition based maintenance is described.

  9. Enhancement of data analysis through multisensor data fusion technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates...

  10. Charged-particle cross section data for fusion plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Cross-section data for fusion plasma calculations are reviewed for three categories: fusion reactions, nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering. While the data base for the basic D-T fuel cycle seems adequate for present purposes, continued refinement appears warranted. Further, increasing emphasis on advanced-fuel fusion introduces requirements for new reaction rate and charged-particle scattering data over a wider range of reacting species (light elements through /sup 11/B) and over a larger energy range (to several MeV). These new needs are discussed along with suggestions for increased emphasis on providing the user with more convenient compilations. In particular, the extension of reactivities (< sigma V) to non-Maxwellian distributions, scattering matrix data, and development of computer based files are noted.

  11. Enhancement of Data Analysis Through Multisensor Data Fusion Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-sensor data fusion is an emerging technology that fuses data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection. Applications of multi-sensor data fusion cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas. With the rapid e...

  12. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  13. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  14. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  15. Multisensor data fusion for integrated maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premji, A.; Ponsford, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype Integrated Coastal Surveillance system has been developed on Canada's East Coast to provide effective surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone. The system has been designed to protect Canada's natural resources, and to monitor and control the coastline for smuggling, drug trafficking, and similar illegal activity. This paper describes the Multiple Sensor - Multiple Target data fusion system that has been developed. The fusion processor has been developed around the celebrated Multiple Hypothesis Tracking algorithm which accommodates multiple targets, new targets, false alarms, and missed detections. This processor performs four major functions: plot-to-track association to form individual radar tracks; fusion of radar tracks with secondary sensor reports; track identification and tagging using secondary reports; and track level fusion to form common tracks. Radar data from coherent and non-coherent radars has been used to evaluate the performance of the processor. This paper presents preliminary results.

  16. Groundwater model calibration at Pantex using Data Fusion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Pantex plant has operated as one of the Federal government`s key conventional and nuclear weapons facilities since the 1940`s. In recent years, the DOE has expended considerable effort to characterize the nature and extent of groundwater contamination associated with the site. That effort is still on-going with the ultimate aim of determining and implementing appropriate remedial measures. The goal of the study described in this report was to use Data Fusion modeling to calibrate a groundwater model near Zone 12 of Pantex, primarily to define the potential pathways to the Ogallala aquifer. Data Fusion is a new approach for combining different but interrelated types of information from multiple sources into a quantitative analysis of system characteristics and dynamic behavior. The Data Fusion Workstation (DFW) is a patented technique for carrying out Data Fusion analyses using specially developed computer based approaches. The technique results in the development of a calibrated model of a site consistent with the data, first principles, and geostatistical spatial continuity. A more explicit description of the Data Fusion concept and approach is presented.

  17. Overview of nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2003-06-30

    For many years, nuclear structure and decay data have been compiled and disseminated by an International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) evaluators under the auspices of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this lecture I will discuss the kinds of data that are available and describe various ways to obtain this information. We will learn about some of the publications that are available and Internet sources of nuclear data. You will be introduced to Isotope Explorer software for retrieving and displaying nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. The on-line resources Table of Radioactive Isotopes, PGAA Database Viewer, Nuclear Science Reference Search, Table of Isotopes Educational Website, and other information sources will be discussed. Exercises will be provided to increase your ability to understand, access, and use nuclear data.

  18. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-30

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials.

  19. Recent Developments in Cold Fusion / Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2006-03-01

    Krivit is recognized internationally as an expert on the subject matter of cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear science. He is the editor of New Energy Times, the leading source of information for the field of cold fusion. He is the author of the 2005 book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion and founder of New Energy Institute, an independent nonprofit public benefit corporation dedicated to accelerating the progress of new, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources.

  20. Autocatalytic fission-fusion microexplosions for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2000-12-01

    Autocatalytic fission-fusion microexplosions, mutually amplifying fission and fusion reactions, are proposed for propulsion. Autocatalytic fission-fusion microexplosions can be realized by imploding a shell of uranium 235 (or plutonium) onto a magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma. After having reached a high temperature, the DT plasma releases fusion neutrons making fission reactions in the fissile shell increasing the implosion velocity which in turn increases the fusion reaction rate until full ignition of the DT plasma. To implode the fissile shell a small amount of high explosive and to magnetize the DT plasma a small auxiliary electric discharge are required. In comparison to nuclear bomb pulse propulsion, the energy released per pulse is much smaller and the efficiency higher. And in comparison to laser- or particle-beam-ignited fusion microexplosions, there is no need for a massive fusion ignition driver.

  1. Data management on the fusion computational pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasky, S.; Beck, M.; Bhat, V.; Feibush, E.; Ludäscher, B.; Parashar, M.; Shoshani, A.; Silver, D.; Vouk, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion energy science, like other science areas in DOE, is becoming increasingly data intensive and network distributed. We discuss data management techniques that are essential for scientists making discoveries from their simulations and experiments, with special focus on the techniques and support that Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) scientists may need. However, the discussion applies to a broader audience since most of the fusion SciDAC's, and FSP proposals include a strong data management component. Simulations on ultra scale computing platforms imply an ability to efficiently integrate and network heterogeneous components (computational, storage, networks, codes, etc), and to move large amounts of data over large distances. We discuss the workflow categories needed to support such research as well as the automation and other aspects that can allow an FSP scientist to focus on the science and spend less time tending information technology.

  2. Multisource Data Inversion Using Decentralized Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzraiee, A. H.; Bau, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Field data pertaining hydrological systems typically come from multiple sources and are related to different hydraulic properties. The spatial and temporal coverage of these datasets is also variable. Data fusion techniques allow for the integration of multiple datasets with different quality in order to produce a more informative dataset than any of the original inputs. That is to say, the accuracy and the spatial coverage of the fused data are expected to be superior to any of the original datasets. In this work, we present a 'decentralized' data fusion method stemming from Millman's theory, which has been introduced in the field of signal processing to fuse multiple correlated estimates. Millman's equations are applied to integrate separate estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties, such as the spatial distributions of the hydraulic conductivity K and the specific elastic storage Ss, estimated through the inversion of drawdown data collected over multiple independent pumping tests. For each pumping test, 'local' estimates of K and Ss are obtained by applying an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm to assimilate the first and second moments of aquifer drawdown into the response of a corresponding groundwater flow model. Since the application of Millman's theory may be computationally very intensive, we propose a more efficient Millman's fusion algorithm for merging local estimates into a global estimate of the hydraulic properties. Increased computational efficiency is achieved by distributing local estimation processes among multicore computers. Multiple numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the potential of this inversion method. In these experiments, a synthetic aquifer is explored by conducting multiple hypothetical pumping tests at different locations in the aquifer. Finally, the decentralized fusion method is compared to a centralized fusion method where all drawdown data corresponding to multiple pumping tests are fused simultaneously using

  3. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  4. Predicting individual fusional range from optometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrikhovski, Serguei; Jin, Elaine; Miller, Michael E.; Ford, Robert W.

    2005-03-01

    A model was developed to predict the range of disparities that can be fused by an individual user from optometric measurements. This model uses parameters, such as dissociated phoria and fusional reserves, to calculate an individual user"s fusional range (i.e., the disparities that can be fused on stereoscopic displays) when the user views a stereoscopic stimulus from various distances. This model is validated by comparing its output with data from a study in which the individual fusional range of a group of users was quantified while they viewed a stereoscopic display from distances of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 meters. Overall, the model provides good data predictions for the majority of the subjects and can be generalized for other viewing conditions. The model may, therefore, be used within a customized stereoscopic system, which would render stereoscopic information in a way that accounts for the individual differences in fusional range. Because the comfort of an individual user also depends on the user"s ability to fuse stereo images, such a system may, consequently, improve the comfort level and viewing experience for people with different stereoscopic fusional capabilities.

  5. Data fusion for cylindrical form measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei; Jusko, Otto; Tutsch, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    For high-precision form measurements of cylindrical workpieces form profiles such as roundness and straightness profiles are independently acquired via a bird-cage strategy. The 3D point cloud reconstructed by fusing these intersected profiles is meaningful in dimension and form assessment for cylinder, since enhanced accuracy can be achieved by fusion results. Moreover, it plays an important role as the input to other calculations. However, these data cannot be accurately aligned in form reconstruction, due to random absolute offsets in profiles and a lack of absolute positions. Therefore, we propose an approach to data fusion of these profiles to reconstruct cylindrical form. The uncertainties of the fused profile are evaluated, taking an individual contribution of a single profile and a global contribution of all profiles into account. The associated uncertainties are propagated using the Monte Carlo method. Experimental study results indicate that the data fusion procedure improves the accuracy of available datasets. After fusion, all available data points are capable of being used in the form assessment.

  6. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  7. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) motivation and required capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y. K. M.; Park, J. M.; Canik, J. M.; Diem, S. J.; Sontag, A. C.; Lumsdaine, A.; Murakami, M.; Katoh, Y.; Burgess, T. W.; Korsah, K.; Patton, B. D.; Wagner, J. C.; Yoder, G. L.; Cole, M. J.; Fogarty, P. J.; Sawan, M.

    2011-10-01

    A compact (R0 ~ 1.2-1.3m), low aspect ratio, low-Q (<3) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) was recently assessed to provide a fully integrated, D-T-fueled, continuously driven plasma, volumetric nuclear environment of copious neutrons. This environment would be used to carry out, for the first time, discovery-driven research in fusion nuclear science and materials, in parallel with and complementary to ITER. This research would aim to test, discover, and understand new nuclear-nonnuclear synergistic interactions involving plasma material interactions, neutron material interactions, tritium fuel breeding and transport, and power extraction, and innovate and develop solutions for DEMO components. Progress will be reported on the fusion nuclear-nonnuclear coupling effects identified that motivate research on such an FNSF, and on the required capabilities in fusion plasma, device operation, and fusion nuclear science and engineering to fulfill its mission. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  8. Unsupervised data fusion for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, Luis O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Rivera-Medina, Jorge; Velasquez, Hector

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral images contain a great amount of information in terms of hundreds of narrowband channels. This should lead to better parameter estimation and to more accurate classifications. However, traditional classification methods based on multispectral analysis fail to work properly on this type of data. High dimensional space poses a difficulty in obtaining accurate parameter estimates and as a consequence this makes unsupervised classification a challenge that requires new techniques. Thus, alternative methods are needed to take advantage of the information provided by the hyperdimensional data. Data fusion is an alternative when dealing with such large data sets in order to improve classification accuracy. Data fusion is an important process in the areas of environmental systems, surveillance, automation, medical imaging, and robotics. The uses of this technique in Remote Sensing have been recently expanding. A relevant application is to adapt the data fusion approaches to be used on hyperspectral imagery taking into consideration the special characteristics of such data. The approach of this paper is to presents a scheme that integrates information from most of the hyperspectral narrow-bands in order to increase the discrimination accuracy in unsupervised classification.

  9. Avalanche proton-boron fusion based on elastic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliezer, Shalom; Hora, Heinrich; Korn, Georg; Nissim, Noaz; Martinez Val, Josè Maria

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments done at Prague with the 600 J/0.2 ns PALS laser interacting with a layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen enriched target have produced around 109 alphas. We suggest that these unexpected very high fusion reactions of proton with 11B indicate an avalanche multiplication for the measured anomalously high nuclear reaction yields. This can be explained by elastic nuclear collisions in the broad 600 keV energy band, which is coincident with the high nuclear p-11B fusion cross section, by the way of multiplication through generation of three secondary alpha particles from a single primarily produced alpha particle.

  10. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  11. Classification Accuracy Increase Using Multisensor Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarau, A.; Palubinskas, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    The practical use of very high resolution visible and near-infrared (VNIR) data is still growing (IKONOS, Quickbird, GeoEye-1, etc.) but for classification purposes the number of bands is limited in comparison to full spectral imaging. These limitations may lead to the confusion of materials such as different roofs, pavements, roads, etc. and therefore may provide wrong interpretation and use of classification products. Employment of hyperspectral data is another solution, but their low spatial resolution (comparing to multispectral data) restrict their usage for many applications. Another improvement can be achieved by fusion approaches of multisensory data since this may increase the quality of scene classification. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical data is widely performed for automatic classification, interpretation, and change detection. In this paper we present an approach for very high resolution SAR and multispectral data fusion for automatic classification in urban areas. Single polarization TerraSAR-X (SpotLight mode) and multispectral data are integrated using the INFOFUSE framework, consisting of feature extraction (information fission), unsupervised clustering (data representation on a finite domain and dimensionality reduction), and data aggregation (Bayesian or neural network). This framework allows a relevant way of multisource data combination following consensus theory. The classification is not influenced by the limitations of dimensionality, and the calculation complexity primarily depends on the step of dimensionality reduction. Fusion of single polarization TerraSAR-X, WorldView-2 (VNIR or full set), and Digital Surface Model (DSM) data allow for different types of urban objects to be classified into predefined classes of interest with increased accuracy. The comparison to classification results of WorldView-2 multispectral data (8 spectral bands) is provided and the numerical evaluation of the method in comparison to

  12. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  13. Multisensensor Multitemporal Data Fusion Using Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghannam, S.; Awadallah, M.; Abbott, A. L.; Wynne, R. H.

    2014-11-01

    Interest in data fusion, for remote-sensing applications, continues to grow due to the increasing importance of obtaining data in high resolution both spatially and temporally. Applications that will benefit from data fusion include ecosystem disturbance and recovery assessment, ecological forecasting, and others. This paper introduces a novel spatiotemporal fusion approach, the wavelet-based Spatiotemporal Adaptive Data Fusion Model (WSAD-FM). This new technique is motivated by the popular STARFM tool, which utilizes lower-resolution MODIS imagery to supplement Landsat scenes using a linear model. The novelty of WSAD-FM is twofold. First, unlike STARFM, this technique does not predict an entire new image in one linear step, but instead decomposes input images into separate "approximation" and "detail" parts. The different portions are fed into a prediction model that limits the effects of linear interpolation among images. Low-spatial-frequency components are predicted by a weighted mixture of MODIS images and low-spatial-frequency components of Landsat images that are neighbors in the temporal domain. Meanwhile, high-spatialfrequency components are predicted by a weighted average of high-spatial-frequency components of Landsat images alone. The second novelty is that the method has demonstrated good performance using only one input Landsat image and a pair of MODIS images. The technique has been tested using several Landsat and MODIS images for a study area from Central North Carolina (WRS-2 path/row 16/35 in Landsat and H/V11/5 in MODIS), acquired in 2001. NDVI images that were calculated from the study area were used as input to the algorithm. The technique was tested experimentally by predicting existing Landsat images, and we obtained R2 values in the range 0.70 to 0.92 for estimated Landsat images in the red band, and 0.62 to 0.89 for estimated NDVI images.

  14. Nuclear Fusion and Genome Encounter during Yeast Zygote Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    When haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are crossed, parental nuclei congress and fuse with each other. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we have developed assays that evaluate the impact of drugs and mutations. Nuclear congression is inhibited by drugs that perturb the actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. Nuclear envelope (NE) fusion consists of at least five steps in which preliminary modifications are followed by controlled flux of first outer and then inner membrane proteins, all before visible dilation of the waist of the nucleus or coalescence of the parental spindle pole bodies. Flux of nuclear pore complexes occurs after dilation. Karyogamy requires both the Sec18p/NSF ATPase and ER/NE luminal homeostasis. After fusion, chromosome tethering keeps tagged parental genomes separate from each other. The process of NE fusion and evidence of genome independence in yeast provide a prototype for understanding related events in higher eukaryotes. PMID:19369416

  15. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  16. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called 'data fusion' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  17. Evaluated nuclear data library

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1981-10-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collection of evaluated data for neutron-, photon-, and charged-particle-induced reactions is maintained in a computer-oriented system. In this report we recount the history of Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, describe the methods of evaluation, and give examples of input and output representation of the data.

  18. Data fusion in Cultural Heritage - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. M.; Remondino, F.

    2015-08-01

    Geometric documentation is one of the most important task of the Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation and management policies. 3D documentation, prior to any conservation and restoration works, is considered a basic pre-requisite for preserving, understanding, communicating and valorizing CH sites and objects (London Charter, 2009; Sevilla Principles, 2011). 3D models have become the usual way of digitally preserving, communicating, explaining and disseminat ing cultural knowledge, as they have the capability of reproducing ancient states and behaviors. Using photo-realistic and accurate 3D models, the current conservation state can be shown and preserve for future generations. But despite the large request of 3D models in the CH field, there is no 3D documentation method which can properly satisfy all the areas with their requirements, therefore a fusion methodology (of data and sensors) is normally required and performed. The paper analyzes the fusion concept and levels as well as some merging approaches so far presented in the research community. While the paper will be necessarily incomplete due to space limitations, it will hopefully give an understanding on the actual methods of data fusion and clarify some open research issues.

  19. Using Data Fusion to Characterize Breast Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P; Duric, N; Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Candy, J V; Moore, T; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Johnson, S A; Holsapple, E

    2002-01-23

    New ultrasound data, obtained with a circular experimental scanner, are compared with data obtained with standard X-ray CT. Ultrasound data obtained by scanning fixed breast tissue were used to generate images of sound speed and reflectivity. The ultrasound images exhibit approximately 1 mm resolution and about 20 dB of dynamic range. All data were obtained in a circular geometry. X-ray CT scans were used to generate X-ray images corresponding to the same 'slices' obtained with the ultrasound scanner. The good match of sensitivity, resolution and angular coverage between the ultrasound and X-ray data makes possible a direct comparison of the three types of images. We present the results of such a comparison for an excised breast fixed in formalin. The results are presented visually using various types of data fusion. A general correspondence between the sound speed, reflectivity and X-ray morphologies is found. The degree to which data fusion can help characterize tissue is assessed by examining the quantitative correlations between the ultrasound and X-ray images.

  20. Laser-cluster interaction for nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Masaki, T.; Tajima, T.

    2002-04-01

    The key physical processes of laser-cluster interaction essential to understand and opimize the cluster fusion are investigated by using numerical simulation. By properly choosing the cluster size, spatial packing fraction, and laser field amplitude, cluster ions are efficiently accelerated in a controlled manner to high energy in such a way for the fusion cross-section to be maximized. The production of fusion neutrons is expected to be enhanced by taking into account the spatial propagation of explosion front toward the surrounding fuel cluster region. It is also found that the average ion energy can exceed the Coulomb energy stored originally in the cluster by obtaining the laser energy through ambi-polar electrostatic field around the vacuum-medium interface. Such high energy ion generation may enhance the neutron yield by introducing the solid fuel collar that surrounds the cluster medium. Although the area of neutron irradiation is tiny, the resultant neutron intensity with this method may rival that of the conventional much larger system of neutron sources. .

  1. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  2. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  3. Feasibility study on sensor data fusion for the CP-140 aircraft: fusion architecture analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Elisa

    1995-09-01

    Loral Canada completed (May 1995) a Department of National Defense (DND) Chief of Research and Development (CRAD) contract, to study the feasibility of implementing a multi- sensor data fusion (MSDF) system onboard the CP-140 Aurora aircraft. This system is expected to fuse data from: (a) attributed measurement oriented sensors (ESM, IFF, etc.); (b) imaging sensors (FLIR, SAR, etc.); (c) tracking sensors (radar, acoustics, etc.); (d) data from remote platforms (data links); and (e) non-sensor data (intelligence reports, environmental data, visual sightings, encyclopedic data, etc.). Based on purely theoretical considerations a central-level fusion architecture will lead to a higher performance fusion system. However, there are a number of systems and fusion architecture issues involving fusion of such dissimilar data: (1) the currently existing sensors are not designed to provide the type of data required by a fusion system; (2) the different types (attribute, imaging, tracking, etc.) of data may require different degree of processing, before they can be used within a fusion system efficiently; (3) the data quality from different sensors, and more importantly from remote platforms via the data links must be taken into account before fusing; and (4) the non-sensor data may impose specific requirements on the fusion architecture (e.g. variable weight/priority for the data from different sensors). This paper presents the analyses performed for the selection of the fusion architecture for the enhanced sensor suite planned for the CP-140 aircraft in the context of the mission requirements and environmental conditions.

  4. Nuclear design of a very-low-activation fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Hopkins, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the nuclear design aspects of using very-low-activation materials, such as SiC, MgO, and aluminum for fusion-reactor first wall, blanket, and shield applications. In addition to the advantage of very-low radioactive inventory, it was found that the very-low-activation fusion reactor can also offer an adequate tritium-breeding ratio and substantial amount of blanket nuclear heating as a conventional-material-structured reactor does. The most-stringent design constraint found in a very-low-activation fusion reactor is the limited space available in the inboard region of a tokamak concept for shielding to protect the superconducting toroidal field coil. A reference design was developed which mitigates the constraint by adopting a removable tungsten shield design that retains the inboard dimensions and gives the same shield performance as the reference STARFIRE tokamak reactor design.

  5. A visual analytic framework for data fusion in investigative intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoray; Gross, Geoff; Llinas, James; Hall, David

    2014-05-01

    Intelligence analysis depends on data fusion systems to provide capabilities of detecting and tracking important objects, events, and their relationships in connection to an analytical situation. However, automated data fusion technologies are not mature enough to offer reliable and trustworthy information for situation awareness. Given the trend of increasing sophistication of data fusion algorithms and loss of transparency in data fusion process, analysts are left out of the data fusion process cycle with little to no control and confidence on the data fusion outcome. Following the recent rethinking of data fusion as human-centered process, this paper proposes a conceptual framework towards developing alternative data fusion architecture. This idea is inspired by the recent advances in our understanding of human cognitive systems, the science of visual analytics, and the latest thinking about human-centered data fusion. Our conceptual framework is supported by an analysis of the limitation of existing fully automated data fusion systems where the effectiveness of important algorithmic decisions depend on the availability of expert knowledge or the knowledge of the analyst's mental state in an investigation. The success of this effort will result in next generation data fusion systems that can be better trusted while maintaining high throughput.

  6. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

  7. Data Mining and Data Fusion for Enhanced Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shiraj; Ganguly, Auroop R; Gupta, Amar

    2008-01-01

    The process of Data Mining converts information to knowledge by utilizing tools from the disciplines of computational statistics, database technologies, machine learning, signal processing, nonlinear dynamics, process modeling, simulation, and allied disciplines. Data Mining allows business problems to be analyzed from diverse perspectives, including dimensionality reduction, correlation and co-occurrence, clustering and classification, regression and forecasting, anomaly detection, and change analysis. The predictive insights generated from Data Mining can be further utilized through real-time analysis and decision sciences, as well as through human-driven analysis based on management by exceptions or by objectives, to generate actionable knowledge. The tools that enable the transformation of raw data to actionable predictive insights are collectively referred as Decision Support tools. This chapter presents a new formalization of the decision process, leading to a new Decision Superiority model, partially motivated by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Model. In addition, it examines the growing importance of Data Fusion concepts.

  8. Fusion and clustering algorithms for spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntala, Pavani

    Spatial clustering is an approach for discovering groups of related data points in spatial data. Spatial clustering has attracted a lot of research attention due to various applications where it is needed. It holds practical importance in application domains such as geographic knowledge discovery, sensors, rare disease discovery, astronomy, remote sensing, and so on. The motivation for this work stems from the limitations of the existing spatial clustering methods. In most conventional spatial clustering algorithms, the similarity measurement mainly considers the geometric attributes. However, in many real applications, users are concerned about both the spatial and the non-spatial attributes. In conventional spatial clustering, the input data set is partitioned into several compact regions and data points that are similar to one another in their non-spatial attributes may be scattered over different regions, thus making the corresponding objective difficult to achieve. In this dissertation, a novel clustering methodology is proposed to explore the clustering problem within both spatial and non-spatial domains by employing a fusion-based approach. The goal is to optimize a given objective function in the spatial domain, while satisfying the constraint specified in the non- spatial attribute domain. Several experiments are conducted to provide insights into the proposed methodology. The algorithm first captures the spatial cores having the highest structure and then employs an iterative, heuristic mechanism to find the optimal number of spatial cores and non-spatial clusters that exist in the data. Such a fusion-based framework allows for the handling of data streams and provides a framework for comparing spatial clusters. The correctness and efficiency of the proposed clustering model is demonstrated on real world and synthetic data sets.

  9. The Hypothesis of Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Steven; Ellsworth, John; Rees, Lawrence

    2004-05-01

    In our 1986 and1989 papers, we discussed the hypothesis of nuclear fusion in condensed matter and particularly in the planets and provided supporting evidence.[1,2] We continue to assert that non-thermonuclear d-Z fusion (including but not limited to d-d fusion) may occur in the core-region of the earth, and generally in hydrogen-bearing metals and minerals which are subjected to extreme off-equilibrium conditions. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring tritium and helium-3 in magmatic fluids from hot-spot volcanoes which tap plumes arising from the core-mantle boundary. In particular, magmatic waters of Kilauea, Loihi, and Icelandic volcanoes are predicted to contain significant tritium. Magmatic emissions of Kilauea demonstrated anomalous tritium content over twelve years ago[3], and a re-test of Kilauea emissions is urged along with further laboratory experiments. [1] C. DeW. Van Siclen and S. E. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12: 213-221 (March 1986). [2] S. E. Jones, et al., Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter, Nature 338: 737-740 (April 1989). [4] F. Goff and G. M. McMurtry, "Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters," J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 97: 347-396 (2000)

  10. ALLFlight: multisensor data fusion for helicopter operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehler, H.-U.; Lueken, T.

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the project ALLFlight (Assisted Low Level Flight and Landing on Unprepared Landing Sites) is to demonstrate and evaluate the characteristics of different sensors for helicopter operations within degraded visual environments, such as brownout or whiteout. The sensor suite, which is mounted onto DLR's research helicopter EC135 consists of standard color or black and white TV cameras, an un-cooled thermal infrared camera (EVS-1000, Max-Viz, USA), an optical radar scanner (HELLAS-W, EADS, Germany; a millimeter wave radar system (AI-130, ICx Radar Systems, Canada). Data processing is designed and realized by a sophisticated, high performance sensor co-computer (SCC) cluster architecture, which is installed into the helicopter's experimental electronic cargo bay. This paper describes applied methods and the software architecture in terms of real time data acquisition, recording, time stamping and sensor data fusion. First concepts for a pilot HMI are presented as well.

  11. Seeking the Limits of Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion: Sticking in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, and Piezonuclear Fusion in Deuterium/condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    Studies seeking an upper limit of two types of low temperature nuclear fusion is presented. The upper limit for muon catalyzed fusion is generally considered to be the number of fusions per muon obtainable. The limiting factor has been found to be how often the muon remains bound to the alpha produced by the fusion, known as the "sticking fraction." Experiments directly measuring the sticking and determining the sticking using high tritium fractions are presented. In deuterium/condensed matter systems the question is nearly whether nuclear fusion proceeds at all. Experiments where neutrons around deuterided titanium and palladium are measured are presented.

  12. Relevance of advanced nuclear fusion research: Breakthroughs and obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    An in depth understanding of the collective modes that can be excited in a wide range of high-energy plasmas is necessary to advance nuclear fusion research in parallel with other fields that include space and astrophysics in particular. Important achievements are shown to have resulted from implementing programs based on this reality, maintaining a tight connection with different areas of investigations. This involves the undertaking of a plurality of experimental approaches aimed at understanding the physics of fusion burning plasmas. At present, the most advanced among these is the Ignitor experiment involving international cooperation, that is designed to investigate burning plasma regimes near ignition for the first time.

  13. A study on nuclear properties of Zr, Nb, and Ta nuclei used as structural material in fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, Halide; Tel, Eyyup; Sahan, Muhittin; Aydin, Abdullah; Hakki Sarpun, Ismail; Kara, Ayhan; Doner, Mesut

    2015-07-01

    Fusion has a practically limitless fuel supply and is attractive as an energy source. The main goal of fusion research is to construct and operate an energy generating system. Fusion researches also contains fusion structural materials used fusion reactors. Material issues are very important for development of fusion reactors. Therefore, a wide range of fusion structural materials have been considered for fusion energy applications. Zirconium (Zr), Niobium (Nb) and Tantalum (Ta) containing alloys are important structural materials for fusion reactors and many other fields. Naturally Zr includes the 90Zr (%51.5), 91Zr (%11.2), 92Zr (%17.1), 94Zr (%17.4), 96Zr (%2.80) isotopes and 93Nb and 181Ta include the 93Nb (%100) and 181Ta (%99.98), respectively. In this study, the charge, mass, proton and neutron densities and the root-mean-square (rms) charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, and neutron radii have been calculated for 87-102Zr, 93Nb, 181Ta target nuclei isotopes by using the Hartree-Fock method with an effective Skyrme force with SKM*. The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental taken from Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables and theoretical values of other studies.

  14. Sparking fusion: A step toward laser-initiated nuclear fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, I.

    1996-10-19

    The fusion furnace at the sun`s core burns hydrogen to make helium. Each time two hydrogen nuclei, or protons, merge to create a deuterium nucleus, the process releases energy. A chain of additional energy-producing nuclear reactions then converts deuterium into helium. Because protons, with their like electric charges, naturally repel each other, high temperatures and tremendous pressures are needed to force them together closely enough to initiate and sustain the reactions. These mergers cost energy initially, but the return on that investment proves prodigious. On Earth, such an energy payoff has been achieved only in the uncontrolled fury of a detonated hydrogen bomb. The vision of harnessing and controlling nuclear fusion as a terrestrial energy source has yet to be fulfilled. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents an ambitious effort to use powerful lasers to deposit sufficient energy in a small capsule of nuclear fuel to trigger fusion. The main justification for the project is to ensure that a core group of physicists and engineers maintains its expertise in the physics of nuclear weapons. This article presents both the scientific and political sides of the NIF facility.

  15. A dumbbell model with five parameters describing nuclear fusion or fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qian; Shangguan, Dan-Hua; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a five-parameter dumbbell model to describe the fusion and fission processes of massive nuclei, where the collective variables are: the distance ρ between the center-of-mass of two fusing nuclei, the neck parameter υ, asymmetry D, two deformation variables β1 and β2. The present model has macroscopic qualitative expression of polarization and nuclear collision of head to head, sphere to sphere, waist to waist and so on. The conception of the “projectile eating target" based on open mouth and swallow is proposed to describe the nuclear fusion process, and our understanding of the probability of fusion and quasi-fission is in agreement with some previous work. The calculated fission barriers of a lot of compound nuclei are compared with the experimental data.

  16. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  17. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-01-01

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875

  18. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María

    2015-01-01

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875

  19. Nuclear fusion induced by x rays in a crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Miller, M. B.; Otto, J.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclei that constitute a crystalline lattice oscillate relative to each other with a very low energy that is not sufficient to penetrate through the Coulomb barriers separating them. An additional energy, which is needed to tunnel through the barrier and fuse, can be supplied by external electromagnetic waves (x rays or synchrotron radiation). Exposing the solid compound LiD (lithium deuteride) to x rays for the duration of 111 h, we detect 88 events of nuclear fusion d +6Li→8Be* . Our theoretical estimate agrees with what we observed. One possible application of the phenomenon we found is in measurements of the rates of various nuclear reactions (not necessarily fusion) at extremely low energies inaccessible in accelerator experiments.

  20. NUCLEAR DATA REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2004-12-01

    Non-neutron nuclear data are periodically reviewed and evaluated. The recommended values are published in the Table of the Isotopes of the Chemical Rubber Company's Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. A 2004 review has begun to re-examine some data of interest to the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) sub-commission on Geochronology dealing with radioactive decay constants and isotopic abundance ratios. Among the decay constants that are being evaluated are those of the following nuclides: {sup 40}K, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 138}La, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 174}Hf, {sup 187}Re, {sup 190}Pt, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U.

  1. Use of data fusion to optimize contaminant transport predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Eeckhout, E. van

    1997-10-01

    The original data fusion workstation, as envisioned by Coleman Research Corp., was constructed under funding from DOE (EM-50) in the early 1990s. The intent was to demonstrate the viability of fusion and analysis of data from various types of sensors for waste site characterization, but primarily geophysical. This overall concept changed over time and evolved more towards hydrogeological (groundwater) data fusion after some initial geophysical fusion work focused at Coleman. This initial geophysical fusion platform was tested at Hanford and Fernald, and the later hydrogeological fusion work has been demonstrated at Pantex, Savannah River, the US Army Letterkenny Depot, a DoD Massachusetts site and a DoD California site. The hydrogeologic data fusion package has been spun off to a company named Fusion and Control Technology, Inc. This package is called the Hydrological Fusion And Control Tool (Hydro-FACT) and is being sold as a product that links with the software package, MS-VMS (MODFLOW-SURFACT Visual Modeling System), sold by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. MODFLOW is a USGS development, and is in the public domain. Since the government paid for the data fusion development at Coleman, the government and their contractors have access to the data fusion technology in this hydrogeologic package for certain computer platforms, but would probably have to hire FACT (Fusion and Control Technology, Inc.,) and/or HydroGeoLogic for some level of software and services. Further discussion in this report will concentrate on the hydrogeologic fusion module that is being sold as Hydro-FACT, which can be linked with MS-VMS.

  2. 2007 Nuclear Data Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, N. E.

    2009-08-01

    The results of a review and evaluation of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data published in the scientific literature are presented. The status of new chemical elements is examined. Data on revised values for the isotopic composition of the elements are reviewed and recommended values are presented. Half-lives of very long-lived nuclides are presented, including double beta decay, double electron capture, long-lived alpha decay and long-lived beta decay. Data from new measurements on the very heavy elements (trans-meitnerium elements) are discussed and tabulated. The first observation of the radioactive decay mode of the free neutron is discussed. New measurements that have expanded the neutron drip line for magnesium and aluminum are discussed. Data on recent neutron cross-section and resonance integral measurements are also discussed.

  3. 2007 Nuclear Data Review

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-05-05

    The results of a review and evaluation of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data published in the scientific literature are presented. The status of new chemical elements is examined. Data on revised values for the isotopic composition of the elements are reviewed and recommended values are presented. Half-lives of very long-lived nuclides are presented, including double beta decay, double electron capture, long-lived alpha decay and long-lived beta decay. Data from new measurements on the very heavy elements (trans-meitnerium elements) are discussed and tabulated. The first observation of the radioactive decay mode of the free neutron is discussed. New measurements that have expanded the neutron drip line for magnesium and aluminum are discussed. Data on recent neutron cross-section and resonance integral measurements are also discussed.

  4. A structured approach to Bayesian data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y. N.; Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Woodbury, A.

    2002-12-01

    Stochastic formulations of the inverse problem proved to be a powerful tool for data fusion. Bayesian-based methods are particularly attractive due to their generality and structure. A Bayesian method requires defining a prior pdf for the model parameters and a likelihood function to relate between model parameters and observations. A systematic approach for defining these two functions is needed, which departs from the customary, almost-by-default choice of normal-based models. This talk gives an overview of recent trends in Bayesian model construction. The first part of the talk focuses on identifying a prior using the information-based approach of Woodbury and Ulrych, with an application to the Cape Cod large scale tracer transport field experiment. Here we show how the tracer data can augment direct measurements of the hydraulic conductivity. In the second part, we focus on the likelihood function, and present two different concepts. The first concept defines a non-stationary, multivariate normal likelihood function, and the second employs neural networks and identifies a non-normal likelihood function. Both concepts are employed to fuse geophysical data with conventional well logs.

