Science.gov

Sample records for fusion system assessment

  1. Heavy ion fusion systems assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Donald J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The results show that cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 1000 MWe. These results hold over a large area of parameter space, but depend especially on effecting savings in the cost of the accelerator by using ions with a charge-to-mass ratio about three times higher than has been usually assumed. The feasibility of actually realizing such savings has been shown: (1) by experiments showing better-than-previously-assumed transport stability for space charge dominated beams, and (2) by theoretical predictions that the final transport and compression of the pulse to the target pellet, in the expected environment of a reactor chamber, may be sufficiently resistant to instabilities, in particular to streaming instabilities, to enable neutralized beams to successfully propagate to the target. Neutralization is assumed to be required for the higher current pulses that result from the use of the higher charge-to-mass ratio beams jointly by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and also by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute.

  2. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  3. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    advanced techniques for improving streamflow forecasting. The objective of this section of research is to incorporate sea surface temperature (SST), Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and meteorological characteristics with historical stream data to forecast the actual streamflow using genetic programming. This study case concerns the forecasting of stream discharge of a complex-terrain, semi-arid watershed. This study elicits microclimatological factors and the resultant stream flow rate in river system given the influence of dynamic basin features such as soil moisture, soil temperature, ambient relative humidity, air temperature, sea surface temperature, and precipitation. Evaluations of the forecasting results are expressed in terms of the percentage error (PE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r-squared value). The developed models can predict streamflow with very good accuracy with an r-square of 0.84 and PE of 1% for a 30-day prediction. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  5. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  6. Flight assessment of a real time multi-resolution image fusion system for use in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. I.; Sadler, J. R. E.

    2007-04-01

    Military helicopter operations are often constrained by environmental conditions, including low light levels and poor weather. Recent experience has also shown the difficulty presented by certain terrain when operating at low altitude by day and night. For example, poor pilot cues over featureless terrain with low scene contrast, together with obscuration of vision due to wind-blown and re-circulated dust at low level (brown out). These sorts of conditions can result in loss of spatial awareness and precise control of the aircraft. Atmospheric obscurants such as fog, cloud, rain and snow can similarly lead to hazardous situations and reduced situational awareness. Day Night All Weather (DNAW) systems applied research sponsored by UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) has developed a multi-resolution real time Image Fusion system that has been flown as part of a wider flight trials programme investigating increased situational awareness. Dual-band multi-resolution adaptive image fusion was performed in real-time using imagery from a Thermal Imager and a Low Light TV, both co-bore sighted on a rotary wing trials aircraft. A number of sorties were flown in a range of climatic and environmental conditions during both day and night. (Neutral density filters were used on the Low Light TV during daytime sorties.) This paper reports on the results of the flight trial evaluation and discusses the benefits offered by the use of Image Fusion in degraded visual environments.

  7. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  8. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  9. Assessment of Cropping System Diversity in the Fergana Valley Through Image Fusion of Landsat 8 and SENTINEL-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, D.; Kuhn, J.; Conrad, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the transitioning agricultural societies of the world, food security is an essential element of livelihood and economic development with the agricultural sector very often being the major employment factor and income source. Rapid population growth, urbanization, pollution, desertification, soil degradation and climate change pose a variety of threats to a sustainable agricultural development and can be expressed as agricultural vulnerability components. Diverse cropping patterns may help to adapt the agricultural systems to those hazards in terms of increasing the potential yield and resilience to water scarcity. Thus, the quantification of crop diversity using indices like the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) e.g. through freely available remote sensing data becomes a very important issue. This however requires accurate land use classifications. In this study, the focus is set on the cropping system diversity of garden plots, summer crop fields and orchard plots which are the prevalent agricultural systems in the test area of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. In order to improve the accuracy of land use classification algorithms with low or medium resolution data, a novel processing chain through the hitherto unique fusion of optical and SAR data from the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-1 platforms is proposed. The combination of both sensors is intended to enhance the object's textural and spectral signature rather than just to enhance the spatial context through pansharpening. It could be concluded that the Ehlers fusion algorithm gave the most suitable results. Based on the derived image fusion different object-based image classification algorithms such as SVM, Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest were evaluated whereby the latter one achieved the highest classification accuracy. Subsequently, the SID was applied to measure the diversification of the three main cropping systems.

  10. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  11. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  12. Dinuclear systems in complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    Formation and evolution of dinuclear systems in reactions of complete fusion are considered. Based on the dinuclear system concept, the process of compound nucleus formation is studied. Arguments confirming the validity of this concept are given. The main problems of describing the complete fusion in adiabatic approximation are listed. Calculations of evaporation residue cross sections in complete fusion reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are shown. Isotopic trends of the cross sections of heavy nuclei formation in complete fusion reactions are considered.

  13. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  14. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  15. Laser fusion target illumination system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C E

    1975-06-01

    Laser fusion experiments require the focusing of very intense pulsed laser beams onto very small fuel pellets. All reported experiments to date have used lenses to focus one or more laser beams onto the target. This paper describes a combined refractive/reflective illumination system that provides nearly uniform irradiance with nearly orthogonal incidence over the complete spherical target, with only two laser beams. This illumination system was used in the experiments that produced the first known symmetric target implosions. Furthermore, these experiments produced what we believe were the first thermonuclear neutrons generated by a laser-driven implosion. PMID:20154815

  16. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  17. A fusion based plasma propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Bryant, D.; Creese, C.; Djordjevic, V.; Peddicord, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Plasma Propulsion System scoping study was performed to investigate the possibilities of a fusion powered plasma propulsion system for space applications. Specifically, it was to be compared against existing electric propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission. Design parameters consist of 1000 N thrust for 500 days, and the minimum mass possible. This investigation is briefly presented and conclusions drawn.

  18. Innovative insulation systems for superconducting fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humer, K.; Bittner-Rohrhofer, K.; Fillunger, H.; Maix, R. K.; Prokopec, R.; Weber, H. W.

    2006-03-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRPs) are usually employed as insulating materials for the superconducting coils of large fusion magnets, e.g. of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Both the radiation spectrum and the stresses at the magnet location significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of the magnet insulation and, therefore, impose high demands on the material performance. During the last few decades, advanced epoxy based GFRPs with improved mechanical properties and radiation hardness were introduced into fusion technology. More recently, cyanate ester (CE) matrix systems have become of special interest. In this paper, various magnet insulation systems containing boron-free R-glass fibre reinforcements in commercial and new epoxies as well as in pure CE and CE/epoxy blended matrix systems are presented. All systems were irradiated in a fission reactor at ambient temperature (~340 K) to a fast neutron fluence of 1 × 1022 m-2 (E>0.1 MeV). The mechanical properties were assessed at 77 K in tension as well as in interlaminar shear prior to and after irradiation under static and dynamic conditions.

  19. Antiproton Driven Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Kammash, Terry; Gallimore, Alec

    A fusion propulsion system in which the plasma is heated to thermonuclear temperature by antiproton annihilation reactions is proposed. It makes use of an open-ended magnetic confinement device known as the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) in which the plasma - such as deuteriumtritium (DT) - is confined long enough to be heated before being ejected through one mirror (serving as a magnetic nozzle) to produce thrust. The heating process is based on recent theoretical and experimental physics research which revealed that "at rest" annihilation of antiprotons in uranium-238 targets causes fission at nearly 100% efficiency. Thus, heating in the proposed system can be achieved by inserting U238 targets (in the form of foils or atomic beams) in the proper position and then striking them with antiprotons released from a trap attached to one end of the asymmetric GDM device. The resulting fission fragments and annihilation products, namely pions and muons, are highly ionizing and energetic and could readily heat the background plasma to very high temperatures leading to its ignition. We have examined in detail the various phenomena that underlie the operation of such a propulsion system, ranging from the propagation of antiprotons in plasma, to the confinement of the various species by the mirror-type magnetic field, to the role of ambipolar potential in accelerating the plasma, as well as other relevant processes, and have concluded that the proposed system is capable of producing very impressive propulsive capabilities such as specific impulse and thrust. When applied to a round trip mission to Mars, as an example, we find that it can be accomplished in about 59 days and requires less than 4 micrograms of antiprotons. Although roughly nanograms of antiprotons are currently produced annually, it is expected that hundreds of milligrams or possibly several grams will be produced annually in the next decade or so when Mars missions might be contemplated.

  20. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  1. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  2. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  3. Development of a geophysical data fusion system for assessment and remediation studies of polluted groundwater aquifers. Scientific report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.R.; O`Neill, D.C.; Barker, B.W.

    1994-10-01

    The research described in this report is directed toward the development of a workstation-based data management, analysis and visualization system which can be used to improve the Air Force`s capability to evaluate site specific environmental hazards. The initial prototype system described in this report is directed toward a specific application to the Massachusetts Military Reservation (formerly Otis Air Force Base) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This system integrates a comprehensive, on-line environmental database for the site together with a map-based graphical user interface which facilitates analyst access to the databases and analysis tools needed to characterize the subsurface geologic and hydrologic environments at the site.

  4. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  5. Prospects for lasers for fusion energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, N. G.; Rozanov, V.

    1985-06-01

    The authors assess the status of laser thermonuclear fusion research in the USSR and abroad, reviewing some of its major advances as well as current objectives of scientists working in this field. The possible development of an experimental laser thermonuclear reactor is discussed. Such a laser must operate with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 to 10 pulses per second, and it must have a service life of about 100 million pulses. It will be made up of individual modules (10 to 20 modules) with an overall energy of 2 to 3 megajoules, and it will ensure stable focusing of radiation on a target about 1 centimeter in size from a distance of about 50 meters. Its efficiency will be adequate and its cost low enough. Lasers of several types (including carbon-dioxide lasers and chemical and excimer lasers based on a mixture of noble gases with halogen) can meet these requirements, but incorporating them in a single unit is quite difficult from the engineering standpoint. The development of modules of such lasers is also an important task.

  6. Magnetic systems for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1985-02-01

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

  7. Multi-intelligence critical rating assessment of fusion techniques (MiCRAFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of multi-intelligence fusion techniques includes credibility of algorithm performance, quality of results against mission needs, and usability in a work-domain context. Situation awareness (SAW) brings together low-level information fusion (tracking and identification), high-level information fusion (threat and scenario-based assessment), and information fusion level 5 user refinement (physical, cognitive, and information tasks). To measure SAW, we discuss the SAGAT (Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique) technique for a multi-intelligence fusion (MIF) system assessment that focuses on the advantages of MIF against single intelligence sources. Building on the NASA TLX (Task Load Index), SAGAT probes, SART (Situational Awareness Rating Technique) questionnaires, and CDM (Critical Decision Method) decision points; we highlight these tools for use in a Multi-Intelligence Critical Rating Assessment of Fusion Techniques (MiCRAFT). The focus is to measure user refinement of a situation over the information fusion quality of service (QoS) metrics: timeliness, accuracy, confidence, workload (cost), and attention (throughput). A key component of any user analysis includes correlation, association, and summarization of data; so we also seek measures of product quality and QuEST of information. Building a notion of product quality from multi-intelligence tools is typically subjective which needs to be aligned with objective machine metrics.

  8. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  9. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  10. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  11. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frederick W. Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  12. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  13. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  14. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-02-06

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust.

  15. Mission and Readiness Assessment for Fusion Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, et. al.

    2012-12-12

    Magnetic fusion development toward DEMO will most likely require a number of fusion nuclear facilities (FNF), intermediate between ITER and DEMO, to test and validate plasma and nuclear technologies and to advance the level of system integration. The FNF mission space is wide, ranging from basic materials research to net electricity demonstration, so there is correspondingly a choice among machine options, scope, and risk in planning such a step. Readiness requirements to proceed with a DEMO are examined, and two FNF options are assessed in terms of the contributions they would make to closing DEMO readiness gaps, and their readiness to themselves proceed with engineering design about ten years from now. An advanced tokamak (AT) pilot plant with superconducting coils and a mission to demonstrate net electricity generation would go a long way toward DEMO. As a next step, however, a pilot plant would entail greater risk than a copper-coil FNSF-AT with its more focussed mission and technology requirements. The stellarator path to DEMO is briefly discussed. Regardless of the choice of FNF option, an accompanying science and technology development program, also aimed at DEMO readiness, is absolutely essential.

  16. Human SUMO fusion systems enhance protein expression and solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Haolong; Guan, Wei; Ling, Haili; Wang, Zhiyong; Mu, Tianyang; Shuler, Franklin D; Fang, Xuexun

    2010-10-01

    A major challenge associated with recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli is generation of large quantities of soluble, functional protein. Yeast SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier), has been shown to enhance heterologous protein expression and solubility as fusion tag, however, the effects of human SUMOs on protein expression have not been investigated. Here we describe the use of human SUMO1 and SUMO2 as a useful gene fusion technology. Human SUMO1 and SUMO2 fusion expression vectors were constructed and tested in His-tag and ubiquitin fusion expression systems. Two difficult-to-express model proteins, matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP13) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) were fused to the C-terminus of the human SUMO1 and SUMO2 expression vectors. These constructs were expressed in E. coli and evaluation of MMP13 and eGFP expression and solubility was conducted. We found that both SUMO1 and SUMO2 had the ability to enhance the solubility of MMP13 and eGFP, with the SUMO2 tag having a more significant effect. Since fusion tags produce varying quantities of soluble proteins, we assessed the effect of SUMO2 coupled with ubiquitin (Ub). SUMO2-ubiquitin and ubiquitin-SUMO2 fusion expression plasmids were constructed with eGFP as a passenger protein. Following expression in E. coli, both plasmids could improve eGFP expression and solubility similar to the SUMO2 fusion and better than the ubiquitin fusion. The sequential order of SUMO2 and ubiquitin had little effect on expression and solubility of eGFP. Purification of eGFP from the gene fusion product, SUMO2-ubiquitin-eGFP, involved cleavage by a deubiquitinase (Usp2-cc) and Ni-Sepharose column chromatography. The eGFP protein was purified to high homogeneity. In summary, human SUMO1 and SUMO2 are useful gene fusion technologies enhancing the expression, solubility and purification of model heterologous proteins. PMID:20457256

  17. Quality assessment of remote sensing image fusion using feature-based fourth-order correlation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-04-01

    In remote sensing fusion, the spatial details of a panchromatic (PAN) image and the spectrum information of multispectral (MS) images will be transferred into fused images according to the characteristics of the human visual system. Thus, a remote sensing image fusion quality assessment called feature-based fourth-order correlation coefficient (FFOCC) is proposed. FFOCC is based on the feature-based coefficient concept. Spatial features related to spatial details of the PAN image and spectral features related to the spectrum information of MS images are first extracted from the fused image. Then, the fourth-order correlation coefficient between the spatial and spectral features is calculated and treated as the assessment result. FFOCC was then compared with existing widely used indices, such as Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthese, and quality assessed with no reference. Results of the fusion and distortion experiments indicate that the FFOCC is consistent with subjective evaluation. FFOCC significantly outperforms the other indices in evaluating fusion images that are produced by different fusion methods and that are distorted in spatial and spectral features by blurring, adding noise, and changing intensity. All the findings indicate that the proposed method is an objective and effective quality assessment for remote sensing image fusion.

  18. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1987-08-10

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power.

  19. Roll-back planning for a compact fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Miller, Ronald; Stuber, James; Hicks, Nate

    2012-10-01

    The development path for a compact (<100MWe) fusion power core is examined by use of advanced modeling to assess performance metrics at each step towards first commercial reactor. To guide the modeling, a new systems code is used to roll back from reactor, parameterizing and costing intermediate steps, such as Proof of Principle and fusion neutron source. Necessary performance metrics for current ramp, plasma beta, confinement scaling and profile control defined at each stage are assessed with physics models (CORSICA, NIMROD, DCON), constrained also by recent experimental results. A compact system such as a spheromak reduces operational and maintenance complexity, thereby increasing availability and reducing costs. Currents flowing the in the spheromak plasma produce toroidal field, so external windings are not necessary. Absent the TF, OH coil, inner shield and blanket, the power core becomes compact with small poloidal coils, and substantially lower cost than GW-scale systems. Our patent-pending quasi steady-state concept [1] includes an adiabatic compression of the plasma between short current drive periods to reach ignition conditions with converges, C (=a0/af) = 3. Compression allows the fusion island to become even more compact so that some technological issues, such as instantaneously high heat loads, can be avoided.[4pt] [1] S. Woodruff US Patent # 12/706,963

  20. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination approaches for inspecting butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for lack of fusion (LOF). The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and need for volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques and high-speed tensile impact testing for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch IPS DR-11 material by varying the fusion parameters in attempts to provide good joints and joints containing LOF. These butt joints were visually examined and volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) and phased-array (PA) ultrasound. A limited subset of pipe joint material was destructively analyzed by either slicing through the joint and visually examining the surface or by employing a standard high-speed tensile impact test. Initial correlation of the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluations have shown that areas with gross LOF were detected with both TOFD and PA ultrasound and that the tensile impact test showed a brittle failure at the joint. There is still some ambiguity in results from the less obvious LOF conditions. Current work is targeted on assessing the sensitivity of the ultrasonic volumetric examinations and validating the results with a destructive analysis. It is expected that on-going and future work will lead to quantifying the ultrasonic responses in terms of joint integrity.

  1. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-10-26

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits.

  2. Research on information fusion for engineering system integrated health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhanbao; Li, Xingshan; Sun, Cong; Liu, Qi

    2006-11-01

    Integrated Health Management technology is the emerging paradigm in system supervision and maintenance area, and it is the key to achieving true condition-based maintenance. But this task is complicated by the extremely large amount of the data available, the existence of uncertainties, and interactive engineering system operational conditions. Therefore, it is reasonable to research the health information fusion technology to achieve better performance and a higher level of autonomy for IHM system. This paper analyses the requirements of the information fusion in an IHM system, describes the fusion application areas, proposes the Health Sensing Unit (HSU) concept, and designs the distributed hierarchical fusion architecture. Using the confidence distance matrix as the measure of HSU's performance, this paper proposes a fusion algorithm to fuse multiple HSUs' output, and figure out the system health index according to the maximum likelihood principle. The simulation result yields conclusive evidence that fusion can be very valuable in the IHM technology for the system supervision and maintenance.

  3. Analysis of decision fusion algorithms in handling uncertainties for integrated health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zein-Sabatto, Saleh; Mikhail, Maged; Bodruzzaman, Mohammad; DeSimio, Martin; Derriso, Mark; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-06-01

    It has been widely accepted that data fusion and information fusion methods can improve the accuracy and robustness of decision-making in structural health monitoring systems. It is arguably true nonetheless, that decision-level is equally beneficial when applied to integrated health monitoring systems. Several decisions at low-levels of abstraction may be produced by different decision-makers; however, decision-level fusion is required at the final stage of the process to provide accurate assessment about the health of the monitored system as a whole. An example of such integrated systems with complex decision-making scenarios is the integrated health monitoring of aircraft. Thorough understanding of the characteristics of the decision-fusion methodologies is a crucial step for successful implementation of such decision-fusion systems. In this paper, we have presented the major information fusion methodologies reported in the literature, i.e., probabilistic, evidential, and artificial intelligent based methods. The theoretical basis and characteristics of these methodologies are explained and their performances are analyzed. Second, candidate methods from the above fusion methodologies, i.e., Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and fuzzy logic algorithms are selected and their applications are extended to decisions fusion. Finally, fusion algorithms are developed based on the selected fusion methods and their performance are tested on decisions generated from synthetic data and from experimental data. Also in this paper, a modeling methodology, i.e. cloud model, for generating synthetic decisions is presented and used. Using the cloud model, both types of uncertainties; randomness and fuzziness, involved in real decision-making are modeled. Synthetic decisions are generated with an unbiased process and varying interaction complexities among decisions to provide for fair performance comparison of the selected decision-fusion algorithms. For verification purposes

  4. HYFIRE: fusion-high temperature electrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J R; Steinberg, M; Benenati, R; Dang, V D; Horn, F; Isaacs, H; Lazareth, O; Makowitz, H; Usher, J

    1980-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a comprehensive conceptual design study called HYFIRE of a commercial fusion Tokamak reactor, high-temperature electrolysis system. The study is placing particular emphasis on the adaptability of the STARFIRE power reactor to a synfuel application. The HYFIRE blanket must perform three functions: (a) provide high-temperature (approx. 1400/sup 0/C) process steam at moderate pressures (in the range of 10 to 30 atm) to the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) units; (b) provide high-temperature (approx. 700 to 800/sup 0/C) heat to a thermal power cycle for generation of electricity to the HTE units; and (c) breed enough tritium to sustain the D-T fuel cycle. In addition to thermal energy for the decomposition of steam into its constitutents, H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, electrical input is required. Power cycle efficiencies of approx. 40% require He cooling for steam superheat. Fourteen hundred degree steam coupled with 40% power cycle efficiency results in a process efficiency (conversion of fusion energy to hydrogen chemical energy) of 50%.