  5. Measurements of 10B(p,a)7Be Cross-sections: A Reaction Relevant to Nuclear Fusion Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Barbara; Kafkarkou, Adamos; Ahmed, Mohammad; Weller, Henry; Myers, Luke; Sparker, Mark; Zimmerman, William; Mueller, Jon; Sikora, Mark; Mazumdar, Indral

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in aneutronic nuclear fusion reactors. One facility proposes to utilize the 11B(p,a)7Be reaction. The Radiative Capture Group at Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) has been engaged in a long-term study of this and related reactions. This poster will present preliminary data and analysis of the 10B(p,a)7Be reaction which is of interest because 10B is a potential reactor contaminant. Differential and total cross-sections will be presented for incident protons of 4.4 and 4.6 MeV. The data is necessary for simulations of an aneutrionic nuclear fusion reactor.

  6. Modeling Nuclear Fusion with an Ultracold Nonneutral Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2007-08-01

    In the hot dense interiors of stars and giant planets, nuclear fusion reactions are predicted to occur at rates that are greatly enhanced compared to those at low densities. The enhancement is caused by plasma screening of the repulsive Coulomb potential between nuclei, which increases the probability of the rare close collisions that are responsible for fusion. This screening enhancement is a small effect in the Sun, but is predicted to be much larger in dense objects such as white dwarf stars and giant planet interiors where the plasma is strongly correlated (i.e. where the Debye screening length is smaller than a mean interparticle spacing). However, strongly enhanced fusion reaction rates caused by plasma screening have never been definitively observed in the laboratory. This talk discusses a method for observing the enhancement using an analogy between nuclear energy and cyclotron energy in a cold nonneutral plasma in a strong magnetic field. In such a plasma, the cyclotron frequency is higher than other dynamical frequencies, so the kinetic energy of cyclotron motion is an adiabatic invariant. This energy is not shared with other degrees of freedom except through rare close collisions that break this invariant and couple the cyclotron motion to the other degrees of freedom. Thus, the cyclotron energy of an ion, like nuclear energy, can be considered to be an internal degree of freedom that is released only via rare close collisions. Furthermore, it has recently been shown that the rate of release of cyclotron energy is enhanced through plasma screening by precisely the same factor as that for the release of nuclear energy, because both processes rely on close collisions that are enhanced by plasma screening in the same way. Simulations and experiments measuring large plasma screening enhancements for the first time will be discussed, and the possibility of exciting and studying cyclotron burn fronts will also be considered.

  7. Modeling Nuclear Fusion with an Ultracold Nonneutral Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2007-11-01

    In the hot dense interiors of stars and giant planets, nuclear fusion reactions are predicted to occur at rates that are greatly enhanced compared to rates at low densities. The enhancement is caused by plasma screening of the repulsive Coulomb potential between nuclei, which increases the probability of the close collisions that are responsible for fusion. This screening enhancement is a small but measurable effect in the Sun; and is predicted to be much larger in dense objects such as white dwarf stars and giant planet interiors where the plasma is strongly coupled (i.e., where the Debye screening length is smaller than the mean interparticle spacing). However, these strongly enhanced fusion reaction rates have never been definitively observed in the laboratory. This talk discusses a method for observing the enhancement using an analogy between nuclear energy and cyclotron energy in a cold nonneutral plasma in a strong magnetic field. In such a plasma, the cyclotron frequency is higher than other dynamical frequencies, so the kinetic energy of cyclotron motion is an adiabatic invariant. This energy is not shared with other degrees of freedom except through close collisions that break the invariant and couple the cyclotron motion to the other degrees of freedom. Thus, the cyclotron energy of an ion, like nuclear energy, can be considered to be an internal degree of freedom that is accessible only via close collisions. Furthermore, the rate of release of cyclotron energy is enhanced through plasma screening by precisely the same factor as that for the release of nuclear energy, because both processes rely on the same plasma screening of close collisions. Simulations and experiments measuring large screening enhancements in strongly-coupled plasmas will be discussed, along with the possibility of exciting and studying ``burn fronts.''

  8. A data fusion-based drought index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-03-01

    Drought and water stress monitoring plays an important role in the management of water resources, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. Here, a data fusion-based drought index (DFDI) has been developed and analyzed for three different locations of varying land use and climate regimes in Australia. The proposed index comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type. In deriving the proposed index, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were employed to first derive commonly used individual standardized drought indices (SDIs), which were then grouped using an advanced clustering method. Next, three different multivariate methods (principal component analysis, factor analysis, and independent component analysis) were utilized to aggregate the SDIs located within each group. For the two clusters in which the grouped SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables were aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of the different multivariate methods. Then, considering those two aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months (dry/wet months and active/non-active months), the proposed DFDI was developed. Finally, the symbolic regression method was used to derive mathematical equations for the proposed DFDI. The results presented here show that the proposed index has revealed new aspects in water stress monitoring which previous indices were not able to, by simultaneously considering both hydrometeorological and ecological concepts to define the real water stress of the study areas.

  9. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Arnold, D; Dombrowski, H; Laubenstein, M; Wieslander, E; Vermaercke, P; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Mlynar, J

    2010-10-01

    In ITER, α particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed. PMID:21058458

  10. Data Fusion in Metabolomics and Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Lionel; Smolinska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics and metabolomics provide key insights into status and dynamics of biological systems. These molecular studies reveal the complex mechanisms involved in disease or aging processes. Invaluable information can be obtained using various analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Each method has inherent advantages and drawbacks, but they are complementary in terms of biological information.The fusion of different measurements is a complex topic. We describe here a framework allowing combining multiple data sets, provided by different analytical platforms. For each platform, the relevant information is extracted in the first step. The obtained latent variables are then fused and further analyzed. The influence of the original variables is then calculated back and interpreted. PMID:26519180

  11. Spatial Statistical Data Fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Data fusion is the process of combining information from heterogeneous sources into a single composite picture of the relevant process, such that the composite picture is generally more accurate and complete than that derived from any single source alone. Data collection is often incomplete, sparse, and yields incompatible information. Fusion techniques can make optimal use of such data. When investment in data collection is high, fusion gives the best return. Our study uses data from two satellites: (1) Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), (2) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

  12. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  13. Failure of the Woods-Saxon nuclear potential to simultaneously reproduce precise fusion and elastic scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Newton, J. O.; Butt, R. D.; Hagino, K.

    2007-04-15

    A precise fusion excitation function has been measured for the {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb reaction at energies around the barrier, allowing the fusion barrier distribution to be extracted. The fusion cross sections at high energies differ significantly from existing fusion data. Coupled reaction channels calculations have been carried out with the code FRESCO. A bare potential previously claimed to uniquely describe a wide range of {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb near-barrier reaction channels failed to reproduce the new fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness of 0.95 fm which fits the fusion excitation function over a broad energy range fails to reproduce the elastic scattering. A diffuseness of 0.55 fm reproduces the fusion barrier distribution and elastic scattering data, but significantly overpredicts the fusion cross sections at high energies. This may be due to physical processes not included in the calculations. To constrain calculations, it is desirable to have precisely measured fusion cross sections, especially at energies around the barrier.

  14. TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Can the future world energy system be free of nuclear fusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putvinskii, Sergei V.

    1998-11-01

    The available information on the dynamics of world population growth as well as global statistical data on today's energy production, consumption and distribution are presented. Natural restrictions on the modern world's fossil combustion energy system are discussed along with possible climatic and biospherical impacts for its part. Alternative energy sources capable of replacing the existing energy system are considered and prospects for controllable nuclear fusion are discussed.

  15. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; Titus, Peter

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center withmore » plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.« less

  16. Nuclear Decay Data for the International Reactor Dosimetry Library for Fission and Fusion (IRDFF): Updated Evaluations of the Half-Lives and Gamma Ray Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechev, Valery P.; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K.

    2016-02-01

    Updated evaluations of the half-lives and prominent gamma ray intensities have been presented for 20 radionuclides - dosimetry reaction residuals. The new values of these decay characteristics recommended for the IRDFF library were obtained using the approaches and methodology adopted by the working group of the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP) cooperation. The experimental data published up to 2014 were taken into account in updated evaluations. The list of radionuclides includes 3H, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe, 57Co, 60Co, 57Ni, 64Cu, 88Y, 132Te, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 182Ta, 198Au.

  17. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2006-07-11

    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) W.cm(-2)). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18) W.cm(-2), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored. PMID:16740666

  18. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion

    PubMed Central

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 1015–1020 W·cm−2). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C4+(D+)4)n and (D+I22+)n at IM = 1018 W·cm−2, that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D2)n, (HT)n, (CD4)n, (DI)n, (CD3I)n, and (CH3I)n clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D2)n clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., 12C(P,γ)13N driven by CE of (CH3I)n clusters, were explored. PMID:16740666

  19. Nuclear Fusion Drives Present-Day Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Leong

    2010-09-30

    The widely accepted model of our cosmos is that it began from a Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source. From a twin universe perspective, the standard stellar model of nuclear fusion can account for the Dark Energy needed to explain the mechanism for our present-day accelerated expansion. The same theories can also be used to account for the rapid inflationary expansion at the earliest time of creation, and predict the future cosmic expansion rate.

  20. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  1. Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P; Zarnstorff, M

    2012-08-27

    A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

  2. Research on data fusion in ballistic warning simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihao; Zheng, Hongtao; Peng, Xiaoyuan

    2006-11-01

    Different kinds of sensors distributed in space, sky, ground and sea related in ballistic missile warning system are modeled using object-oriented method. Since each kind of sensor has distinct merit and demerit. The detection precision can be greatly enhanced using proper data fusion methods. A battlefield simulation environment is constructed based on HLA/RTI which could provide flexible interface to evaluate diverse sensors (mainly about infrared sensor and phase array radar) and different data fusion algorithms for ballistic missile defense. The data fusion simulation system can also be reused in computer generate force system to perform lager scale campaign simulation.

  3. INTEGRATE: gene fusion discovery using whole genome and transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; White, Nicole M.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Fulton, Robert S.; Tomlinson, Chad; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Maher, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    While next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the primary technology for discovering gene fusions, we are still faced with the challenge of ensuring that causative mutations are not missed while minimizing false positives. Currently, there are many computational tools that predict structural variations (SV) and gene fusions using whole genome (WGS) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data separately. However, as both WGS and RNA-seq have their limitations when used independently, we hypothesize that the orthogonal validation from integrating both data could generate a sensitive and specific approach for detecting high-confidence gene fusion predictions. Fortunately, decreasing NGS costs have resulted in a growing quantity of patients with both data available. Therefore, we developed a gene fusion discovery tool, INTEGRATE, that leverages both RNA-seq and WGS data to reconstruct gene fusion junctions and genomic breakpoints by split-read mapping. To evaluate INTEGRATE, we compared it with eight additional gene fusion discovery tools using the well-characterized breast cell line HCC1395 and peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from the same patient (HCC1395BL). The predictions subsequently underwent a targeted validation leading to the discovery of 131 novel fusions in addition to the seven previously reported fusions. Overall, INTEGRATE only missed six out of the 138 validated fusions and had the highest accuracy of the nine tools evaluated. Additionally, we applied INTEGRATE to 62 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found multiple recurrent gene fusions including a subset involving estrogen receptor. Taken together, INTEGRATE is a highly sensitive and accurate tool that is freely available for academic use. PMID:26556708

  4. Mission and Readiness Assessment for Fusion Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, et. al.

    2012-12-12

    Magnetic fusion development toward DEMO will most likely require a number of fusion nuclear facilities (FNF), intermediate between ITER and DEMO, to test and validate plasma and nuclear technologies and to advance the level of system integration. The FNF mission space is wide, ranging from basic materials research to net electricity demonstration, so there is correspondingly a choice among machine options, scope, and risk in planning such a step. Readiness requirements to proceed with a DEMO are examined, and two FNF options are assessed in terms of the contributions they would make to closing DEMO readiness gaps, and their readiness to themselves proceed with engineering design about ten years from now. An advanced tokamak (AT) pilot plant with superconducting coils and a mission to demonstrate net electricity generation would go a long way toward DEMO. As a next step, however, a pilot plant would entail greater risk than a copper-coil FNSF-AT with its more focussed mission and technology requirements. The stellarator path to DEMO is briefly discussed. Regardless of the choice of FNF option, an accompanying science and technology development program, also aimed at DEMO readiness, is absolutely essential.

  5. Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The goal of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is to relax the extreme pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion by magnetizing the fuel. Understanding the level of magnetization at stagnation is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. We show here that the secondary nuclear reactions in magnetized deuterium plasma can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The secondary neutron yields and spectra are examined and shown to be extremely sensitive to BR. In particular, embedded magnetic fields are shown to affect profoundly the isotropy of the secondary neutron spectra. Detailed modeling of these spectra along with the ratio of overall secondary to primary neutron yields is used to form the basis of a diagnostic technique used to infer BR at stagnation. Effects of gradients in density, temperature and magnetic field strength are examined, as well as other possible non-uniform fuel configurations. Computational results employing a fully kinetic treatment of charged reaction product transport and Monte Carlo treatment of secondary reactions are compared to results from recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine testing the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. The technique reveals that the charged reaction products were highly magnetized in these experiments. Implications for eventual ignition-relevant experiments with deuterium-tritium fuel are discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schrapp, Michael J.; Goldammer, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana; Böni, Peter

    2014-10-28

    We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

  7. Advances in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Algorithms and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jiang; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Jingying

    2009-01-01

    With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1) Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2) Development of “algorithm fusion” methods; (3) Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme. PMID:22408479

  8. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  9. A Data Fusion Method in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Davood; Abawajy, Jemal H.; Ghanavati, Sara; Herawan, Tutut

    2015-01-01

    The success of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment strongly depends on the quality of service (QoS) it provides regarding issues such as data accuracy, data aggregation delays and network lifetime maximisation. This is especially challenging in data fusion mechanisms, where a small fraction of low quality data in the fusion input may negatively impact the overall fusion result. In this paper, we present a fuzzy-based data fusion approach for WSN with the aim of increasing the QoS whilst reducing the energy consumption of the sensor network. The proposed approach is able to distinguish and aggregate only true values of the collected data as such, thus reducing the burden of processing the entire data at the base station (BS). It is also able to eliminate redundant data and consequently reduce energy consumption thus increasing the network lifetime. We studied the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion approach experimentally and compared it with two baseline approaches in terms of data collection, number of transferred data packets and energy consumption. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach achieves better results than the baseline approaches. PMID:25635417

  10. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  11. Evaluated nuclear structure data file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuli, J. K.

    1996-02-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains the evaluated nuclear properties of all known nuclides, as derived both from nuclear reaction and radioactive decay measurements. All experimental data are evaluated to create the adopted properties for each nuclide. ENSDF, together with other numeric and bibliographic files, can be accessed on-line through the INTERNET or modem, and some of the databases are also available on the World Wide Web. The structure and the scope of ENSDF are presented along with the on-line access system of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  12. Evaluated nuclear structure data file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuli, J. K.

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains the evaluated nuclear properties of all known nuclides. These properties are derived both from nuclear reaction and radioactive decay measurements. All experimental data are evaluated to create the adopted properties for each nuclide. ENSDF, together with other numeric and biographic files, can be accessed on-line through the INTERNET or modem. Some of the databases are also available on the World Wide Web. The structure and the scope of ENSDF are presented along with the on-line access system of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  13. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  14. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  15. Coordinated activities on evaluation of collisional data for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.-K.; Braams, B. J.

    2013-07-11

    It is the role of the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency to review progress in the production, compilation and evaluation of atomic, molecular and plasma-surface interaction (AM/PSI) data for the fusion program and to support the development of internationally recommended libraries of AM/PSI data for fusion. In response to increasing requests from the fusion community the Unit has increased its effort to promote the assessment of data quality by organizing a series of meetings on the relevant issues: 1) Error propagation and sensitivity analysis, 2) Current status of evaluated databases, 3) Uncertainty estimates of theoretical data, 4) Experimental data evaluation, 5) Data evaluation methods and semi-empirical fits and 6) Establishment of an evaluators' network. The discussions and conclusions are summarized here.

  16. Nuclear data needs for accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Young, P.G.

    1994-07-01

    The possibilities of several new technologies based on use of intense, medium-energy proton accelerators are being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The potential new areas include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, and production of tritium. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involves the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn places new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. In this paper an assessment of the nuclear data needs for systems currently being considered in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies program is given.

  17. An Advanced Tokamak Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    A Fusion Development Facility (FDF) is a candidate for FNSF-AT. It is a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that uses AT physics to provide the neutron fluence required for fusion nuclear science development. FDF is conceived as a double-null plasma with high elongation and triangularity, predicted to allow good confinement of high plasma pressure. Steady-state is achieved with high bootstrap current and radio frequency current drive. Neutral beam injection and 3D non-resonant magnetic field can provide edge plasma rotation for stabilization of MHD and access to Quiescent H-mode. The estimated power exhaust is somewhat lower than that of ITER because of higher core radiation and stronger tilting of the divertor plates. FDF is capable of further developing all elements of AT physics, qualifying them for an advanced performance DEMO. The latest concept has accounted for realistic neutron shielding and divertor implementation. Self-consistent evolution of the transport profiles and equilibrium will quantify the stability and confinement required to meet the FNS mission.

  18. A Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor for Space Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.

    2006-05-01

    A small-scale nuclear fusion reactor is suggested based on the concepts of plasma confinement (with a high pressure gas) which have been patented by the author. The reactor considered can be used as a power setup in space flights. Among the advantages of this reactor is the use of a D3He fuel mixture which at burning gives main reactor products — charged particles. The energy balance considerably improves, as synchrotron radiation turn out "captured" in the plasma volume, and dangerous, in the case of classical magnetic confinement, instabilities in the direct current magnetic field configuration proposed do not exist. As a result, the reactor sizes are quite suitable (of the order of several meters). A possibility of making reactive thrust due to employment of ejection of multiply charged ions formed at injection of pellets from some adequate substance into the hot plasma center is considered.

  19. Fuel Encapsulation for Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Nuclear Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, C.

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is an approach to nuclear fusion which utilises the properties of electrostatically accelerated ion-beams instead of hot plasmas. The best known device which uses the principle is the Farnsworth-Hirsch fusor. It has been argued that such devices have some potential advantages in spaceflight and in-particular as power-supplies for trans-atmospheric propulsion. This paper builds on previous work in the field and focuses on how the fixing of the fuel for such reactors in a solid, liquid or encapsulated form may provide a high enough energy-density to make such devices practical power sources. Several methods of fixing the fuel are discussed; theoretical calculations are presented and applicable literature is reviewed. Finally, there is a discussion of practical issues and feasibility, together with suggestions for further work.

  20. The US Nuclear Data Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-19

    This report discusses the following topics: US Nuclear Data Network Meeting; TUNL A=3--20 Data Project Activity Report 1993; INEL Mass-chain Evaluation Project Activity Report for 1993; 1993 Isotopes; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; The NNDC Activity Report Parts A and B; Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee; Evaluation of High-spin Nuclear Data for ENSDF and Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands; Proposal for Support of a Experimental High-spin; Data File/Data-Network Coordinator; Radioactive Decay and Applications; A Plan for a Horizontal Evaluation of Decay Data; ENSDF On-line System; The MacNuclide Project Expanding the Scope of the Nuclear Structure Reference File; ENSDAT: Evaluated Nuclear Structure Drawings and Tables; Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and CSEWG Strategy Session; A Draft Proposal for a USNDN Program Advisory Council; Recommendations of Focus Group 1; Recommendations of Focus Group 2; Recommendations of Focus Group 3; Recommendations of Focus Group 4; The Table of Isotopes; The Isotopes CD-ROM; Electronic Table of Isotopes (ETOI); and Electronic Access to Nuclear Data.

  1. Urban Emergency Evacuation Data Fusion Based on "ONE MAP"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Sun, Q.; Chen, H.

    2013-07-01

    Urban emergency evacuation is a complicated systems engineering, which relates to many departments. How to fuse different scale, different format, different mathematical base spatial data effectively provided by such as police, fire protection, medical and health organization, traffic, emergency rescue and so on is a realistic matter that decision-makers are faced with. This paper analyses the characteristic of multisource spatial data in urban emergency evacuation and assorts it, brings forward the fusion strategy of multisource spatial data based on "one map", designs the frame of multisource spatial data fusion, makes an experiment in the end. The experiment indicates that the efficiency and level of urban emergency evacuation decision-making advances remarkably supported by multisource spatial data fusion.

  2. MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION FOR HIGH QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates ...

  3. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  4. Dynamic Assembly of Brambleberry Mediates Nuclear Envelope Fusion during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L.; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, a mitotic intermediate wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope, which then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. brambleberry is a previously unannotated gene homologous to Kar5p, which participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry localizes to the nuclear envelope with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. Our studies identify the first factor acting in karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. PMID:22863006

  5. Data handling facility for the Sandia Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, W. B.; Neau, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an on-line data handling facility for Sandia's Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-I, and the upgrade prototype machine Supermite. These accelerators are used for research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using particle beams. The main objectives in designing the data acquisition system were: (1) process both experiment and machine performance diagnostic signals, (2) record high signal-to-noise ratio, wideband waveforms in a severe EMP environment, (3) support multiple users recording and analyzing data simultaneously, and (4) provide fast turnaround for experimental results. Commercially available equipment is used wherever possible. However, several special purpose devices were developed. This data handling facility is a significant upgrade of an existing system that supports other Sandia particle beam fusion research accelerators.

  6. Outlook: Scientific obstacles. [Scientific obstacles to commercial nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    There is no question that fusion technology has come a long way. And yet commercial fusion energy seems as distant as ever. Numerous questions remain unanswered: Is magnetic fusion more promising than inertial fusion Which physical concept for a reactor is the best one Will the fully developed technology be economically competitive with other sources of energy Will fusion be as clean as promised And most fundamentally, can scientists make it work at all This article summarizes some of technological issues and hurdles facing fusion programs. Also, potential considerations are examined.

  7. Danish heathland manipulation experiment data in Model-Data-Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Peylin, Philippe; Ibrom, Andreas; Van Der Linden, Leon; Beier, Claus; Bacour, Cédric; Santaren, Diego; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In ecosystem manipulation experiments (EMEs) the ecosystem is artificially exposed to different environmental conditions that aim to simulate circumstances in future climate. At Danish EME site Brandbjerg the responses of a heathland to drought, warming and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are studied. The warming manipulation is realized by passive nighttime warming. The measurements include control plots as well as replicates for each three treatment separately and in combination. The Brandbjerg heathland ecosystem is dominated by heather and wavy hairgrass. These experiments provide excellent data for validation and development of ecosystem models. In this work we used a generic vegetation model ORCHIDEE with Model-Data-Fusion (MDF) approach. ORCHIDEE model is a process-based model that describes the exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the vegetation. It can be run at different spatial scales from global to site level. Different vegetation types are described in ORCHIDEE as plant functional types. In MDF we are using observations from the site to optimize the model parameters. This enables us to assess the modelling errors and the performance of the model for different manipulation treatments. This insight will inform us whether the different processes are adequately modelled or if the model is missing some important processes. We used a genetic algorithm in the MDF. The data available from the site included measurements of aboveground biomass, heterotrophic soil respiration and total ecosystem respiration from years 2006-2008. The biomass was measured six times doing this period. The respiration measurements were done with manual chamber measurements. For the soil respiration we used results from an empirical model that has been developed for the site. This enabled us to have more data for the MDF. Before the MDF we performed a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters to different data streams. Fifteen most influential

  8. Proton Reaction Data Library for Nuclear Activation (Medium Energy Nuclear Data Library.)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-01

    Version 00 GROUPXS does file handling and processing of the double-differential continuum-emission cross sections stored in the new MF6 format of ENDF/VI. It treats the energy-angle data that are supposed to be represented by a Legendre-polynomial expansion in the center-of-mass system and can do the following: (1) Conversion of MF6 data from center-of-mass system to the laboratory system, with the possibility to continue the calculation with the options (2), (3), and (4). (2) Conversion ofmore » Legendre-polynomial representation into point-wise angular data, in MF6 format. (3) Conversion of data from MF6 into MF4 + MF5 (ENDF-V). (4) Calculation of group constants, scattering matrices and transfer matrices for arbitrary group structures with a fusion micro-flux weighting spectrum (PN-approximation). The code treats only continuum reaction types that are stored in the MF6 format with the restrictions as specified for the European Fusion File (EFF1). These restrictions are not inconvenient for the purpose of fusion neutronics calculations and they facilitate relatively simple processing . This neutron reaction data library can be used for nuclear activation and transmutation applications at energies up to 100 MeV.« less

  9. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  10. Multiple image sensor data fusion through artificial neural networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With multisensor data fusion technology, the data from multiple sensors are fused in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement, processing and analysis. Artificial neural networks are the computational models that mimic biological neural networks. With high per...

  11. Interfaces MATXS Cross-Section Libraries to Nuclear Transport Codes for Fusion Systems Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-04-10

    Version: 00 TRANSX-CTR is a computer code that reads nuclear data from a library in MATXS format and produces transport tables with many discrete-ordinates (Sn) and diffusion codes. Tables can be produced for neutron, photon, or coupled transport. Options include adjoint tables, mixtures, self-shielding, group collapse, homogenization, thermal upscatter, prompt or steady-state fission, transport corrections, elastic removal corrections, and flexible response-function edits. The ability to prepare coupled tables and response edits for heating, damage, gasmore » production, and delayed activity makes TRANSX-CTR especially useful for fusion reactor studies.« less

  12. Comparative studies of Coulomb barrier heights for nuclear models applied to sub-barrier fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Zhang, H. Q.; Wolski, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coulomb barrier heights provided by different nuclear interaction models including the Bass model, the proximity potential model, and the double folding model have been applied for experimental data of fusion in terms of a recently proposed energy scaling approach. The results show that the proximity potential description of the barrier heights seems to be closest to the values required by the systematics. It is suggested that the proximity potential model is the most suitable model to calculate the barrier height. However, the double folding model gives the lowest barrier heights.

  13. Data fusion in cyber security: first order entity extraction from common cyber data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2012-06-01

    The Joint Directors of Labs Data Fusion Process Model (JDL Model) provides a framework for how to handle sensor data to develop higher levels of inference in a complex environment. Beginning from a call to leverage data fusion techniques in intrusion detection, there have been a number of advances in the use of data fusion algorithms in this subdomain of cyber security. While it is tempting to jump directly to situation-level or threat-level refinement (levels 2 and 3) for more exciting inferences, a proper fusion process starts with lower levels of fusion in order to provide a basis for the higher fusion levels. The process begins with first order entity extraction, or the identification of important entities represented in the sensor data stream. Current cyber security operational tools and their associated data are explored for potential exploitation, identifying the first order entities that exist in the data and the properties of these entities that are described by the data. Cyber events that are represented in the data stream are added to the first order entities as their properties. This work explores typical cyber security data and the inferences that can be made at the lower fusion levels (0 and 1) with simple metrics. Depending on the types of events that are expected by the analyst, these relatively simple metrics can provide insight on their own, or could be used in fusion algorithms as a basis for higher levels of inference.

  14. Nuclear Data on the WWW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Chu, S. Y. Frank; Ekstrom, L. Peter; Wu, Shiu-Chin; Singh, Balraj

    1997-10-01

    The Isotopes Project is developing Internet home pages to provide data for radioactive decay, nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, spontaneous fission, thermal neutron capture, and atomic masses. These home pages can be accessed from the Table of Isotopes home page at http://isotopes.lbl.gov/isotopes/toi.html. Data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is now available on the WWW in Nuclear Data Sheet style tables, complete with comments and hypertext linked footnotes. Bibliographic information from the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) file can be searched on the WWW by combinations of author, A, Z, reaction, and various keywords. Decay gamma-ray data from several databases can be searched by energy. The Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers is continously updated. Reaction rates from Hoffman and Woosley and from Thielemann, fission yields from England and Rider, thermal neutron cross-sections from BNL-325, atomic masses from Audi, and skeleton scheme drawings and nuclear charts from the Table of Isotopes are among the information available through these websites. The nuclear data home pages are accessed by over 3500 different users each month.

  15. Fusion and Gaussian mixture based classifiers for SONAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotari, Vikas; Chang, KC

    2011-06-01

    Underwater mines are inexpensive and highly effective weapons. They are difficult to detect and classify. Hence detection and classification of underwater mines is essential for the safety of naval vessels. This necessitates a formulation of highly efficient classifiers and detection techniques. Current techniques primarily focus on signals from one source. Data fusion is known to increase the accuracy of detection and classification. In this paper, we formulated a fusion-based classifier and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based classifier for classification of underwater mines. The emphasis has been on sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) signals due to their extensive use in current naval operations. The classifiers have been tested on real SONAR data obtained from University of California Irvine (UCI) repository. The performance of both GMM based classifier and fusion based classifier clearly demonstrate their superior classification accuracy over conventional single source cases and validate our approach.

  16. Multi-agent data fusion workstation (MADFW) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Elisa; Bosse, Eloi; Valin, Pierre

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes an on-going effort to build a Multi- Agent Data Fusion Workstation (MADFW) based on a Knowledge- Based System (KBS) BlackBoard (BB) architecture to offer a range of innovative techniques for Data Fusion (DF), applicable to various domains. The initial application to be demonstrated is in the area of airborne maritime surveillance where several multi-agent concepts and algorithms have already been studied and demonstrated. The end result will offer the user a flexible and modular environment providing capability for: (1) addition of user defined sensor simulation models and fusion algorithms; (2) integration with existing models and algorithms; and (3) evaluation of performance to derive requirement specifications and help in the design phase towards fielding a real DF system. The workstation is being designed to accommodate modular interchangeable algorithm implementation and performance evaluation of: (1) fusion of positional data from imaging and non-imaging sensors; (2) fusion of attribute information obtained from imaging and non-imaging sensors and other sources such as communication systems, satellites, etc.; and (3) Object Recognition in imaging data. The design allows algorithms for sensor simulators and measures of performance to reside ether on the KBS BB shell or be separate from it, thus facilitating integration with other testbed designs. This architecture also allows the future introduction of fusion management capabilities. The real-time KBS BB shell developed by Lockheed Martin Canada, in collaboration with DREV, is the basis of the MADFW infrastructure. This system is totally generic, and could be used to implement any system comprising of components which can be numeric or AI based. It has been implemented in C++ rather than in a higher-level language (such as LISP, Smalltalk, ...) to satisfy the real-time requirement.

  17. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species. PMID:25837972

  18. Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in Epichloë Grass Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Jun-ya; Charlton, Nikki D.; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species. PMID:25837972

  19. A Case for Data and Service Fusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Quach, N. T.; Gill, K.; Zlotnicki, V.; Moore, B.; Tsontos, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this distributed, data-intensive era, developing any solution that requires multi-disciplinary data and service requires careful review of interfaces with data and service providers. Information is stored in many different locations and data services are distributed across the Internet. In design and development of mash-up heterogeneous data systems, the challenge is not entirely technological; it is our ability to document the external interface specifications and to create a coherent environment for our users. While is impressive to present a complex web of data, the true measure of our success is in the quality of the data we are serving, the throughput of our creation, and user experience. The presentation presents two current funded NASA projects that require integration of heterogeneous data and service that reside in different locations. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal is designed a "one-stop" source for current sea level change information. Behind this portal is an architecture that integrates data and services from various sources, which includes PI-generated products, satellite products from the DAACs, and metadata from ESDIS Common Metadata Repository (CMR) and other sources, and services reside in the data centers, universities, and ESDIS. The recently funded Distributed Oceanographic Matchup Service (DOMS) project is a project under the NASA Advance Information Technology (AIST) program. DOMS will integrate with satellite products managed by NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) and three different in-situ projects that are located in difference parts of the U.S. These projects are good examples of delivering content-rich solutions through mash-up of heterogeneous data and systems.

  20. Evaluating fusion techniques for multi-sensor satellite image data

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Benjamin W; Vatsavai, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Satellite image data fusion is a topic of interest in many areas including environmental monitoring, emergency response, and defense. Typically any single satellite sensor cannot provide all of the benefits offered by a combination of different sensors (e.g., high-spatial but low spectral resolution vs. low-spatial but high spectral, optical vs. SAR). Given the respective strengths and weaknesses of the different types of image data, it is beneficial to fuse many types of image data to extract as much information as possible from the data. Our work focuses on the fusion of multi-sensor image data into a unified representation that incorporates the potential strengths of a sensor in order to minimize classification error. Of particular interest is the fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images into a single, multispectral image of the best possible spatial resolution. We explore various methods to optimally fuse these images and evaluate the quality of the image fusion by using K-means clustering to categorize regions in the fused images and comparing the accuracies of the resulting categorization maps.

  1. Knowledge-aided multisensor data fusion for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistello, Giulia; Ulmke, Martin; Koch, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Multi sensor fusion techniques are widely employed in several surveillance applications (e.g., battlefield monitoring, air traffic control, camp protection, etc). The necessity of tracking the elements of a dynamic system usually requires combining information from heterogeneous data sources in order to overcome the limitations of each sensor. The gathered information might be related to the target kinematics (position, velocity), its physical features (shape, size, composition) or intentions (route plan, friend/foe, engaged sensor modes, etc). The combination of such heterogeneous sensor data proved to benefit from the exploitation of context information, i.e., static and dynamic features of the scenario, represented in a Knowledge Base (KB). A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a typical example for a KB that can be exploited for the enhancement of multi sensor data fusion. The present paper describes potential strategies for "knowledge-based" data fusion in the area of Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA). MSA is founded on the data from heterogeneous sources, including radars, Navigation Aids, air- and space-based monitoring services, and recently-conceived passive sensors. Several strategies for optimally fusing two or more of these information data flows have been proposed for MSA applications. Relevant KB information comprises port locations, coastal lines, preferred routes, traffic rules, and potentially a maritime vessel database. We propose mathematical models and techniques to integrate kinematic constraints, e.g., in terms of navigation fields, and different object behaviour into a data fusion approach. For an exemplary sensor suite, we evaluate performance measures in the framework of centralised and decentralised fusion architectures.

  2. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  3. Counter-intuitive Cases of Data Fusion in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibraev, Ulukbek; Kantor, Paul; Ng, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of Data Fusion (DF) for information retrieval are explored. Based on a geometrical model of DF, it is shown that in the ideal case, performance of DF for a pair of information retrieval schemes may be approximated by a quadratic polynomial. Compares counter-intuitive cases of DF with cases that behave according to the geometric model. (AEF)

  4. Decisions-to-Data using Level 5 information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the last decade, there has been interest in presenting information fusion solutions to the user and ways to incorporate visualization, interaction, and command and control. In this paper, we explore Decisions-to-Data (D2D) in information fusion design: (1) sensing: from data to information (D2I) processing, (2) reporting: from human computer interaction (HCI) visualizations to user refinement (H2U), and (3) disseminating: from collected to resourced (C2R) information management. D2I supports net-centric intelligent situation awareness that includes processing of information from non-sensor resources for mission effectiveness. H2U reflects that completely automated systems are not realizable requiring Level 5 user refinement for efficient decision making. Finally, C2R moves from immediate data collection to fusion of information over an enterprise (e.g., data mining, database queries and storage, and source analysis for pedigree). By using D2I, H2U, and C2R concepts, they serve as informative themes for future complex information fusion interoperability standards, integration of man and machines, and efficient networking for distribution user situation understanding.

  5. Radar image and data fusion for natural hazards characterisation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Zhang, Jixian; Zhang, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    Fusion of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images through interferometric, polarimetric and tomographic processing provides an all - weather imaging capability to characterise and monitor various natural hazards. This article outlines interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing and products and their utility for natural hazards characterisation, provides an overview of the techniques and applications related to fusion of SAR/InSAR images with optical and other images and highlights the emerging SAR fusion technologies. In addition to providing precise land - surface digital elevation maps, SAR - derived imaging products can map millimetre - scale elevation changes driven by volcanic, seismic and hydrogeologic processes, by landslides and wildfires and other natural hazards. With products derived from the fusion of SAR and other images, scientists can monitor the progress of flooding, estimate water storage changes in wetlands for improved hydrological modelling predictions and assessments of future flood impacts and map vegetation structure on a global scale and monitor its changes due to such processes as fire, volcanic eruption and deforestation. With the availability of SAR images in near real - time from multiple satellites in the near future, the fusion of SAR images with other images and data is playing an increasingly important role in understanding and forecasting natural hazards.

  6. Causal inference and the data-fusion problem.

    PubMed

    Bareinboim, Elias; Pearl, Judea

    2016-07-01

    We review concepts, principles, and tools that unify current approaches to causal analysis and attend to new challenges presented by big data. In particular, we address the problem of data fusion-piecing together multiple datasets collected under heterogeneous conditions (i.e., different populations, regimes, and sampling methods) to obtain valid answers to queries of interest. The availability of multiple heterogeneous datasets presents new opportunities to big data analysts, because the knowledge that can be acquired from combined data would not be possible from any individual source alone. However, the biases that emerge in heterogeneous environments require new analytical tools. Some of these biases, including confounding, sampling selection, and cross-population biases, have been addressed in isolation, largely in restricted parametric models. We here present a general, nonparametric framework for handling these biases and, ultimately, a theoretical solution to the problem of data fusion in causal inference tasks. PMID:27382148

  7. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    concentration constraint, but not selected under the BAU case and 650 ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, and (3) the share of electricity in 2100 produced by the presently designed tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (introduced after 2060) is well below 30%. It should be noted that these conclusions are based upon varieties of uncertainties in scenarios and data assumptions on nuclear fusion as well as technological options.

  8. Registration and Fusion of Multiple Source Remotely Sensed Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth and Space Science often involve the comparison, fusion, and integration of multiple types of remotely sensed data at various temporal, radiometric, and spatial resolutions. Results of this integration may be utilized for global change analysis, global coverage of an area at multiple resolutions, map updating or validation of new instruments, as well as integration of data provided by multiple instruments carried on multiple platforms, e.g. in spacecraft constellations or fleets of planetary rovers. Our focus is on developing methods to perform fast, accurate and automatic image registration and fusion. General methods for automatic image registration are being reviewed and evaluated. Various choices for feature extraction, feature matching and similarity measurements are being compared, including wavelet-based algorithms, mutual information and statistically robust techniques. Our work also involves studies related to image fusion and investigates dimension reduction and co-kriging for application-dependent fusion. All methods are being tested using several multi-sensor datasets, acquired at EOS Core Sites, and including multiple sensors such as IKONOS, Landsat-7/ETM+, EO1/ALI and Hyperion, MODIS, and SeaWIFS instruments. Issues related to the coregistration of data from the same platform (i.e., AIRS and MODIS from Aqua) or from several platforms of the A-train (i.e., MLS, HIRDLS, OMI from Aura with AIRS and MODIS from Terra and Aqua) will also be considered.

  9. Diagnostics and data fusion of robotic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, M.; Bardsley, S; Cowper, L.; Hamm, R.; Jammu, V.; Wagner, J.

    1996-12-31

    Robotic systems for remediation of hazardous waste sites must be highly reliable to avoid equipment failures and subsequent possible exposure of personnel to hazardous environments. Safe, efficient cleanup operations also require accurate, complete knowledge of the task space. This paper presents progress made on a 18 month program to meet these needs. To enhance robot reliability, a conceptual design of a monitoring and diagnostic system is being developed to predict the onset of mechanical failure modes, provide maximum lead time to make operational changes or repairs, and minimize the occurrence of on-site breakdowns. To ensure safe operation, a comprehensive software package is being developed that will fuse data from multiple surface mapping sensors and poses so as to reduce the error effects in individual data points and provide accurate 3-D maps of a work space.

  10. Visualization of cardiac wavefronts using data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kynor, David B.; Dietz, Anthony; Friets, Eric; Peterson, Jon; Bergstrom, Ursula; Triedman, John; Hammer, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Catheter ablation has emerged as a highly effective treatment for arrhythmias that are constrained by known, easily located, anatomic landmarks. However, this treatment has enjoyed limited success for arrhythmias that are characterized by complex activation patterns or are not anatomically constrained. This class of arrhythmias, which includes atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia resulting from ischemic heart disease, demands improved mapping tools. Current technology forces the cardiologist to view cardiac anatomy independently from the functional information contained in the electrical activation patterns. This leads to difficulties in interpreting the large volumes of data provided by high-density recording catheters and in mapping patients with abnormal anatomy (e.g., patients with congenital heart disease). The goal of this is work is development of new data processing and display algorithms that will permit the clinician to view activation sequences superimposed onto existing fluoroscopic images depicting the location of recording catheters within the heart. In cases where biplane fluoroscopic images and x-ray camera position data are available, the position of the catheters can be reconstructed in three-dimensions.

  11. Evaluation and processing of nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1980-01-01

    The role a nuclear data evaluator plays in obtaining evaluated nuclear data, needed for applications, from measured nuclear data is surveyed. Specific evaluation objectives, problems, and procedures are discussed. The use of nuclear systematics to complement nuclear experiment and theory is described. With the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) as an example, the formatting, checking, and processing of nuclear data are discussed as well as the testing of evaluated nuclear data in the calculation of integral benchmark experiments. Other important topics such as the Probability Table Method and interrelation between differential and integral data are also discussed. 25 figures.

  12. NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-05-08

    The published scientific literature is scanned and periodically evaluated for neutron and non-neutron nuclear data and the resulting recommendations are published [1,2]. After the literature has been scanned and appropriate data collected, there are often problems with regard to the treatment of the various types of data during this evaluation process and with regard to the method by which the recommendations are drawn from the assessment of the collection of individual measurements. Some-problems with uncertainties are presented.

  13. Data Fusion for Earth Science Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.

  14. One decade of the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2015-05-01

    The revision of the Joint Directors of the Laboratories (JDL) Information Fusion model in 2004 discussed information processing, incorporated the analyst, and was coined the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) model. Since that time, developments in information technology (e.g., cloud computing, applications, and multimedia) have altered the role of the analyst. Data production has outpaced the analyst; however the analyst still has the role of data refinement and information reporting. In this paper, we highlight three examples being addressed by the DFIG model. One example is the role of the analyst to provide semantic queries (through an ontology) so that vast amount of data available can be indexed, accessed, retrieved, and processed. The second idea is reporting which requires the analyst to collect the data into a condensed and meaningful form through information management. The last example is the interpretation of the resolved information from data that must include contextual information not inherent in the data itself. Through a literature review, the DFIG developments in the last decade demonstrate the usability of the DFIG model to bring together the user (analyst or operator) and the machine (information fusion or manager) in a systems design.

  15. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:27031510

  16. Concept of Operations for Data Fusion Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    T.R. McJunkin; R.L. Boring; M.A. McQueen; L.P. Shunn; J.L. Wright; D.I. Gertman; O. Linda; K. McCarty; M. Manic

    2011-09-01

    Situational awareness in the operations and supervision of a industrial system means that decision making entity, whether machine or human, have the important data presented in a timely manner. An optimal presentation of information such that the operator has the best opportunity accurately interpret and react to anomalies due to system degradation, failures or adversaries. Anticipated problems are a matter for system design; however, the paper will focus on concepts for situational awareness enhancement for a human operator when the unanticipated or unaddressed event types occur. Methodology for human machine interface development and refinement strategy is described for a synthetic fuels plant model. A novel concept for adaptively highlighting the most interesting information in the system and a plan for testing the methodology is described.

  17. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  18. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhang

    2016-06-01

    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. PMID:27058888

  19. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; et al

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  20. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  1. Data fusion analysis of a surface direct-current resistivity and well pick data set

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. This report discusses the results of evaluating a surface direct-current (dc) resistivity and well-pick data set using two methods: data fusion technology and commercially available software (i.e., RESIX Plus from Interpex Ltd., Golden, Colorado), the conventional method of analysis. The report compares the two technologies; describes the survey, procedures, and results; and includes conclusions and recommendations. The surface dc resistivity and well-pick data set had been acquired by PNL from a study performed in May 1993 at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The resistivity survey data were acquired to map the top of permafrost in support of a hydrogeologic study. This data set provided an excellent opportunity to test and refine the dc resistivity capabilities of the DFW; previously, the data fusion software was untested on dc resistivity data. The DFW was used to evaluate the dc resistivity survey data and to produce a 3-dimensional earth model of the study area.

  2. Data management in a fusion energy research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A.; Drobnis, D.; McHarg, B.

    1981-07-01

    Present-day fusion research requires extensive support for the large amount of scientific data generated, bringing about three distinct problems computer systems must solve: (1) the processing of large amounts of data in very small time frames; (2) the archiving, analyzing and managing of the entire data output for the project's lifetime; (3) the standardization of data for the exchange of information between laboratories. The computer system supporting General Atomic's Doublet III tokamak, a project funded by the United States Department of Energy, is the first to encounter and address these problems through a system-wide data base structure.

  3. Rice crop monitoring with multitemporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1-2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data

  4. Data fusion for CD metrology: heterogeneous hybridization of scatterometry, CDSEM, and AFM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazart, J.; Chesneau, N.; Evin, G.; Largent, A.; Derville, A.; Thérèse, R.; Bos, S.; Bouyssou, R.; Dezauzier, C.; Foucher, J.

    2014-04-01

    The manufacturing of next generation semiconductor devices forces metrology tool providers for an exceptional effort in order to meet the requirements for precision, accuracy and throughput stated in the ITRS. In the past years hybrid metrology (based on data fusion theories) has been investigated as a new methodology for advanced metrology [1][2][3]. This paper provides a new point of view of data fusion for metrology through some experiments and simulations. The techniques are presented concretely in terms of equations to be solved. The first point of view is High Level Fusion which is the use of simple numbers with their associated uncertainty postprocessed by tools. In this paper, it is divided into two stages: one for calibration to reach accuracy, the second to reach precision thanks to Bayesian Fusion. From our perspective, the first stage is mandatory before applying the second stage which is commonly presented [1]. However a reference metrology system is necessary for this fusion. So, precision can be improved if and only if the tools to be fused are perfectly matched at least for some parameters. We provide a methodology similar to a multidimensional TMU able to perform this matching exercise. It is demonstrated on a 28 nm node backend lithography case. The second point of view is Deep Level Fusion which works on the contrary with raw data and their combination. In the approach presented here, the analysis of each raw data is based on a parametric model and connections between the parameters of each tool. In order to allow OCD/SEM Deep Level Fusion, a SEM Compact Model derived from [4] has been developed and compared to AFM. As far as we know, this is the first time such techniques have been coupled at Deep Level. A numerical study on the case of a simple stack for lithography is performed. We show strict equivalence of Deep Level Fusion and High Level Fusion when tools are sensitive and models are perfect. When one of the tools can be considered as a

  5. Interactive Plasma Physics Education Using Data from Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Brisa; Davis, Bill; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience (IPPEX) website was created in 1996 to give users access to data from plasma and fusion experiments. Interactive material on electricity, magnetism, matter, and energy was presented to generate interest and prepare users to understand data from a fusion experiment. Initially, users were allowed to analyze real-time and archival data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment. IPPEX won numerous awards for its novel approach of allowing users to participate in ongoing research. However, the latest revisions of IPPEX were in 2001 and the interactive material is no longer functional on modern browsers. Also, access to real-time data was lost when TFTR was shut down. The interactive material on IPPEX is being rewritten in ActionScript3.0, and real-time and archival data from the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) will be made available to users. New tools like EFIT animations, fast cameras, and plots of important plasma parameters will be included along with an existing Java-based ``virtual tokamak.'' Screenshots from the upgraded website and future directions will be presented.

  6. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, B; Gimzewski, J K; Putterman, S

    2005-04-28

    While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic and inertial confinement, alternative approaches--such as Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters and ultrafast laser-plasma interactions--also provide insight into basic processes and technological applications. However, attempts to produce fusion in a room temperature solid-state setting, including 'cold' fusion and 'bubble' fusion, have met with deep scepticism. Here we report that gently heating a pyroelectric crystal in a deuterated atmosphere can generate fusion under desktop conditions. The electrostatic field of the crystal is used to generate and accelerate a deuteron beam (> 100 keV and >4 nA), which, upon striking a deuterated target, produces a neutron flux over 400 times the background level. The presence of neutrons from the reaction D + D --> 3He (820 keV) + n (2.45 MeV) within the target is confirmed by pulse shape analysis and proton recoil spectroscopy. As further evidence for this fusion reaction, we use a novel time-of-flight technique to demonstrate the delayed coincidence between the outgoing alpha-particle and the neutron. Although the reported fusion is not useful in the power-producing sense, we anticipate that the system will find application as a simple palm-sized neutron generator. PMID:15858570

  7. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  8. Data Fusion of LIDAR Into a Region Growing Stereo Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitch-Michaelis, J.; Muller, J.-P.; Storey, J.; Walton, D.; Foster, M.

    2015-05-01

    Stereo vision and LIDAR continue to dominate standoff 3D measurement techniques in photogrammetry although the two techniques are normally used in competition. Stereo matching algorithms generate dense 3D data, but perform poorly on low-texture image features. LIDAR measurements are accurate, but imaging requires scanning and produces sparse point clouds. Clearly the two techniques are complementary, but recent attempts to improve stereo matching performance on low-texture surfaces using data fusion have focused on the use of time-of-flight cameras, with comparatively little work involving LIDAR. A low-level data fusion method is shown, involving a scanning LIDAR system and a stereo camera pair. By directly imaging the LIDAR laser spot during a scan, unique stereo correspondences are obtained. These correspondences are used to seed a regiongrowing stereo matcher until the whole image is matched. The iterative nature of the acquisition process minimises the number of LIDAR points needed. This method also enables simple calibration of stereo cameras without the need for targets and trivial coregistration between the stereo and LIDAR point clouds. Examples of this data fusion technique are provided for a variety of scenes.

  9. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-02-10

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k{sub eff} of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's.

  10. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  11. Concept for testing fusion first wall/blanket systems in existing nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-10-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment (except the 14 MeV neutron component) employing an existing nuclear facility is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of a test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module.

  12. Pinpointing disease genes through phenomic and genomic data fusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Pinpointing genes involved in inherited human diseases remains a great challenge in the post-genomics era. Although approaches have been proposed either based on the guilt-by-association principle or making use of disease phenotype similarities, the low coverage of both diseases and genes in existing methods has been preventing the scan of causative genes for a significant proportion of diseases at the whole-genome level. Results To overcome this limitation, we proposed a rigorous statistical method called pgFusion to prioritize candidate genes by integrating one type of disease phenotype similarity derived from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and seven types of gene functional similarities calculated from gene expression, gene ontology, pathway membership, protein sequence, protein domain, protein-protein interaction and regulation pattern, respectively. Our method covered a total of 7,719 diseases and 20,327 genes, achieving the highest coverage thus far for both diseases and genes. We performed leave-one-out cross-validation experiments to demonstrate the superior performance of our method and applied it to a real exome sequencing dataset of epileptic encephalopathies, showing the capability of this approach in finding causative genes for complex diseases. We further provided the standalone software and online services of pgFusion at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/jianglab/pgfusion. Conclusions pgFusion not only provided an effective way for prioritizing candidate genes, but also demonstrated feasible solutions to two fundamental questions in the analysis of big genomic data: the comparability of heterogeneous data and the integration of multiple types of data. Applications of this method in exome or whole genome sequencing studies would accelerate the finding of causative genes for human diseases. Other research fields in genomics could also benefit from the incorporation of our data fusion methodology. PMID:25708473

  13. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-06-01

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: I analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model in order to understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: I employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory as a microscopic reaction model. I extract the nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with a one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: I obtain finite extra-push energies for heavy systems from TDHF simulations, which agree with experimental observations. Extracted nucleus-nucleus potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance of an ordinary barrier structure of the nucleus-nucleus potential. This property is different from those in light- and medium-mass systems and from density-constraint TDHF calculations. Extracted friction coefficients show sizable energy dependence and universal value of their magnitude, which are rather similar to those in light- and medium-mass systems. Using these properties, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance and find that contribution of the increase in potential to the extra-push energy is larger than that of the accumulated dissipation energy in most systems studied in this article. Conclusions: I find that the nucleus-nucleus potentials extracted in heavy systems show a specific property, which is not observed in light- and medium-mass systems. By the analysis of

  14. FusionFinder: A Software Tool to Identify Expressed Gene Fusion Candidates from RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard W.; Thompson-Wicking, Katherine; Carter, Kim W.; Anderson, Denise; Kees, Ursula R.; Beesley, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    The hallmarks of many haematological malignancies and solid tumours are chromosomal translocations, which may lead to gene fusions. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques at the transcriptome level (RNA-Seq) have been used to verify known and discover novel transcribed gene fusions. We present FusionFinder, a Perl-based software designed to automate the discovery of candidate gene fusion partners from single-end (SE) or paired-end (PE) RNA-Seq read data. FusionFinder was applied to data from a previously published analysis of the K562 chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cell line. Using FusionFinder we successfully replicated the findings of this study and detected additional previously unreported fusion genes in their dataset, which were confirmed experimentally. These included two isoforms of a fusion involving the genes BRK1 and VHL, whose co-deletion has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of renal-cell carcinoma. FusionFinder is made freely available for non-commercial use and can be downloaded from the project website (http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/fusionfinder/). PMID:22761941

  15. Gene Prioritization by Compressive Data Fusion and Chaining.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Marinka; Nam, Edward A; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad; Zupan, Blaž

    2015-10-01

    Data integration procedures combine heterogeneous data sets into predictive models, but they are limited to data explicitly related to the target object type, such as genes. Collage is a new data fusion approach to gene prioritization. It considers data sets of various association levels with the prediction task, utilizes collective matrix factorization to compress the data, and chaining to relate different object types contained in a data compendium. Collage prioritizes genes based on their similarity to several seed genes. We tested Collage by prioritizing bacterial response genes in Dictyostelium as a novel model system for prokaryote-eukaryote interactions. Using 4 seed genes and 14 data sets, only one of which was directly related to the bacterial response, Collage proposed 8 candidate genes that were readily validated as necessary for the response of Dictyostelium to Gram-negative bacteria. These findings establish Collage as a method for inferring biological knowledge from the integration of heterogeneous and coarsely related data sets. PMID:26465776

  16. Gene Prioritization by Compressive Data Fusion and Chaining

    PubMed Central

    Žitnik, Marinka; Nam, Edward A.; Dinh, Christopher; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad; Zupan, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    Data integration procedures combine heterogeneous data sets into predictive models, but they are limited to data explicitly related to the target object type, such as genes. Collage is a new data fusion approach to gene prioritization. It considers data sets of various association levels with the prediction task, utilizes collective matrix factorization to compress the data, and chaining to relate different object types contained in a data compendium. Collage prioritizes genes based on their similarity to several seed genes. We tested Collage by prioritizing bacterial response genes in Dictyostelium as a novel model system for prokaryote-eukaryote interactions. Using 4 seed genes and 14 data sets, only one of which was directly related to the bacterial response, Collage proposed 8 candidate genes that were readily validated as necessary for the response of Dictyostelium to Gram-negative bacteria. These findings establish Collage as a method for inferring biological knowledge from the integration of heterogeneous and coarsely related data sets. PMID:26465776

  17. Earth Science Data Fusion with Event Building Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukashin, C.; Bartle, Ar.; Callaway, E.; Gyurjyan, V.; Mancilla, S.; Oyarzun, R.; Vakhnin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of the NASA Information And Data System (NAIADS) project are to develop a prototype of a conceptually new middleware framework to modernize and significantly improve efficiency of the Earth Science data fusion, big data processing and analytics. The key components of the NAIADS include: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) multi-lingual framework, multi-sensor coincident data Predictor, fast into-memory data Staging, multi-sensor data-Event Builder, complete data-Event streaming (a work flow with minimized IO), on-line data processing control and analytics services. The NAIADS project is leveraging CLARA framework, developed in Jefferson Lab, and integrated with the ZeroMQ messaging library. The science services are prototyped and incorporated into the system. Merging the SCIAMACHY Level-1 observations and MODIS/Terra Level-2 (Clouds and Aerosols) data products, and ECMWF re- analysis will be used for NAIADS demonstration and performance tests in compute Cloud and Cluster environments.

  18. Nuclear aspects of tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) diagnostics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    There are five principal aspects of the nuclear radiation from the high temperature plasmas of TFTR on its plasma diagnostic equipment. i) Important information about the plasma properties to be obtained from measurement of the neutrons, or other fusion reaction products. ii) Experimental studies to give design data for future tokamak devices and their instrumentation. iii) Transient noise or damage effects on the array of detectors for the collection of physics data about the plasma. iv) The effect of tritium on detectors that necessarily are in vacuum, directly connected to the tokamak vacuum vessel. v) Damage of diagnostic components mounted close to the vacuum vessel. Each of these topics will be addressed after a brief description of the TFTR tokamak and its radiation environment.

  19. Heterogeneous Data Fusion via Space Alignment Using Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Jaegul; Bohn, Shawn J.; Nakamura, Grant C.; White, Amanda M.; Park, Haesun

    2012-04-26

    Heterogeneous data sets are typically represented in different feature spaces, making it difficult to analyze relationships spanning different data sets even when they are semantically related. Data fusion via space alignment can remedy this task by integrating multiple data sets lying in different spaces into one common space. Given a set of reference correspondence data that share the same semantic meaning across different spaces, space alignment attempts to place the corresponding reference data as close together as possible, and accordingly, the entire data are aligned in a common space. Space alignment involves optimizing two potentially conflicting criteria: minimum deformation of the original relationships and maximum alignment between the different spaces. To solve this problem, we provide a novel graph embedding framework for space alignment, which converts each data set into a graph and assigns zero distance between reference correspondence pairs resulting in a single graph. We propose a graph embedding method for fusion based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Its criteria using the rank order rather than the distance allows nonmetric MDS to effectively handle both deformation and alignment. Experiments using parallel data sets demonstrate that our approach works well in comparison to existing methods such as constrained Laplacian eigenmaps, Procrustes analysis, and tensor decomposition. We also present standard cross-domain information retrieval tests as well as interesting visualization examples using space alignment.

  20. New method for sensor data fusion in machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Fang

    1991-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new scheme for sensor data fusion in machine vision. The proposed scheme uses Kalman filter as the sensor data integration tool and hierarchical B- spline surface as the recording data structure. Kalman filter is used to obtain statistically optimal estimations of the imaged surface structure based on external sensor measurements. Hierarchical B-spline surface maintains high-order surface derivative continuity, may be adaptively refined, possesses desirable local control property, and is storage efficient. Hence, it is used to record the reconstructed surface structure.

  1. Propulsion concepts for nuclear matter compression energy and "cold" fusion energy sources in interstellar flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotowicz, M.

    Various energy sources for interstellar flight are reviewed. Two more "non-conventional" energy sources were proposed in a recent paper: (1) energy delivery during "pionization" of nuclear matter through nuclear matter compression in heavy nuclei collisions and (2) generation of the energy in muon-catalysed "cold" fusion in compressed hydrogen. After a short discussion of the physical principles of the "pionization" of the nuclear matter, the engine design concept is sketched. It has some advantages in comparison to the annihilation propulsion. In laboratory reference system after nuclear matter pionization, all the pions and the resulting particles after decay of pions will move inside of the narrow pionization cone. Power supply of the heavy ion accelerator will extract some part of the energy from the nozzle of the propulsion engine. This would be the magneto-hydrodynamics (m-h-d) power unit based on the Hall effect. Muon-catalysed fusion as the energy source is possible thanks to the discovery of the multiple tritium + deuterium (T + D) synthesis catalysed by one muon. It is possible to combine muon-catalysed fusion with the nuclear fission process. Commercial fusion-fission hybrid reactor would require 100-300 fusions per muon. The principles of the muon-catalysed fusion are shortly discussed. The advantage of the muon-catalysis in T + D mixture is explained because existence of nuclear resonance in deuterium-tritium-muon fusion. This is the reason why the sticking probability muon-α particle is so small (0.4%). A conception of the muon-catalysed "cold" fusion reactor is presented. The pions and muons are produced and stopped in D + T fuel itself. Many technical details are discussed more briefly, e.g. the probability of negative pion production at various projectiles and targets, average energy to produce one negative muon, muon-catalysed fusion-fission systems, advantages of the fusion-fission systems. In the paper is shown a block scheme of the "cold

  2. Nuclear fusion in the deuterated cores of inflated hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2016-03-01

    Ouyed et al. (Astrophys. J. 501:367, 1998) proposed Deuterium (DD) fusion at the core-mantle interface of giant planets as a mechanism to explain their observed heat excess. But rather high interior temperatures (˜105 K) and a stratified D layer are needed, making such a scenario unlikely. In this paper, we re-examine DD fusion, with the addition of screening effects pertinent to a deuterated core containing ice and some heavy elements. This alleviates the extreme temperature constraint and removes the requirement of a stratified D layer. As an application, we propose that, if their core temperatures are a few times 104 K and core composition is chemically inhomogeneous, the observed inflated size of some giant exoplanets ("hot Jupiters") may be linked to screened DD fusion occurring deep in the interior. Application of an analytic evolution model suggests that the amount of inflation from this effect can be important if there is sufficient rock-ice in the core, making DD fusion an effective extra internal energy source for radius inflation. The mechanism of screened DD fusion, operating in the above temperature range, is generally consistent with the trend in radius anomaly with planetary equilibrium temperature T_{eq}, and also depends on planetary mass. Although we do not consider the effect of incident stellar flux, we expect that a minimum level of irradiation is necessary to trigger core erosion and subsequent DD fusion inside the planet. Since DD fusion is quite sensitive to the screening potential inferred from laboratory experiments, observations of inflated hot Jupiters may help constrain screening effects in the cores of giant planets.

  3. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  4. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ⩾107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  5. Feature-based MRI data fusion for cardiac arrhythmia studies.

    PubMed

    Magtibay, Karl; Beheshti, Mohammadali; Foomany, Farbod Hosseyndoust; Massé, Stéphane; Lai, Patrick F H; Zamiri, Nima; Asta, John; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Jaffray, David; Krishnan, Sridhar; Umapathy, Karthikeyan

    2016-05-01

    Current practices in studying cardiac arrhythmias primarily use electrical or optical surface recordings of a heart, spatially limited transmural recordings, and mathematical models. However, given that such arrhythmias occur on a 3D myocardial tissue, information obtained from such practices lack in dimension, completeness, and are sometimes prone to oversimplification. The combination of complementary Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based techniques such as Current Density Imaging (CDI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) could provide more depth to current practices in assessing the cardiac arrhythmia dynamics in entire cross sections of myocardium. In this work, we present an approach utilizing feature-based data fusion methods to demonstrate that complimentary information obtained from electrical current distribution and structural properties within a heart could be quantified and enhanced. Twelve (12) pairs of CDI and DTI image data sets were gathered from porcine hearts perfused through a Langendorff setup. Images were fused together using feature-based data fusion techniques such as Joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), and their combination (CCA+jICA). The results suggest that the complimentary information of cardiac states from CDI and DTI are enhanced and are better classified with the use of data fusion methods. For each data set, an increase in mean correlations of fused images were observed with 38% increase from CCA+jICA compared to the original images while mean mutual information of the fused images from jICA and CCA+jICA increased by approximately three-fold. We conclude that MRI-based techniques present potential viable tools in furthering studies for cardiac arrhythmias especially Ventricular Fibrillation. PMID:26970857

  6. Cerebral magnetic resonance image segmentation using data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rajapakse, J.C.; Giedd, J.N.; Krain, A.L.; Hamburger, S.D.; Rapoport, J.L.; DeCarli, C.

    1996-03-01

    A semiautomated method is described for segmenting dual echo MR head scans into gray and white matter and CSF. The method is applied to brain scans of 80 healthy children and adolescents. A probabilistic data fusion equation was used to combine simultaneously acquired T2-weighted and proton density head scans for tissue segmentation. The fusion equation optimizes the probability of a voxel being a particular tissue type, given the corresponding probabilities from both images. The algorithm accounts for the intensity inhomogeneities present in the images by fusion of local regions of the images. The method was validated using a phantom (agarose gel with iron oxide particles) and hand-segmented imager. Gray and white matter volumes for subjects aged 20-30 years were close to those previously published. White matter and CSF volume increased and gray matter volume decreased significantly across ages 4-18 years. White matter, gray matter, and CSF volumes were larger for males than for females. Males and females showed similar change of gray and white matter volumes with age. This simple, reliable, and valid method can be employed in clinical research for quantification of gray and white matter and CSF volumes in MR head scans. Increase in white matter volume may reflect ongoing axonal growth and myelination, and gray matter reductions may reflect synaptic pruning or cell death in the age span of 4-18 years. 41 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Data Fusion Algorithms for Multiple Inertial Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Jared B.; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    A single low cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) is often used in conjunction with GPS to increase the accuracy and improve the availability of the navigation solution for a pedestrian navigation system. This paper develops several fusion algorithms for using multiple IMUs to enhance performance. In particular, this research seeks to understand the benefits and detriments of each fusion method in the context of pedestrian navigation. Three fusion methods are proposed. First, all raw IMU measurements are mapped onto a common frame (i.e., a virtual frame) and processed in a typical combined GPS-IMU Kalman filter. Second, a large stacked filter is constructed of several IMUs. This filter construction allows for relative information between the IMUs to be used as updates. Third, a federated filter is used to process each IMU as a local filter. The output of each local filter is shared with a master filter, which in turn, shares information back with the local filters. The construction of each filter is discussed and improvements are made to the virtual IMU (VIMU) architecture, which is the most commonly used architecture in the literature. Since accuracy and availability are the most important characteristics of a pedestrian navigation system, the analysis of each filter’s performance focuses on these two parameters. Data was collected in two environments, one where GPS signals are moderately attenuated and another where signals are severely attenuated. Accuracy is shown as a function of architecture and the number of IMUs used. PMID:22163985

  8. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  9. Exploring Multimodal Data Fusion Through Joint Decompositions with Flexible Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral Farias, Rodrigo; Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Comon, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    A Bayesian framework is proposed to define flexible coupling models for joint tensor decompositions of multiple data sets. Under this framework, a natural formulation of the data fusion problem is to cast it in terms of a joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator. Data driven scenarios of joint posterior distributions are provided, including general Gaussian priors and non Gaussian coupling priors. We present and discuss implementation issues of algorithms used to obtain the joint MAP estimator. We also show how this framework can be adapted to tackle the problem of joint decompositions of large datasets. In the case of a conditional Gaussian coupling with a linear transformation, we give theoretical bounds on the data fusion performance using the Bayesian Cramer-Rao bound. Simulations are reported for hybrid coupling models ranging from simple additive Gaussian models, to Gamma-type models with positive variables and to the coupling of data sets which are inherently of different size due to different resolution of the measurement devices.

  10. IMM filtering on parametric data for multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Scott; Owen, Mark W.

    2014-06-01

    In tracking, many types of sensor data can be obtained and utilized to distinguish a particular target. Commonly, kinematic information is used for tracking, but this can be combined with identification attributes and parametric information passively collected from the targets emitters. Along with the standard tracking process (predict, associate, score, update, and initiate) that operates in all kinematic trackers, parametric data can also be utilized to perform these steps and provide a means for feature fusion. Feature fusion, utilizing parametrics from multiple sources, yields a rich data set providing many degrees of freedom to separate and correlate data into appropriate tracks. Parametric radar data can take on many dynamics to include: stable, agile, jitter, and others. By utilizing a running sample mean and sample variance a good estimate of radar parametrics is achieved. However, when dynamics are involved, a severe lag can occur and a non-optimal estimate is achieved. This estimate can yield incorrect associations in feature space and cause track fragmentation or miscorrelation. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of the interacting multiple model (IMM) filter at estimating the first and second moments of radar parametrics. The algorithm is assessed by Monte Carlo simulation and compared against a running sample mean/variance technique. We find that the IMM approach yields a better result due to its ability to quickly adapt to dynamical systems with the proper model and tuning.

  11. Joint interpretation of geophysical data using Image Fusion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitrou, A.; Tsokas, G.; Petrou, M.

    2013-12-01

    Joint interpretation of geophysical data produced from different methods is a challenging area of research in a wide range of applications. In this work we apply several image fusion approaches to combine maps of electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, vertical gradient of the magnetic field, magnetic susceptibility, and ground penetrating radar reflections, in order to detect archaeological relics. We utilize data gathered from Arkansas University, with the support of the U.S. Department of Defense, through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP-CS1263). The area of investigation is the Army City, situated in Riley Country of Kansas, USA. The depth of the relics is estimated about 30 cm from the surface, yet the surface indications of its existence are limited. We initially register the images from the different methods to correct from random offsets due to the use of hand-held devices during the measurement procedure. Next, we apply four different image fusion approaches to create combined images, using fusion with mean values, wavelet decomposition, curvelet transform, and curvelet transform enhancing the images along specific angles. We create seven combinations of pairs between the available geophysical datasets. The combinations are such that for every pair at least one high-resolution method (resistivity or magnetic gradiometry) is included. Our results indicate that in almost every case the method of mean values produces satisfactory fused images that corporate the majority of the features of the initial images. However, the contrast of the final image is reduced, and in some cases the averaging process nearly eliminated features that are fade in the original images. Wavelet based fusion outputs also good results, providing additional control in selecting the feature wavelength. Curvelet based fusion is proved the most effective method in most of the cases. The ability of curvelet domain to unfold the image in

  12. Causal inference and the data-fusion problem

    PubMed Central

    Bareinboim, Elias; Pearl, Judea

    2016-01-01

    We review concepts, principles, and tools that unify current approaches to causal analysis and attend to new challenges presented by big data. In particular, we address the problem of data fusion—piecing together multiple datasets collected under heterogeneous conditions (i.e., different populations, regimes, and sampling methods) to obtain valid answers to queries of interest. The availability of multiple heterogeneous datasets presents new opportunities to big data analysts, because the knowledge that can be acquired from combined data would not be possible from any individual source alone. However, the biases that emerge in heterogeneous environments require new analytical tools. Some of these biases, including confounding, sampling selection, and cross-population biases, have been addressed in isolation, largely in restricted parametric models. We here present a general, nonparametric framework for handling these biases and, ultimately, a theoretical solution to the problem of data fusion in causal inference tasks. PMID:27382148

  13. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  14. An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.