  5. Benchmarking a novel ultrasound-CT fusion system for respiratory motion management in radiotherapy: Assessment of spatio-temporal characteristics and comparison to 4DCT

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, J. A.; Oldham, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Management of respiratory motion during radiation therapy requires treatment planning and simulation using imaging modalities that possess sufficient spatio-temporal accuracy and precision. An investigation into the use of a novel ultrasound (United States) imaging system for assessment of respiratory motion is presented, exploiting its good soft tissue contrast and temporal precision. The system dynamically superimposes the appropriate image plane sampled from a reference CT data set with the corresponding US B-mode image. An articulating arm is used for spatial registration. While the focus of the study was to quantify the system's ability to track respiratory motion, certain unique spatial calibration procedures were devised that render the software potentially valuable to the general research community. These include direct access to all transformation matrix elements and image scaling factors, a manual latency correction function, and a three-point spatial registration procedure that allows the system to be used in any room possessing a traditional radiotherapy laser localization system. Counter-intuitively, it was discovered that a manual procedure for calibrating certain transformation matrix elements produced superior accuracy to that of an algorithmic Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method. The absolute spatial accuracy was verified by comparing the physical locations of phantom test objects measured using the spatially registered US system, and using data from a 3DCT scan of the phantom as a reference. The spatial accuracy of the display superposition was also tested in a similar manner. The system's dynamic properties were then assessed using three methods. First, the overall system response time was studied using a programmable motion phantom. This included US video update, articulating arm update, CT data set resampling, and image display. The next investigation verified the system's ability to measure the range of motion of a moving anatomical test

  6. Comparison of SUMO fusion technology with traditional gene fusion systems: enhanced expression and solubility with SUMO.

    PubMed

    Marblestone, Jeffrey G; Edavettal, Suzanne C; Lim, Yiting; Lim, Peter; Zuo, Xun; Butt, Tauseef R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous gene fusion systems, recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli remains difficult. Establishing the best fusion partner for difficult-to-express proteins remains empirical. To determine which fusion tags are best suited for difficult-to-express proteins, a comparative analysis of the newly described SUMO fusion system with a variety of commonly used fusion systems was completed. For this study, three model proteins, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP13), and myostatin (growth differentiating factor-8, GDF8), were fused to the C termini of maltose-binding protein (MBP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), thioredoxin (TRX), NUS A, ubiquitin (Ub), and SUMO tags. These constructs were expressed in E. coli and evaluated for expression and solubility. As expected, the fusion tags varied in their ability to produce tractable quantities of soluble eGFP, MMP13, and GDF8. SUMO and NUS A fusions enhanced expression and solubility of recombinant proteins most dramatically. The ease at which SUMO and NUS A fusion tags were removed from their partner proteins was then determined. SUMO fusions are cleaved by the natural SUMO protease, while an AcTEV protease site had to be engineered between NUS A and its partner protein. A kinetic analysis showed that the SUMO and AcTEV proteases had similar KM values, but SUMO protease had a 25-fold higher kcat than AcTEV protease, indicating a more catalytically efficient enzyme. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SUMO is superior to commonly used fusion tags in enhancing expression and solubility with the distinction of generating recombinant protein with native sequences. PMID:16322573

  7. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  8. Perceptual Quality Assessment for Multi-Exposure Image Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kede; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Multi-exposure image fusion (MEF) is considered an effective quality enhancement technique widely adopted in consumer electronics, but little work has been dedicated to the perceptual quality assessment of multi-exposure fused images. In this paper, we first build an MEF database and carry out a subjective user study to evaluate the quality of images generated by different MEF algorithms. There are several useful findings. First, considerable agreement has been observed among human subjects on the quality of MEF images. Second, no single state-of-the-art MEF algorithm produces the best quality for all test images. Third, the existing objective quality models for general image fusion are very limited in predicting perceived quality of MEF images. Motivated by the lack of appropriate objective models, we propose a novel objective image quality assessment (IQA) algorithm for MEF images based on the principle of the structural similarity approach and a novel measure of patch structural consistency. Our experimental results on the subjective database show that the proposed model well correlates with subjective judgments and significantly outperforms the existing IQA models for general image fusion. Finally, we demonstrate the potential application of the proposed model by automatically tuning the parameters of MEF algorithms. PMID:26068317

  9. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  10. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  11. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 106-109 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, Isp~106 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameter×10-meters length, magnetic field ~7 Tesla, ion beam current ~10 A, and fuels of either D-He3,P-B11,P-Li6,D-Li6, etc. .

  12. Criteria for practical fusion power systems: Report from the EPRI fusion panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaslow, J.; Brown, M.; Hirsch, R.; izzo, R.; McCann, J.; McCloud, D.; Muston, B.; Peterson, A.; Rosen, S.; Schneider, T.; Skrgic, P.; Snow, B.

    1994-09-01

    Electric utilities are keenly interested in the promise of fusion: large-scale electricity production anywhere, with virtually no natural resource depletion or environmental pollution. To expedite development of commercially viable fusion systems, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)—the R&D wing of the U.S. electric utility industry—recently convened a panel of top utility R&D managers and executive officers to identify the key criteria that must be met by fusion plants in order to be acceptable to utilities. The panel's findings, summarized in this report, emphasize competitive economics, positive public perception, and regulatory simplicity.

  13. Comparison of Intrahepatic and Pancreatic Perfusion on Fusion Images Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Assessment of Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osama Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takamori, Hiroshi; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro; Baba, Hideo

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images using a combined single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT system and to evaluate the efficacy of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods. CTAI was performed in 33 patients (22 men, 11 women; age range, 35-77 years; mean age, 60 years) with stage IV pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. In all patients we obtained fusion images using a combined SPECT/CT system. Pancreatic perfusion on fusion images was classified as perfusion presence or as perfusion absent in the pancreatic cancer. Using WHO criteria we recorded the tumor response after 3 months on multislice helical CT scans. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the pancreatic cancer, liver metastasis, and factors such as intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test; survival was evaluated by the Kaplan Meier method (log-rank test). Results. On fusion images, pancreatic and intrahepatic perfusion was recorded as hot spot and as homogeneous distribution, respectively, in 18 patients (55%) and as cold spot and heterogeneous distribution, respectively, in 15 (45%). Patients with hot spot in the pancreatic tumor and homogeneous distribution in the liver manifested better treatment results (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Patients with hot spot both in the pancreatic cancer and in the liver survived longer than those with cold spot in the pancreatic cancer and heterogeneous distribution in the liver (median {+-} SD, 16.0 {+-} 3.7 vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.4 months; p < 0.05). Conclusions. We conclude that in patients with advanced

  14. An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

  15. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  16. Recyclotron III, a recirculating plasma fusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Jarnagin, W.S.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a recyclotron nuclear fusion system comprising recyclotrons. Each recyclotron comprises cyclotron means for receiving and accelerating charged particles in spiral and work conservative pathways. An output means forms a beam from particles received from the cyclotron means; (i) the cyclotron means comprising (a) a channel shaped electromagnet having a pair of indented polefaces, oriented along an input axis and defining an input axis and defining an input magnetic well, (b) a pair of elongated linear electrodes centered along the input magnetic well arranged generally parallel to the input axis and having a gap therebetween, (c) tuned oscillator means connected to the electrodes for applying an oscillating electric potential thereto, (ii) the output means comprising (e) inverter means comprising an electromagnet having a polarity opposite that of the channel shaped electromagnet oriented contigously therealong for extracting fully accelerated particles from the cyclotron means, and (f) reinverter means comprising an electromagnet having a polarity the same as that of the channel shaped electromagnet for correcting the flightpath of the extracted particles.

  17. Research on data fusion in ballistic warning simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihao; Zheng, Hongtao; Peng, Xiaoyuan

    2006-11-01

    Different kinds of sensors distributed in space, sky, ground and sea related in ballistic missile warning system are modeled using object-oriented method. Since each kind of sensor has distinct merit and demerit. The detection precision can be greatly enhanced using proper data fusion methods. A battlefield simulation environment is constructed based on HLA/RTI which could provide flexible interface to evaluate diverse sensors (mainly about infrared sensor and phase array radar) and different data fusion algorithms for ballistic missile defense. The data fusion simulation system can also be reused in computer generate force system to perform lager scale campaign simulation.

  18. D-He-3 spherical torus fusion reactor system study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macon, William A., Jr.

    1992-04-01

    This system study extrapolates present physics knowledge and technology to predict the anticipated characteristics of D-He3 spherical torus fusion reactors and their sensitivity to uncertainties in important parameters. Reference cases for steady-state 1000 MWe reactors operating in H-mode in both the 1st stability regime and the 2nd stability regime were developed and assessed quantitatively. These devices would a very small aspect ratio (A=1,2), a major radius of about 2.0 m, an on-axis magnetic field less than 2 T, a large plasma current (80-120 MA) dominated by the bootstrap effect, and high plasma beta (greater than O.6). The estimated cost of electricity is in the range of 60-90 mills/kW-hr, assuming the use of a direct energy conversion system. The inherent safety and environmental advantages of D-He3 fusion indicate that this reactor concept could be competitive with advanced fission breeder reactors and large-scale solar electric plants by the end of the 21st century if research and development can produce the anticipated physics and technology advances.

  19. Image quality assessment using multi-method fusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsung-Jung; Lin, Weisi; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-05-01

    A new methodology for objective image quality assessment (IQA) with multi-method fusion (MMF) is presented in this paper. The research is motivated by the observation that there is no single method that can give the best performance in all situations. To achieve MMF, we adopt a regression approach. The new MMF score is set to be the nonlinear combination of scores from multiple methods with suitable weights obtained by a training process. In order to improve the regression results further, we divide distorted images into three to five groups based on the distortion types and perform regression within each group, which is called "context-dependent MMF" (CD-MMF). One task in CD-MMF is to determine the context automatically, which is achieved by a machine learning approach. To further reduce the complexity of MMF, we perform algorithms to select a small subset from the candidate method set. The result is very good even if only three quality assessment methods are included in the fusion process. The proposed MMF method using support vector regression is shown to outperform a large number of existing IQA methods by a significant margin when being tested in six representative databases. PMID:23288335

  20. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-12-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  1. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTMLmore » JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server« less

  2. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Robert A.; Childs, Teresa A.; Miller, Michael A.; Sellars, Kevin J.