  15. Geoinformatics and Data Fusion in the Southwestern Utah Mineral Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesel, T.; Enright, R.

    2012-12-01

    Data Fusion is a technique in remote sensing that combines separate geophysical data sets from different platforms to yield the maximum information of each set. Data fusion was employed on multiple sources of data for the purposes of investigating an area of the Utah Mineral Belt known as the San Francisco Mining District. In the past many mineral deposits were expressed in or on the immediate surface and therefore relatively easy to locate. More modern methods of investigation look for evidence beyond the visible spectrum to find patterns that predict the presence of deeply buried mineral deposits. The methods used in this study employed measurements of reflectivity or emissivity features in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for different materials, elevation data collected from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and indirect measurement of the magnetic or mass properties of deposits. The measurements were collected by various spaceborne remote sensing instruments like Landsat TM, ASTER and Hyperion and ground-based statewide geophysical surveys. ASTER's shortwave infrared bands, that have been calibrated to surface reflectance using the atmospheric correction tool FLAASH, can be used to identify products of hydrothermal alteration like kaolinite, alunite, limonite and pyrophyllite using image spectroscopy. The thermal infrared bands once calibrated to emissivity can be used to differentiate between felsic, mafic and carbonate rock units for the purposes of lithologic mapping. To validate results from the extracted spectral profiles existing geological reports were used for ground truth data. Measurements of electromagnetic spectra can only reveal the composition of surface features. Gravimetric and magnetic information were utilized to reveal subsurface features. Using Bouguer anomaly data provided by the USGS an interpreted geological cross section can be created that indicates the shape of local igneous intrusions and the depth of

  16. Radiation damage microstructures in nuclear ceramics with applications in fusion energy technology and nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.W.

    1989-09-01

    This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled Radiation Damage Microstructures in Nuclear Ceramics'' funded between July 1984 and July 1988 under DOE Grant FG02-84ER45090. The initial program, begun at MIT in 1983, had as its objective investigation of the radiation responses of ceramics, heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}, KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr,Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The issues involved have been the subject of a series of DOE-sponsored workshops in which the principal investigator has prominently participated, as well as of two informal collaborative meetings among DOE-supported groups at MIT, Los Alamos, University of New Mexico, Boeing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 202

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, S.; Kondev, F.G.

    2008-03-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 202 mass chain are presented. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by M.R. Schmorak (1997Sc07), published in Nuclear Data Sheets80, 647 (1997)

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 203

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.

    2005-05-01

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 203 mass chain are presented. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by S. Rab (1993Ra11), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 70, 173 (1993)

  19. Phase 1 report on sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1991-10-01

    In this report we discuss sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation approaches of possible maximal usefulness for subsurface imaging and characterization of land-fill waste sites. Two sensor technologies, terrain conductivity using electromagnetic induction and ground penetrating radar, are described and the literature on the subject is reviewed. We identify the maximum entropy stochastic method as one providing a rigorously justifiable framework for fusing the sensor data, briefly summarize work done by us in this area, and examine some of the outstanding issues with regard to data fusion and interpretation. 25 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Data Fusion Tool for Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Thomas, Josiah

    2014-01-01

    Tests were performed on two spiral bevel gear sets in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig to simulate the fielded failures of spiral bevel gears installed in a helicopter. Gear sets were tested until damage initiated and progressed on two or more gear or pinion teeth. During testing, gear health monitoring data was collected with two different health monitoring systems. Operational parameters were measured with a third data acquisition system. Tooth damage progression was documented with photographs taken at inspection intervals throughout the test. A software tool was developed for fusing the operational data and the vibration based gear condition indicator (CI) data collected from the two health monitoring systems. Results of this study illustrate the benefits of combining the data from all three systems to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears. The tool also enabled evaluation of the effectiveness of each CI with respect to operational conditions and fault mode.

  1. Wind Tunnel Data Fusion and Immersive Visualization: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Severance, Kurt; Brewster, Paul; Lazos, Barry; Keefe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This case study describes the process of fusing the data from several wind tunnel experiments into a single coherent visualization. Each experiment was conducted independently and was designed to explore different flow features around airplane landing gear. In the past, it would have been very difficult to correlate results from the different experiments. However, with a single 3-D visualization representing the fusion of the three experiments, significant insight into the composite flowfield was observed that would have been extremely difficult to obtain by studying its component parts. The results are even more compelling when viewed in an immersive environment.

  2. Compilation of requests for nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A request list for nuclear data which was produced from a computerized data file by the National Nuclear Data Center is presented. The request list is given by target nucleus (isotope) and then reaction type. The purpose of the compilation is to summarize the current needs of US Nuclear Energy programs and other applied technologies for nuclear data. Requesters are identified by laboratory, last name, and sponsoring US government agency. (WHK)

  3. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  4. Storing data from fusion experiments at the National Storage Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, D.N.; Meyer, W.H.

    1993-09-03

    The National Storage Laboratory (NSL) at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) is a prototype facility which is developing data storage and retrieval techniques using hardware that includes a hierarchy of storage devices. The ultimate goal is to store terabytes of data and achieve rapid retrieval times compatible with the type of media where the data is stored. Files stored in the NSL are accessed directly using the Network File System (NFS); in the future, the Andrew File System (AFS) is expected to be used. System level control of files is available using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or a set of program-callable routines. We have experimented with storing and retrieving data from fusion experiments at LLNL and at General Atomics in San Diego, California, using computers running UNIX and VMS operating systems. We discuss some issues associated with accessing files whose names are known, but which are not immediately available, the time required for retrieval, and other pertinent parameters.

  5. Prospects for an Environmental Data Fusion Center (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J.

    2009-12-01

    Data providers and stewards from across the country and around the world are increasingly working in a collaborative mode to solve a wide range of environmental problems. In the case of the Environmental Protection Agency, we are often major consumers of data from our partners across this diverse network. Our international, federal, state, local and private sector partners are responsible for the development and maintenance of the vast majority of information required to support EPA business requirements. Much of this partner held information is not readily discoverable or accessible by EPA staff. Data fusion concepts and practices could be applied to address parts of these problems. EPA is beginning to experiment with an Agency-wide data and services publishing environment that would enable users from inside and outside the Agency to access and share key datasets. In this session, EPA's exploratory work in this area will be described and input from the audience for next steps will be sought.

  6. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites.

  7. Data Assimilation and Data Fusion for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    The overarching goal of this Cooperative Agreement was to develop a model and procedures for the data assimilation of planetary spacecraft atmospheric observations. Data assimilation - in its application to weather analysis and prediction - is the process of finding an initial state of the meteorological variables (winds, temperatures, pressures, etc.) of an atmosphere, which, when propagated forward in time using a deterministic general circulation model, reproduces all of the available observations over that time to within the measurement and computational errors. With this definition, data assimilation is seen to be a natural extension of well-known least-squares minimization techniques. The primary complication arises from the scale of the problem: For the Martian atmosphere with the available nadir-viewing Thermal Emission Spectrometer data from Mars Global Surveyor, approximately 1,000,000 individual measurements of channel radiances (in the 15-micrometer region, where these radiances relate directly to the surface and atmospheric temperature) were made per day. A suitable general circulation model for dealing with this data set has on the order of 20,000 independent variables. After some spatial and temporal averaging of the data - which provides a necessary statistical estimate of the representativeness of the measurements, a crucial issue in data assimilation - the problem reduces in scale to the solution of approximately 50,000 equations for the 20,000 variables.

  8. High-spin nuclear structure data on the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B. |

    1997-12-31

    The study of nuclear structure at fast nuclear rotations, using fusion-evaporation reactions, started in the early sixties but since the experimental observation of superdeformation about a decade ago it has become one of the most pursued research topics in nuclear physics. Large gamma-ray detector arrays GAMMASPHERE, EUROGAM, and GASP were developed during the last few years and these continue to produce a wealth of new, information about the properties of nuclei at high spins, including superdeformation. It is considered vital to compile, evaluate and systematize published data on many thousands of levels and gamma rays and associated nuclear bands obtained in such studies and make these available to the research community in conveniently retrievable and modern formats. This talk will describe the numerical, bibliographic and other high-spin related databases that are already accessible via INTERNET. Present limitations and ways to improve the current status and display of such databases will also be discussed.

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 201

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.

    2007-02-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 201 mass chain are presented. This work supersedes the earlier full evaluation by M. Schmorak (1986Sc31) published in Nuclear Data Sheets 49, 733 (1986) and the update by S. Rab (1994Ra12), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 421 (1994)

  10. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  11. Metal Catalyzed Fusion: Nuclear Active Environment vs. Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2009-03-01

    To achieve radiationless dd fusion and/or other LENR reactions via chemistry: some focus on environment of interior or altered near-surface volume of bulk metal; some on environment inside metal nanocrystals or on their surface; some on the interface between nanometal crystals and ionic crystals; some on a momentum shock-stimulation reaction process. Experiment says there is also a spontaneous reaction process.

  12. Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2010-04-01

    A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

  13. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Rax, Jean M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.

  14. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor. 4 figures.

  15. Colour Image Segmentation Using Homogeneity Method and Data Fusion Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Chaabane, Salim; Sayadi, Mounir; Fnaiech, Farhat; Brassart, Eric

    2009-12-01

    A novel method of colour image segmentation based on fuzzy homogeneity and data fusion techniques is presented. The general idea of mass function estimation in the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory of the histogram is extended to the homogeneity domain. The fuzzy homogeneity vector is used to determine the fuzzy region in each primitive colour, whereas, the evidence theory is employed to merge different data sources in order to increase the quality of the information and to obtain an optimal segmented image. Segmentation results from the proposed method are validated and the classification accuracy for the test data available is evaluated, and then a comparative study versus existing techniques is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of introducing the fuzzy homogeneity method in evidence theory for image segmentation.

  16. Enhanced buried UXO detection via GPR/EMI data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Kelly, Jack; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the enhancements to detection of buried unexploded ordinances achieved by combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) data with electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. Novel features from both the GPR and the EMI sensors are concatenated as a long feature vector, on which a non-parametric classifier is then trained. The classifier is a boosting classifier based on tree classifiers, which allows for disparate feature values. The fusion algorithm was applied to a government-provided dataset from an outdoor testing site, and significant performance enhancements were obtained relative to classifiers trained solely on the GPR or EMI data. It is shown that the performance enhancements come from a combination of improvements in detection and in clutter rejection.

  17. Multisensor vehicle-mounted teleoperated mine detector with data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Aitken, Victor C.; Chesney, Robert; Das, Yogadhish; Russell, Kevin L.

    1998-09-01

    The Improved Landmine Detector Project (ILDP) was initiated in Autumn 1994 to develop a prototype teleoperated vehicle mounted mine detector for low metal content and nonmetallic mines to meet the Canadian requirements for rear area mine clearance in combat situations and peacekeeping on roads and tracks. The relatively relaxed requirements, such as low speed and reduced detectability of completely nonmetallic mines, greatly increase the likelihood of success. The ILDP system consists of a unique teleoperated vehicle carrying a forward looking infrared imager, a 3 m wide down-looking highly sensitive electromagnetic induction detector and a 3 m wide down-looking ground probing radar, which all scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Scanning sensor information is combined using a suite of navigation sensors and custom designed navigation, spatial correspondence and data fusion algorithms. Suspect targets are then confirmed by a thermal neutron analysis detector. A key element to the success of the system is the combination of sensor information. This requires coordinated communication between the sensors and navigation system and well designed sensor co-registration, spatial correspondence and data fusion methodologies. These complex tasks are discussed in detail. The advanced development model was completed in October 1997 and testing and improvements are ongoing. Results of system performance during extensive field trials are presented. A follow-on project has been initiated to build four to six production units for the Canadian Forces by the year 2000.

  18. Structured Multi-level Data Fusion and Modelling of Heterogeneous Environmental Data for Future Internet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Chakravarthy, Ajay; Bashevoy, Maxim; Modafferi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The rapid increase in environmental observations which are conducted by Small to Medium Enterprise communities and volunteers using affordable in situ sensors at various scales, in addition to the more established observatories set up by environmental and space agencies using airborne and space-borne sensing technologies is generating serious amounts of BIG data at ever increasing speeds. Furthermore, the emergence of Future Internet technologies and the urgent requirements for the deployment of specific enablers for the delivery of processed environmental knowledge in real-time with advanced situation awareness to citizens has reached paramount importance. Specifically, it has become highly critical now to build and provide services which automate the aggregation of data from various sources, while surmounting the semantic gaps, conflicts and heterogeneity in data sources. The early stage aggregation of data will enable the pre-processing of data from multiple sources while reconciling the temporal gaps in measurement time series, and aligning their respective a-synchronicities. This low level type of data fusion process needs to be automated and chained to more advanced level of data fusion services specialising in observation forecasts at spaces where sensing is not deployed; or at time slices where sensing has not taken place yet. As a result, multi-level fusion services are required among the families of specific enablers for monitoring environments and spaces in the Future Internet. These have been intially deployed and piloted in the ongoing ENVIROFI project of the FI-PPP programme [1]. Automated fusion and modelling of in situ and remote sensing data has been set up and the experimentation successfully conducted using RBF networks for the spatial fusion of water quality parameters measurements from satellite and stationary buoys in the Irish Sea. The RBF networks method scales for the spatial data fusion of multiple types of observation sources. This

  19. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  20. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  1. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  2. Compilation of Nuclear Reaction Data from RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinaga, Ayano; Ebata, Shuichiro; Aikawa, Masayuki; Furutachi, Naoya; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Katō, Kiyoshi; Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Devi, Vidya; Otuka, Naohiko; Kohama, Akihisa; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi

    Nuclear reaction data are useful in many fields, e.g., nuclear physics, astrophysics, nuclear engineering, and radiation therapy. It is therefore desirable to make such data freely available through a database. One such database is the EXFOR library, which is maintained under international cooperation. For the benefit of nuclear data users worldwide, the experimental nuclear data obtained at the RIKEN Radioisotope Beam Factory (RIBF) are continuously transmitted into the EXFOR library. We are effectively improving the completeness and usability of the data produced at the RIBF. In addition, a new format is being discussed to create convenient access to the databases for experimentalists and users.

  3. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  4. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimaru, S. . Dept. of Physics); Tajima, T. . Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  5. FUSION++: A New Data Assimilative Model for Electron Density Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bust, G. S.; Comberiate, J.; Paxton, L. J.; Kelly, M.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a continuing need within the operational space weather community, both civilian and military, for accurate, robust data assimilative specifications and forecasts of the global electron density field, as well as derived RF application product specifications and forecasts obtained from the electron density field. The spatial scales of interest range from a hundred to a few thousand kilometers horizontally (synoptic large scale structuring) and meters to kilometers (small scale structuring that cause scintillations). RF space weather applications affected by electron density variability on these scales include navigation, communication and geo-location of RF frequencies ranging from 100's of Hz to GHz. For many of these applications, the necessary forecast time periods range from nowcasts to 1-3 hours. For more "mission planning" applications, necessary forecast times can range from hours to days. In this paper we present a new ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) specification and forecast model being developed at JHU/APL based upon the well-known data assimilation algorithms Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four Dimensional (IDA4D) and Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE). This new forecast model, "Forward Update Simple IONosphere model Plus IDA4D Plus EMPIRE (FUSION++), ingests data from observations related to electron density, winds, electric fields and neutral composition and provides improved specification and forecast of electron density. In addition, the new model provides improved specification of winds, electric fields and composition. We will present a short overview and derivation of the methodology behind FUSION++, some preliminary results using real observational sources, example derived RF application products such as HF bi-static propagation, and initial comparisons with independent data sources for validation.

  6. Nuclear data needs for application in nuclear criticality safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-09-01

    In nuclear criticality safety applications, a number of important uncertainties have to be addressed to establish the required criticality safety margin of a nuclear system. One source of these uncertainties is the basic nuclear data used to calculate the effective multiplication factor of the system. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. Cross-section data are measured, evaluated, and tested prior to their inclusion in nuclear data libraries. Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations are performed to support the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. The neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy ranges, with a relatively minor influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems involving spent fuel elements from reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast neutron spectra and may have their most significant influence from the intermediate energy range. This requires extending the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  7. Nuclear Wallet Cards from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tuli, Jagdish K.

    Nuclear Wallet Cards present properties for ground and isomeric states of all known nuclides. Properties given are: spin and parity assignments, nuclear mass excesses, half-life, isotopic abundances, and decay modes. Appendices contain properties of elements, fundamental constants and other useful information. Nuclear Wallet Cards booklet is published by the National Nuclear Data Center and its electronic (current) version is periodically updated. The Nuclear Wallet Cards by Dr. Jagdish K. Tuli, presently in its 8th edition, is distributed in print as well as in PDA-adaptable Palm Pilot format; the data table as an ASCII file is available upon request. [Taken from http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/wallet/

  8. A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Godfroy, T.

    1998-01-15

    A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle population to go through one end to a direct converter. The energy of these particles is converted into electric power which is recirculated to sustain the steady state operation of the system. The injected power heats the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures where the resulting fusion energy appears a charged particle power, neutron power, and radiated power in the form of bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. The neutron power can be converted through a thermal converter to electric power that can be combined with the direct converter power before being fed into the injector. The radiated power, on the other hand, can be used to heat a hydrogen propellant introduced into the system at a specified pressure and mass flow rate. This propellant can be pre-heated by regeneratively cooling the (mirror) nozzle or other components of the system if feasible, or by an electrothermal unit powered by portions of the recirculated power. Using a simple heat transfer model that ignores the heat flux to the wall, and assuming total absorption of radiation energy by the propellant it is shown that such a gas core rocket is capable of producing tens of kilonewtons of thrust and several thousands of seconds of specific impulse. It is also shown that the familiar Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which arises from the relative motion of the neutral hydrogen to the ionized fuel is not likely to occur in this system due to the presence of the confining magnetic field.

  9. A fusion-driven gas core nuclear rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.; Godfroy, T.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetic confinement scheme is investigated as a potential propulsion device in which thrust is generated by a propellant heated by radiation emanating from a fusion plasma. The device in question is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to generate fusion energy while allowing a certain fraction of its charged particle population to go through one end to a direct converter. The energy of these particles is converted into electric power which is recirculated to sustain the steady state operation of the system. The injected power heats the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures where the resulting fusion energy appears a charged particle power, neutron power, and radiated power in the form of bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. The neutron power can be converted through a thermal converter to electric power that can be combined with the direct converter power before being fed into the injector. The radiated power, on the other hand, can be used to heat a hydrogen propellant introduced into the system at a specified pressure and mass flow rate. This propellant can be pre-heated by regeneratively cooling the (mirror) nozzle or other components of the system if feasible, or by an electrothermal unit powered by portions of the recirculated power. Using a simple heat transfer model that ignores the heat flux to the wall, and assuming total absorption of radiation energy by the propellant it is shown that such a gas core rocket is capable of producing tens of kilonewtons of thrust and several thousands of seconds of specific impulse. It is also shown that the familiar Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which arises from the relative motion of the neutral hydrogen to the ionized fuel is not likely to occur in this system due to the presence of the confining magnetic field.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 52

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yang; Junde, Huo

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear structure data belonging to all nuclei with mass number A=52 have been compiled and evaluated using experimental nuclear reaction data and decay data available before July 10, 2015. This evaluaton supersedes the previous publication for this msss chain (2007Hu08, Nuclear Data Sheets 108, 773 (2007)). The data for the ε decay of {sup 52}Co (104 ms) and the ε decay of {sup 52}Ni (40.8 ms) are both incomplete, so new studies would be useful.

  11. Improving Agent Based Models and Validation through Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Marek; Demianyk, Bryan C.P.; Friesen, Marcia R.; McLeod, Robert D.; Mukhi, Shamir N.

    2011-01-01

    This work is contextualized in research in modeling and simulation of infection spread within a community or population, with the objective to provide a public health and policy tool in assessing the dynamics of infection spread and the qualitative impacts of public health interventions. This work uses the integration of real data sources into an Agent Based Model (ABM) to simulate respiratory infection spread within a small municipality. Novelty is derived in that the data sources are not necessarily obvious within ABM infection spread models. The ABM is a spatial-temporal model inclusive of behavioral and interaction patterns between individual agents on a real topography. The agent behaviours (movements and interactions) are fed by census / demographic data, integrated with real data from a telecommunication service provider (cellular records) and person-person contact data obtained via a custom 3G Smartphone application that logs Bluetooth connectivity between devices. Each source provides data of varying type and granularity, thereby enhancing the robustness of the model. The work demonstrates opportunities in data mining and fusion that can be used by policy and decision makers. The data become real-world inputs into individual SIR disease spread models and variants, thereby building credible and non-intrusive models to qualitatively simulate and assess public health interventions at the population level. PMID:23569606

  12. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics. PMID:26064528

  13. Scene/object classification using multispectral data fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Thomas J.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Chovan, John D.

    1994-06-01

    Near-simultaneous, multispectral, coregistered imagery of ground target and background signatures were collected over a full diurnal cycle in visible, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrally filtered wavebands using Battelle's portable sensor suite. The imagery data were processed using classical statistical algorithms, artificial neural networks and data clustering techniques to classify objects in the imaged scenes. Imagery collected at different times throughout the day were employed to verify algorithm robustness with respect to temporal variations of spectral signatures. In addition, several multispectral sensor fusion medical imaging applications were explored including imaging of subcutaneous vasculature, retinal angiography, and endoscopic cholecystectomy. Work is also being performed to advance the state of the art using differential absorption lidar as an active remote sensing technique for spectrally detecting, identifying, and tracking hazardous emissions. These investigations support a wide variety of multispectral signature discrimination applications including the concepts of automated target search, landing zone detection, enhanced medical imaging, and chemical/biological agent tracking.

  14. Robust feature selection for microarray data based on multicriterion fusion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Mao, K Z

    2011-01-01

    Feature selection often aims to select a compact feature subset to build a pattern classifier with reduced complexity, so as to achieve improved classification performance. From the perspective of pattern analysis, producing stable or robust solution is also a desired property of a feature selection algorithm. However, the issue of robustness is often overlooked in feature selection. In this study, we analyze the robustness issue existing in feature selection for high-dimensional and small-sized gene-expression data, and propose to improve robustness of feature selection algorithm by using multiple feature selection evaluation criteria. Based on this idea, a multicriterion fusion-based recursive feature elimination (MCF-RFE) algorithm is developed with the goal of improving both classification performance and stability of feature selection results. Experimental studies on five gene-expression data sets show that the MCF-RFE algorithm outperforms the commonly used benchmark feature selection algorithm SVM-RFE. PMID:21566255

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets A = 84

    SciTech Connect

    Abriola, D.; Sonzogni, A.; Bostan,M. Erturk,S.; Fadi,M.; Galan,M.; Juutinen,S.; Kibed,T.; Kondev,F.; Luca,A.; Negret,A.; Nica,N.; Pfeiffer,B.; Singh.B.; Sonzogni,A.; Timar,J.; Tuli,J.; Venkova,T.; Zuber,K.

    2009-11-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 84 (Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Except for the stable nuclides {sup 84}Sr and {sup 84}Kr, extensive new data are available for all the other nuclides since the 1997 evaluation by J.K. Tuli (1997Tu02) of A = 84 nuclides. Many precise Penning-trap mass measurements since AME-2003 for A = 84 nuclides (2009Re03,2008Ha23,2008We10,2007Ke09,2006Ka48,2006De36,2006Ri15) have resulted in improved Q values and separation energies. However, many deficiencies still remain. Some examples are given below. Excited-state data for {sup 84}Ga and {sup 84}As are nonexistent, and those for {sup 84}Ge are scarce. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 84}Ga, {sup 84}Ge, {sup 84}Se, {sup 84}Y (39.5 min), {sup 84}Y (4.6 s), {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Nb suffer from incompleteness and that for {sup 84}Mo decay is not known at all. The energy ordering of the two activities (39.5 min and and 4.6 s) of {sup 84}Y is not well established, although, high-spin with tentative spin-parity of (6+) is adopted here as the ground state of {sup 84}Y based on weak arguments. From a conference report published in 2000, it is clear that extensive experiments were done to investigate decays of {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Y, but details of these studies never appeared in literature and none were made available to the evaluators when requested from original authors. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDF workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators, organized and hosted by the 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania during March 30, 2009 - April 3, 2009. Names of the evaluators principally responsible for evaluation of individual nuclides are given under the respective Adopted data sets.

  16. Towards an optimal fusion of SMOS and Aquarius SSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimbard, Sebastien; Umbert, Marta; Turiel, Antonio; Portabella, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched in November 2009, carrying onboard the MIRAS instrument, a novel fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer which estimates the surface brightness temperature (TB) by means of two-dimensional aperture synthesis interferometry. In June 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Argentina's Space Agency (CONAE) launched the Aquarius/SAC-D mission carrying onboard an L-band real aperture radiometer together with an L-band scatterometer. These two missions provide global coverage of sea surface salinity (SSS) with different repetition rates, spatial resolutions and accuracies. While SMOS has a wider coverage and higher spatial resolution, Aquarius has higher radiometric accuracy. To achieve the challenging mission requirements at weekly (0.1 psu at 200 x 200 km resolution) and monthly (0.1 psu at 100 km x 100 km resolution) scales, fusion of SMOS and Aquarius SSS is required. A prerequisite for a successful data fusion is to perform a comprehensive intercalibration of the different SSS data sources. The SMOS and Aquarius instrument concepts are very different and, as such, we expect different calibration strategies as well as different impact of external noise contaminations (e.g., Sun, land-sea contamination, radio frequency interference, etc.). These differences will of course produce differences in the SMOS and Aquarius SSS retrievals. Despite these differences, both instruments measure the brightness temperature of the ocean surface at the same frequency (1.41 GHz) and polarizations (except for the Stokes 4 parameter which is not measured by Aquarius). As such, the theoretical relation between the brightness temperature and the different sea surface geophysical parameters (including SSS) is the same for both missions. In consequence, one would expect that by doing proper calibration and external noise corrections/filtering, SMOS and Aquarius SSS could be

  17. Automatic classification of 3D segmented CT data using data fusion and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ahmad; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Hassler, Ulf

    2011-07-01

    The three dimensional X-ray computed tomography (3D-CT) has proved its successful usage as inspection method in non destructive testing. The generated 3D volume using high efficiency reconstruction algorithms contains all the inner structures of the inspected part. Segmentation of this volume reveals suspicious regions which need to be classified into defects or false alarms. This paper deals with the classification step using data fusion theory and support vector machine. Results achieved are very promising and prove the effectiveness of the data fusion theory as a method to build stronger classifier.

  18. Countering anti-forensics by means of data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, Marco; Bonchi, Alessandro; Piva, Alessandro; Barni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    In the last years many image forensic (IF) algorithms have been proposed to reveal traces of processing or tampering. On the other hand, Anti-Forensic (AF) tools have also been developed to help the forger in removing editing footprints. Inspired by the fact that it is much harder to commit a perfect crime when the forensic analyst uses a multi-clue investigation strategy, we analyse the possibility o ered by the adoption of a data fusion framework in a Counter-Anti-Forensic (CAF) scenario. We do so by adopting a theoretical framework, based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence, to synergically merge information provided by IF tools and CAF tools, whose goal is to reveal traces introduced by anti-forensic algorithms. The proposed system accounts for the non-trivial relationships between IF and CAF techniques; for example, in some cases the outputs from the former are expected to contradict the output from the latter. We evaluate the proposed method within a representative forensic task, that is splicing detection in JPEG images, with the forger trying to conceal traces using two di erent counter-forensic methods. Results show that decision fusion strongly limits the e ectiveness of AF methods.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets A=32

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellet C.; Ouellet,C.; Singh,B.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for experimentally investigated nuclides of mass 32 (Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar) has been evaluated. The principal sources of the Adopted Levels presented for nuclides close to the stability line are Endt's evaluations (1990En08, 1978En02). The data sets for reactions and decays, including all available gamma-ray data, are based mostly on the original literature. Except for the half-life of {sup 32}Ne decay, no other details about its decay characteristics are available. Structure data for {sup 32}Ne and {sup 32}Na are limited to only one excited state in each. The {sup 32}Mg nuclide is of central and prime relevance in the 'island of inversion' at or near N = 20 semi-closed shell. The lifetime of only one excited state in {sup 32}Mg is known. The spin-parity assignments of several levels in this nucleus are not quite firm. The structure of {sup 32}Ar is limited to only one known state at low energy and two resonances in the giant-dipole excitation region. The {sup 32}P, {sup 32}S and {sup 32}Cl remain the most extensively studied nuclei through various reaction channels.

  20. Autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum. PMID:25560310

  1. Autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum. PMID:25560310

  2. Data fusion techniques for object space classification using airborne laser data and airborne digital photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joong Yong

    The objective of this research is to investigate possible strategies for the fusion of airborne laser data with passive optical data for object space classification. A significant contribution of our work is the development and implementation of a data-level fusion technique, direct digital image georeferencing (DDIG). In DDIG, we use navigation data from an integrated system (composed of global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU)) to project three-dimensional data points measured with the University of Florida's airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system onto digital aerial photographs. As an underlying math model, we use the familiar collinearity condition equations. After matching the ALSM object space points to their corresponding image space pixels, we resample the digital photographs using cubic convolution techniques. We call the resulting images pseudo-ortho-rectified images (PORI) because they are orthographic at the ground surface but still exhibit some relief displacement for elevated objects; and because they have been resampled using a interpolation technique. Our accuracy tests on these PORI images show that they are planimetrically correct to about 0.4 meters. This accuracy is sufficient to remove most of the effects of the central perspective projection and enable a meaningful fusion of the RGB data with the height and intensity data produced by the laser. PORI images may also be sufficiently accurate for many other mapping applications, and may in some applications be an attractive alternative to traditional photogrammetric techniques. A second contribution of our research is the development of several strategies for the fusion of data from airborne laser and camera systems. We have conducted our work within the sensor fusion paradigm formalized in the optical engineering community. Our work explores the fusion of these two types of data for precision mapping applications. Specifically, we combine three different types of

  3. Low-Energy Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Heavy Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2006-08-14

    A new approach is proposed for a unified description of strongly coupled deep-inelastic (DI) scattering, fusion, fission, and quasi-fission (QF) processes of heavy ion collisions. A unified driving-potential and a unified set of dynamic Langevin-type equations of motion are used in this approach. This makes it possible to perform a full (continuous) time analysis of the evolution of heavy nuclear systems, starting from the approaching stage, moving up to the formation of the compound nucleus or emerging into two final fragments. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with the corresponding experimental data for heavy and superheavy nuclear systems. Collisions of very heavy nuclei (such as 238U+248Cm) are investigated as an alternative way for production of superheavy elements. Large charge and mass transfer was found in these reactions due to the inverse (anti-symmetrizing) quasi-fission process leading to formation of surviving superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei.

  4. Nuclear Structure Data for the Present Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2005-05-01

    The US Nuclear Data Program maintains and provides easy and free access to several comprehensive databases that assist scientists to sift through and assess the vast quantity of published nuclear structure and decay data. These databases are an invaluable asset for nuclear-science experimentalists and theorists alike, and the recommended values provided for nuclear properties such as decay modes, level energies and lifetimes, and radiation properties can also be of great importance to specialists in other fields such as medicine, geophysics, and reactor design. The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains experimental nuclear structure data for all known nuclides, evaluated by the US nuclear data program evaluators in collaboration with a number of international data groups; the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) database provides complementary bibliographic information; the Experimental Unevaluated Nuclear Data Listing (XUNDL) exists to enable rapid access to experimental nuclear-structure data compiled from the most recent publications (primarily in high-spin physics). This paper presents an overview of the nuclear structure and decay data available through these databases, with emphasis on recent and forthcoming additions to and presentations of the available material.

  5. A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Nirmala; Ganeshan, A. S.; Mishra, Saumyaketu

    2012-07-01

    A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion) Saumyaketu Mishra, Nirmala S, A S Ganeshan ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore and Timothy Schempp, Gregory Um, Hans Habereder Raytheon Company Development of a region-specific ionosphere model is the key element in providing precision approach services for civil aviation with GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation). GAGAN is an Indian SBAS (Space Based Augmentation System) comprising of three segments; space segment (GEO and GPS), ground segment (15 Indian reference stations (INRES), 2 master control centers and 3 ground uplink stations) and user segment. The GAGAN system is intended to provide air navigation services for APV 1/1.5 precision approach over the Indian land mass and RNP 0.1 navigation service over Indian Flight Information Region (FIR), conforming to the standards of GNSS ICAO-SARPS. Ionosphere being largest source of error is of prime concern for a SBAS. India is a low latitude country, posing challenges for grid based ionosphere algorithm development; large spatial and temporal gradients, Equatorial anomaly, Depletions (bubbles), Scintillations etc. To meet the required GAGAN performance, it is necessary to develop and implement a best suitable ionosphere model, applicable for the Indian region as thin shell models like planar does not meet the requirement. ISRO GIVE Model - Multi Layer Data Fusion (IGM-MLDF) employs an innovative approach for computing the ionosphere corrections and confidences at pre-defined grid points at 350 Km shell height. Ionosphere variations over the Geo-magnetic equatorial regions shows peak electron density shell height variations from 200 km to 500 km, so single thin shell assumption at 350 km is not valid over Indian region. Hence IGM-MLDF employs innovative scheme of modeling at two shell heights. Through empirical analysis the shell heights of 250 km and 450 km are chosen. The ionosphere measurement

  6. Fusion of laser and image sensory data for 3-D modeling of the free navigation space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mass, M.; Moghaddamzadeh, A.; Bourbakis, N.

    1994-01-01

    A fusion technique which combines two different types of sensory data for 3-D modeling of a navigation space is presented. The sensory data is generated by a vision camera and a laser scanner. The problem of different resolutions for these sensory data was solved by reduced image resolution, fusion of different data, and use of a fuzzy image segmentation technique.