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTML JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server

  3. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  4. Cryogenic system for the mirror fusion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.; Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.

    1980-02-26

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), currently being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has large superconducting magnets, cryopanels, and supporting cryogenic equipment that will comprise one of the world's largest liquid helium (LHe) systems. The facility will provide mirror magnetic confinement for experimental fusion plasmas that will be approximately the same physical size as if in a conceptual fusion reactor. The cryogenic system typifies the magnitude and makeup of systems that will be used in future magnetic fusion reactors. Here we describe the LHe cryopumping and magnet systems. Principal components include a 3300 W helium refrigerator, 30,000 L LHe storage, a 1.5 MW (2000 hp) refrigerator compressor, 1100 m/sup 2/ of cryopanels, and a 420 MJ superconducting magnet system. Design features, method of operation, thermal protection, and helium recovery operations are discussed.

  5. Integrated systems for pulsed-power driven inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Sinars, D. B.; McBride, R. D.; Vesey, R. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Vandevender, J. P.; Waisman, E. M.; Hansen, D. L.; Owen, A. C.; Jones, J. F.; Romero, J. A.; McKenney, J.

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed power fusion concepts integrate: (i) directly-magnetically-driven fusion targets that absorb large energies (10 MJ), (ii) efficient, rep-rated driver modules, (iii) compact, scalable, integrated driver architectures, (iv) driver-to-target coupling techniques with standoff and driver protection, and (v) long lifetime fusion chambers shielded by vaporizing blankets and thick liquid walls. Large fusion yields (3-30 GJ) and low rep-rates (0.1-1 Hz) may be an attractive path for IFE. Experiments on the ZR facility are validating physics issues for magnetically driven targets. Scientific breakeven (fusion energy = fuel energy) may be possible in the next few years. Plans for system development and integration will be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. An FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion system design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Le; Lin, Yu-chi; Chen, Yan-hua; Zhao, Mei-rong

    2011-08-01

    Taking the advantages of FPGA's low cost and compact structure, an FPGA-based heterogeneous image fusion platform is established in this study. Altera's Cyclone IV series FPGA is adopted as the core processor of the platform, and the visible light CCD camera and infrared thermal imager are used as the image-capturing device in order to obtain dualchannel heterogeneous video images. Tailor-made image fusion algorithms such as gray-scale weighted averaging, maximum selection and minimum selection methods are analyzed and compared. VHDL language and the synchronous design method are utilized to perform a reliable RTL-level description. Altera's Quartus II 9.0 software is applied to simulate and implement the algorithm modules. The contrast experiments of various fusion algorithms show that, preferably image quality of the heterogeneous image fusion can be obtained on top of the proposed system. The applied range of the different fusion algorithms is also discussed.

  7. A Decision Fusion Framework for Treatment Recommendation Systems.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Haifeng; Li, Xiang; Xie, Guotong; Yu, Yiqin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment recommendation is a nontrivial task--it requires not only domain knowledge from evidence-based medicine, but also data insights from descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analysis. A single treatment recommendation system is usually trained or modeled with a limited (size or quality) source. This paper proposes a decision fusion framework, combining both knowledge-driven and data-driven decision engines for treatment recommendation. End users (e.g. using the clinician workstation or mobile apps) could have a comprehensive view of various engines' opinions, as well as the final decision after fusion. For implementation, we leverage several well-known fusion algorithms, such as decision templates and meta classifiers (of logistic and SVM, etc.). Using an outcome-driven evaluation metric, we compare the fusion engine with base engines, and our experimental results show that decision fusion is a promising way towards a more valuable treatment recommendation. PMID:26262059

  8. User facility for research on fusion systems with dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.

    1999-01-07

    There are a number of fusion systems whose dimensions can be scaled down to a few centimeters, if the plasma density and confining magnetic field are raised to sufficiently high values. This prompts a "user-facility" approach to the studies of this class of fusion systems. The concept of such a user facility was first briefly mentioned in Ref. 1. Here we present a more detailed description.

  9. Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated.

  10. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-06-01

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: I analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model in order to understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: I employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory as a microscopic reaction model. I extract the nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with a one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: I obtain finite extra-push energies for heavy systems from TDHF simulations, which agree with experimental observations. Extracted nucleus-nucleus potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance of an ordinary barrier structure of the nucleus-nucleus potential. This property is different from those in light- and medium-mass systems and from density-constraint TDHF calculations. Extracted friction coefficients show sizable energy dependence and universal value of their magnitude, which are rather similar to those in light- and medium-mass systems. Using these properties, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance and find that contribution of the increase in potential to the extra-push energy is larger than that of the accumulated dissipation energy in most systems studied in this article. Conclusions: I find that the nucleus-nucleus potentials extracted in heavy systems show a specific property, which is not observed in light- and medium-mass systems. By the analysis of

  11. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  12. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Emstad, Erik; del Monaco, Diana Cardenas; Fielding, Louis C; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system) has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without requiring supplemental fixation. PMID:26060414

  13. Seeking the Limits of Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion: Sticking in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, and Piezonuclear Fusion in Deuterium/condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    Studies seeking an upper limit of two types of low temperature nuclear fusion is presented. The upper limit for muon catalyzed fusion is generally considered to be the number of fusions per muon obtainable. The limiting factor has been found to be how often the muon remains bound to the alpha produced by the fusion, known as the "sticking fraction." Experiments directly measuring the sticking and determining the sticking using high tritium fractions are presented. In deuterium/condensed matter systems the question is nearly whether nuclear fusion proceeds at all. Experiments where neutrons around deuterided titanium and palladium are measured are presented.

  14. Fusion of image data for beyond-the-fence intruder detection and assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    The use of combined imagery from different imaging sensors has the potential to provide significant performance improvements over the use of a single image sensor for beyond-the-fence detection and assessment of intruders. Sensing beyond the fence is very challenging for imagers due to uncertain dynamic and harsh environmental conditions. The use of imagery from varying spectral bands can alleviate some of this difficulty by providing stronger truth data that can be combined with truth data from other spectral bands to increase detection capabilities. Imagery fusion of collocated, aligned sensors covering varying spectral bands [1,2,3] has already been shown to improve the probability of detection and the reduction of nuisance alarms. The development of new multi-spectral sensing algorithms that incorporate sensors that are not collocated will enable automated sensor-based detection, assessment, localization, and tracking in harsh dynamic environments. This level of image fusion will provide the capability of creating spatial information about the intruders. In turn, the fidelity of sensed activities is increased resulting in opportunities for greater system intelligence for inferring and interpreting these activities and formulating automated responses. The goal of this work is to develop algorithms that will enable the fusion of multi-spectral data for improved detection of intruders and the creation of spatial information that can be further used in assessment decisions.

  15. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION WITH VALIDATION FROM MECHANICAL TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high speed tensile impact test and the bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12 inch (30.5 cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack of fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time of flight diffraction (TOFD), phased array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Several of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the following techniques: high speed tensile test, bend test, and focused immersion ultrasound on a joint section removed from the pipe coupled with slicing through the joint and examining the revealed surfaces. The fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results will be correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. This is an initial limited study which will aid in identifying key future work.

  16. Direct energy conversion system for D(3)-He fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Y.; Shu, L. Y.; Momota, H.

    1993-11-01

    A novel and highly efficient direct energy conversion system is proposed for utilizing D(3)-He fueled fusion. In order to convert kinetic energy of ions, we applied a pair of direct energy conversion systems each of which has a cusp-type DEC and a traveling wave DEC (TWDEC). In a cusp-type DEC, electrons are separated from the escaping ions at the first line-cusp and the energy of thermal ion components is converted at the second cusp DEC. The fusion protons go through the cusp-type DEC and arrive at the TWDEC, which principle is similar to 'LINAC'. The energy of fusion protons is recovered to electricity with an efficiency of more than 70%. These DEC's bring about the high efficient fusion plant.

  17. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  18. US-DOE Fusion-Breeder Program: blanket design and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of fusion's potential to produce fissile fuel. A reference design of a fission-suppressed blanket using conventional materials is under development. Theoretically, a fusion breeder that incorporates this fusion-suppressed blanket surrounding a 3000-MW tandem mirror fusion core produces its own tritium plus 5600 kg of /sup 233/U per year. The /sup 233/U could then provide fissile makeup for 21 GWe of light-water reactor (LWR) power using a denatured thorium fuel cycle with full recycle. This is 16 times the net electric power produced by the fusion breeder (1.3 GWe). The cost of electricity from this fusion-fission system is estimated to be only 23% higher than the cost from LWRs that have makeup from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at present costs (55 $/kg). Nuclear performance, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation effects, and other issues concerning the fission-suppressed blanket are summarized, as are some of the present and future objectives of the fusion breeder program.

  19. Comparison of Fusion Imaging Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Intra-arterial CT: Assessment of Drug Distribution by an Implantable Port System in Patients Undergoing Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Kusunoki, Shinichiroh; Nakaura, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takamori, Hiroshi; Chikamoto, Akira; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro

    2006-06-15

    Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is effective for treating primary and metastatic carcinoma of the liver. We compared the perfusion patterns of HAI chemotherapy on intra-arterial port-catheter computed tomography (iapc-CT) and fused images obtained with a combined single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) system. We studied 28 patients with primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver who bore an implantable HAI port system. All underwent abdominal SPECT using Tc-99m-MAA (185 Mbq); the injection rate was 1 mL/min, identical to the chemotherapy infusion rate, and 0.5 mL/sec for iapc-CT. Delivery was through an implantable port. We compared the intrahepatic perfusion (IHP) and extrahepatic perfusion (EHP) patterns of HAI chemotherapy on iapc-CT images and fused images obtained with a combined SPECT/CT system. In 23 of 28 patients (82%), IHP patterns on iapc-CT images and fused images were identical. In 5 of the 28 patients (18%), IHP on fusion images was different from IHP on iapc-CT images. EHP was seen on fused images in 12 of the 28 patients (43%) and on iapc-CT images in 8 patients (29%). In 17 patients (61%), upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastroduodenal mucosal lesions. EHP was revealed on fused images in 10 of these patients; 9 of them manifested gastroduodenal toxicity at the time of subsequent HAI chemotherapy. Fusion imaging using the combined SPECT/CT system reflects the actual distribution of the infused anticancer agent. This information is valuable not only for monitoring adequate drug distribution but also for avoiding potential extrahepatic complications.

  20. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  1. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  2. Optimal fusion rules for multi-label fusion of independent classification system families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, James A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Schubert Kabban, Christine M.