  7. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  8. Multi-sensor data fusion framework for CNC machining monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, João A.; Padget, Julian A.; Bowen, Chris R.; Kim, H. Alicia; Nassehi, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Reliable machining monitoring systems are essential for lowering production time and manufacturing costs. Existing expensive monitoring systems focus on prevention/detection of tool malfunctions and provide information for process optimisation by force measurement. An alternative and cost-effective approach is monitoring acoustic emissions (AEs) from machining operations by acting as a robust proxy. The limitations of AEs include high sensitivity to sensor position and cutting parameters. In this paper, a novel multi-sensor data fusion framework is proposed to enable identification of the best sensor locations for monitoring cutting operations, identifying sensors that provide the best signal, and derivation of signals with an enhanced periodic component. Our experimental results reveal that by utilising the framework, and using only three sensors, signal interpretation improves substantially and the monitoring system reliability is enhanced for a wide range of machining parameters. The framework provides a route to overcoming the major limitations of AE based monitoring.

  9. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion

    PubMed Central

    Alexeev, Boris V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the ‘acoustic CF’ could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics. PMID:26064528

  10. Sub-Barrier Fusion in the HI + 208Pb Systems and Nuclear Potentials for Cluster Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R.N.; Tretyakova, S.P.; Khlebnikov, S.V.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Rowley, N.

    2005-11-21

    Near-barrier fusion excitation functions for the 12,14C, 16,18O + 208Pb reactions have been analyzed in the framework of the barrier-passing model using different forms of the nuclear potential and the phenomenology of a fluctuating barrier. The best-fit fusion potentials were used to estimate cluster decay probabilities from the corresponding ground states of Ra and Th, i.e., for the inverse decay process. The analysis supports the 'alpha-decay-like' scenario for carbon and oxygen emission from these nuclei.

  11. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Canik, John; Diem, Stephanie J; Milora, Stanley L; Park, J. M.; Sontag, Aaron C; Fogarty, P. J.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Murakami, Masanori; Burgess, Thomas W; Cole, Michael J; Katoh, Yutai; Korsah, Kofi; Patton, Bradley D; Wagner, John C; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  12. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) before Upgrade to Component Test Facility (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2010-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, understand, and innovate scientific and technical solutions for the challenges facing DEMO, by addressing the multi-scale synergistic interactions involving fusion plasma material interactions, tritium fuel cycle, power extraction, and the nuclear effects on materials. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of 19 MW. If and when this research operation is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and 76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate- plasmas would minimize plasma-induced disruptions, helping to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all components using extensive remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for all internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post with RH-compatible bi-directional sliding joints. Such device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum seal welds behind the internal and shielding components. If these further goals could be achieved, the FNSF would provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, at higher neutron fluence and duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF strategy would be complementary to the ITER and the Broader Approach programs, and thereby help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program

  13. Fusion Reactions of Superheavy and Giant Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Walter; Zagrebaev, Valery

    2007-05-22

    The problem of production and study of superheavy elements is discussed in the talk. Different nuclear reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are analyzed. Collisions of transactinide nuclei are investigated as an alternative way for production of neutron-rich superheavy elements. In many events lifetime of the composite giant nuclear system consisting of two touching nuclei turns out to be rather long ({>=} 10-20 s); sufficient for observing line structure in spontaneous positron emission from super-strong electric fields, a fundamental QED process.

  14. Customizable scientific web-portal for DIII-D nuclear fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abla, G.; Kim, E. N.; Schissel, D. P.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing utilization of the Internet and convenient web technologies has made the web-portal a major application interface for remote participation and control of scientific instruments. While web-portals have provided a centralized gateway for multiple computational services, the amount of visual output often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments. Since each scientist may have different priorities and areas of interest in the experiment, filtering and organizing information based on the individual user's need can increase the usability and efficiency of a web-portal. DIII-D is the largest magnetic nuclear fusion device in the US. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Each individual user can create a unique working environment to fit his own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data analysis and visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, and online instant announcement services. The DIII-D web-portal development utilizes multi-tier software architecture, and Web 2.0 technologies and tools, such as AJAX and Django, to develop a highly-interactive and customizable user interface.

  15. Data fusion for automated non-destructive inspection

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, N.; Tippetts, T.; Cawley, P.

    2014-01-01

    In industrial non-destructive evaluation (NDE), it is increasingly common for data acquisition to be automated, driving a recent substantial increase in the availability of data. The collected data need to be analysed, typically necessitating the painstaking manual labour of a skilled operator. Moreover, in automated NDE a region of an inspected component is typically interrogated several times, be it within a single data channel due to multiple probe passes, across several channels acquired simultaneously or over the course of repeated inspections. The systematic combination of these diverse readings is recognized to offer an opportunity to improve the reliability of the inspection, but is not achievable in a manual analysis. This paper describes a data-fusion-based software framework providing a partial automation capability, allowing component regions to be declared defect-free to a very high probability while readily identifying defect indications, thereby optimizing the use of the operator's time. The system is designed to applicable to a wide range of automated NDE scenarios, but the processing is exemplified using the industrial ultrasonic immersion inspection of aerospace turbine discs. Results obtained for industrial datasets demonstrate an orders-of-magnitude reduction in false-call rates, for a given probability of detection, achievable using the developed software system. PMID:25002828

  16. Image construction from the IRAS survey and data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. R.

    1990-01-01

    The IRAS survey data can be used successfully to produce images of extended objects. The major difficulty, viz. non-uniform sampling, different response functions for each detector, and varying signal-to-noise levels for each detector for each scan, were resolved. The results of three different image construction techniques are compared: co-addition, constrained least squares, and maximum entropy. The maximum entropy result is superior. An image of the galaxy M51 with an average spatial resolution of 45 arc seconds, is presented using 60 micron survey data. This exceeds the telescope diffraction limit of 1 minute of arc, at this wavelength. Data fusion is a proposed method for combining data from different instruments, with different spatial resolutions, at different wavelengths. Direct estimates of the physical parameters, temperature, density and composition, can be made from the data without prior images (re-)construction. An increase in the accuracy of these parameters is expected as the result of this more systematic approach.

  17. The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties have driven many AEC, ERDA, and DOE supported nuclear data development efforts in this period. The level of cross-section, decay, and fission-yield data has evolved from rudimentary to a comprehensive ENDF/B-VI library permitting great precision in reactor calculations. The precision of the data supporting reactor simulations provides a sturdy foundation for the data base required for the wide range of transmutation problems currently studied. However, such reactor problems are typically limited to neutron energies below 10 MeV or so; reaction and decay data are required for actinides of, say, 90 {le} Z {le} 96 neutron-rich fission products of 22 {le} Z {le} 72. The expansion into reactor structural materials and fusion systems extends these ranges in energy and Z somewhat. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, is now described in the following table.

  18. Radar and infrared data fusion algorithm based on fuzzy-neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Feng; Yang, Wan Hai

    2007-12-01

    In modern war, the war field environment is complex and interfere is heavy, single mode weapon can not meet the military need. Multi-mode guiding weapon has some advantages for its multi-sensor data fusion. Radar and Infrared data fusion has been widely studied due to its implementation of complementary information, improvement of target tracking and enhancement of system viability. During fusing radar and infrared data under the condition of radar-infrared dual mode guidance, there is a problem that radar data is asynchronous with infrared data. The infrared measurement data is fused first to keep synchronous with the radar measurement data. The processed data is transmitted to the central Fuzzy-neutral network (FNN) data fusion central, which is employed to decrease the influence of the uncertainty of sensor state on fusion performance. A fused estimation of target is formed. Simulation result demonstrates that this method can improve the stability and reliability of fusion.

  19. BICAR: A New Algorithm for Multiresolution Spatiotemporal Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin S.; Grafton, Scott T.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for spatiotemporal data fusion and demonstrate its performance on three constructed data sets: one entirely simulated, one with temporal speech signals and simulated spatial images, and another with recorded music time series and astronomical images defining the spatial patterns. Each case study is constructed to present specific challenges to test the method and demonstrate its capabilities. Our algorithm, BICAR (Bidirectional Independent Component Averaged Representation), is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and extracts pairs of temporal and spatial sources from two data matrices with arbitrarily different spatiotemporal resolution. We pair the temporal and spatial sources using a physical transfer function that connects the dynamics of the two. BICAR produces a hierarchy of sources ranked according to reproducibility; we show that sources which are more reproducible are more similar to true (known) sources. BICAR is robust to added noise, even in a “worst case” scenario where all physical sources are equally noisy. BICAR is also relatively robust to misspecification of the transfer function. BICAR holds promise as a useful data-driven assimilation method in neuroscience, earth science, astronomy, and other signal processing domains. PMID:23209693

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1998-11-19

    Experimental data for all nuclei with mass A = 91 have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 15 December 1998, supersedes the 1990 evaluation by H.-W. Müller (Nuclear Data Sheets60, 835 1990)).

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 112

    SciTech Connect

    Lalkovski, S.; Kondev, F.G.

    2015-02-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 112 mass chain are presented. The experimental data are evaluated and best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities, and other nuclear properties are recommended. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by D. De Frenne and E. Jacobs (1996De55), published in Nuclear Data Sheets79, 639 (1996)

  2. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 133

    SciTech Connect

    Khazov, Yu.; Rodionov, A.; Kondev, F.G.

    2011-04-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A=133 mass chain are presented. The experimental data are evaluated and best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities, and other nuclear properties are recommended. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by S. Raab (1995Ra12), published in Nuclear Data Sheets75, 491 (1995).

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 207

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.; Lalkovski, S.

    2011-03-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A=207 mass chain are presented. The experimental data are evaluated and best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities, and other nuclear properties are recommended. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by M.J. Martin (1993Ma73), published in Nuclear Data Sheets70, 315 (1993).

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 216

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.-C.

    2007-05-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data for all nuclei with mass number A = 216 are presented together with the relevant level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies. The experimental data are evaluated, inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted, and adopted values for level and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma} intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. The present evaluation supersedes the earlier one on A = 216 by A. Artna-Cohen (1997Ar04), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 80, 157 (1997)

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 206

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.

    2008-06-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 206 mass chain are presented. The experimental data are evaluated and recommended best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities and other nuclear properties are presented. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by E. Browne (1999Br39), published in Nuclear Data Sheets88, 29 (1999)

  6. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 204

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, C.J.; Kondev, F.G.

    2010-01-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 204 mass chain are presented. The experimental data are evaluated and best values for level and gamma-ray energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, gamma-ray intensities, and other nuclear properties are recommended. Inconsistencies and discrepancies that exist in the literature are noted. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by M.R. Schmorak (1994Sc24), published in Nuclear Data Sheets72, 409 (1994)

  7. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  8. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 74

    SciTech Connect

    Farhan, A R

    1995-04-01

    The 1987 evaluation of A = 74 has been revised. Nuclear structure data for known nuclides (Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb) have been evaluated and presented. No data are yet available for excited states {sup 74}Ni, {sup 74}Cu, and {sup 74}Rb. No data other than nuclear structure calculations are available for {sup 74}Sr.

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 247

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nesaraja, C. D.

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass number A=247. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. Moreover, when there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental resultsare also noted.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 214

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.-C.

    2009-03-15

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 214 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. The present evaluation supersedes the earlier one on A = 214 by Y.A. Akovali (1995El07), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 76, 127 (1995)

  11. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 199

    SciTech Connect

    Artna-Cohen, A.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear structure data on A = 199 have been compiled and evaluated. Results from reaction and decay studies are presented together with adopted level and transition properties. Data is presented for Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, and Rn. This update replaces parts of evaluation for A = 199 published in Nuclear Data Sheets 53, 331 (1988).

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=247

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2015-01-01

    Available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass number A=247 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental resultsare also noted.

  13. Connecting the "Hot Fusion Island" to the Nuclear Mainland: Search for 283,284,285Fl Decay Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, K. P.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Miernik, K.; Roberto, J. B.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Polyakov, A. N.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.

    The program of studies on superheavy nuclei to identify new isotopes anchoring the decay chains from the Hot Fusion Island to the Nuclear Mainland has been started at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS, JINR Dubna) in collaboration between Russia, US and Poland. These studies are performed with new detection and digital data acquisition system developed at ORNL (Oak Ridge) and UT (Knoxville). The evidence for fast fission of the new isotope 284Fl is presented. The low cross section for the 3n channel of 239Pu + 48Ca reaction is attributed to lower than expected fission barriers in 287-284Fl.

  14. Data processing in fusion experiments with remote participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, E.; Ruiz, M.; López, S.; Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.

    2003-03-01

    Remote participation in fusion experiments is becoming more and more widespread. From the point of view of the data processing that each experiment generates, remote participation increases the present needs of existing systems. On the one hand, these systems must be able to acquire the data from each discharge (with hundreds of channels and high-sample frequencies) and, on the other hand, they must be able to compress, analyze, and process data in as short period of time as possible. This would mean a decrease in network bandwidth use when sending results to remote investigators, a considerable saving of space in the local database, and a reduction of computation time in the server. Furthermore, in remote participation experiments, the system would allow each user to configure their own measures and analyses (downloading their own high-level programs in the system—writing in 4GL languages, for example in LABVIEW—and receiving the processed data as soon as possible). What is proposed as a solution for data processing in experiments with remote participation (that will be applied in the stellarator type device (TJ-II) of the Research Center for Energy, Environment, and Technology (CIEMAT), of Madrid Spain, is a distributed system that guarantees noise immunity and electromagnetic shielding (for example, based on several PCI (peripheral component interconnect) extensions for instrumentation (PXI) chassis with several digitizer boards in each one). It is not possible to process all data from the system's own controller. Therefore, the following alternative will be presented: The design of the development of a processing board, that works in a peripheral PXI slot (nonsystem slot), running a real-time operating system (WNT+RTX, RT-LINUX,…), that communicates by PXI bus with the controller. In this way, the needs of data processing in remote participation experiments can be fulfilled.

  15. A review of multivariate methods in brain imaging data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jing; Adali, Tülay; Li, Yi-Ou; Yang, Honghui; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2010-03-01

    On joint analysis of multi-task brain imaging data sets, a variety of multivariate methods have shown their strengths and been applied to achieve different purposes based on their respective assumptions. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on optimization assumptions of six data fusion models, including 1) four blind methods: joint independent component analysis (jICA), multimodal canonical correlation analysis (mCCA), CCA on blind source separation (sCCA) and partial least squares (PLS); 2) two semi-blind methods: parallel ICA and coefficient-constrained ICA (CC-ICA). We also propose a novel model for joint blind source separation (BSS) of two datasets using a combination of sCCA and jICA, i.e., 'CCA+ICA', which, compared with other joint BSS methods, can achieve higher decomposition accuracy as well as the correct automatic source link. Applications of the proposed model to real multitask fMRI data are compared to joint ICA and mCCA; CCA+ICA further shows its advantages in capturing both shared and distinct information, differentiating groups, and interpreting duration of illness in schizophrenia patients, hence promising applicability to a wide variety of medical imaging problems.

  16. Protein function prediction based on data fusion and functional interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Wekesa, Jael-Sanyanda; Shi, Guan-Li; Luan, Yu-Shi

    2016-04-01

    One of the challenging tasks of bioinformatics is to predict more accurate and confident protein functions from genomics and proteomics datasets. Computational approaches use a variety of high throughput experimental data, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI), protein sequences and phylogenetic profiles, to predict protein functions. This paper presents a method that uses transductive multi-label learning algorithm by integrating multiple data sources for classification. Multiple proteomics datasets are integrated to make inferences about functions of unknown proteins and use a directed bi-relational graph to assign labels to unannotated proteins. Our method, bi-relational graph based transductive multi-label function annotation (Bi-TMF) uses functional correlation and topological PPI network properties on both the training and testing datasets to predict protein functions through data fusion of the individual kernel result. The main purpose of our proposed method is to enhance the performance of classifier integration for protein function prediction algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of Bi-TMF on multi-sources datasets in yeast, human and mouse benchmarks. Bi-TMF outperforms other recently proposed methods. PMID:26869536

  17. Optimized data fusion for K-means Laplacian clustering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi; Liu, Xinhai; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Glänzel, Wolfgang; Suykens, Johan A. K.; De Moor, Bart; Moreau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: We propose a novel algorithm to combine multiple kernels and Laplacians for clustering analysis. The new algorithm is formulated on a Rayleigh quotient objective function and is solved as a bi-level alternating minimization procedure. Using the proposed algorithm, the coefficients of kernels and Laplacians can be optimized automatically. Results: Three variants of the algorithm are proposed. The performance is systematically validated on two real-life data fusion applications. The proposed Optimized Kernel Laplacian Clustering (OKLC) algorithms perform significantly better than other methods. Moreover, the coefficients of kernels and Laplacians optimized by OKLC show some correlation with the rank of performance of individual data source. Though in our evaluation the K values are predefined, in practical studies, the optimal cluster number can be consistently estimated from the eigenspectrum of the combined kernel Laplacian matrix. Availability: The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/oklc.html. Contact: shiyu@uchicago.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20980271

  18. Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2015-05-27

    In July 2014, DOE NP carried out a review of the US Nuclear Data Program. This led to several recommendations, including that the USNDP should “devise effective and transparent mechanisms to solicit input and feedback from all stakeholders on nuclear data needs and priorities.” The review also recommended that USNDP pursue experimental activities of relevance to nuclear data; the revised 2014 Mission Statement accordingly states that the USNDP uses “targeted experimental studies” to address gaps in nuclear data. In support of these recommendations, DOE NP requested that USNDP personnel organize a Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications (NDNCA). This Workshop was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goal of the NDNCA Workshop was to compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for the required measurements. The first two days of the workshop consisted of 25 plenary talks by speakers from 16 different institutions, on nuclear energy (NE), national security (NS), isotope production (IP), and industrial applications (IA). There were also shorter “capabilities” talks that described the experimental facilities and instrumentation available for the measurement of nuclear data. This was followed by a third day of topic-specific “breakout” sessions and a final closeout session. The agenda and copies of these talks are available online at http://bang.berkeley.edu/events/NDNCA/agenda. The importance of nuclear data to both basic and applied nuclear science was reflected in the fact that while the impetus for the workshop arose from the 2014 USNDP review, joint sponsorship for the workshop was provided by the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium, a UC-Berkeley based organization funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  19. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  20. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR INDUCED BREAKUP ON THE FUSION OF 6Li+12C AND 6He+12C SYSTEMS AROUND BARRIER ENERGIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhan, Sukhvinder S.; Singh, Manjeet; Kharab, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the effects of nuclear induced breakup channel coupling on the fusion cross-section for 6Li+12C and 6He+12C systems in the near barrier energy regime using the dynamic polarization potential (DPP) approach. It has been found that there is enhancement in the fusion cross-section with respect to standard one-dimensional barrier penetration model in the below barrier energy regime while at energies above the barrier there is suppression of fusion cross-section with respect to simple barrier penetration model is observed. The agreement between data and predictions for 6Li+12C system improves significantly as a result of the inclusion of nuclear induced DPP.

  1. Mapping Migratory Bird Prevalence Using Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott; Hofton, Michelle; Betts, Matthew G.; Sun, Mindy; Simard, Marc; Holmes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Improved maps of species distributions are important for effective management of wildlife under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Recent advances in lidar and radar remote sensing have shown considerable potential for mapping forest structure and habitat characteristics across landscapes. However, their relative efficacies and integrated use in habitat mapping remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the use of lidar, radar and multispectral remote sensing data in predicting multi-year bird detections or prevalence for 8 migratory songbird species in the unfragmented temperate deciduous forests of New Hampshire, USA. Methodology and Principal Findings A set of 104 predictor variables describing vegetation vertical structure and variability from lidar, phenology from multispectral data and backscatter properties from radar data were derived. We tested the accuracies of these variables in predicting prevalence using Random Forests regression models. All data sets showed more than 30% predictive power with radar models having the lowest and multi-sensor synergy (“fusion”) models having highest accuracies. Fusion explained between 54% and 75% variance in prevalence for all the birds considered. Stem density from discrete return lidar and phenology from multispectral data were among the best predictors. Further analysis revealed different relationships between the remote sensing metrics and bird prevalence. Spatial maps of prevalence were consistent with known habitat preferences for the bird species. Conclusion and Significance Our results highlight the potential of integrating multiple remote sensing data sets using machine-learning methods to improve habitat mapping. Multi-dimensional habitat structure maps such as those generated from this study can significantly advance forest management and ecological research by facilitating fine-scale studies at both stand and landscape level. PMID:22235254

  2. Discovering and understanding oncogenic gene fusions through data intensive computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Latysheva, Natasha S.; Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    Although gene fusions have been recognized as important drivers of cancer for decades, our understanding of the prevalence and function of gene fusions has been revolutionized by the rise of next-generation sequencing, advances in bioinformatics theory and an increasing capacity for large-scale computational biology. The computational work on gene fusions has been vastly diverse, and the present state of the literature is fragmented. It will be fruitful to merge three camps of gene fusion bioinformatics that appear to rarely cross over: (i) data-intensive computational work characterizing the molecular biology of gene fusions; (ii) development research on fusion detection tools, candidate fusion prioritization algorithms and dedicated fusion databases and (iii) clinical research that seeks to either therapeutically target fusion transcripts and proteins or leverages advances in detection tools to perform large-scale surveys of gene fusion landscapes in specific cancer types. In this review, we unify these different—yet highly complementary and symbiotic—approaches with the view that increased synergy will catalyze advancements in gene fusion identification, characterization and significance evaluation. PMID:27105842

  3. Discovering and understanding oncogenic gene fusions through data intensive computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Babu, M Madan

    2016-06-01

    Although gene fusions have been recognized as important drivers of cancer for decades, our understanding of the prevalence and function of gene fusions has been revolutionized by the rise of next-generation sequencing, advances in bioinformatics theory and an increasing capacity for large-scale computational biology. The computational work on gene fusions has been vastly diverse, and the present state of the literature is fragmented. It will be fruitful to merge three camps of gene fusion bioinformatics that appear to rarely cross over: (i) data-intensive computational work characterizing the molecular biology of gene fusions; (ii) development research on fusion detection tools, candidate fusion prioritization algorithms and dedicated fusion databases and (iii) clinical research that seeks to either therapeutically target fusion transcripts and proteins or leverages advances in detection tools to perform large-scale surveys of gene fusion landscapes in specific cancer types. In this review, we unify these different-yet highly complementary and symbiotic-approaches with the view that increased synergy will catalyze advancements in gene fusion identification, characterization and significance evaluation. PMID:27105842

  4. Citation guidelines for nuclear data retrieved from databases resident at the Nuclear Data Centers Network

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Data Centers Network is a world-wide cooperation of nuclear data centers under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Network organizes the task of collecting, compiling, standardizing, storing, assessing, and distributing the nuclear data on an international scale. Information available at the Centers includes bibliographic, experimental, and evaluated databases for nuclear reaction data and for nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. The objective of the Network is to provide the information to users in a convenient, readily-available form. To this end, online data services have been established at three of the centers: the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (NDS), and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEADB). Some information is also available at the NNDC and NEADB World Wide Web sites.

  5. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research "discipline" imposes…

  6. Laser surface inspections: fundamentals and applications to monitor inner surface conditions of nuclear fusion reactor chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Koichi; Ozawa, S.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Suzuki, S.; Budner, B.; Mroz, W.; Kasuya, N.; Kasuya, W.; Kasuya, Kei.; Izawa, Y.; Furukawa, H.; Shimada, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Nakai, M.; Nagai, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Ezato, K.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.; Prokopiuk, A.

    2010-09-01

    The most recent fundamental research results to investigate surface erosions of nuclear fusion candidate chamber materials are described in short. We used a commercial surface profiler with a red semiconductor laser. Various material surfaces ablated and eroded by a rather short pulse electron beam and a short pulse ArF laser light were measured with this surface profiler and the associated three-dimensional analysis software. Threshold input levels for various sample surface erosions with electron and laser beams were clearly decided for the first time with our new method in this article. After the above fundamental results were gathered, the methods to inspect inner surface conditions of nuclear fusion reactor chambers were newly proposed with various kinds of laser displacement sensors. The first one is the erosion monitor with the above profiler, and the second one is the laser induced ultrasonic wave detection method to inspect deeper surface layers than the first one.

  7. Material classification through distance aware multispectral data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaneberg, O.; Köckemann, U.; Steiner, H.; Sporrer, S.; Kolb, A.; Jung, N.

    2013-04-01

    Safety applications require fast, precise and highly reliable sensors at low costs. This paper presents signal processing methods for an active multispectral optical point sensor instrumentation for which a first technical implementation exists. Due to the very demanding requirements for safeguarding equipment, these processing methods are targeted to run on a small embedded system with a guaranteed reaction time T < 2 ms and a sufficiently low failure rate according to applicable safety standards, e.g., ISO-13849. The proposed data processing concept includes a novel technique for distance-aided fusion of multispectral data in order to compensate for displacement-related alteration of the measured signal. The distance measuring is based on triangulation with precise results even for low-resolution detectors, thus strengthening the practical applicability. Furthermore, standard components, such as support vector machines (SVMs), are used for reliable material classification. All methods have been evaluated for variants of the underlying sensor principle. Therefore, the results of the evaluation are independent of any specific hardware.

  8. Object-orientation for fusion of corrosion data

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.; Trethewey, K.R.

    1997-12-31

    The complexity of many materials engineering problems can be drastically reduced by regrouping concepts and facts into a natural human representation provided by object-oriented models. One of the main advantages of using the principles of object orientation (OO) to structure a knowledge based system (KBS) is the compatibility of OO with natural cognitive operations such as classifying, instantiating, and measuring. But knowledge representation goes much beyond conventional data representation and must rely on facts that often possess a halo of fuzziness. In this project, the OO structure was used to organize the complex world of materials degradation and lifetime prediction. A system developed with this principle was found to be able to incorporate the fundamental knowledge derived from failure analysis or from other fields of materials engineering. Such a framework could also constitute the crucible to achieve the data fusion necessary to blend various sources of expertise. This paper describes the key elements of the framework and illustrates its flexibility by providing a guiding structure during the analysis of the results of a computerized search of modern engineering literature.

  9. Performance and competence models for audiovisual data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabre, Harouna

    1995-09-01

    We describe two Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Models for Audio-visual Data Fusion. For the first model, we start an ANN training with an a-priori chosen static architecture together with a set of weighting parameters for the visual and for the auditory paths. Those weighting parameters, called attentional parameters, are tuned to achieve best performance even if the acoustic environment changes. This model is called the Performance Model (PM). For the second model, we start without any unit in the hidden layer of the ANN. Then we incrementally add new units which are partially connected to either the visual path or to the auditory one, and we reiterate this procedure until the global error cannot be reduced anymore. This model is called the Competence Model (CM). CM and PM are trained and tested with acoustic data and their corresponding visual parameters (defined as the vertical and the horizontal lip widths and as the lip-opening area parameters) for the audio-visual speech recognition of the 10 French vowels in adverse conditions. In both cases, we note the recognition rate and analyze the complementarity between the visual and the auditory information in terms of number of hidden units (which are connected either to the visual or to the auditory inputs vs Signal To Noise Ratio (SNR)) and in terms of the tuning of the attentional parameters vs SNR.

  10. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  11. Fusion of navigational data in River Information Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierski, W.

    2009-04-01

    . Their main advantage over AIS is total independence from tracked target's facilities. For example, wrong indications of ship's GPS would affect AIS accuracy, but wouldn't have any impact on values estimated by radar. In addition to this in many times update rate for AIS data is longer than for radar. Thus, it can be noticed, that efficient tracking system introduced in RIS shall use both AIS receivers (based on satellite derived positions), and independent radar and camera sensors. This will however cause determining at least two different set of information about positions and movement parameters of targets. Doubled or multiplied vectors for single target are unacceptable, due to safety of navigation and traffic management. Hence the need of data fusion in RIS is obvious. The main goal is to develop unambiguous, clear and reliable information about ships' position and movement for all users in the system. Data fusion itself is not a new problem in maritime navigation. There are systems of Integrated Bridge on sea-going ships, which use information coming out from different sources. However the possibilities of integration of navigational information in the aspect of inland navigation, especially in River Information Services, still needs to be thoroughly surveyed. It is quite useful for simplifying the deduction, to introduce two data fusion levels. First of them is being done on board of the vessel. Its aim is to integrate all information coming from different sensors in the so called Integrated Navigational System. The other task of this fusion is to estimate reliable information about other objects based on AIS and radar. The second level is the integration of AIS, radar and closed-circuit television (CCTV) carried out in coastal station in order to determine Tactical and Strategic Traffic Image. The navigational information in RIS itself can be divided into two main groups. The first one is called static data and contains al basic information related to ship itself

  12. Tools and Methods for the Registration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshtasby, Arthur Ardeshir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Tools and methods for image registration were reviewed. Methods for the registration of remotely sensed data at NASA were discussed. Image fusion techniques were reviewed. Challenges in registration of remotely sensed data were discussed. Examples of image registration and image fusion were given.

  13. Operational data fusion framework for building frequent Landsat-like imagery in a cloudy region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An operational data fusion framework is built to generate dense time-series Landsat-like images for a cloudy region by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products and Landsat imagery. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is integrated in ...

  14. Atomic Data for Fusion, Volumes 1, 3, 4, and 5: The ORNL CFADC Redbooks

    DOE Data Explorer

    Barnett, C. F.; Thomas, E. W.; Wiese, W. L.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Janev, R. K.; Pindzola, M. S.

    This location provides on-line, full-text versions of the most recent and most widely requested CFADC series of volumes ( Atomic Data for Fusion ) containing recommended data for certain fusion relevant atomic collision processes. this website also provides a title list of all the CFADC published Redbooks.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 237

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.S.

    2006-08-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 237. This evaluation for A = 237 supersedes the earlier one by Y.A. Akovali (1995Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 74, 461 (1995)

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=213

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. S.

    2007-03-01

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=213. This evaluation for A=213 supersedes the earlier one by Y. A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992).

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 176

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.S.

    2006-04-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 176. This evaluation for A = 176 supersedes the earlier one by E. Browne and Huo Junde (1998Br13), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 84, 337 (1998)

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 200

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.G.; Lalkovski, S.

    2007-07-15

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei within the A = 200 mass chain are presented. This work supersedes the earlier evaluation by M.R. Schmorak (1995Sc23), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 75, 667 (1995). The electron conversion coefficients used in the present evaluation are from 2005KiZW.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 213

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.S.

    2007-03-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 213. This evaluation for A = 213 supersedes the earlier one by Y.A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992)

  20. Data fusion between high resolution (1)H-NMR and mass spectrometry: a synergetic approach to honey botanical origin characterization.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Dubin, Elodie; Cotton, Jérôme; Poirel, Marion; Corman, Bruno; Jamin, Eric; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    A data fusion approach was applied to a commercial honey data set analysed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 400 MHz and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The latter was performed using two types of mass spectrometers: an Orbitrap-MS and a time of flight (TOF)-MS. Fifty-six honey samples from four monofloral origins (acacia, orange blossom, lavender and eucalyptus) and multifloral sources from various geographical origins were analysed using the three instruments. The discriminating power of the results was examined by PCA first considering each technique separately, and then combining NMR and LC-HRMS together with or without variable selection. It was shown that the discriminating potential is increased through the data fusion, allowing for a better separation of eucalyptus, orange blossom and lavender. The NMR-Orbitrap-MS and NMR-TOF-MS mid-level fusion models with variable selection were preferred as a good discrimination was obtained with no misclassification observed for the latter. This study opens the path to new comprehensive food profiling approaches combining more than one technique in order to benefit from the advantages of several technologies. Graphical Abstract Data fusion between high resolution 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:27086012

  1. Fault diagnosis for stator winding bar hollow strand blockage of turbogenerators based on data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Zheng Y.; Liu, Zhenxing; Chen, Yalin

    2003-09-01

    Stator Winding Bar Hollow Strand Blockage (SWBHSB) is one of the main faults for large turbo-generators with water and hydrogen cooling system. It will lead to increasing water temperature at the bar exit which may cause hidden troubles for turbo-generator's security. According to a three-layer-structural model of data fusion, this paper presents a fault diagnosis method for turbo-generators based on data fusion technology. Firstly, a bp network on pixel level fusion is set up, in which several temperature parameters at the bar exit are accurately computed. Then in feature level fusion, the fingerprints are distilled from the result of pixel level fusion. Finally, decision level fusion gives a fault diagnosis for the measuring channels and thermometric components. This method can effectively avoid problems such as misinformation and fake report.

  2. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    . Alternatively, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) adjusts the depletion zone size according to the variation in flux across the zone or fractional contribution to total absorption or fission. A parametric analysis on a fully mixed fuel core was performed using the LNC and ABL code suites. The resulting system parameters are found to optimize performance metrics using a 20 MT DU fuel load with a 20% TRISO packing and a 300 im kernel diameter operated with a fusion input power of 500 MW and a fission blanket gain of 4.0. LFFH potentially offers a proliferation resistant technology relative to other nuclear energy systems primarily because of no need for fuel enrichment or reprocessing. A figure of merit of the material attractiveness is examined and it is found that the fuel is effectively contaminated to an unattractive level shortly after the system is started due to fission product and minor actinide build up.

  3. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  4. Nuclear data sheets for A = 226

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1996-02-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 226 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. 134 refs.

  5. Nuclear data sheets for A = 206

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.

    1999-09-01

    This evaluation presents data for all nuclei with mass number A=206, which includes level schemes deduced from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies. All data received by August 1999 were evaluated.

  6. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 218

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1995-11-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 218 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given.

  7. Nuclear data sheets for A = 222

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1996-01-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 222 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity, and configuration assignments are given. 201 refs.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 214

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1988-12-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 214 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin and parities are given.

  9. Nuclear data sheets for A = 217

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1991-06-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 217 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, and spin and parity assignments are given.

  10. Nuclear data sheets for A = 218

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis-Akovali, Y. A.

    1987-12-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 218 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin and parities are given. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  11. Study of data fusion algorithms applied to unattended ground sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannetier, B.; Moras, J.; Dezert, Jean; Sella, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, data obtained from wireless unattended ground sensor network are used for tracking multiple ground targets (vehicles, pedestrians and animals) moving on and off the road network. The goal of the study is to evaluate several data fusion algorithms to select the best approach to establish the tactical situational awareness. The ground sensor network is composed of heterogeneous sensors (optronic, radar, seismic, acoustic, magnetic sensors) and data fusion nodes. The fusion nodes are small hardware platforms placed on the surveillance area that communicate together. In order to satisfy operational needs and the limited communication bandwidth between the nodes, we study several data fusion algorithms to track and classify targets in real time. A multiple targets tracking (MTT) algorithm is integrated in each data fusion node taking into account embedded constraint. The choice of the MTT algorithm is motivated by the limit of the chosen technology. In the fusion nodes, the distributed MTT algorithm exploits the road network information in order to constrain the multiple dynamic models. Then, a variable structure interacting multiple model (VS-IMM) is adapted with the road network topology. This algorithm is well-known in centralized architecture, but it implies a modification of other data fusion algorithms to preserve the performances of the tracking under constraints. Based on such VS-IMM MTT algorithm, we adapt classical data fusion techniques to make it working in three architectures: centralized, distributed and hierarchical. The sensors measurements are considered asynchronous, but the fusion steps are synchronized on all sensors. Performances of data fusion algorithms are evaluated using simulated data and also validated on real data. The scenarios under analysis contain multiple targets with close and crossing trajectories involving data association uncertainties.