    2015-05-01

    A classification system with M possible output labels (or decisions) will have M(M-1) possible errors. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) manifold was created to quantify all of these errors. When multiple classification systems are fused, the assumption of independence is usually made in order to combine the individual ROC manifolds for each system into one ROC manifold. This paper will investigate the label fusion (also called decision fusion) of multiple classification system families (CSF) that have the same number of output labels. Boolean rules do not exist for multiple symbols, thus, we will derive Boolean-like rules as well as other rules that will yield label fusion rules. An M-label system will have M! consistent rules. The formula for the resultant ROC manifold of the fused classification system family which incorporates the individual classification system families will be derived. Specifically, given a label rule and two classification system families, the ROC manifold for the fused family is produced. We generate the formula for the Boolean-like AND ruled and give the resultant ROC manifold for the fused CSF. We show how the set of permutations of the label set is used to generate all of the consistent rules and how the permutation matrix is incorporated into a single formula for the ROC manifold. Examples will be given that demonstrate how each formula is used.

  3. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Philips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Structural, thermal and radiation-management design details are presented. Propellant storage and supply options are also discussed and a propulsion system mass estimate is given.

  4. TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovich, V. A.; Anisimov, V. N.; Afonin, E. A.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Borzenko, V. L.; Kozochkin, S. M.; Maliuta, D. D.; Satov, Iu. A.; Sebrant, A. Iu.; Smakovski, Iu. B.

    1980-03-01

    The paper examines the TIR-1 carbon dioxide laser system for fusion. The current efforts are concentrated on (1) the microsecond laser pulse plasma heating in solenoids and theta pinches, and (2) nanosecond CO2 laser utilization for inertial confinement fusion. The TIR-1 system was designed to develop nanosecond CO2 laser technology and to study laser-target interaction at 10 microns. This system consists of an oscillator-preamplifier that produces about 1-nsec laser pulse with an energy contrast ratio of 1 million, a large triple-pass amplifier, and a target chamber with diagnostic equipment.

  5. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  6. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  7. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase. PMID:25440950

  8. Development of Transcriptional Fusions to Assess Leptospira interrogans Promoter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252

  9. Multisource evidence fusion for cyber-situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabata, Bikash; Ornes, Chester

    2006-04-01

    Novel methods of detecting cyber attacks on networks have been developed that are able to detect an increasing diverse variety of malicious cyber-events. However, this has only resulted in additional information burden on the network analyst. The integration of the distributed evidence from multiple sources is missing or ad-hoc at best. Only with the fusion of the multi-source evidence can we reason at a higher semantic level to detect and identify attacks and attackers. Further, integration at a higher semantic level will reduce the cognitive load on the security offcer and will make it possible for reasonable responses. This paper presents an overview of the D-Force system that uses a Bayesian Evidential Framework for fusing the multi-source evidence in a network to detect and recognize attacks. Attack hypothesis are generated as a result of evidence at the different network and host sensors. The hypotheses are verified or denied with additional evidence. Based on our initial experiments and tests the D-Force system promises to be a powerful tool in the information security offcers arsenal.

  10. Weighted measurement fusion Kalman estimator for multisensor descriptor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yinfeng; Ran, Chenjian; Gao, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    For the multisensor linear stochastic descriptor system with correlated measurement noises, the fused measurement can be obtained based on the weighted least square (WLS) method, and the reduced-order state components are obtained applying singular value decomposition method. Then, the multisensor descriptor system is transformed to a fused reduced-order non-descriptor system with correlated noise. And the weighted measurement fusion (WMF) Kalman estimator of this reduced-order subsystem is presented. According to the relationship of the presented non-descriptor system and the original descriptor system, the WMF Kalman estimator and its estimation error variance matrix of the original multisensor descriptor system are presented. The presented WMF Kalman estimator has global optimality, and can avoid computing these cross-variances of the local Kalman estimator, compared with the state fusion method. A simulation example about three-sensors stochastic dynamic input and output systems in economy verifies the effectiveness.

  11. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  12. Structured pedigree information for distributed fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arambel, Pablo O.

    2008-04-01

    One of the most critical challenges in distributed data fusion is the avoidance of information double counting (also called "data incest" or "rumor propagation"). This occurs when a node in a network incorporates information into an estimate - e.g. the position of an object - and the estimate is injected into the network. Other nodes fuse this estimate with their own estimates, and continue to propagate estimates through the network. When the first node receives a fused estimate from the network, it does not know if it already contains its own contributions or not. Since the correlation between its own estimate and the estimate received from the network is not known, the node can not fuse the estimates in an optimal way. If it assumes that both estimates are independent from each other, it unknowingly double counts the information that has already being used to obtain the two estimates. This leads to overoptimistic error covariance matrices. If the double-counting is not kept under control, it may lead to serious performance degradation. Double counting can be avoided by propagating uniquely tagged raw measurements; however, that forces each node to process all the measurements and precludes the propagation of derived information. Another approach is to fuse the information using the Covariance Intersection (CI) equations, which maintain consistent estimates irrespective of the cross-correlation among estimates. However, CI does not exploit pedigree information of any kind. In this paper we present an approach that propagates multiple covariance matrices, one for each uncorrelated source in the network. This is a way to compress the pedigree information and avoids the need to propagate raw measurements. The approach uses a generalized version of the Split CI to fuse different estimates with appropriate weights to guarantee the consistency of the estimates.

  13. Above-barrier fusion enhancement of proton-halo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E. F.; Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Kolata, J. J.; Guimarães, V.

    2016-03-01

    Previously reported data for fusion of the 8B+(58Ni,28Si) systems are critically reviewed. New α -particle data from the fusion of 8B+58Ni also are reported, but the paper is mostly based on using realistic calculations of well-established codes to reanalyze the previous data. The influence of breakup protons on the evaporation proton measurements for the heavier system is found to be small at all energies except for the lowest one measured, and corrections are made for this process. Possible model dependencies in the deduced fusion cross sections are investigated using three different evaporation codes. The data sets for the 58Ni and 28Si targets are shown to be consistent with each other and with fusion enhancement up to energies that are greater than the Coulomb barrier Vb (Ec.m.≲Vb+1.5 ×ℏ ω ) . This limit corresponds to 6.2 MeV above the barrier for the 58Ni target. An important difference with the behavior of neutron-halo systems is thus confirmed.

  14. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  15. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  16. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J. H.

    1981-08-10

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated.

  17. Kinematics based sensory fusion for wearable motion assessment in human walking.

    PubMed

    Slajpah, S; Kamnik, R; Munih, M

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the kinematic parameters in unconstrained human motion is becoming crucial for providing feedback information in wearable robotics and sports monitoring. This paper presents a novel sensory fusion algorithm for assessing the orientations of human body segments in long-term human walking based on signals from wearable sensors. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to constantly fuse the measured segment's angular velocity and linear acceleration via known kinematic relations between segments. The wearable sensory system incorporates seven inertial measurement units attached to the human body segments and two instrumented shoe insoles. The proposed system was experimentally validated in a long-term walking on a treadmill and on a polygon with stairs simulating different activities in everyday life. The outputs were compared to the reference parameters measured by a stationary optical system. Results show accurate joint angle measurements (error median below 5°) in all evaluated walking conditions with no expressed drift over time. PMID:24374292

  18. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D

    2006-05-16

    This document reports the successful completion of the OFES Theory Milestone for FY2005, namely, Perform parametric studies to better understand the edge physics regimes of laboratory experiments. Simulate at increased resolution (up to 20 toroidal modes), with density evolution, late into the nonlinear phase and compare results from different types of edge modes. Simulate a single case including a study of heat deposition on nearby material walls. The linear stability properties and nonlinear evolution of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas are investigated through numerical computation. Data from the DIII-D device at General Atomics (http://fusion.gat.com/diii-d/) is used for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, but edge parameters are varied to reveal important physical effects. The equilibrium with very low magnetic shear produces an unstable spectrum that is somewhat insensitive to dissipation coefficient values. Here, linear growth rates from the non-ideal NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) agree reasonably well with ideal, i.e. non-dissipative, results from the GATO global linear stability code at low toroidal mode number (n) and with ideal results from the ELITE edge linear stability code at moderate to high toroidal mode number. Linear studies with a more realistic sequence of MHD equilibria (based on DIII-D discharge 86166) produce more significant discrepancies between the ideal and non-ideal calculations. The maximum growth rate for the ideal computations occurs at toroidal mode index n=10, whereas growth rates in the non-ideal computations continue to increase with n unless strong anisotropic thermal conduction is included. Recent modeling advances allow drift effects associated with the Hall electric field and gyroviscosity to be considered. A stabilizing effect can be observed in the preliminary results, but while the distortion in mode structure is readily apparent at n=40, the growth rate is only 13% less than the non-ideal MHD

  19. A Foreign Object Damage Event Detector Data Fusion System for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A Data Fusion System designed to provide a reliable assessment of the occurrence of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in a turbofan engine is presented. The FOD-event feature level fusion scheme combines knowledge of shifts in engine gas path performance obtained using a Kalman filter, with bearing accelerometer signal features extracted via wavelet analysis, to positively identify a FOD event. A fuzzy inference system provides basic probability assignments (bpa) based on features extracted from the gas path analysis and bearing accelerometers to a fusion algorithm based on the Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence. Details are provided on the wavelet transforms used to extract the foreign object strike features from the noisy data and on the Kalman filter-based gas path analysis. The system is demonstrated using a turbofan engine combined-effects model (CEM), providing both gas path and rotor dynamic structural response, and is suitable for rapid-prototyping of control and diagnostic systems. The fusion of the disparate data can provide significantly more reliable detection of a FOD event than the use of either method alone. The use of fuzzy inference techniques combined with Dempster-Shafer-Yager Theory of Evidence provides a theoretical justification for drawing conclusions based on imprecise or incomplete data.

  20. A vision fusion treatment system based on ATtiny26L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chunxi; Wang, Jiqiang

    2006-11-01

    Vision fusion treatment is an important and effective project to strabismus children. The vision fusion treatment system based on the principle for eyeballs to follow the moving visual survey pole is put forward first. In this system the original position of visual survey pole is about 35 centimeters far from patient's face before its moving to the middle position between the two eyeballs. The eyeballs of patient will follow the movement of the visual survey pole. When they can't follow, one or two eyeballs will turn to other position other than the visual survey pole. This displacement is recorded every time. A popular single chip microcomputer ATtiny26L is used in this system, which has a PWM output signal to control visual survey pole to move with continuously variable speed. The movement of visual survey pole accords to the modulating law of eyeballs to follow visual survey pole.

  1. A Virtualized Computing Platform For Fusion Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T; Adams, P; Fisher, J; Talbot, A

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. 2,500 servers, 400 network devices and 700 terabytes of networked attached storage provide the foundation for NIF's Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and Experimental Data Archive. This talk discusses the rationale & benefits for server virtualization in the context of an operational experimental facility, the requirements discovery process used by the NIF teams to establish evaluation criteria for virtualization alternatives, the processes and procedures defined to enable virtualization of servers in a timeframe that did not delay the execution of experimental campaigns and the lessons the NIF teams learned along the way. The virtualization architecture ultimately selected for ICCS is based on the Open Source Xen computing platform and 802.1Q open networking standards. The specific server and network configurations needed to ensure performance and high availability of the control system infrastructure will be discussed.

  2. Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1995-05-01

    Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.

  3. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  4. Performance analysis of structured pedigree distributed fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arambel, Pablo O.

    2009-05-01

    Structured pedigree is a way to compress pedigree information. When applied to distributed fusion systems, the approach avoids the well known problem of information double counting resulting from ignoring the cross-correlation among fused estimates. Other schemes that attempt to compute optimal fused estimates require the transmission of full pedigree information or raw data. This usually can not be implemented in practical systems because of the enormous requirements in communications bandwidth. The Structured Pedigree approach achieves data compression by maintaining multiple covariance matrices, one for each uncorrelated source in the network. These covariance matrices are transmitted by each node along with the state estimate. This represents a significant compression when compared to full pedigree schemes. The transmission of these covariance matrices (or a subset of these covariance matrices) allows for an efficient fusion of the estimates, while avoiding information double counting and guaranteeing consistency on the estimates. This is achieved by exploiting the additional partial knowledge on the correlation of the estimates. The approach uses a generalized version of the Split Covariance Intersection algorithm that applies to multiple estimates and multiple uncorrelated sources. In this paper we study the performance of the proposed distributed fusion system by analyzing a simple but instructive example.

  5. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data. PMID:23219588

  6. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  7. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  8. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-01

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D3He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ˜ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  9. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  10. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing the plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system, which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement properties of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enters the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  11. Antimatter Driven P-B11 Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammash, Terry; Martin, James; Godfroy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the major advantages of using P-B11 fusion fuel is that the reaction produces only charged particles in the form of three alpha particles and no neutrons. A fusion concept that lends itself to this fuel cycle is the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) reactor whose distinct advantage lies in the very strong magnetic field that is created when an incident particle (or laser) beam strikes the inner wall of the target pellet. This field serves to thermally insulate the hot plasma from the metal wall thereby allowing thc plasma to burn for a long time and produce a large energy magnification. If used as a propulsion device, we propose using antiprotons to drive the system which we show to be capable of producing very large specific impulse and thrust. By way of validating the confinement propenies of MICF we will address a proposed experiment in which pellets coated with P-B11 fuel at the appropriate ratio will be zapped by a beam of antiprotons that enter the target through a hole. Calculations showing the density and temperature of the generated plasma along with the strength of the magnetic field and other properties of the system will be presented and discussed.

  12. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryszczuk, Krzysztof; Richiardi, Jonas; Prodanov, Plamen; Drygajlo, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature) and multimodal (speech and face) systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  13. A novel tiered sensor fusion approach for terrain characterization and safe landing assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, Navid; Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Ayanna; Seraji, Homayoun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel tiered sensor fusion methodology for real-time terrain safety assessment. A combination of active and passive sensors, specifically, radar, lidar, and camera, operate in three tiers according to their inherent ranges of operation. Low-level terrain features (e.g. slope, roughness) and high-level terrain features (e.g. hills, craters) are integrated using principles of reasoning under uncertainty. Three methodologies are used to infer landing safety: Fuzzy Reasoning, Probabilistic Reasoning, and Evidential Reasoning. The safe landing predictions from the three fusion engines are consolidated in a subsequent decision fusion stage aimed at combining the strengths of each fusion methodology. Results from simulated spacecraft descents are presented and discussed.

  14. Multisensor fusion using the sensor algorithm research expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Michael E.; Miltonberger, Thomas W.; Reinholdsten, Paul A.; Wilson, Kathleen

    1991-08-01

    A method for object recognition using a multisensor model-based approach has been developed. The sensor algorithm research expert system (SARES) is a sun-based workstation for model-based object recognition algorithm development. SARES is a means to perform research into multiple levels of geometric and scattering models, image and signal feature extraction, hypothesis management, and matching strategies. SARES multisensor fusion allows for multiple geometric representations and decompositions, and sensor location transformations, as well as feature prediction, matching, and evidence accrual. It is shown that the fusion algorithm can exploit the synergistic information contained in IR and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery yielding increased object recognition accuracy and confidence over single sensor exploitation alone. The fusion algorithm has the added benefit of reducing the number of computations by virtue of simplified object model combinatorics. That is, the additional sensor information eliminates a large number of the incorrect object hypotheses early in the algorithm. This provides a focus of attention to those object hypotheses which are closest to the correct hypothesis.

  15. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, Jill; Corones, James; Batchelor, Donald; Bramley, Randall; Greenwald, Martin; Jardin, Stephen; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Laub, Alan; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Lindl, John; Lokke, William; Rosenbluth, Marshall; Ross, David; Schnack, Dalton

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  16. High temperature superconducting current leads for fusion magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. L.; Dederer, J. T.; Singh, S. K.; Hull, J. R.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion applications typically have very high operating currents. These currents are transmitted from the room temperature power supplies to the low temperature superconducting coils by way of helium-vapor-cooled current leads. Because of the high current magnitude and the resistive characteristics associated with the normal metallic lead conductors, a substantial amount of power is dissipated in the lead. To maintain a stable operation, a high rate of helium vapor flow, generated by the boil-off of liquid helium, is required to cool the lead conductors. This helium boil-off substantially increases both the installation capacity and the operating cost of the helium refrigerator/liquefier. The boil-off of liquid helium can be significantly reduced by employing ceramic high temperature superconductors, such as Y-Ba-Cu-O, in the low temperature part of the lead conductor structure. This concept utilizes the superconducting, as well as the low thermal conductivity properties of the superconductor materials in eliminating power dissipation in part of the current lead and in inhibiting heat conduction into the liquid helium pool, resulting in reduced helium boil-off. This design concept has been conclusively demonstrated by a 2-kA current lead test model using Y-Ba-Cu-O (123) material which, although not optimized in design, has significantly reduced the rate of helium boil-off in comparison to optimized conventional leads. There appear to be no major technological barriers for scaling up this design to higher current levels for applications in fusion magnet systems or in fusion related testing activities. The theoretical basis of the current lead concept, as well as the important design and technology issues are addressed. The potential cost saving derived from employing these leads in fusion magnets is also discussed. In addition, a design concept for a 10-kA lead is presented.

  17. HALO: a reconfigurable image enhancement and multisensor fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F.; Hickman, D. L.; Parker, Steve J.

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary high definition (HD) cameras and affordable infrared (IR) imagers are set to dramatically improve the effectiveness of security, surveillance and military vision systems. However, the quality of imagery is often compromised by camera shake, or poor scene visibility due to inadequate illumination or bad atmospheric conditions. A versatile vision processing system called HALO™ is presented that can address these issues, by providing flexible image processing functionality on a low size, weight and power (SWaP) platform. Example processing functions include video distortion correction, stabilisation, multi-sensor fusion and image contrast enhancement (ICE). The system is based around an all-programmable system-on-a-chip (SoC), which combines the computational power of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with the flexibility of a CPU. The FPGA accelerates computationally intensive real-time processes, whereas the CPU provides management and decision making functions that can automatically reconfigure the platform based on user input and scene content. These capabilities enable a HALO™ equipped reconnaissance or surveillance system to operate in poor visibility, providing potentially critical operational advantages in visually complex and challenging usage scenarios. The choice of an FPGA based SoC is discussed, and the HALO™ architecture and its implementation are described. The capabilities of image distortion correction, stabilisation, fusion and ICE are illustrated using laboratory and trials data.

  18. Antimatter Assisted Inertial Confinement Fusion Propulsion Systems for Interstellar Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halyard, R. J.

    Current developments such as the Ion Compressed Antimatter Nuclear (ICAN-II) propulsion system proposed by the Pennsylvania State University Center for Space Propulsion Engineering open the way to the possible use of available supplies of antiprotons to power antimatter assisted inertial confinement fusion (AAICF) propulsion systems for interstellar missions. Analysis indicates that light weight AAICF propulsion systems with specific impulses in excess of seven hundred thousand seconds may be feasible within the next 30 years. AAICF should prove to be the optimum propulsion system since it possesses high thrust, low weight and high exhaust velocity. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AAICF propulsion for interstellar missions such as NASA Administrator Dan Goldin's Alpha Centauri Flyby and a Barnard's Star Orbital Mission, and to compare these projections with previous performance estimates for ICF Laser Beam propulsion systems.

  19. Reactor safety assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category.

  20. Fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR data using decision template-based fuzzy multiple classifier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Behnaz; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Regarding to the limitations and benefits of remote sensing sensors, fusion of remote sensing data from multiple sensors such as hyperspectral and LIDAR (light detection and ranging) is effective at land cover classification. Hyperspectral images (HSI) provide a detailed description of the spectral signatures of classes, whereas LIDAR data give height detailed information. However, because of the more complexities and mixed information in LIDAR and HSI, traditional crisp classification methods could not be more efficient. In this situation, fuzzy classifiers could deliver more satisfactory results than crisp classification approaches. Also, referring to the limitation of single classifiers, multiple classifier system (MCS) may exhibit better performance in the field of multi-sensor fusion. This paper presents a fuzzy multiple classifier system for fusions of HSI and LIDAR data based on decision template (DT). After feature extraction and feature selection on each data, all selected features of both data are applied on a cube. Then classifications were performed by fuzzy k-nearest neighbour (FKNN) and fuzzy maximum likelihood (FML) on cube of features. Finally, a fuzzy decision fusion method is utilized to fuse the results of fuzzy classifiers. In order to assess fuzzy MCS proposed method, a crisp MCS based on support vector machine (SVM), KNN and maximum likelihood (ML) as crisp classifiers and naive Bayes (NB) as crisp classifier fusion method is applied on selected cube feature. A co-registered HSI and LIDAR data set from Houston of USA was available to examine the effect of proposed MCSs. Fuzzy MCS on HSI and LIDAR data provide interesting conclusions on the effectiveness and potentialities of the joint use of these two data.