  12. Data fusion for adaptive control in manufacturing: Impact on engineering information models

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion is the integration and analysis of data from multiple sensors to develop a more accurate understanding of a situation and determine how to respond to it. Although data fusion can be applied in many situations, this paper focuses on its application to manufacturing and how it changes some of the more traditional, less adaptive information models that support the design and manufacturing functions. The paper consists of four parts: Section 1 defines data fusion and explains its impact on manufacturing. Section 2 describes an information system architecture and explains the natural language-based information modeling methodology used by this research project. Section 3 identifies the major design and manufacturing functions, reviews the information models required to support them, and then shows how these models must be extended to support data fusion. Section 4 discusses the future directions of this work. This report is one of three produced by an FY93 LDRD project, Information Integration for Data Fusion. The project confirmed: (1) that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas, and (2) that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas, such as defense, manufacturing, and health care. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of these objects and the specific facts related to them were common across several models and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. Information model integration at the conceptual level is much easier than at the implementation level.

  13. Nuclear Data Compilation for Beta Decay Isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmsted, Susan; Kelley, John; Sheu, Grace

    2015-10-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory nuclear data group works with the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data network to compile and evaluate data for use in nuclear physics research and applied technologies. Teams of data evaluators search through the literature and examine the experimental values for various nuclear structure parameters. The present activity focused on reviewing all available literature to determine the most accurate half-life values for beta unstable isotopes in the A = 3-20 range. This analysis will eventually be folded into the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). By surveying an accumulated compilation of reference articles, we gathered all of the experimental half-life values for the beta decay nuclides. We then used the Visual Averaging Library, a data evaluation software package, to find half-life values using several different averaging techniques. Ultimately, we found recommended half-life values for most of the mentioned beta decay isotopes, and updated web pages on the TUNL webpage to reflect these evaluations. To summarize, we compiled and evaluated literature reports on experimentally determined half-lives. Our findings have been used to update information given on the TUNL Nuclear Data Evaluation group website. This was an REU project with Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory.

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for 225Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2005-05-16

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to {sup 225}Fr have been evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation includes literature available by 16 May 2005 and supersedes the previous publication for {sup 225}Fr (Y.A. Akovali, ''Nuclear Data Sheets 60, 617 (1990)'', literature cutoff date 1 June 1989). Data have been incorporated from the following references: 1987Co19, 1997BuO3 and 2003AuO3.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=92

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2000-11-07

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclides with mass number A=92 have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. All literature available by 7 November 2000 has been considered. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication for this mass chain (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 347 (1992) (May 1992 cutoff data)), and all subsequent unpublished reevaluations incorporated into the ENSDF file prior to the present work.

  16. Data and image fusion for geometrical cloud characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, L.R.; Buch, K.A.; Sun, Chen-Hui; Diegert, C.

    1997-04-01

    Clouds have a strong influence on the Earth`s climate and therefore on climate change. An important step in improving the accuracy of models that predict global climate change, general circulation models, is improving the parameterization of clouds and cloud-radiation interactions. Improvements in the next generation models will likely include the effect of cloud geometry on the cloud-radiation parameterizations. We have developed and report here methods for characterizing the geometrical features and three-dimensional properties of clouds that could be of significant value in developing these new parameterizations. We developed and report here a means of generating and imaging synthetic clouds which we used to test our characterization algorithms; a method for using Taylor`s hypotheses to infer spatial averages from temporal averages of cloud properties; a computer method for automatically classifying cloud types in an image; and a method for producing numerical three-dimensional renderings of cloud fields based on the fusion of ground-based and satellite images together with meteorological data.

  17. Multi-sensor management for data fusion in target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaokun; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Patrick, Jim; Yang, Chun; Kadar, Ivan

    2009-05-01

    Multi-sensor management for data fusion in target tracking concerns issues of sensor assignment and scheduling by managing or coordinating the use of multiple sensor resources. Since a centralized sensor management technique has a crucial limitation in that the failure of the central node would cause whole system failure, a decentralized sensor management (DSM) scheme is increasingly important in modern multi-sensor systems. DSM is afforded in modern systems through increased bandwidth, wireless communication, and enhanced power. However, protocols for system control are needed to management device access. As game theory offers learning models for distributed allocations of surveillance resources and provides mechanisms to handle the uncertainty of surveillance area, we propose an agent-based negotiable game theoretic approach for decentralized sensor management (ANGADS). With the decentralized sensor management scheme, sensor assignment occurs locally, and there is no central node and thus reduces the risk of whole-system failure. Simulation results for a multi-sensor target-tracking scenario demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  18. A Proposed Data Fusion Architecture for Micro-Zone Analysis and Data Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McCarthy; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    Data Fusion requires the ability to combine or “fuse” date from multiple data sources. Time Series Analysis is a data mining technique used to predict future values from a data set based upon past values. Unlike other data mining techniques, however, Time Series places special emphasis on periodicity and how seasonal and other time-based factors tend to affect trends over time. One of the difficulties encountered in developing generic time series techniques is the wide variability of the data sets available for analysis. This presents challenges all the way from the data gathering stage to results presentation. This paper presents an architecture designed and used to facilitate the collection of disparate data sets well suited to Time Series analysis as well as other predictive data mining techniques. Results show this architecture provides a flexible, dynamic framework for the capture and storage of a myriad of dissimilar data sets and can serve as a foundation from which to build a complete data fusion architecture.

  19. Experiments and nuclear measurements in search of cold fusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesfeld, S.; Anderson, R. E.; Baker, D. A.; Bolton, R. D.; Butterfield, K. B.; Garzon, F. H.; Goulding, C. A.; Johnson, M. W.; Leonard, E. M.; Springer, T. E.; Zawodzinski, T.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports a collaborative effort of a team which formed at Los Alamos to investigate the announcement that “cold fusion” may be occurring in electrochemical cells using palladium cathodes and platinum anodes in a LiOD electrolyte. Four electrochemical cells were construced and operated for 3-5 weeks under various geometrical and electrical conditions. Nuclear diagnostic measurements included high and low resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, integral neutron counting with well detectors and banks of3He tubes, and neutron spectroscopy with NE-213 scintillators. For one of the cells, the deuterium loading of the cathode was determined from resistance measurements to be D/Pd⩽ 0.8. No conclusive evidence was found for the production of neutrons or 2.223-MeV gammas above levels consistent with background. The results of the measurements of tritium levels in the cell electrolytes are also reported. Experiments to reproduce the observation of neutrons from high pressure Ti- D 2 gas experiments were also performed with negative results.

  20. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2013-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and γ–ray energies, γ intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna–Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002)

  2. NUCLEAR DATA RESOURCES FOR ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.

    2006-06-05

    The mission of the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) includes collection, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, to answer the needs of nuclear data users, NNDC completed a project to modernize storage and management of its databases and began offering new nuclear data Web services. Examples of nuclear reaction, nuclear structure and decay database applications along with a number of nuclear science codes are also presented.

  3. Reports to the DOE Nuclear Data Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The report in this document were submitted to the Department of Energy, Nuclear Data Committee (DOE-NDC) in April 1988. The reporting laboratories are those with a substantial program for the measurement of neutron and nuclear cross sections of relevance to the US applied nuclear energy program. Appropriate subjects are microscopic neutron cross sections relevant to the nuclear energy program, including shielding. Inverse reactions where pertinent are included; charged-particle cross sections where relevant to developing and testing nuclear models; gamma ray production, radioactive decay, and theoretical developments in nuclear structure which are applicable to nuclear energy programs; and proton and alpha-particle cross sections, at energies of up to 1 GeV, which are of interest to the space program.

  4. Present Status of Nuclear Data for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igashira, M.

    2015-10-01

    The present status of nuclear data was reviewed from the viewpoint of the research and development of non-destructive inspection methods for international controlled materials such as 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu, D2O, 6LiD, and 9Be. The nuclear characteristics of these materials were discussed, and neutron- and photon-reaction cross section data were reviewed. It was found that the accuracy of neutron data was enough for the research and development but that of photon data was not enough.

  5. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  6. Data fusion through simulated annealing of registered range and reflectance images

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper we present results of a study of registered range and reflectance images acquired using a prototype amplitude-modulated CW laser radar. Ranging devices such as laser radars represent new technologies which are being applied in aerospace, nuclear and other hazardous environments where remote inspections, 3D identifications and measurements are required. However, data acquired using devices of this type may contain non-stationary, signal-dependent noise, range-reflectance crosstalk and low-reflectance range artifacts. Low level fusion algorithms play an essential role in achieving reliable performace by handling the complex noise, systematic errors and artifacts. The objective of our study is the development of a stochastic fusion algorithm which takes as its input the registered image pair and produces as its output a reliable description of the underlying physical scene in terms of locally smooth surfaces separated by well-defined depth discontinuities. To construct the algorithm we model each image as a set of coupled Markov random fields representing pixel and several orders of line processes. Within this framework we (i) impose local smoothness constraints, introducing a simple linearity property in place of the usual sums over clique potentials; (ii) fuse the range and reflectance images through line process couplings, and (iii) use nonstationary, signal-dependent variances, adaptive thresholding, and a form of Markov natural selection. We show that the resulting algorithm yields reliable results even in worst-case scenarios.

  7. Data fusion through simulated annealing of registered range and reflectance images

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a study of registered range and reflectance images acquired using a prototype amplitude-modulated CW laser radar. Ranging devices such as laser radars represent new technologies which are being applied in aerospace, nuclear and other hazardous environments where remote inspections, 3D identifications and measurements are required. However, data acquired using devices of this type may contain non-stationary, signal-dependent noise, range-reflectance crosstalk and low-reflectance range artifacts. Low level fusion algorithms play an essential role in achieving reliable performace by handling the complex noise, systematic errors and artifacts. The objective of our study is the development of a stochastic fusion algorithm which takes as its input the registered image pair and produces as its output a reliable description of the underlying physical scene in terms of locally smooth surfaces separated by well-defined depth discontinuities. To construct the algorithm we model each image as a set of coupled Markov random fields representing pixel and several orders of line processes. Within this framework we (i) impose local smoothness constraints, introducing a simple linearity property in place of the usual sums over clique potentials; (ii) fuse the range and reflectance images through line process couplings, and (iii) use nonstationary, signal-dependent variances, adaptive thresholding, and a form of Markov natural selection. We show that the resulting algorithm yields reliable results even in worst-case scenarios.

  8. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 208

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2007-08-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 208. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma} intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A = 208 evaluation published by M.J. Martin in Nuclear Data Sheets 47, 797 (1986)

  10. Nuclear data sheets for A=170

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2002-08-19

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A=170 have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation supersedes the previous evaluation (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets 77, 125 (1996), cutoff date October 1995) and subsequent updates of the ENSDF file for Yb (cutoff 17 February 1999), Lu (cutoff 8 October 1998), Pt (cutoff 17 February 1999) and Ta (cutoff 7 April 1998). It includes all literature available by 15 August 2002.

  11. Actinide incineration in fusion-fission hybrid-A model nuclear synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taczanowski, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The alliance of fusion with fission is a cause worthy of great efforts, as being able to ease (if not even to solve) serious problems that both these forms of nuclear energy are facing. Very high investment costs caused by tokamak enormous size, material consumption and difficult technology put in doubt whether alone the minute demand for fuel raw material (Li) and lack of danger of uncontrolled supercriticality prove sufficient for making it competitive. Preliminary evaluations demonstrated that a radical shift of energy production i.e. the energy gain from plasma to fission blanket is feasible [1]. A reduction in the fusion component to about 2% at given system power allows for a radical drop in plasma Q down to the values of ˜0.2-0.3 achievable in small systems [2] (e.g. mirrors) of sizes comparable to fission reactors. As a result in a Fusion-Driven Actinide Incinerator (FDI) both radiations from the plasma: corpuscular (i.e. neutrons and ions) and photons are drastically reduced. Thus are too, first of all - the neutron induced radiation damage: DPA and gas production, then plasma-wall interactions. The fundamental safety of the system has been proved by simulation of its collapse that has shown preservation its subcriticality. Summarizing, all the above problems may be solved with synergic union of fusion with fission embodied in the concept of FDI - small and less expensive.

  12. Nuclear Data for Proton Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Carlson, B. V.

    2009-06-03

    The need for a program of work focused on the nuclear data evaluation of charged-particle reactions has arisen recently due to their increasing use in cancer therapy. This project, as part of that program, has as its main goal the selection and comparison of nuclear data for nuclear reactions induced by protons at low to intermediate energies (E<250 MeV). The methodology of selection was based on the data base EXFOR and the compilations of radionuclide production cross sections of N. Sobolevsky. For the purpose of comparison and evaluation, theoretical calculations with the reaction model code EMPIRE-II are being used.

  13. Double Cluster Heads Model for Secure and Accurate Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Secure and accurate data fusion is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and has been extensively researched in the literature. In this paper, by combining clustering techniques, reputation and trust systems, and data fusion algorithms, we propose a novel cluster-based data fusion model called Double Cluster Heads Model (DCHM) for secure and accurate data fusion in WSNs. Different from traditional clustering models in WSNs, two cluster heads are selected after clustering for each cluster based on the reputation and trust system and they perform data fusion independently of each other. Then, the results are sent to the base station where the dissimilarity coefficient is computed. If the dissimilarity coefficient of the two data fusion results exceeds the threshold preset by the users, the cluster heads will be added to blacklist, and the cluster heads must be reelected by the sensor nodes in a cluster. Meanwhile, feedback is sent from the base station to the reputation and trust system, which can help us to identify and delete the compromised sensor nodes in time. Through a series of extensive simulations, we found that the DCHM performed very well in data fusion security and accuracy. PMID:25608211

  14. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data. PMID:23219588

  15. Fusion between Intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in a cancer context results in nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anne E; Anderson, Eric C; Davies, Paige S; Silk, Alain D; Pelz, Carl; Impey, Soren; Wong, Melissa H

    2011-02-15

    The most deadly phase in cancer progression is attributed to the inappropriate acquisition of molecular machinery leading to metastatic transformation and spread of disease to distant organs. Although it is appreciated that metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, the underlying mechanism defining this process is poorly understood. Specifically, how cancer cells evade immune surveillance and gain the ability to navigate the circulatory system remains a focus. One possible mechanism underlying metastatic conversion is fusion between blood-derived immune cells and cancer cells. While this notion is a century old, in vivo evidence that cell fusion occurs within tumors and imparts genetic or physiologic changes remains controversial. We have previously demonstrated in vivo cell fusion between blood cells and intestinal epithelial cells in an injury setting. Here, we hypothesize that immune cells, such as macrophages, fuse with tumor cells imparting metastatic capabilities by transferring their cellular identity. We used parabiosis to introduce fluorescent-labeled bone marrow-derived cells to mice with intestinal tumors, finding that fusion between circulating blood-derived cells and tumor epithelium occurs during the natural course of tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identify the macrophage as a key cellular partner for this process. Interestingly, cell fusion hybrids retain a transcriptome identity characteristic of both parental derivatives, while also expressing a unique subset of transcripts. Our data supports the novel possibility that tumorigenic cell fusion may impart physical behavior attributed to migratory macrophages, including navigation of circulation and immune evasion. As such, cell fusion may represent a promising novel mechanism underlying the metastatic conversion of cancer cells. PMID:21303980

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 148

    SciTech Connect

    Nica, N.

    2014-03-01

    The experimental nuclear structure data available through October 2013 have been reviewed. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 148

    SciTech Connect

    Nica, N.

    2014-04-02

    The experimental nuclear structure data available through October 2013 have been reviewed. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, J. E.; Sheu, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Compilation of information about the structure of A = 3 systems. This review mainly summarizes the work presented in (2010Pu04) and has updates of mass, lifetime and nuclear moment data as noted in the text.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 143

    SciTech Connect

    Peker, L. K.

    1986-08-01

    The experimental nuclear structure data available through July 1985 have been reviewed. A symmary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A -- 145

    SciTech Connect

    Peker, L. K.

    1986-09-01

    The experimental nuclear structure data available through January 1986 have been reviewed. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  1. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 201

    SciTech Connect

    Rab, Shaheen

    1994-02-01

    The experimental nuclear structure and decay data of ten nuclei of mass 201 (Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr) have been evaluated. Adopted levels and gammas for each of these nuclei have also been prepared.

  2. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 204

    SciTech Connect

    Schmorak, M. R.

    1994-07-01

    Experimental data pertaining to nuclear structure of nuclei with mass number A = 204 have been compiled and evaluated. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with the adopted level schemes.

  3. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 198

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-02-01

    The 1990 version of nuclear data sheets for A = 198 has been updated on the basis of decay and reaction experiments, which lead to nuclei in the A = 198 mass chain. The data sets of experimental reaction and decay studies are presented in the drawings or tables. The adopted values of levels and their {gamma}-radiations, and as well as other nuclear properties are presented in tables. The experimental methods, references, and comments are given in the text.

  4. A multi-temporal fusion-based approach for land cover mapping in support of nuclear incident response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Shagan

    An increasingly important application of remote sensing is to provide decision support during emergency response and disaster management efforts. Land cover maps constitute one such useful application product during disaster events; if generated rapidly after any disaster, such map products can contribute to the efficacy of the response effort. In light of recent nuclear incidents, e.g., after the earthquake/tsunami in Japan (2011), our research focuses on constructing rapid and accurate land cover maps of the impacted area in case of an accidental nuclear release. The methodology involves integration of results from two different approaches, namely coarse spatial resolution multi-temporal and fine spatial resolution imagery, to increase classification accuracy. Although advanced methods have been developed for classification using high spatial or temporal resolution imagery, only a limited amount of work has been done on fusion of these two remote sensing approaches. The presented methodology thus involves integration of classification results from two different remote sensing modalities in order to improve classification accuracy. The data used included RapidEye and MODIS scenes over the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station in Oswego (New York, USA). The first step in the process was the construction of land cover maps from freely available, high temporal resolution, low spatial resolution MODIS imagery using a time-series approach. We used the variability in the temporal signatures among different land cover classes for classification. The time series-specific features were defined by various physical properties of a pixel, such as variation in vegetation cover and water content over time. The pixels were classified into four land cover classes - forest, urban, water, and vegetation - using Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance metrics. On the other hand, a high spatial resolution commercial satellite, such as RapidEye, can be tasked to capture images over the

  5. New Improved Nuclear Data for Nuclear Criticality and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Leal, Luiz C; Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Emiliani, F.; Wynants, R.; Siegler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) was used to measure neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the energy range from 100 eV to {approx}200 keV using the time-of-flight method. GELINA is the only high-power white neutron source with excellent timing resolution and ideally suited for these experiments. Concerns about the use of existing cross-section data in nuclear criticality calculations using Monte Carlo codes and benchmarks were a prime motivator for the new cross-section measurements. To support the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron cross-section measurements were initiated using GELINA at the EC-JRC-IRMM. Concerns about data deficiencies in some existing cross-section evaluations from libraries such as ENDF/B, JEFF, or JENDL for nuclear criticality calculations were the prime motivator for new cross-section measurements. Over the past years many troubles with existing nuclear data have emerged, such as problems related to proper normalization, neutron sensitivity backgrounds, poorly characterized samples, and use of improper pulse-height weighting functions. These deficiencies may occur in the resolved- and unresolved-resonance region and may lead to erroneous nuclear criticality calculations. An example is the use of the evaluated neutron cross-section data for tungsten in nuclear criticality safety calculations, which exhibit discrepancies in benchmark calculations and show the need for reliable covariance data. We measured the neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the neutron energy range from 100 eV to several hundred keV. This will help to improve the representation of the cross sections since most of the available evaluated data rely only on old measurements. Usually these measurements were done with poor experimental resolution or only over a very limited energy range, which is insufficient for the current application.

  6. SimFuse: A Novel Fusion Simulator for RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) Data.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuxiang; Tambouret, Yann; Monti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The performance evaluation of fusion detection algorithms from high-throughput sequencing data crucially relies on the availability of data with known positive and negative cases of gene rearrangements. The use of simulated data circumvents some shortcomings of real data by generation of an unlimited number of true and false positive events, and the consequent robust estimation of accuracy measures, such as precision and recall. Although a few simulated fusion datasets from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) are available, they are of limited sample size. This makes it difficult to systematically evaluate the performance of RNA-Seq based fusion-detection algorithms. Here, we present SimFuse to address this problem. SimFuse utilizes real sequencing data as the fusions' background to closely approximate the distribution of reads from a real sequencing library and uses a reference genome as the template from which to simulate fusions' supporting reads. To assess the supporting read-specific performance, SimFuse generates multiple datasets with various numbers of fusion supporting reads. Compared to an extant simulated dataset, SimFuse gives users control over the supporting read features and the sample size of the simulated library, based on which the performance metrics needed for the validation and comparison of alternative fusion-detection algorithms can be rigorously estimated. PMID:26839886

  7. Research on data fusion for monitoring ground subsidence using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xianglei; Zhao, Chaoying

    2008-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) magtitude map, extracted from Differential- Interferometric Syntheric Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) technology, has a low-resolution, so it has a certain limitation to the explanation and analysis of subsiding area. In order to solve the problem of lacking enough spatial information of D-InSAR image, in this essay we take a data fusion between D-InSAR image and high resolution Remote Sensing (RS) image, obtaining an image containing subsiding information and high-resolution spatial information. This paper mainly focuses on the study of a Mag-Phase algorithm (MPH) algorithm and other fusion algorithms including Hue-Intensity-Saturation (HIS) transformation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) transformation, Product fusion, Ratio fusion, Wavelet fusion for magtitude map and deformation map, and we take the deformation map and panchromatic (PAN) image of Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) (magtitude map) of Xi'an area as an example to do data fusion according to the algorithms above. At last, a comprehensive evaluation and analysis for fusion images is made with subjective and objective evaluation criteria, and a conclusion that MPH fusion algorithm is better than others is also obtained.

  8. High Energy Nuclear Database: A Testbed for Nuclear Data Information Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R; Beck, B; Pruet, J

    2007-04-18

    We describe the development of an on-line high-energy heavy-ion experimental database. When completed, the database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. While this effort is relatively new, it will eventually contain all published data from older heavy-ion programs as well as published data from current and future facilities. These data include all measured observables in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Once in general use, this database will have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models for a broad range of experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion, target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the International Linear Collider and homeland security. This database is part of a larger proposal that includes the production of periodic data evaluations and topical reviews. These reviews would provide an alternative and impartial mechanism to resolve discrepancies between published data from rival experiments and between theory and experiment. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This project serves as a testbed for the further development of an object-oriented nuclear data format and database system. By using ''off-the-shelf'' software tools and techniques, the system is simple, robust, and extensible. Eventually we envision a ''Grand Unified Nuclear Format'' encapsulating data types used in the ENSDF, ENDF/B, EXFOR, NSR and other formats, including processed data formats.

  9. Using Geostatistical Data Fusion Techniques and MODIS Data to Upscale Simulated Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrignano, A.; Buttafuoco, G.; Matese, A.; Toscano, P.

    2014-12-01

    Population growth increases food request. Assessing food demand and predicting the actual supply for a given location are critical components of strategic food security planning at regional scale. Crop yield can be simulated using crop models because is site-specific and determined by weather, management, length of growing season and soil properties. Crop models require reliable location-specific data that are not generally available. Obtaining these data at a large number of locations is time-consuming, costly and sometimes simply not feasible. An upscaling method to extend coverage of sparse estimates of crop yield to an appropriate extrapolation domain is required. This work is aimed to investigate the applicability of a geostatistical data fusion approach for merging remote sensing data with the predictions of a simulation model of wheat growth and production using ground-based data. The study area is Capitanata plain (4000 km2) located in Apulia Region, mostly cropped with durum wheat. The MODIS EVI/NDVI data products for Capitanata plain were downloaded from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) remote for the whole crop cycle of durum wheat. Phenological development, biomass growth and grain quantity of durum wheat were simulated by the Delphi system, based on a crop simulation model linked to a database including soil properties, agronomical and meteorological data. Multicollocated cokriging was used to integrate secondary exhaustive information (multi-spectral MODIS data) with primary variable (sparsely distributed biomass/yield model predictions of durum wheat). The model estimates looked strongly spatially correlated with the radiance data (red and NIR bands) and the fusion data approach proved to be quite suitable and flexible to integrate data of different type and support.

  10. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2005-07-27

    This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for {sup 170}Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1999-02-22

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to 170Pt have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation of170Pt supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin,Nuclear Data Sheets 77,125 (1996) (literature cutoff date October 1995)), and includes literature available by 17 February 1999. The newly incorporated references are: 98Se20, 98Ki20, 97Ju04, 96Bi07 and 95Au04. Three new data sets have been added, as follows:174Hg ? decay,171Au p decay (1.02 ms), (HI,xn?).

  12. A Reconsideration of Electrostatically Accelerated and Confined Nuclear Fusion for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C.; Gow, K. S.

    Most present-day research into Nuclear Fusion concentrates on high-temperature plasmas combined with Inertial or Magnetic Confinement. However, there exists another body of less well-known work based on Electrostatic Acceleration and Confinement. The most thoroughly researched of these devices is known as the Farnsworth Fusor. This paper reviews the technique and then argues that, with development, similar technologies would be particularly suited to space-borne applications, due to their safety, simplicity and light weight. The paper then goes on to suggest several possible directions for new research into such devices which might result in a working machine.

  13. NADS — Nuclear and Atomic Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Michael S.; Beck, Bret; McNabb, Dennis

    2005-05-01

    We have developed NADS (Nuclear and Atomic Data System), a web-based graphical interface for viewing pointwise and grouped cross sections and distributions. Our implementation is a client / server model. The client is a Java applet that displays the graphical interface, which has interactive 2-D, 3-D, and 4-D plots and tables. The server, which can serve and perform computations of the data, has been implemented in Python using the FUDGE package developed by Bret Beck at LLNL. Computational capabilities include algebraic manipulation of nuclear evaluated data in databases such as LLNL's ENDL-99, ENDF/B-V, and ENDF/B-VI, as well as user data. Processed data used in LLNL's transport codes are accessible as well. NADS is available from http://nuclear.llnl.gov/.

  14. NADS - Nuclear And Atomic Data System

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, M S; Beck, B; McNabb, D

    2004-09-17

    We have developed NADS (Nuclear and Atomic Data System), a web-based graphical interface for viewing pointwise and grouped cross-sections and distributions. Our implementation is a client / server model. The client is a Java applet that displays the graphical interface, which has interactive 2-D, 3-D, and 4-D plots and tables. The server, which can serve and perform computations the data, has been implemented in Python using the FUDGE package developed by Bret Beck at LLNL. Computational capabilities include algebraic manipulation of nuclear evaluated data in databases such as LLNL's ENDL-99, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI as well as user data. Processed data used in LLNL's transport codes are accessible as well. NADS is available from http://nuclear.llnl.gov/

  15. Principles of data-fusion in multi-sensor systems for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioclea, Shmuel; Dickstein, Phineas

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, there has been progress in the application of measurement and control systems that engage multi-sensor arrays. Several algorithms and techniques have been developed for the integration of the information obtained from the sensors. The fusion of the data may be complicated due to the fact that each sensor has its own performance characteristics, and because different sensors may detect different physical phenomena. As a result, data fusion turns out to be a multidisciplinary field, which applies principles adopted from other fields such as signal processing, artificial intelligence, statistics, and The Theory of Information. The data fusion machine tries to imitate the human brain, in combining data from numerous sensors and making optimal inferences about the environment. The present paper provides a critical review of data fusion algorithms and techniques and a trenchant summary of the experience gained to date from the several preliminary NDT studies which have been applying multi-sensor data fusion systems. Consequently, this paper provides a list of rules and criteria to be followed in future applications of data fusion to nondestructive testing.

  16. The Aldermaston Nuclear Data Library.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-12-01

    UKNDL81 contains the 1981 editions of NDL1, NDL2, and NDL3, and also references nearly 500 UKNDL archived files. The user can see what neutron reaction cross sections are available in any given file and the energy range over which these data are tabulated by referring to the Story and Smith report cited in references.

  17. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Quantification: Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    2015-01-15

    An historical overview is provided of the mathematical foundations of uncertainty quantification and the roles played in the more recent past by nuclear data uncertainties in nuclear data evaluations and nuclear applications. Significant advances that have established the mathematical framework for contemporary nuclear data evaluation methods, as well as the use of uncertainty information in nuclear data evaluation and nuclear applications, are described. This is followed by a brief examination of the current status concerning nuclear data evaluation methodology, covariance data generation, and the application of evaluated nuclear data uncertainties in contemporary nuclear technology. A few possible areas for future investigation of this subject are also suggested.

  18. Robust regression on noisy data for fusion scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-11-01

    We introduce the method of geodesic least squares (GLS) regression for estimating fusion scaling laws. Based on straightforward principles, the method is easily implemented, yet it clearly outperforms established regression techniques, particularly in cases of significant uncertainty on both the response and predictor variables. We apply GLS for estimating the scaling of the L-H power threshold, resulting in estimates for ITER that are somewhat higher than predicted earlier.

  19. Robust regression on noisy data for fusion scaling laws

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-11-15

    We introduce the method of geodesic least squares (GLS) regression for estimating fusion scaling laws. Based on straightforward principles, the method is easily implemented, yet it clearly outperforms established regression techniques, particularly in cases of significant uncertainty on both the response and predictor variables. We apply GLS for estimating the scaling of the L-H power threshold, resulting in estimates for ITER that are somewhat higher than predicted earlier.

  20. NUCLEAR INFORMATION SERVICES AT THE NATIONAL NUCLEAR DATA CENTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BURROWS,T.W.; DUNFORD,C.L.

    2004-09-26

    The National Nuclear Data Center has provided remote access to its databases and other resources since 1986. This year we have completed the modernization of our databases and Web site. Resources available from our Web site will be summarized and some of the major improvements described in more detail.

  1. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

  2. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C.; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J.

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  3. Nuclear fuels for low-beta fusion reactors: Lithium resources revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhartt, Dieter

    1995-12-01

    In searching to attain optimum conditions for the controlled release of nuclear energy by fusion processes, the stationary confinement of low-pressure ring-shaped plasmas by strong magnetic fields is now regarded as the most promising approach. We consider a number of fuel combinations that could be operated in such low-beta reactor systems and look upon the relevant fuel reserves. The “classical” D-T-Li cycle will be used as a standard and is extensively discussed therefore. It could supply most of mankind's future long-term power needs—but only on condition that the required lithium fuel can be extracted from seawater at reasonable expenses. The estimated landbound lithium reserves are too small to that end, they will last for about 500 years at most, depending on forecasts of future energy consumption and on assumptions about exploitable resources. Recovery of lithium from seawater would extend the possible range by a factor of 300 or so, provided that extraction technologies which are at present available in the laboratory, could be extended to a very large and industrial scale. Deuterium is abundant on earth but D-D fusion is difficult, if not impossible, to be achieved in the low-beta systems presently investigated for D-T fusion. The same arguments apply to so-called “advanced” concepts, such as the D-3He and the D-6Li cycles.

  4. Automated Nuclear Data Test Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-01-09

    Provides python routines to create a database of test problems in a user-defined directory tree, to query the database using user-defined parameters, to generate a list of test urns, to automatically run with user-defined particle transport codes. Includes natural isotope abundance data, and a table of benchmark effective for fast critical assemblies. Does not include input decks, cross-section libraries, or particle transport codes.

  5. Nudat: Nuclear Structure and Decay Data from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NuDat allows users to search and plot nuclear structure and decay data interactively. NuDat was developed by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)but utilizes contributions from physicists around the world. It provides an interface between web users and several databases containing nuclear structure, nuclear decay and some neutron-induced nuclear reaction information. Users can search for nuclear level properties (energy, half-life, spinparity), gamma-ray information (energy, intensity, multipolarity, coincidences), radiation information following nuclear decay (energy, intensity, dose), and neutron-induced reaction data from the BNL-325 book (thermal cross section and resonance integral). The information provided by NuDat 2 can be viewed in tables, level schemes and an interactive chart of nuclides.

  6. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  7. Flight data results of estimate fusion for spacecraft rendezvous navigation from shuttle mission STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bishop, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    A recently developed rendezvous navigation fusion filter that optimally exploits existing distributed filters for rendezvous and GPS navigation to achieve the relative and inertial state accuracies of both in a global solution is utilized here to process actual flight data. Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 was the first mission to date which gathered data from both the rendezvous and Global Positioning System filters allowing, for the first time, a test of the fusion algorithm with real flight data. Furthermore, a precise best estimate of trajectory is available for portions of STS-69, making possible a check on the performance of the fusion filter. In order to successfully carry out this experiment with flight data, two extensions to the existing scheme were necessary: a fusion edit test based on differences between the filter state vectors, and an underweighting scheme to accommodate the suboptimal perfect target assumption made by the Shuttle rendezvous filter. With these innovations, the flight data was successfully fused from playbacks of downlinked and/or recorded measurement data through ground analysis versions of the Shuttle rendezvous filter and a GPS filter developed for another experiment. The fusion results agree with the best estimate of trajectory at approximately the levels of uncertainty expected from the fusion filter's covariance matrix.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=69

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data on ground- and excited-state properties for all known nuclei with mass number A=69 have been compiled and evaluated. States populated in radioactive decay, as well as in nuclear reactions, have been considered. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given in detail. This work supersedes the 2000 evaluation by M.R.Bhat and J.K.Tuli (2000Bh05).

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=69

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, C.D.

    2014-01-15

    Experimental data on ground– and excited–state properties for all known nuclei with mass number A=69 have been compiled and evaluated. States populated in radioactive decay, as well as in nuclear reactions, have been considered. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given in detail. This work supersedes the 2000 evaluation by M.R. Bhat and J.K. Tuli (2000Bh05)

  10. Predicting chemoinsensitivity in breast cancer with 'omics/digital pathology data fusion.

    PubMed

    Savage, Richard S; Yuan, Yinyin

    2016-02-01

    Predicting response to treatment and disease-specific deaths are key tasks in cancer research yet there is a lack of methodologies to achieve these. Large-scale 'omics and digital pathology technologies have led to the need for effective statistical methods for data fusion to extract the most useful patterns from these diverse data types. We present FusionGP, a method for combining heterogeneous data types designed specifically for predicting outcome of treatment and disease. FusionGP is a Gaussian process model that includes a generalization of feature selection for biomarker discovery, allowing for simultaneous, sparse feature selection across multiple data types. Importantly, it can accommodate highly nonlinear structure in the data, and automatically infers the optimal contribution from each input data type. FusionGP compares favourably to several popular classification methods, including the Random Forest classifier, a stepwise logistic regression model and the Support Vector Machine on single data types. By combining gene expression, copy number alteration and digital pathology image data in 119 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and 345 ER-positive breast tumours, we aim to predict two important clinical outcomes: death and chemoinsensitivity. While gene expression data give the best predictive performance in the majority of cases, the digital pathology data are much better for predicting death in ER cases. Thus, FusionGP is a new tool for selecting informative features from heterogeneous data types and predicting treatment response and prognosis. PMID:26998311

  11. Predicting chemoinsensitivity in breast cancer with ’omics/digital pathology data fusion

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Richard S.; Yuan, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Predicting response to treatment and disease-specific deaths are key tasks in cancer research yet there is a lack of methodologies to achieve these. Large-scale ’omics and digital pathology technologies have led to the need for effective statistical methods for data fusion to extract the most useful patterns from these diverse data types. We present FusionGP, a method for combining heterogeneous data types designed specifically for predicting outcome of treatment and disease. FusionGP is a Gaussian process model that includes a generalization of feature selection for biomarker discovery, allowing for simultaneous, sparse feature selection across multiple data types. Importantly, it can accommodate highly nonlinear structure in the data, and automatically infers the optimal contribution from each input data type. FusionGP compares favourably to several popular classification methods, including the Random Forest classifier, a stepwise logistic regression model and the Support Vector Machine on single data types. By combining gene expression, copy number alteration and digital pathology image data in 119 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and 345 ER-positive breast tumours, we aim to predict two important clinical outcomes: death and chemoinsensitivity. While gene expression data give the best predictive performance in the majority of cases, the digital pathology data are much better for predicting death in ER cases. Thus, FusionGP is a new tool for selecting informative features from heterogeneous data types and predicting treatment response and prognosis. PMID:26998311

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=243

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nesaraja, Caroline D; McCutchan, Elizabeth A.