  1. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. An approach to select the appropriate image fusion algorithm for night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Gabriele; Scherer-Negenborn, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    For many years image fusion has been an important subject in the image processing community. The purpose of image fusion is taking over the relevant information from two or several images to construct one result image. In the past many fusion algorithms were developed and published. Some attempts were made to assess the results from several fusion algorithms automatically with the objective of gaining the best suited output for human observers. But it was shown, that such objective machine-assessment does not always correlate with the observer's subjective perception. In this paper a novel approach is presented, which selects the appropriate fusion algorithm to receive the best image enhancement results for human observers. Assessment of the fusion algorithms' results was done based on the local contrasts. Fusion algorithms are used on a representative data set covering different use cases and image contents. These fusion results of selected data are judged subjectively by some human observers. Then the assessment algorithm with the best fit to the visual perception is used to select the best fusion algorithm for comparable scenarios.

  3. Optimized swimmer tracking system by a dynamic fusion of correlation and color histogram techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarab, D.; Napoléon, T.; Alfalou, A.; Verney, A.; Hellard, P.

    2015-12-01

    To design a robust swimmer tracking system, we took into account two well-known tracking techniques: the nonlinear joint transform correlation (NL-JTC) and the color histogram. The two techniques perform comparably well, yet they both have substantial limitations. Interestingly, they also seem to show some complementarity. The correlation technique yields accurate detection but is sensitive to rotation, scale and contour deformation, whereas the color histogram technique is robust for rotation and contour deformation but shows low accuracy and is highly sensitive to luminosity and confusing background colors. These observations suggested the possibility of a dynamic fusion of the correlation plane and the color scores map. Before this fusion, two steps are required. First is the extraction of a sub-plane of correlation that describes the similarity between the reference and target images. This sub-plane has the same size as the color scores map but they have different interval values. Thus, the second step is required which is the normalization of the planes in the same interval so they can be fused. In order to determine the benefits of this fusion technique, first, we tested it on a synthetic image containing different forms with different colors. We thus were able to optimize the correlation plane and color histogram techniques before applying our fusion technique to real videos of swimmers in international competitions. Last, a comparative study of the dynamic fusion technique and the two classical techniques was carried out to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed technique. The criteria of comparison were the tracking percentage, the peak to correlation energy (PCE), which evaluated the sharpness of the peak (accuracy), and the local standard deviation (Local-STD), which assessed the noise in the planes (robustness).

  4. Effect of breakup coupling on fusion for 6,7Li+24Mg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of breakup coupling on fusion we have derived fusion cross sections in the framework of continuum discretised coupled channels (CDCC) method using the coupled channels code FRESCO for the systems 6,7Li+24Mg. The CDCC predicted fusion cross sections for the 7Li+24Mg system agree well with the experimental fusion data whereas for the 6Li+24Mg system the agreement is reasonable at below barrier energies. However, within the limits of the present work no definite conclusion could be obtained from the quality of agreement at above barrier energies for the 6Li+24Mg system.

  5. Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Fusion Systems: the Fusion Simulation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Donald B.

    2004-05-01

    Advanced experimental devices for fusion energy research are very large in the $1B class, the next major step being construction of ITER, a tokamak device capable of producing several hundred megawatts of fusion power. The plasmas in such devices are extremely far from thermal equilibrium and support a vast number of physical processes that must be controlled and coordinated to successfully achieve the conditions required for fusion. Simulation is a key element in the research program needed to understand experimental results from devices and compare these results to theory, to plan and design experiments on the devices, and to invent and evaluate new, higher performing confinement concepts. There are a number of fundamental computational challenges in such simulation: extreme range of time scales - wall equilibration time/electron cyclotron time O(10^14), extreme range of space scales - machine radius/electron gyroradius O(10^4), extreme plasma anisotropy - mean free path in magnetic field parallel/perpendicular O(10^10), strong non-linear coupling, sensitivity to geometric details, and high dimensionality. To deal with this challenge, several classes of fusion physics sub-disciplines and related simulation codes have been developed. There is not at present a single code, or code set, that integrates these sub-disciplines in their generality. The talk will describe the various approaches to fusion plasma simulation and progress toward bringing together the various models so as to treat the plasma more self-consistently. In particular, the fusion community is planning a comprehensive Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) whose ultimate goal ( 15 years) is to predict reliably the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices on all relevant time and space scales.

  6. Implementation of multispectral image fusion system based on SoPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingfei; Wang, Zhihui

    2013-10-01

    Combining the theory of wavelet transform based image fusion and SOPC design method, the authors uses SOPC as the core device to design and implement a image fusion system. The fusion system adopts the Verilog hardware description language, Dsp builder and Quartus II development platform together with macro module to complete the logic design and timing control of each module. In the fusion system, we can achieve simple pixel-level image fusion of two registered images. This design not only builds up an image fusion system based on SOPC in accident, but also provides a hardware design principle in SoPC for the future design and Implementation of more comprehensive function of image processing.

  7. Radiation and confinement in 0D fusion systems codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, H.; Kemp, R.; Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.

    2016-07-01

    In systems modelling for fusion power plants, it is essential to robustly predict the performance of a given machine design (including its respective operating scenario). One measure of machine performance is the energy confinement time {τ\\text{E}} that is typically predicted from experimentally derived confinement scaling laws (e.g. IPB98(y,2)). However, the conventionally used scaling laws have been derived for ITER which—unlike a fusion power plant—will not have significant radiation inside the separatrix. In the absence of a new high core radiation relevant confinement scaling, we propose an ad hoc correction to the loss power {{P}\\text{L}} used in the ITER confinement scaling and the calculation of the stored energy {{W}\\text{th}} by the radiation losses from the ‘core’ of the plasma {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} . Using detailed ASTRA / TGLF simulations, we find that an appropriate definition of {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} is given by 60% of all radiative losses inside a normalised minor radius {ρ\\text{core}}=0.75 . We consider this an improvement for current design predictions, but it is far from an ideal solution. We therefore encourage more detailed experimental and theoretical work on this issue.

  8. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  9. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  10. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  11. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  12. Conceptual design of a camera system for neutron imaging in low fusion power tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X.; Nocente, M.; Chen, Z.; Peng, X.; Cui, Z.; Du, T.; Hu, Z.; Li, T.; Fan, T.; Chen, J.; Li, X.; Zhang, G.; Yuan, G.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.

    2016-02-01

    The basic principles for designing a camera system for neutron imaging in low fusion power tokamaks are illustrated for the case of the HL-2A tokamak device. HL-2A has an approximately circular cross section, with total neutron yields of about 1012 n/s under 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. The accuracy in determining the width of the neutron emission profile and the plasma vertical position are chosen as relevant parameters for design optimization. Typical neutron emission profiles and neutron energy spectra are calculated by Monte Carlo method. A reference design is assumed, for which the direct and scattered neutron fluences are assessed and the neutron count profile of the neutron camera is obtained. Three other designs are presented for comparison. The reference design is found to have the best performance for assessing the width of peaked to broadened neutron emission profiles. It also performs well for the assessment of the vertical position.

  13. Cryogenic system component development for fusion experimental reactor at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamiya, S.; Tada, E.; Hiyama, T.; Kawano, K.; Shimamoto, S.

    1986-11-01

    A supercritical helium (SHE) circulation pump, a jet pump, and a cold compressor were designed and manufactured as the first step of cryogenic component development for a large-scale cryogenic system which is required for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The SHE circulation pump achieved 320-g/s flow rate with an 0.88-MPa pressure head at 4.6 K, making it the biggest cold pump in the world. The jet pump's mass flow ratio was about 1.0 with an 0.07-MPa pressure head at about 10 K. The cold compressor was successfully operated with an inlet vapor pressure of 0.053 MPa (3.7 K), and outlet pressure of 0.12 MPa, and a mass flow rate of 60 g/s. The designs and test results are described in this paper.

  14. Risk Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    FEAT, a software system for evaluating risks, was developed by Lockheed and later enhanced under NASA funding. FEAT uses directed graph - or digraph - models to provide information on cause and effect if a set of failure events occurs. James Miller, the program designer at Lockheed, formed DiGraphics, Inc. to market the software that has evolved from FEAT. The Diquest Analyzer, the company's flagship product, assists product designers in identifying the redundancies and weaknesses of a system. The software has applications in the chemical industry for risk assessment, design evaluation, and change management. Additional markets have been found in operations monitoring diagnostics and training of new personnel.

  15. KMS fusion system resource accounting and performance measurement system for RSX11M V3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downward, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Version 3.2 of the KMS FUSION accounting system is aimed at providing the user of RSX11M V3.2 with a versatile tool for measuring the performance of the operating system, tuning the system, and providing sufficient usage statistics so that the system manager can implement chargeback accounting if it is required by the installation. Sufficient hooks are provided so that the intrepid user can expand the system substantially beyond what is currently provided.

  16. A dual-channel fusion system of visual and infrared images based on color transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chuang; Jiang, Xiao-yu; Zhang, Peng-wei; Liang, Hao-cong

    2013-09-01

    A dual-channel fusion system of visual and infrared images based on color transfer The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectrums has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, most of these algorithms have gray or false color fusion results which are not adapt to human vision. Transfer color from a day-time reference image to get natural color fusion result is an effective way to solve this problem, but the computation cost of color transfer is expensive and can't meet the request of real-time image processing. We developed a dual-channel infrared and visual images fusion system based on TMS320DM642 digital signal processing chip. The system is divided into image acquisition and registration unit, image fusion processing unit, system control unit and image fusion result out-put unit. The image registration of dual-channel images is realized by combining hardware and software methods in the system. False color image fusion algorithm in RGB color space is used to get R-G fused image, then the system chooses a reference image to transfer color to the fusion result. A color lookup table based on statistical properties of images is proposed to solve the complexity computation problem in color transfer. The mapping calculation between the standard lookup table and the improved color lookup table is simple and only once for a fixed scene. The real-time fusion and natural colorization of infrared and visual images are realized by this system. The experimental result shows that the color-transferred images have a natural color perception to human eyes, and can highlight the targets effectively with clear background details. Human observers with this system will be able to interpret the image better and faster, thereby improving situational awareness and reducing target detection time.