    2014-09-30

    We present available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass numbers A=243. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 (243Np, 243Pu, 243Am, 243Cm, 243Bk, and 243Cf), 2011Me01 (243Es), and 2013Th02 (243Fm).

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 233

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj; Tuli, Jagdish K.

    2005-05-01

    The available nuclear structure information for nine known nuclei (Ra,Ac,Th,Pa,U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm) with mass number A = 233 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, gammas, level half-lives, spins, parities, and configuration assignments are given. No excited states are yet known in {sup 233}Ra, {sup 233}Ac, {sup 233}Pu, {sup 233}Am and {sup 233}Cm. The present work supersedes earlier evaluations of A = 233 by Y.A. Akovali published in Nuclear Data Sheets (1990Ak02,1978El04,1971El13), covering literature up to December 1988.

  14. Nuclear Data Online Services at Peking University

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, T.S.; Guo, Z.Y.; Ye, W.G.; Liu, W.L.; Chen, J.X.; Tang, G.Y.; Shi, Z.M.; Chen, J.E.; Liu, T.J.; Liu, C.X.; Huang, X.L.

    2005-05-24

    The Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University has developed a new nuclear data online services software package. Through the web site (http://ndos.nst.pku.edu.cn), it offers online access to main relational nuclear databases: five evaluated neutron libraries (BROND, CENDL, ENDF, JEF, JENDL), the ENSDF library, the EXFOR library, the IAEA photonuclear library and the charged particle data of the FENDL library. This software allows the comparison and graphic representations of the different data sets. The computer programs of this package are based on the Linux implementation of PHP and the MySQL software.

  15. EXFOR Library of Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The EXFOR library contains an extensive compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data up to 1 GeV. Neutron reactions have been compiled systematically since the discovery of the neutron, while charged particle(up to carbon) and photon reactions have been covered less extensively. Files contain nuclear reaction data such as cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, polarizations, etc, along with information on experimental technique, error analysis, and applied standards. Numerous search parameters include: target, beam, product, experimental method, and even author and publication names. The library contains data from more than 20,000 experiments. (Specialized Interface)

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2013-10-15

    Experimental nuclear structure and decay data for all known A=91 nuclides (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 1 September 2013, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin published in Nuclear Data Sheets86, 1 (1999) (15 December 1998 literature cutoff), and subsequent evaluations by C. M. Baglin added to the ENSDF database for Kr, Sr and Zr (29 December 2000 literature cutoff) and by B. Singh for {sup 91}Tc (6 November 2000 literature cutoff)

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 92

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear structure and decay data pertaining to all nuclides with mass number A = 92 (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. All literature available by 15 September 2012 has been considered. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication for this mass chain (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets 91, 423 (2000) (November 2000 cutoff date)), and subsequent unpublished reevaluations by C.M. Baglin for {sup 92}Kr (January 2004 literature cut-off) and {sup 92}Sr (August 2003 literature cut-off).

  18. An epidemic model for biological data fusion in ad hoc sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. C.; Kotari, Vikas

    2009-05-01

    Bio terrorism can be a very refined and a catastrophic approach of attacking a nation. This requires the development of a complete architecture dedicatedly designed for this purpose which includes but is not limited to Sensing/Detection, Tracking and Fusion, Communication, and others. In this paper we focus on one such architecture and evaluate its performance. Various sensors for this specific purpose have been studied. The accent has been on use of Distributed systems such as ad-hoc networks and on application of epidemic data fusion algorithms to better manage the bio threat data. The emphasis has been on understanding the performance characteristics of these algorithms under diversified real time scenarios which are implemented through extensive JAVA based simulations. Through comparative studies on communication and fusion the performance of channel filter algorithm for the purpose of biological sensor data fusion are validated.

  19. Nuclear data sheets for A = 244

    SciTech Connect

    Chukreev, F. E.; Shurshikov, E. N.; Bodulinskij, V. K.; Jaborov, J. F.; Hovanovich, A. I.

    1981-11-01

    Detailed level and decay schemes and the experimental reaction and decay data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 244; the experimental data are evaluated. Adopted values for level and ..gamma..-ray energies, ..gamma..-intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are given.

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 153

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, R.G.

    2006-03-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 153 mass chain have been reviewed. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties. This evaluation replaces that of Nuclear Data Sheets 83 (1998) 285 (1998He06)

  1. Nuclear data sheets for A = 208

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M. J.

    1986-04-01

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 208. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and ..gamma..-ray energies, ..gamma.. intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given.

  2. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  3. A spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor space propulsion vehicle concept for fast interplanetary travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a>5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including diverter and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, and component design.

  4. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-10-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 229

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2008-11-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies for all nuclei with mass number A = 229. These nuclei belong to a region of coexisting quadrupole with possible octupole deformations. The latter have been observed in {sup 229}Ra, but in {sup 229}Pa the experimental evidence is inconclusive. The present evaluation of A = 229, which includes all data received by June 2008, supersedes the 1989 evaluation by Y.A. Akovali, published in Nuclear Data Sheets58, 555 (1989). Highlights of this publication are given below: A comprehensive spectroscopic study of {sup 229}Fr(50.2 s) {beta}- decay using mass-separated sources have provided the first evidence of parity doublets in {sup 229}Ra due to nuclear octupole deformation (1999Fr33). In {sup 229}Th a level at 7.6 5 eV - the closest level to the ground state ever known - has been confirmed through extremely precise measurements of {gamma}-ray energies from {sup 233}U {alpha} decay (1994He08, 2007Be16). A nuclear level at such low energy may be used for studying a large variety of atomic properties associated to nuclear decay. The level structure in {sup 229}Pa has been interpreted in terms of the rotational model (1994Le22). Some authors, however, have proposed the existence of parity doublets as evidence of octupole nuclear deformation (1982Ah08). This interpretation has not been confirmed.

  6. International Cooperation in Nuclear Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman, M.; Katakura, J.; Koning, A. J.; Nordborg, C.

    2011-08-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is organising a co-operation between the major nuclear data evaluation projects in the world. The co-operation involves the ENDF, JEFF, and JENDL projects, and, owing to the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also the Russian BROND and the Chinese CENDL projects. The Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), comprised of about 20 core members, manages this co-operation and meets annually to discuss progress in each evaluation project and also related experimental activities. The WPEC assesses common needs for nuclear data improvements and these needs are then addressed by initiating joint evaluation efforts. The work is performed in specially established subgroups, consisting of experts from the participating evaluation projects. The outcome of these subgroups is published in reports, issued by the NEA. Current WPEC activities comprise for example a number of studies related to nuclear data uncertainties, including a review of methods for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data, as well as evaluations of some of the major actinides, such as {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. This paper gives an overview of current and planned activities within the WPEC.

  7. Nuclear fusion of deuterons with light nuclei driven by Coulomb explosion of nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, Shlomo; Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

    2012-11-15

    Theoretical-computational studies of table-top laser-driven nuclear fusion of high energy (up to 15 MeV) deuterons with {sup 7}Li, {sup 6}Li, T, and D demonstrate the attainment of high fusion yields. The reaction design constitutes a source of Coulomb exploding deuterium nanodroplets driven by an ultraintense, near-infrared, femtosecond Gaussian laser pulse (peak intensity 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18}-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) and a solid, hollow cylindrical target containing the second reagent. The exploding nanodroplets source is characterized by the deuteron kinetic energies, their number, and the laser energy absorbed by a nanodroplet. These were computed by scaled electron and ion dynamics simulations, which account for intra-nanodroplet laser intensity attenuation and relativistic effects. The fusion yields Y are determined by the number of the source deuterons and by the reaction probability. When laser intensity attenuation is weak within a single nanodroplet and throughout the nanodroplets assembly, Y exhibits a power law increase with increasing the nanodroplet size. Y is maximized for the nanodroplet size and laser intensity corresponding to the 'transition' between the weak and the strong intensity attenuation domains. The dependence of Y on the laser pulse energy W scales as W{sup 2} for weak assembly intensity attenuation, and as W for strong assembly intensity attenuation. This reaction design attains the highest table-top fusion efficiencies (up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} J{sup -1} per laser pulse) obtained up to date.

  8. Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Based on Effective Fusion Representations and Dimension Reduction Algorithm LDA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunfang; Liu, Shuhui

    2015-01-01

    An effective representation of a protein sequence plays a crucial role in protein sub-nuclear localization. The existing representations, such as dipeptide composition (DipC), pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM), are insufficient to represent protein sequence due to their single perspectives. Thus, this paper proposes two fusion feature representations of DipPSSM and PseAAPSSM to integrate PSSM with DipC and PseAAC, respectively. When constructing each fusion representation, we introduce the balance factors to value the importance of its components. The optimal values of the balance factors are sought by genetic algorithm. Due to the high dimensionality of the proposed representations, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to find its important low dimensional structure, which is essential for classification and location prediction. The numerical experiments on two public datasets with KNN classifier and cross-validation tests showed that in terms of the common indexes of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and MCC, the proposed fusing representations outperform the traditional representations in protein sub-nuclear localization, and the representation treated by LDA outperforms the untreated one. PMID:26703574

  9. Evidence of parasexual activity in "asexual amoebae" Cochliopodium spp. (Amoebozoa): extensive cellular and nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Anderson, O Roger; Lecky, Ariel F

    2014-09-01

    The majority of microbial eukaryotes have long been considered asexual, though new evidence indicates sex, or sexual-like (parasexual) behaviors that deviate from the usual union of two gametes, among other variant aspects. Over a dozen amoebozoans are implicated to have sexual stages. However, the exact mechanism by which sex occurs in these lineages remains elusive. This is mainly due to the diverse quality and cryptic nature of their life cycle. In this study we present evidence of some previously unreported aspects of the life cycle of an amoeba, Cochliopodium, that undergoes unusual intraspecific interactions using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Similar to other amoebozoans, Cochliopodium, is considered asexual with no published reports of sex or parasexuality. We also investigated environmental conditions that govern the observed intraspecific interactions. Both light microscopic and immunocytochemistry evidence demonstrates Cochliopodium undergoes cellular fusion (plasmogamy) and nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Large plasmodia eventually undergo karyogamy and contain large fused, polyploid, nuclei. These are observed to fragment, subsequently, by karyotomy (nuclear fission) and cytoplasmic fission to yield uninucleated amoebae. This process could lead to a non-meiotic, parasexual exchange of chromosomes in Cochliopodium. These findings strongly suggest that Cochliopodium is involved in parasexual activity and should no longer be considered strictly asexual. PMID:25168314

  10. Nuclear Data and the Oklo Natural Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, C. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactors have enabled some of the most sensitive terrestrial tests of time variation of dimensionless fundamental constants. The constraints on variation of αEM, the fine structure constant are particular good, but depend on the reliability of the nuclear data, and on the reliability of the modeling of the reactor environment. We briefly review the history of these tests and discuss our recent work in 1) attempting to better bound the temperatures at which the reactors operated, 2) investigating whether the γ-ray fluxes in the reactors could have contributed to changing lutetium isotopic abundances and 3) determining whether lanthanum isotopic data could provide an alternate estimate of the neutron fluence.

  11. CECE alternative for upgrading/detritiation in heavy water nuclear reactors and for tritium recovery in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, D.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1995-10-01

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process, utilizing AECL`s wetproofed catalyst, is ideally suited for extracting tritium from water because of its high isotopic separation factor and near-ambient operating conditions. Several CECE options are compared with the more conventional DW-VPCE arrangements for heavy water upgrading and detritiation of CANDU nuclear reactors and for detritiation of fusion facilities such as ITER. For both applications, CECE offers a more economical alternative over conventional technology. Experimental data on catalyst activity and lifetime are also presented and past commercial applications of the AECL catalyst are reviewed. AECL has recently committed to assembly of a CECE upgrading/detritiation demonstration facility. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  13. Nuclear Data on Unstable Nuclei for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael; Bardayan, Daniel; Blackmon, Jeffery; Nesaraja, Caroline; Lingerfelt, Eric; Scott, Jason; Hix, W. Raphael; Chae, Kyungyuk; Ma, Zhanwen; Guidry, Michael; Kozub, Raymond; Sharp, Jacob; Meyer, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The sequence of nuclear reactions occurring in supernova explosions is believed to involve thousands of neutron-rich nuclei, and a knowledge of the properties of these nuclei is essential to calculating the element synthesis in these cataclysmic events. Similarly, information on proton-rich nuclei is needed to understand nova explosions occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars and X-ray bursts occurring on the surfaces of neutron stars. Recent measurements with radioactive beams at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) and elsewhere have prompted the evaluation of a number of reactions involving unstable nuclei needed for stellar explosion studies. Recent evaluation efforts will be presented. To ensure that the latest relevant experimental and theoretical nuclear physics results are rapidly incorporated into astrophysical models, we have created a new computational infrastructure for nuclear astrophysics data. Available on-line at www.nucastrodata.org, a simple point-and-click interface guides users to convert evaluated nuclear reaction and structure information as input into thermonuclear reaction rates in a variety of output formats. It also enables users to combine a new reaction rate with an existing library, as well as to create, merge, store, document, and share custom libraries. Future capabilities will include tools to carry out data evaluations and to calculate and visualize the synthesis of elements in astrophysical environments. The site www.nucastrodata.org also features a comprehensive set of links (over 60 so far) to nuclear datasets around the world which are important for nuclear astrophysics studies.

  14. A review of sensor data fusion for explosives and weapons detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2013-05-01

    The combination or fusion of data from multiple complementary sensors can potentially improve system performance in many explosives and weapons detection applications. The motivations for fusion can include improved probability of detection; reduced false alarms; detection of an increased range of threats; higher throughput and better resilience to adversary countermeasures. This paper presents the conclusions of a study which surveyed a wide range of data fusion techniques and examples of the research, development and practical use of fusion in explosives detection. Different applications types such as aviation checkpoint, checked baggage and stand-off detection are compared and contrasted, and the degree to which sensors can be regarded as `orthogonal' is explored. Whilst data fusion is frequently cited as an opportunity, there are fewer examples of its operational deployment. Blockers to the wider use of data fusion include the difficulty of predicting the performance gains that are likely to be achieved in practice, as well as a number of cost, commercial, integration, test and evaluation issues. The paper makes a number of recommendations for future research work.

  15. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Generalized Nuclear Data: A New Structure (with Supporting Infrastructure) for Handling Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Beck, B. R.; Patel, N. R.; Summers, N. C.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format was designed in the 1960s to accommodate neutron reaction data to support nuclear engineering applications in power, national security and criticality safety. Over the years, the scope of the format has been extended to handle many other kinds of data including charged particle, decay, atomic, photo-nuclear and thermal neutron scattering. Although ENDF has wide acceptance and support for many data types, its limited support for correlated particle emission, limited numeric precision, and general lack of extensibility mean that the nuclear data community cannot take advantage of many emerging opportunities. More generally, the ENDF format provides an unfriendly environment that makes it difficult for new data evaluators and users to create and access nuclear data. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has begun the design of a new Generalized Nuclear Data (or 'GND') structure, meant to replace older formats with a hierarchy that mirrors the underlying physics, and is aligned with modern coding and database practices. In support of this new structure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has updated its nuclear data/reactions management package Fudge to handle GND structured nuclear data. Fudge provides tools for converting both the latest ENDF format (ENDF-6) and the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) format to and from GND, as well as for visualizing, modifying and processing (i.e., converting evaluated nuclear data into a form more suitable to transport codes) GND structured nuclear data. GND defines the structure needed for storing nuclear data evaluations and the type of data that needs to be stored. But unlike ENDF and ENDL, GND does not define how the data are to be stored in a file. Currently, Fudge writes the structured GND data to a file using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), as it is ASCII based and can be viewed with any text editor. XML is a meta-language, meaning that it

  17. Generalized Nuclear Data: A New Structure (with Supporting Infrastructure) for Handling Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mattoon, C.M.; Beck, B.R.; Patel, N.R.; Summers, N.C.; Hedstrom, G.W.; Brown, D.A.

    2012-12-15

    The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format was designed in the 1960s to accommodate neutron reaction data to support nuclear engineering applications in power, national security and criticality safety. Over the years, the scope of the format has been extended to handle many other kinds of data including charged particle, decay, atomic, photo-nuclear and thermal neutron scattering. Although ENDF has wide acceptance and support for many data types, its limited support for correlated particle emission, limited numeric precision, and general lack of extensibility mean that the nuclear data community cannot take advantage of many emerging opportunities. More generally, the ENDF format provides an unfriendly environment that makes it difficult for new data evaluators and users to create and access nuclear data. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has begun the design of a new Generalized Nuclear Data (or 'GND') structure, meant to replace older formats with a hierarchy that mirrors the underlying physics, and is aligned with modern coding and database practices. In support of this new structure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has updated its nuclear data/reactions management package Fudge to handle GND structured nuclear data. Fudge provides tools for converting both the latest ENDF format (ENDF-6) and the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) format to and from GND, as well as for visualizing, modifying and processing (i.e., converting evaluated nuclear data into a form more suitable to transport codes) GND structured nuclear data. GND defines the structure needed for storing nuclear data evaluations and the type of data that needs to be stored. But unlike ENDF and ENDL, GND does not define how the data are to be stored in a file. Currently, Fudge writes the structured GND data to a file using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), as it is ASCII based and can be viewed with any text editor. XML is a meta-language, meaning that it

  18. GPS and odometer data fusion for outdoor robots continuous positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo-Ruz, Ana; Garcia-Perez, Lia; Garcia-Alegre, Maria C.; Guinea, Domingo; Ribeiro, Angela; Sandoval, Francisco

    2002-02-01

    Present work describes an approximation to obtain the best estimation of the position of the outdoor robot ROJO, a low cost lawnmower to perform unmanned precision agriculture task such are the spraying of pesticides in horticulture. For continuous location of ROJO, two redundant sensors have been installed onboard: a DGPS submetric precision model and an odometric system. DGPS system will allow an absolute positioning of the vehicle in the field, but GPS failures in the reception of the signals due to obstacles and electrical and meteorological disturbance, lead us to the integration of the odometric system. Thus, a robust odometer based upon magnetic strip sensors has been designed and integrated in the vehicle. These sensors continuosly deliver the position of the vehicle relative to its initial position, complementing the DGPS blindness periods. They give an approximated location of the vehicle in the field that can be in turn conveniently updated and corrected by the DGPS. Thus, to provided the best estimation, a fusion algorithm has been proposed and proved, wherein the best estimation is calculated as the maximum value of the join probability function obtained from both position estimation of the onboard sensors. Some results are presented to show the performance of the proposed sensor fusion technique.

  19. Distributed Service-Based Approach for Sensor Data Fusion in IoT Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Valenzuela, Sandra; Holgado-Terriza, Juan A.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, José M.; Muros-Cobos, Jesús L.

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) enables the communication among smart objects promoting the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects that are able to interact and cooperate jointly to reach common goals. IoT objects can obtain data from their context, such as the home, office, industry or body. These data can be combined to obtain new and more complex information applying data fusion processes. However, to apply data fusion algorithms in IoT environments, the full system must deal with distributed nodes, decentralized communication and support scalability and nodes dynamicity, among others restrictions. In this paper, a novel method to manage data acquisition and fusion based on a distributed service composition model is presented, improving the data treatment in IoT pervasive environments. PMID:25320907

  20. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Obložinský, P.; Herman, M.; Greene, N. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Smith, D. L.; Young, P. G.; MacFarlane, R. E.; Hale, G. M.; Frankle, S. C.; Kahler, A. C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R. C.; Madland, D. G.; Moller, P.; Mosteller, R. D.; Page, P. R.; Talou, P.; Trellue, H.; White, M. C.; Wilson, W. B.; Arcilla, R.; Dunford, C. L.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Pritychenko, B.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Lubitz, C. R.; Trumbull, T. H.; Weinman, J. P.; Brown, D. A.; Cullen, D. E.; Heinrichs, D. P.; McNabb, D. P.; Derrien, H.; Dunn, M. E.; Larson, N. M.; Leal, L. C.; Carlson, A. D.; Block, R. C.; Briggs, J. B.; Cheng, E. T.; Huria, H. C.; Zerkle, M. L.; Kozier, K. S.; Courcelle, A.; Pronyaev, V.; van der Marck, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    agreement for simulations of thermal high-enriched uranium assemblies is preserved; (d) The underprediction of fast criticality of 233,235U and 239Pu assemblies is removed; and (e) The intermediate spectrum critical assemblies are predicted more accurately. We anticipate that the new library will play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including transport simulations supporting national security, nonproliferation, advanced reactor and fuel cycle concepts, criticality safety, fusion, medicine, space applications, nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear physics facility design. The ENDF/B-VII.0 library is archived at the National Nuclear Data Center, BNL, and can be retrieved from www.nndc.bnl.gov.

  1. Evaluation of transformer insulating oil quality using NIR, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopic data fusion.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Mariana S; Blanco, Marcos R; Gambarra Neto, Francisco F; Lião, Luciano M; Sena, Marcelo M; Tauler, Romà; de Oliveira, Anselmo E

    2014-11-01

    Power transformers are essential components in electrical energy distribution. One of their most important parts is the insulation system, consisting of Kraft paper immersed in insulating oil. Interfacial tension and color are major parameters used for assessing oil quality and the system׳s degradation. This work proposes the use of near infrared (NIR), molecular fluorescence, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods combined with chemometric multivariate calibration methods (Partial Least Squares - PLS) to predict interfacial tension and color in insulating mineral oil samples. Interfacial tension and color were also determined using tensiometry and colorimetry as standard reference methods, respectively. The best PLS model was obtained when NIR, fluorescence, and NMR data were combined (data fusion), demonstrating synergy among them. An optimal PLS model was calculated using the selected group of variables according to their importance on PLS projections (VIP). The root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2.9 mN m(-1) and 0.3 were estimated for interfacial tension and color, respectively. Mean relative standard deviations of 1.5% for interfacial tension and 6% for color were registered, meeting quality control requirements set by electrical energy companies. The methods proposed in this work are rapid and simple, showing great advantages over traditional approaches, which are slow and environmentally unfriendly due to chemical waste generation. PMID:25127577

  2. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=241

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2015-11-27

    This paper presents available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of ground and excited states for all known nuclei with mass numbers A=24, which have been compiled and evaluated. The adopted level and decay schemes, as well as the detailed nuclear properties and configuration assignments based on experimental data are presented for these nuclides. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 (241Np,241Pu, 241Am, 241Cm, 241Bk, and 241Cf), 2011Me01 (241Es), and 2013Th02 (241Fm).

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=241

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2015-11-27

    This paper presents available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of ground and excited states for all known nuclei with mass numbers A=24, which have been compiled and evaluated. The adopted level and decay schemes, as well as the detailed nuclear properties and configuration assignments based on experimental data are presented for these nuclides. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 (241Np,241Pu, 241Am, 241Cm,more » 241Bk, and 241Cf), 2011Me01 (241Es), and 2013Th02 (241Fm).« less

  4. Evaluation of landsat and MODIS data fusion products for analysis of dryland forest phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current satellite sensors provide data of insufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to fully characterize the patchy phenology patterns of dryland forests. The spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM) is an algorithm that fuses Landsat 30 m data with MODIS 500 m data to pr...

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 183

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2016-05-01

    Evaluated nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclides with mass number A=183 (Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb) are presented here. At, Po and Fr have not yet been observed, but for prediction of ground state and/or isomer properties see, e.g., 2015Bh08 (At, Fr), 2013Ba41 (Tl), 2013Ho05 (Po). This evaluation includes structure and decay data information available by 15 April 2015 and supersedes that by R.B. Firestone published in Nuclear Data Sheets65, 589 (1992) (literature cutoff 9 January 1991), and subsequent revisions by C.M. Baglin for 183Au in ENSDF database (literature cutoff 13 March 1999), 183Hg in Nuclear Data Sheets91, 117 (2000) (literature cutoff 25 September 2000), 183Tl in Nuclear Data Sheets95, 49 (2002) (literature cutoff 1 January 2002) and 183Pb in ENSDF (literature cutoff 6 January 2003). Since the prior Nuclear Data Sheets publication of this mass chain: 183Yb (2012Ku26) and 183Pb (2006An11, 2006Se18, 2007De09, 2009Se13) have been observed; our knowledge of high-spin states has been significantly expanded for 183Ta (2009Sh17), 183W (1999Sa60), 183Re (1998Ha51, 2001Sh41), 183Au (2002Jo18, 2005So01) and 183Tl (2001Mu26, 2004Ra28); a large amount of new structure information for 183W has been obtained from transfer reactions (1997Pr02, 2011Bo09), (n,n'γ) (1993Pr09) and thermal neutron capture (1993Pr09, 1997Pr02, 2011Bo09, 2014Hu02), as well as from the two-photon cascade study by 2005Su29.

  6. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 66

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2010-04-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reactions studies for all isobars with mass number A = 66. The first level- scheme of {sup 66}As, from (HI,xn{gamma}), has been included in this evaluation.

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 115

    SciTech Connect

    Blachot, Jean

    2012-10-15

    This evaluation for A = 115 updates one by J. Blachot, (2005Bl28), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 104, 967 (2005). {alpha} are from BrIcc v2.2b (20-Jan-2009) 2008Ki07, 'Frozen Orbitals' approximation.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 22

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. Shamsuzzoha

    2015-07-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for {sup 22}C, {sup 22}N, {sup 22}O, {sup 22}F, {sup 22}Ne, {sup 22}Na, {sup 22}Mg, {sup 22}Al, and {sup 22}Si. This evaluation for A = 22 supersedes the earlier one by R. B. Firestone (2005Fi16)

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 141

    SciTech Connect

    Nica, N.

    2014-11-15

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for experimentally investigated nuclides of mass 141 (Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) has been evaluated. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with data tables and adopted level schemes.

  10. Nuclear data sheets for A=229

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y. A.

    1989-10-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A=229 is evaluated. The results from various decay experiments and reaction studies are compared. Adopted data, levels, and spin and parity assignments are given. {copyright} 1989 Academic Press, Inc.

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 27

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuzzoha Basunia, M.

    2011-08-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for {sup 27}F, {sup 27}Ne, {sup 27}Na, {sup 27}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 27}Si, {sup 27}P, and {sup 27}S. This evaluation for A=27 supersedes the earlier evaluation by P.M. Endt (1998En04 and 1990En08).

  12. Nuclear data sheets for A = 205

    SciTech Connect

    Schmorak, M R

    1985-05-01

    The available experimental data pertaining to the nuclear structure of nuclei with A = 205 are compiled; the results from various decay and reaction measurements are compared and evaluated. Inconsistencies and discrepancies in the level schemes are discussed. The values of the r/sub 0/ parameter, used to calculate ..cap alpha.. HF, were obtained as in 72E121.

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 179

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2009-02-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 179 (Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl) have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF database. This evaluation for A = 179, which considers data available by 15 November 2008, supersedes the previous complete publication (E. Browne, Nuclear Data Sheets55, 483 (1988), cutoff September 1987) and the update-mode publication (C. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets72, 617 (1994), cutoff date September 1994), as well as the subsequent evaluations of Ta, Ir and Tl by C. Baglin (literature cutoff dates January 2000, October 1998 and February 2001, respectively). The newly evaluated literature provides new Coulomb excitation data for Hf, transfer reaction data for Hf and Ta, new information on Au and Hg from {alpha} decay and significant (HI,xn{gamma}) reaction data for Hf, Ta, Re, Au and Hg. At the time of the 1994 evaluation, no {gamma}-ray information was available for Au or Hg; that situation has now changed dramatically, although additional work on details of the low-lying structure of Au could be instructive.

  14. Approximate Techniques for Representing Nuclear Data Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark L; Broadhead, Bryan L; Dunn, Michael E; Rearden, Bradley T

    2007-01-01

    Computational tools are available to utilize sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) methods for a wide variety of applications in reactor analysis and criticality safety. S/U analysis generally requires knowledge of the underlying uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data, as expressed by covariance matrices; however, only a few nuclides currently have covariance information available in ENDF/B-VII. Recently new covariance evaluations have become available for several important nuclides, but a complete set of uncertainties for all materials needed in nuclear applications is unlikely to be available for several years at least. Therefore if the potential power of S/U techniques is to be realized for near-term projects in advanced reactor design and criticality safety analysis, it is necessary to establish procedures for generating approximate covariance data. This paper discusses an approach to create applications-oriented covariance data by applying integral uncertainties to differential data within the corresponding energy range.

  15. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 78

    SciTech Connect

    Rab, S.

    1991-05-01

    The experimental nuclear data for mass 78 have been reviewed superseding the 1981 evaluation by Singh and Viggars (81Si13). Nuclear structure, decay and reaction properties of all the nine isobars (An, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Sr) of mass 78 are reviewed, and an adopted data set for each nucleus is prepared with proper J{pi} arguments for the levels. There is not much new information available for {sup 78}Zn, {sup 78}Ga, {sup 78}Ge, {sup 78}As and {sup 78}Br. New data are available on heavy ion reactions for {sup 78}Se,k {sup 78}Kr, {sup 78}Rb and {sup 78}Sr as well as on particle transfer studies for 78 Ge, {sup 78}Se and {sup 78}Kr. There are also new experimental data available in (n, {gamma}) studies for {sup 78}Se.

  16. An Approach to Optimize the Fusion Coefficients for Land Cover Information Enhancement with Multisensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Akanksha; Brodu, Nicolas; Yahia, Hussein; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores a novel data fusion method with the application of Machine Learning approach for optimal weighted fusion of multisensor data. It will help to get the maximum information of any land cover. Considerable amount of research work has been carried out on multisensor data fusion but getting an optimal fusion for enhancement of land cover information using random weights is still ambiguous. Therefore, there is a need of such land cover monitoring system which can provide the maximum information of the land cover, generally which is not possible with the help of single sensor data. There is a necessity to develop such techniques by which information of multisensor data can be utilized optimally. Machine learning is one of the best way to optimize this type of information. So, in this paper, the weights of each sensor data have been critically analyzed which is required for the fusion, and observed that weights are quite sensitive in fusion. Therefore, different combinations of weights have been tested exhaustively in the direction to develop a relationship between weights and classification accuracy of the fused data. This relationship can be optimized through machine learning techniques like SVM (Support Vector Machine). In the present study, this experiment has been carried out for PALSAR (Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture RADAR) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. PALSAR is a fully polarimetric data with HH, HV and VV polarizations at good spatial resolution (25m), and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) is a good indicator of vegetation, utilizing different bands (Red and NIR) of freely available MODIS data at 250m resolution. First of all, resolution of NDVI has been enhanced from 250m to 25m (10 times) using modified DWT (Modified Discrete Wavelet Transform) to bring it on the same scale as that of PALSAR. Now, different polarized PALSAR data (HH, HV, VV) have been fused with resolution enhanced NDVI

  17. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 88

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchan, E.A.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2014-01-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A=88 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Ge (Z=32) to Ru (Z=44) are included. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given. This work supersedes the previous evaluation of the data on these nuclides (G. Mukherjee, A.A. Sonzogni – Nucl.Data Sheets 105, 419 (2005))

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 121

    SciTech Connect

    Ohya, S.

    2010-06-15

    The 2000 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 121 by T. Tamura, with literature cutoff date of July 1,1999 has been updated. The experimental results from various decays and reactions for A=121 mass chain have been compiled and evaluated. The nuclides covered in this evaluation are from {sup 121}Rh to {sup 121}Pr. The data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 154

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.

    2009-10-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 154 mass chain have been reviewed. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties, for the nuclides from Ce(Z = 58) through Hf(Z = 72). This evaluation replaces that of 1998Re22, which appeared in Nuclear Data Sheets 85, 171 (1998)

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 162

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.

    2007-09-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 162 mass chain have been reviewed. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties, for the nuclides from Sm (Z = 62) through Os (Z = 76). This represents an update of the previous evaluation of the nuclear data on the A = 162 nuclides (1999He21)

  1. Studies with GFP-Vpr fusion proteins: induction of apoptosis but ablation of cell-cycle arrest despite nuclear membrane or nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Waldhuber, Megan G; Bateson, Michael; Tan, Judith; Greenway, Alison L; McPhee, Dale A

    2003-08-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein is known to arrest the cell cycle in G(2)/M and induce apoptosis following arrest. The functions of Vpr relative to its location in the cell remain unresolved. We now demonstrate that the location and function of Vpr are dependent on the makeup of fusion proteins and that the functions of G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis are separable. Using green fluorescence protein mutants (EGFP or EYFP), we found that fusion at either the N- or C-terminus compromised the ability of Vpr to arrest cell cycling, relative to that of His-Vpr or wild-type protein. Additionally, utilizing the ability to specifically identify cells expressing the fusion proteins, we confirm that Vpr can induce apoptosis, but appears to be independent of cell-cycle arrest in G(2)/M. Both N- and C-terminal Vpr/EYFP fusion proteins induced apoptosis but caused minimal G(2)/M arrest. These studies with Vpr fusion proteins indicate that the functions of Vpr leading to G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis are separable and that fusion of Vpr to EGFP or EYFP affected the localization of the protein. Our findings suggest that nuclear membrane localization and nuclear import and export are strongly governed by modification of the N-terminus of Vpr. PMID:12951024

  2. New perspectives on level-four processing in data fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Garga, Amulya K.

    1999-07-01

    One of the top-level processing functions defined in the Joint Directors of Laboratories data fusion processing mode is Level 4 processing. This is a meta-process that monitors the on-going data fusion process to optimize the fusion of data. To date, two basic approaches have been used for Level 4 processing. The first approach uses classic constrained optimization methods to optimize a measure of performance of the data fusion process. The second approach treats Level 4 processing as a classical control problem, invovling dynamic sensor tasking, to meet performance objectives. Both of these approaches generally ignore the human-in-the-loop user, and treat sensor as relatively unintelligent devices. Recent development in smart sensor, improved models of dynamic sensor performance, and advances in cognitive psychology suggests that a new perspective on Level 4 processing is needed. In this paper, the concept of Level 4 processing is extended to exploit these rapid evolutions, resulting in increased performance of data fusion systems.

  3. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 179

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    1994-08-01

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 179 have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. Only new or significantly revised source data sets are published here, together with all adopted level and adopted {gamma}-ray information for all A = 179 isobars. This publication for A = 179 may be used in conjunction with the previous (full) publication, please note, however, that data sets which are not published here may, nevertheless, appear in revised form in the current ENSDF file.

  4. Evaluation of CFETR as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility using multiple system codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Costley, A. E.; Wan, B. N.; Garofalo, A. M.; Leuer, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-system codes benchmarking study of the recently published China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) pre-conceptual design (Wan et al 2014 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42 495). Two system codes, General Atomics System Code (GASC) and Tokamak Energy System Code (TESC), using different methodologies to arrive at CFETR performance parameters under the same CFETR constraints show that the correlation between the physics performance and the fusion performance is consistent, and the computed parameters are in good agreement. Optimization of the first wall surface for tritium breeding and the minimization of the machine size are highly compatible. Variations of the plasma currents and profiles lead to changes in the required normalized physics performance, however, they do not significantly affect the optimized size of the machine. GASC and TESC have also been used to explore a lower aspect ratio, larger volume plasma taking advantage of the engineering flexibility in the CFETR design. Assuming the ITER steady-state scenario physics, the larger plasma together with a moderately higher BT and Ip can result in a high gain Qfus ˜ 12, Pfus ˜ 1 GW machine approaching DEMO-like performance. It is concluded that the CFETR baseline mode can meet the minimum goal of the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) mission and advanced physics will enable it to address comprehensively the outstanding critical technology gaps on the path to a demonstration reactor (DEMO). Before proceeding with CFETR construction steady-state operation has to be demonstrated, further development is needed to solve the divertor heat load issue, and blankets have to be designed with tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 as a target.

  5. Real-time Data Fusion Platforms: The Need of Multi-dimensional Data-driven Research in Biomedical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Satyajeet; Kite, Bobbie; Ramanathan, Jay; Payne, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Systems designed to expedite data preprocessing tasks such as data discovery, interpretation, and integration that are required before data analysis drastically impact the pace of biomedical informatics research. Current commercial interactive and real-time data integration tools are designed for large-scale business analytics requirements. In this paper we identify the need for end-to-end data fusion platforms from the researcher's perspective, supporting ad-hoc data interpretation and integration. PMID:26262406

  6. Multiscale integral analysis of a HT leakage in a fusion nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M.; Fradera, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Zamora, I.; Martínez-Saban, E.; Colomer, C.; Briani, P.

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents an example of the application of an integral methodology based on a multiscale analysis that covers the whole tritium cycle within a nuclear fusion power plant, from a micro scale, analyzing key components where tritium is leaked through permeation, to a macro scale, considering its atmospheric transport. A leakage from the Nuclear Power Plants, (NPP) primary to the secondary side of a heat exchanger (HEX) is considered for the present example. Both primary and secondary loop coolants are assumed to be He. Leakage is placed inside the HEX, leaking tritium in elementary tritium (HT) form to the secondary loop where it permeates through the piping structural material to the exterior. The Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system removes the leaked tritium towards the NPP exhaust. The HEX is modelled with system codes and coupled to Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) to account for tritium dispersion inside the nuclear power plants buildings and in site environment. Finally, tritium dispersion is calculated with an atmospheric transport code and a dosimetry analysis is carried out. Results show how the implemented methodology is capable of assessing the impact of tritium from the microscale to the atmospheric scale including the dosimetric aspect.

  7. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  8. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF WATER-COOLED FUSION REACTORS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Andrei Y; Flanagan, George F

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an experimental Tokamak fusion energy reactor that is being built in Cadarache, France, in collaboration with seven agencies representing China, the European Union, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The main objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a controlled fusion reaction An important U.S. contribution is the design, fabrication, and delivery of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). This paper describes the main sources of radioactivity in TCWS water, which are the nitrogen isotopes 16N and 17N, tritium, activated corrosion products, and the carbon isotope 14C; the relative contribution of each of these sources to the total radioactive contamination of water; issues related to excess accumulation of these species; and methods to control TCWS radioactivity within acceptable limits. Among these methods are: (1) water purification to minimize corrosion of materials in contact with TCWS water; (2) monitoring of vital chemistry parameters and control of water chemistry; (3) design of proper building structure and/or TCWS loop/geometry configuration; and (4) design of an ITER liquid radwaste facility tailored to TCWS operational requirements. Design of TCWS nuclear chemistry control is crucial to ensuring that the inventory of radioactive species is consistent with the principle of 'As Low as Reasonably Achievable.'

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 247

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, C.D.

    2015-03-15

    Available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass numbers A=247 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 ({sup 247}Pu, {sup 247}Am, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 243}Bk, {sup 247}Cf), 2011Me01 ({sup 247}Es), and 2013Th02 ({sup 247}Fm, {sup 247}Md)

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 243

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, C.D.; McCutchan, E.A.

    2014-09-15

    Available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass numbers A=243 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 ({sup 243}Np, {sup 243}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 243}Bk, and {sup 243}Cf), 2011Me01 ({sup 243}Es), and 2013Th02 ({sup 243}Fm)

  11. Nuclear data sheets for A = 195

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1999-03-01

    The 1994 version of Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 195 (94Zh15) has been updated on the basis of the experimental results from reactions and decays leading to nuclides of mass number A = 195 by the cutoff date noted below. The detailed level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental reaction and decay data on which they are based are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 195. The experimental data are evaluated; the inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for levels and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties, are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=243

    SciTech Connect

    Nesaraja, Caroline D; McCutchan, Elizabeth A.

    2014-09-30

    We present available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass numbers A=243. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental results are also noted. A summary and compilation of the discovery of various isotopes in this mass region is given in 2013Fr02 (243Np, 243Pu, 243Am, 243Cm, 243Bk, and 243Cf), 2011Me01 (243Es), and 2013Th02 (243Fm).

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 81

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2008-10-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 81 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) have been compiled and evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This publication for A = 81 supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets79, 447 (1996), literature cutoff 1 November 1996) and the subsequent updates by C. Baglin for {sup 81}Y (literature cutoff 8 October 1998) and {sup 81}Zr (literature cutoff 24 March 2000). All literature available prior to 15 August 2008 has been considered. Subsequent to previous A = 81 evaluations, excited states have been reported for the first time in {sup 81}Ga, and knowledge of excited state properties for {sup 81}Y and {sup 81}Zr has been significantly expanded. However, the expected {epsilon}+{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 81}Zr has yet to be studied.

  14. Towards a Unified Approach to Information Integration - A review paper on data/information fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Lei, Xingye C.

    2005-10-14

    Information or data fusion of data from different sources are ubiquitous in many applications, from epidemiology, medical, biological, political, and intelligence to military applications. Data fusion involves integration of spectral, imaging, text, and many other sensor data. For example, in epidemiology, information is often obtained based on many studies conducted by different researchers at different regions with different protocols. In the medical field, the diagnosis of a disease is often based on imaging (MRI, X-Ray, CT), clinical examination, and lab results. In the biological field, information is obtained based on studies conducted on many different species. In military field, information is obtained based on data from radar sensors, text messages, chemical biological sensor, acoustic sensor, optical warning and many other sources. Many methodologies are used in the data integration process, from classical, Bayesian, to evidence based expert systems. The implementation of the data integration ranges from pure software design to a mixture of software and hardware. In this review we summarize the methodologies and implementations of data fusion process, and illustrate in more detail the methodologies involved in three examples. We propose a unified multi-stage and multi-path mapping approach to the data fusion process, and point out future prospects and challenges.

  15. Hierarchical adaptation scheme for multiagent data fusion and resource management in situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaskeur, Abder R.; Roy, Jean

    2001-08-01

    Sensor Management (SM) has to do with how to best manage, coordinate and organize the use of sensing resources in a manner that synergistically improves the process of data fusion. Based on the contextual information, SM develops options for collecting further information, allocates and directs the sensors towards the achievement of the mission goals and/or tunes the parameters for the realtime improvement of the effectiveness of the sensing process. Conscious of the important role that SM has to play in modern data fusion systems, we are currently studying advanced SM Concepts that would help increase the survivability of the current Halifax and Iroquois Class ships, as well as their possible future upgrades. For this purpose, a hierarchical scheme has been proposed for data fusion and resource management adaptation, based on the control theory and within the process refinement paradigm of the JDL data fusion model, and taking into account the multi-agent model put forward by the SASS Group for the situation analysis process. The novelty of this work lies in the unified framework that has been defined for tackling the adaptation of both the fusion process and the sensor/weapon management.

  16. Recent Advances in Registration, Integration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data: Redundant Representations and Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czaja, Wojciech; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sophisticated mathematical techniques have been successfully applied to the field of remote sensing to produce significant advances in applications such as registration, integration and fusion of remotely sensed data. Registration, integration and fusion of multiple source imagery are the most important issues when dealing with Earth Science remote sensing data where information from multiple sensors, exhibiting various resolutions, must be integrated. Issues ranging from different sensor geometries, different spectral responses, differing illumination conditions, different seasons, and various amounts of noise need to be dealt with when designing an image registration, integration or fusion method. This tutorial will first define the problems and challenges associated with these applications and then will review some mathematical techniques that have been successfully utilized to solve them. In particular, we will cover topics on geometric multiscale representations, redundant representations and fusion frames, graph operators, diffusion wavelets, as well as spatial-spectral and operator-based data fusion. All the algorithms will be illustrated using remotely sensed data, with an emphasis on current and operational instruments.

  17. Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M. S.

    2008-04-17

    We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound-nucleus Hauser-Feshbach cross section, and the fluctuations in the intermediate channels result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in detail and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the development of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate-channel optical potentials.

  18. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    1996-12-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80{percent} with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Pattern-level temporal difference learning, data fusion, and chess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Robert; Weber, Ryan J.

    2000-04-01

    Our research group is using chess as a vehicle for studying the fusion of adaptation, multiple representation, and search technologies for real-time decision making. Chess systems like Deep Blue have achieved Grandmaster chess play with a brute-force search of the game tree and human- supplied information, like piece-values and opening books. However, subtle aspects of chess, including positional features and advanced concepts, are not capable of being represented or processed efficiently with the standard method. Since 1989, Morph I-III have exhibited more autonomy and learning ability than traditional chess programs in `adaptive pattern-oriented chess'. Like its predecessors, Morph IV is a reinforcement learner, but it also uses a new technique we call pattern-level TD and Q-learning to mathematically map the state space and effectively learn to classify situations. Its three knowledge sources include two traditional ones: material and a piece-square table, and a new method called Distance. These are combined using a simple genetic algorithm and a decision tree. This paper shows the effectiveness of fusing knowledge to replace search in real-time situations, since an agent which combines all sources is capable of consistently beating an agent which employs any of the individual knowledge sources. Surprisingly, the pattern-level TD agent is slightly superior to the pattern-level Q-learning agent, despite the fact that the Q-learning agent updates more Q-values on each temporal step.

  20. Fusion reactor nucleonics: status and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Engholm, B.A.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haight, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The national fusion technology effort has made a good start at addressing the basic nucleonics issues, but only a start. No fundamental nucleonics issues are seen as insurmountable barriers to the development of commercial fusion power. To date the fusion nucleonics effort has relied almost exclusively on other programs for nuclear data and codes. But as we progress through and beyond ETF type design studies the fusion program will need to support a broad based nucleonics effort including code development, sensitivity studies, integral experiments, data acquisition etc. It is clear that nucleonics issues are extremely important to fusion development and that we have only scratched the surface.

  1. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  2. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  3. System and method for cognitive processing for data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system and method for cognitive processing of sensor data. A processor array receiving analog sensor data and having programmable interconnects, multiplication weights, and filters provides for adaptive learning in real-time. A static random access memory contains the programmable data for the processor array and the stored data is modified to provide for adaptive learning.

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=36

    SciTech Connect

    Nica N.; Nica,N.; Cameron,J.; Singh,B.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for experimentally investigated nuclides of mass 36 (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca) has been evaluated. The principal sources of the 'adopted levels' presented for nuclides close to the stability line are Endt's evaluations (1990En08, 1978En02). The data sets for reactions and decays, including all available gamma-ray data, are based mostly on the original literature. The {sup 36}Na has been looked for but not yet experimentally detected. There are no data available for the excited states in {sup 36}Al, and for {sup 36}Mg and {sup 36}Ca, only one excited state is known.

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=37

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron J.; Nica N.; Cameron,J.; Chen,J.; Singh,B.; Nica,N.

    2012-02-01

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for experimentally investigated nuclides of mass 37 (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca) has been evaluated. The principal sources of the 'adopted levels' presented for nuclides close to the stability line are Endt's evaluations (1990En08, 1978En02). The data sets for reactions and decays, including all available gamma-ray data, are based mostly on the original literature. There are no data available for the excited states in {sup 37}Na, {sup 37}Mg, {sup 37}Al; and for {sup 37}Si, only one excited state is known.

  6. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 209

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Kondev, F.G.

    2015-05-15

    The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A = 209 (Au,Hg,Tl,Pb,Bi,Po,At,Rn, Fr,Ra,Ac,Th). Detailed evaluated level properties and related nuclear structure information are presented, with the best values recommended for level energies, half-lives, γ–ray energies and intensities, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes the earlier full evaluation of A = 209 by M.J. Martin (1991Ma16)

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 248

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2014-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=248. The experimental reaction and decay data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values are given for various level properties (including spin and parity, halflife, and configuration), γ properties (including energy, intensity, and multipole character) and α properties (including energy, intensity, and hindrance factor). This evaluation replaces the A=248 evaluation published by A. Akovali in Nuclear Data Sheets 87, 249 (1999)

  8. ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. Blair

    2005-05-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

  9. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bouland, O; Hale, G M; Lynn, J E; Talou, P; Bernard, D; Litaize, O; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Serot, O

    2010-01-01

    The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

  10. Covariances of evaluated nuclear data based upon uncertainty information of experimental data and nuclear models

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.; Peelle, R.W.

    1986-11-17

    A straightforward derivation is presented for the covariance matrix of evaluated cross sections based on the covariance matrix of the experimental data and propagation through nuclear model parameters. 10 refs.

  11. Multi-model data fusion to improve an early warning system for hypo-/hyperglycemic events.

    PubMed

    Botwey, Ransford Henry; Daskalaki, Elena; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G

    2014-01-01

    Correct predictions of future blood glucose levels in individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) can be used to provide early warning of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events and thus to improve the patient's safety. To increase prediction accuracy and efficiency, various approaches have been proposed which combine multiple predictors to produce superior results compared to single predictors. Three methods for model fusion are presented and comparatively assessed. Data from 23 T1D subjects under sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy were used in two adaptive data-driven models (an autoregressive model with output correction - cARX, and a recurrent neural network - RNN). Data fusion techniques based on i) Dempster-Shafer Evidential Theory (DST), ii) Genetic Algorithms (GA), and iii) Genetic Programming (GP) were used to merge the complimentary performances of the prediction models. The fused output is used in a warning algorithm to issue alarms of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events. The fusion schemes showed improved performance with lower root mean square errors, lower time lags, and higher correlation. In the warning algorithm, median daily false alarms (DFA) of 0.25%, and 100% correct alarms (CA) were obtained for both event types. The detection times (DT) before occurrence of events were 13.0 and 12.1 min respectively for hypo-/hyperglycemic events. Compared to the cARX and RNN models, and a linear fusion of the two, the proposed fusion schemes represents a significant improvement. PMID:25571076

  12. Matrix factorization-based data fusion for gene function prediction in baker's yeast and slime mold.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective methods for the characterization of gene functions that are able to combine diverse data sources in a sound and easily-extendible way is an important goal in computational biology. We have previously developed a general matrix factorization-based data fusion approach for gene function prediction. In this manuscript, we show that this data fusion approach can be applied to gene function prediction and that it can fuse various heterogeneous data sources, such as gene expression profiles, known protein annotations, interaction and literature data. The fusion is achieved by simultaneous matrix tri-factorization that shares matrix factors between sources. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by evaluating its performance on predicting ontological annotations in slime mold D. discoideum and on recognizing proteins of baker's yeast S. cerevisiae that participate in the ribosome or are located in the cell membrane. Our approach achieves predictive performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art kernel-based data fusion, but requires fewer data preprocessing steps. PMID:24297565

  13. Evaluation of data fusion and image segmentation in earth observation based rapid mapping workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.; Meyer, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study, which aimed to discover the synergies of data fusion and image segmentation in the context of EO-based rapid mapping workflows. Our approach pillared on the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) focusing on multiscale, internally-displaced persons' (IDP) camp information extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) images. We applied twelve pansharpening algorithms to two subsets of a GeoEye-1 image scene that was taken over a former war-induced ephemeral settlement in Sri Lanka. A multidimensional assessment was employed to benchmark pansharpening algorithms with respect to their spectral and spatial fidelity. The multiresolution segmentation (MRS) algorithm of the eCognition Developer software served as the key algorithm in the segmentation process. The first study site was used for comparing segmentation results produced from the twelve fused products at a series of scale, shape, and compactness settings of the MRS algorithm. The segmentation quality and optimum parameter settings of the MRS algorithm were estimated by using empirical discrepancy measures. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to compare the quality of image object candidates, which were derived from the twelve pansharpened products. A wall-to-wall classification was performed based on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify image objects candidates of the fused images. The second site simulated a more realistic crisis information extraction scenario where the domain expertise is crucial in segmentation and classification. We compared segmentation and classification results of the original images (non-fused) and twelve fused images to understand the efficacy of data fusion. We have shown that the GEOBIA has the ability to create meaningful image objects during the segmentation process by compensating the fused image's spectral distortions with the high-frequency information content that has been injected during fusion. Our

  14. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 197

    SciTech Connect

    Chunmei, Zhou

    1995-11-01

    The 1991 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 197 have been updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies leading to nuclides in the A = 197 mass chain since December 1989 (cutoff date of the last evaluation). The updated level schemes and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all nuclides with mass number A = 197. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, {gamma}-ray intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented. The references, J{pi} arguments, and necessary comments are given in the text.

  15. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive Schemaless Information Services

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on- demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once- read-never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of heterogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proactivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists) are

  16. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive Schemaless Information Services.

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on- demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once- read-never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of het- erogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proac- tivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists

  17. Fusion of imaging spectroscopy and airborne laser scanning data for characterization of forest ecosystems - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabzadeh, Hossein; Morsdorf, Felix; Schaepman, Michael E.

    2014-11-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle and it is largely unknown how this role might be altered by transients imposed by global change and deforestation. Remote sensing can provide information on ecosystem state and functioning and, among others, two remote sensing techniques, airborne laser scanning (ALS) and imaging spectroscopy (IS), have been used to characterize forest ecosystems, both independently and combined in fusion approaches. However, the fusion of these datasets should make the best use of the complementarity of both sensors and provide better and more robust vegetation products in forested ecosystems. Similar to other data fusion approaches, satisfying results depend on choosing appropriate fusion levels and methods. In this review paper, we summarize and classify relevant studies that focused on forest characterization using combined ALS and IS data, limited to the last decade. We classified the approaches by fusion level (data or product level) and by choice of methods (physical or empirical methods). Five different categories of products (landcover maps, aboveground biomass, biophysical parameters, gross/net primary productivity and biochemical parameters), have been found as the main aspects of forest ecosystems studied so far. A qualitative accuracy analysis of the products exposed that currently landcover maps are profiting the most from ALS and IS data fusion, while there is room for improvements in respect to the other products, such as biophysical parameters. Only few studies using physical approaches were found, but we expect the use of such approaches will increase with the growing availability of physically based radiative transfer models that can simulate both, ALS and IS data.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 230

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J. K.

    2012-09-01

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reactions for all isobars with mass number A=230. This evaluation includes the first experimental evidence of 230Am, produced through the 197Au(40Ar,3n)234Bk (α decay to 230Am) reaction, E(40Ar)=188.4 MeV (2003MoZX).

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 234

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J.K.

    2007-03-15

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reactions for all isobars with mass number A = 234. This evaluation includes the discovery of two activities: {sup 234}Cm and {sup 234}Bk, which decay with half-lives of 51 s (2002CaZZ) and {approx}140 s (2003MoZX,2003MoZT), respectively.

  20. Data acquisition with a nuclear microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiore, C.

    1980-01-01

    Spatially resolved information from the near surfaces of materials can be obtained with a nuclear microprobe. The spatial resolution is determined by the optics of the instrument and radiation damage in the specimen. Two- and three-dimensional maps of elemental concentration may be obtained from the near surfaces of materials. Data are acquired by repeated scans of a constantly moving beam over the region of interest or by counting for a preset integrated charge at each specimen location.

  1. Statistical methods of combining information: Applications to sensor data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some statistical approaches to combining information from multiple sources. Promising new approaches will be described, and potential applications to combining not-so-different data sources such as sensor data will be discussed. Experiences with one real data set are described.

  2. Sequential testing over multiple stages and performance analysis of data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Gaurav

    2013-05-01

    We describe a methodology for modeling the performance of decision-level data fusion between different sensor configurations, implemented as part of the JIEDDO Analytic Decision Engine (JADE). We first discuss a Bayesian network formulation of classical probabilistic data fusion, which allows elementary fusion structures to be stacked and analyzed efficiently. We then present an extension of the Wald sequential test for combining the outputs of the Bayesian network over time. We discuss an algorithm to compute its performance statistics and illustrate the approach on some examples. This variant of the sequential test involves multiple, distinct stages, where the evidence accumulated from each stage is carried over into the next one, and is motivated by a need to keep certain sensors in the network inactive unless triggered by other sensors.

  3. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  4. Multi-sensor data fusion for measurement of complex freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. J.; Liu, M. Y.; Cheung, C. F.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of the science and technology in fields such as space optics, multi-scale enriched freeform surfaces are widely used to enhance the performance of the optical systems in both functionality and size reduction. Multi-sensor technology is considered as one of the promising methods to measure and characterize these surfaces at multiple scales. This paper presents a multi-sensor data fusion based measurement method to purposely extract the geometric information of the components with different scales which is used to establish a holistic geometry of the surface via data fusion. To address the key problems of multi-sensor data fusion, an intrinsic feature pattern based surface registration method is developed to transform the measured datasets to a common coordinate frame. Gaussian zero-order regression filter is then used to separate each measured data in different scales, and the datasets are fused based on an edge intensity data fusion algorithm within the same wavelength. The fused data at different scales is then merged to form a new surface with holistic multiscale information. Experimental study is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Visualization of multi-INT fusion data using Java Viewer (JVIEW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Aved, Alex; Nagy, James; Scott, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Visualization is important for multi-intelligence fusion and we demonstrate issues for presenting physics-derived (i.e., hard) and human-derived (i.e., soft) fusion results. Physics-derived solutions (e.g., imagery) typically involve sensor measurements that are objective, while human-derived (e.g., text) typically involve language processing. Both results can be geographically displayed for user-machine fusion. Attributes of an effective and efficient display are not well understood, so we demonstrate issues and results for filtering, correlation, and association of data for users - be they operators or analysts. Operators require near-real time solutions while analysts have the opportunities of non-real time solutions for forensic analysis. In a use case, we demonstrate examples using the JVIEW concept that has been applied to piloting, space situation awareness, and cyber analysis. Using the open-source JVIEW software, we showcase a big data solution for multi-intelligence fusion application for context-enhanced information fusion.

  6. Sub-barrier fusion excitation function data and energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh

    2016-07-01

    This paper analyzed the role of intrinsic degrees of freedom of colliding nuclei in the enhancement of sub-barrier fusion cross-section data of various heavy ion fusion reactions. The influences of inelastic surface vibrations of colliding pairs are found to be dominant and their couplings result in the significantly larger fusion enhancement over the predictions of the one dimensional barrier penetration model at sub-barrier energies. The theoretical calculations are performed by using energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) in conjunction with the one dimensional Wong formula. The effects of dominant intrinsic channels are entertained within framework of the coupled channel calculations obtained by using the code CCFULL. It is quite interesting to note that the energy dependence in Woods-Saxon potential simulates the effects of inelastic surface vibrational states of reactants wherein significantly larger value of diffuseness parameter ranging from a = 0.85 fm to a = 0.95 fm is required to address the observed fusion excitation function data of the various heavy ion fusion reactions.

  7. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 195

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaolong; Kang, Mengxiao

    2014-09-15

    Experimental structure and decay data for all nuclides with mass number A=195 (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn) have been revised, updated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. All literature available by March 2014 has been considered. This evaluation supersedes the previous one for this mass chain (Zhou Chunmei, Nuclear Data Sheets 86, 645 (1999), 1999Zh11). The detailed level schemes, decay schemes, experimental reaction and decay data on which they are based are summarized and presented here. References, Jπ arguments, and comments are given in the text. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 195}Re and {sup 195}Rn. The adopted levels for {sup 195}At are firstly presented in this evaluation. In addition, Q values have been updated based on 2012Wa38.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion for Generating High-Resolution Land Cover Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong

    Currently, remote sensing imagery has been widely used for generating global land cover products, but due to certain physical and budget limitations related to the sensors, their spatial and temporal resolution are too low to attain more accurate and more reliable global change research. In this situation, there is an urgent need to study and develop a more advanced satellite image processing method and land cover producing techniques to generate higher resolution images and land cover products for global change research. Through conducting a comprehensive study of the related theories and methods related to data fusion, various methods are systematically reviewed and summarized, such as HIS transformation image fusion, Wavelet transform image fusion, the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), etc. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are highlighted according to their specific applications in the field of remote sensing. Based on my research target, the following are the main contents of this thesis: (1) Data fusion theory will be systematically studied and summarized, including various fusion models and specific applications, such as IHS transformation, PCA transformation, Wavelet analysis based data fusion, etc. Furthermore, their advantages and disadvantages are pointed out in relation to specific applications. (2) As traditional data fusion methods rely on spatial information and it is hard to deal with multi-source data fusion with temporal variation, therefore, the traditional data fusion theory and methods will be improved by a consideration of temporal information. Accordingly, some spatial and temporal data fusion methods will be proposed, in which both high-resolution & low-temporary imagery and low-resolution & high-temporary imagery are incorporated. Our experiments also show that they are suitable for dealing with multi-temporal data integration and generating high-resolution, multi-temporal images for global

  10. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology. PMID:23823163

  11. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  12. The nuclear data program at rensselaer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danon, Y.; Blain, Z.; Bahran, R.; Rapp, M.; Thompson, J.; Williams, D.; Leinweber, G.; Barry, D.; Block, R.; Hoole, J.

    2010-10-01

    The nuclear data program at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is centered around a 60 MeV pulsed electron Linear Accelerator (LINAC) configured to deliver pulsed neutron beams. The LINAC electron pulse width can vary between 5 ns and 5 us, a repetition rate of 1-500 pulses per second and neutron yield of up to 1013 n/s. Over the years several experimental setups and techniques were developed to enable a variety of measurement capabilities. The experiments cover the energy range from 0.001 eV to 20 MeV and included neutron transmission, capture, scattering and fission measurements. The facility is also equipped with a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) producing a high neutron flux that is used for simultaneous measurements of the fission cross section and fission fragment mass and energy distributions. Detectors for (n, alpha) and (n, p) cross section measurements using the LSDS were also developed and measurements of (n, alpha) cross section were completed. The high neutron flux inside the LSDS enables measurements on small samples (sub micrograms) or samples with small cross section (sub millibarns). In order to fully utilize the capabilities of the facility, several measurement techniques were developed; high accuracy (<1%) total cross sections were measured using iron and uranium filtered neutron beams. A system for fast neutron scattering measurements using an array of liquid scintillators and a digital data acquisition system was recently developed and used for several measurements and is now being adapted for fission neutron studies. Methods for simultaneous measurements of fission and capture cross sections using the RPI multiplicity detector are under development and new modular detectors for both fast and resonance region neutron detection were developed and deployed. These developments result in numerous measurements on different materials and provide input to improved evaluated nuclear data libraries and thus help improve the accuracy of

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 28

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuzzoha Basunia, M.

    2013-10-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for {sup 28}F, {sup 28}Ne, {sup 28}Na, {sup 28}Mg, {sup 28}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 28}P, and {sup 28}S. This evaluation for A=28 supersedes the earlier evaluations by P.M. Endt (1998En04 and 1990En08). However, additional/detailed data for these nuclides can be found in earlier evaluations 1978En02 and 1973EnVA also by P.M. Endt.

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 222

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis-Akovali, Y. A.

    1987-08-01

    The available nuclear structure information for all nuclei with mass number A = 222 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin and parities are given. Some recently measured T/sub 1/2/ for A = 226 parents: T/sub 1/2/(/sup 226/Rn) = 7.4 min 1 (86Bo35). Other measurement 6.0 min 5 (69Ha03). T/sub 1/2/(/sup 226/Fr) = 49 s 1 from 48 s 1 (75Ra03) and 49 s 1 (86Bo35). copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 196

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xiaolong

    2007-06-15

    The 1998 version of nuclear data sheets for A = 196 has been revised and updated on the basis of the experimental results from various decay and reaction studies before January 2006. The experimental data for all known nuclei of A = 196 (Os,Ir,Pt,Au,Hg, Tl,Pb,Bi,Po,At,Rn) have been reevaluated. The experimental methods, references,J{pi} arguments,and necessary comments are given in the text. Summary band structure drawings and level schemes from both radioactive decay and reaction studies are presented. Also of special interest are the new identification of superdeformed bands in {sup 196}Pb and {sup 196}Bi.

  16. Storage and retrieval of nuclear test data

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report is a part of the Test Information Program (TIP) at Sandia National Laboratories. It is an interim report, written primarily as an instruction document to aid in current work on the project. It addresses some found in storing and retrieving data from nuclear field tests conducted over the past five decades, primarily instrumentation data recorded from tests at the Nevada Test Site. First, the TIP data unit for storing and transporting TIP data is described. The data in the TIP data unit is typically recorded in a universal medium such as the portable optical or magnetic disk, or the tape cassette. Each TIP data unit is portable, and is also self-contained in the sense that it includes a set of related test data files, along with complete instructions and software for retrieval of the data by an unknown user, possibly on an unknown platform. Secondly, we describe the use of current software for compressing and waveform data, for authenticating and checking for errors in data processing files to be used on foreign platforms.

  17. A model-based multisensor data fusion knowledge management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    A variety of approaches exist for combining data from multiple sensors. The model-based approach combines data based on its support for or refutation of elements of the model which in turn can be used to evaluate an experimental thesis. This paper presents a collection of algorithms for mapping various types of sensor data onto a thesis-based model and evaluating the truth or falsity of the thesis, based on the model. The use of this approach for autonomously arriving at findings and for prioritizing data are considered. Techniques for updating the model (instead of arriving at a true/false assertion) are also discussed.

  18. Fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR data using decision template-based fuzzy multiple classifier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Behnaz; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Regarding to the limitations and benefits of remote sensing sensors, fusion of remote sensing data from multiple sensors such as hyperspectral and LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is effective at land cover classification. Hyperspectral images (HSI) provide a detailed description of the spectral signatures of classes, whereas LIDAR data give height detailed information. However, because of the more complexities and mixed information in LIDAR and HSI, traditional crisp classification methods could not be more efficient. In this situation, fuzzy classifiers could deliver more satisfactory results than crisp classification approaches. Also, referring to the limitation of single classifiers, multiple classifier system (MCS) may exhibit better performance in the field of multi-sensor fusion. This paper presents a fuzzy multiple classifier system for fusions of HSI and LIDAR data based on decision template (DT). After feature extraction and feature selection on each data, all selected features of both data are applied on a cube. Then classifications were performed by fuzzy k-nearest neighbour (FKNN) and fuzzy maximum likelihood (FML) on cube of features. Finally, a fuzzy decision fusion method is utilized to fuse the results of fuzzy classifiers. In order to assess fuzzy MCS proposed method, a crisp MCS based on support vector machine (SVM), KNN and maximum likelihood (ML) as crisp classifiers and naive Bayes (NB) as crisp classifier fusion method is applied on selected cube feature. A co-registered HSI and LIDAR data set from Houston of USA was available to examine the effect of proposed MCSs. Fuzzy MCS on HSI and LIDAR data provide interesting conclusions on the effectiveness and potentialities of the joint use of these two data.

  19. Data Fusion for Combining Techniques to Detect and Size Surface and Near-Surface Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R. S.; Dixon, S.; Sophian, A.; Tian, G. Y.

    2007-03-21

    In NDT it is important to have a high probability of detection and reliable sizing of defects in a sample. This can be gained by using several techniques, which leads to an increase in cost and time for testing. Another option is to use several techniques combined into a single probe, in which case data fusion for the techniques is possible. We report measurements using a dual probe containing a pair of electro-magnetic acoustic transducers generating and detecting low frequency broadband ultrasonic surface waves, combined with a pulsed eddy current probe. These two techniques are complementary but can be combined to work as competitive or cooperative sensors depending on the type of defect being investigated. Our work gives the depth of surface breaking defects by performing data fusion on certain features of data from each technique in a competitive sense, with data fusion by mathematical algorithm. Further analysis of the results using cooperative data fusion can give details of the depth and type of defect, for example surface breaking or near surface. The dual probe has been demonstrated on several samples, including aluminium and steel samples with several simulated defects on each side.

  20. Fusion transmutation of waste and the role of the In-Zinerator in the nuclear fuel cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2006-06-01

    The Z-Pinch fusion experiment at Sandia National Laboratories has been making significant progress in developing a high-energy fusion neutron source. This source has the potential to be used for the transmutation of nuclear waste. The goal of this research was to do a scoping-level design of a fusion-based transmuter to determine potential transmutation rates along with the fusion yield requirements. Two ''In-Zinerator'' designs have been developed to transmute the long-lived actinides that dominate the heat production in spent fuel. The first design burns up all transuranics (TRU) in spent fuel (Np, Pu, Am, Cm), and the second is focused only on burning up Am and Cm. The TRU In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle requiring burners to get rid of all the TRU with no light water reactor (LWR) recycle. The Am/Cm In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle with Np/Pu recycling in LWRs. Both types of In-Zinerators operate with a moderate fusion source driving a sub-critical actinide blanket. The neutron multiplication is 30, so a great deal of energy is produced in the blanket. With the design goal of generating 3,000 MW{sub th}, about 1,200 kg/yr of actinides can be destroyed in each In-Zinerator. Each TRU In-Zinerator will require a 20 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 20 units (each producing 3,000 MWth) to burn up the TRU as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. Each Am/Cm In-Zinerator will require a 24 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 2 units to burn up the Am/Cm as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. The necessary fusion yield could be achieved using a 200-240 MJ target fired once every 10 seconds.