  17. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  18. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  19. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment - a review.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment. PMID:26388360

  20. A novel fusion imaging system for endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gruionu, Lucian Gheorghe; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Navigation of a flexible endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) probe inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is problematic due to the small window size and complex anatomy. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of a novel fusion imaging (FI) system which uses electromagnetic (EM) sensors to co-register the live EUS images with the pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) data with a novel navigation algorithm and catheter. Methods: An experienced gastroenterologist and a novice EUS operator tested the FI system on a GI tract bench top model. Also, the experienced gastroenterologist performed a case series of 20 patients during routine EUS examinations. Results: On the bench top model, the experienced and novice doctors reached the targets in 67 ± 18 s and 150 ± 24 s with a registration error of 6 ± 3 mm and 11 ± 4 mm, respectively. In the case series, the total procedure time was 24.6 ± 6.6 min, while the time to reach the clinical target was 8.7 ± 4.2 min. Conclusions: The FI system is feasible for clinical use, and can reduce the learning curve for EUS procedures and improve navigation and targeting in difficult anatomic locations. PMID:26879165

  1. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  2. Comparative assessment of methods for the fusion transcripts detection from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailesh; Vo, Angie Duy; Qin, Fujun; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    RNA-Seq made possible the global identification of fusion transcripts, i.e. “chimeric RNAs”. Even though various software packages have been developed to serve this purpose, they behave differently in different datasets provided by different developers. It is important for both users, and developers to have an unbiased assessment of the performance of existing fusion detection tools. Toward this goal, we compared the performance of 12 well-known fusion detection software packages. We evaluated the sensitivity, false discovery rate, computing time, and memory usage of these tools in four different datasets (positive, negative, mixed, and test). We conclude that some tools are better than others in terms of sensitivity, positive prediction value, time consumption and memory usage. We also observed small overlaps of the fusions detected by different tools in the real dataset (test dataset). This could be due to false discoveries by various tools, but could also be due to the reason that none of the tools are inclusive. We have found that the performance of the tools depends on the quality, read length, and number of reads of the RNA-Seq data. We recommend that users choose the proper tools for their purpose based on the properties of their RNA-Seq data. PMID:26862001

  3. Ankle fusion in a high risk population: an assessment of nonunion risk factors.

    PubMed

    Perlman, M H; Thordarson, D B

    1999-08-01

    Between July 1992 and April 1996, 88 ankle fusions were performed at our institution. Sixty-seven of these had adequate follow-up for evaluation for union of the fusion, including adequate records and/or radiographs. The average age of patients was 43 years. There were 37 men and 24 women. The charts were reviewed to determine what level of trauma had resulted in posttraumatic arthritis (low energy, high energy, or open fracture). Alcohol use, drug abuse, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, psychiatric history, smoking, or technical problems were also assessed. A chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the statistical significance. Nineteen of sixty-seven ankle fusions progressed to nonunion (28%). Eighty-five percent of the patients had posttraumatic arthritis. Among 17 patients with a history of open trauma, nine patients developed a nonunion (P < 0.03). A trend toward significance was noted for patients who were smokers, drank alcohol, had diabetes, had a psychiatric disorder, or used illegal drugs. Even with current techniques, this study demonstrates that a high risk population in a trauma center is at risk for nonunion after an ankle fusion caused by multiple risk factors, including a history of open trauma, tobacco use, alcohol use, illegal drug use, a history of psychiatric disorders, or diabetes. PMID:10473059

  4. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor’s uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process. PMID:26821027

  5. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-01

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process. PMID:26821027

  6. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  7. Dynamic Construction of Virtual System in Real-Virtual Fusion Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Fujii, Nobutada; Kaihara, Toshiya; Fujii, Susumu; Umeda, Toyohiro

    On automated manufacturing system, it is commonly difficult to execute real production according to the schedule planned in advance because of the external fluctuations such as order change and delayed delivery of materials, and internal uncertain factors such as machine failure and process delay existing in real shop floor. In this study, a new concept of agent-based Real-Virtual Fusion Manufacturing System (RVF-MS) is proposed, which aims to adaptively and effectively consider both the external and internal fluctuations by realizing the fusion between real production shop floor (real system) and manufacturing simulation (virtual system). In this paper, a method of constructing virtual system in dynamic manufacturing environment is proposed, and effectiveness of the proposal is verified by experiments about production planning problem on flexible flow shop using model plant.

  8. 3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).

  9. Fission-fusion and the evolution of hominin social systems.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, R I M

    2012-02-01

    The course of hominin evolution has involved successive migrations towards higher absolute latitudes over the past three million years. Poorer habitat quality further from the equator has led to the necessity for groups occupying higher latitudes to live at lower population densities. Coupled with a trend towards increasing group size over this time period, this tendency towards expansion has led to exponential increases in the area requirements of hominin groups, and a concomitant need to adjust foraging patterns. The current analyses suggest that the development of increasingly complex, multi-level fission-fusion social systems could have freed hominins of the foraging constraints imposed by large group sizes and low population densities. Analyses of the fossil record suggest latitudinally-driven differences in area requirements of the australopithecines from East and South Africa, and African and Asian Homo erectus. In contrast, chronologically-driven differences appear between H. erectus as a whole and Homo heidelbergensis, and between H. heidelbergensis and the Neanderthals. These results are discussed in relation to studies of the foraging patterns of primates and hunter-gatherers. PMID:22197359

  10. Advances in fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2000-12-01

    The US fusion technology program is an essential element in the development of the knowledge base for an attractive fusion power source. The technology program incorporates both near and long term R&D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, ranges from hardware production to theory and modeling, contributes significantly to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies.

  11. A locally adaptive system for the fusion of objective quality measures.

    PubMed

    Barri, Adriaan; Dooms, Ann; Jansen, Bart; Schelkens, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Objective measures to automatically predict the perceptual quality of images or videos can reduce the time and cost requirements of end-to-end quality monitoring. For reliable quality predictions, these objective quality measures need to respond consistently with the behavior of the human visual system (HVS). In practice, many important HVS mechanisms are too complex to be modeled directly. Instead, they can be mimicked by machine learning systems, trained on subjective quality assessment databases, and applied on predefined objective quality measures for specific content or distortion classes. On the downside, machine learning systems are often difficult to interpret and may even contradict the input objective quality measures, leading to unreliable quality predictions. To address this problem, we developed an interpretable machine learning system for objective quality assessment, namely the locally adaptive fusion (LAF). This paper describes the LAF system and compares its performance with traditional machine learning. As it turns out, the LAF system is more consistent with the input measures and can better handle heteroscedastic training data. PMID:24733011

  12. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  13. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.; Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  14. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    SciTech Connect

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons. 50 refs.

  15. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  16. Two fusion predictors for continuous-time linear systems with different types of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Shin, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes new fusion predictors for continuous-time linear systems with different types of observations. The fusion predictors are formed by the summation of the local Kalman estimators (filters and predictors) with matrix weights depending only on time instants. Both fusion predictors represent the optimal linear combination of an arbitrary number of local Kalman estimators and each is fused by the minimum mean square error criterion. As a consequence of the parallel structure of the proposed predictors, parallel computers can be used for their design. This article also establishes the relationship between fusion predictors. High accuracy and computational efficiency of the fusion predictors are demonstrated through several examples, including the damper harmonic oscillator motion with a multisensory environment.

  17. Issues and challenges in the development of a commercialised image fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, J. P.; Smith, M. I.; Sadler, J.; Hickman, D.

    2010-04-01

    Image fusion technology is becoming increasingly used within military systems. However, the migration of the technology to non-defence applications has been limited, both in terms of functionality and processing performance. In this paper, the development of a low-cost automatic registration and adaptive image fusion system is described. In order to fully exploit commercially available processor hardware, an alternative registration and image fusion approach has been developed and the results of this are presented. Additionally, the software design offers interface flexibility and user programmability and these features are illustrated through a number of different applications.

  18. Remedial Action Assessment System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  19. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 2. Reactor safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Garner, J.K.; Bradbury, S.J.; Steele, W.G.; Berwald, D.H.

    1984-09-01

    The safety features of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder reactor are presented. These include redundancy and overcapacity in primary coolant system components to minimize failure probability, an improved valve location logic to provide for failed component isolation, and double-walled coolant piping and steel guard vessel protection to further limit the extent of any leak. In addition to the primary coolant and decay heat removal system, reactor safety systems also include an independent shield cooling system, the module safety/fuel transfer coolant system, an auxiliary first wall cooling system, a psssive dump tank cooling system based on the use of heat pipes, and several lithium fire suppression systems. Safety system specifications are justified based on the results of thermal analysis, event tree construction, consequence calculations, and risk analysis. The result is a reactor design concept with an acceptably low probability of a major radioactivity release. Dose consequences of maximum credible accidents appear to be below 10CFR100 regulatory limits.

  20. Fusion in the 20Ne+24Mg system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albinska, M.; Belery, P.; Delbar, Th.; El Masri, Y.; Grégoire, Gh.; Michel, C.; Vervier, J.; Albinski, J.; Grotowski, K.; Kopta, S.; Kozik, T.; Płaneta, R.; Paič, G.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive γ spectra from the 20Ne+24Mg interaction have been measured using from 45 up to 105 MeV 20Ne beams. Experimental mass and charge spectra are compared with statistical model calculations. Total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. The optical, Glas and Mosel, and Bass model calculations are presented and compared with the data. The limitation of the fusion cross section by the statistical yrast line is also discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 20Ne+24Mg, Elab=45, 55, 60, 70, 80, 85, 105 MeV; measured mass spectra for 12<=A<=44, charge spectra for 6<=Z<=22 measured total reaction and fusion cross sections σR, σf deduced critical angular momentum and radius lf and rcr.

  1. Fusion Propulson System Requirements for an Interstellar Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, D. F.

    1963-01-01

    An examination of the engine constraints for a fusion-propelled vehicle indicates that minimum flight times for a probe to a 5 light-year star will be approximately 50 years. The principal restraint on the vehicle is the radiator weight and size necessary to dissipate the heat which enters the chamber walls from the fusion plasma. However, it is interesting, at least theoretically, that the confining magnetic field strength is of reasonable magnitude, 2 to 3 x 10(exp5) gauss, and the confinement time is approximately 0.1 sec.

  2. Tritium systems for the tokamak fusion core experiment, TFCX

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium systems, tritium needs and possible tritium release scenarios were assessed for a TFCX class of device, 250 MW, 2 x 10/sup 5/ s of burn, with burn times from 20 s to 300 s. On-site and off-site, continuous and batch processing modes were considered. A reference case, batch processing was developed which fulfills the requirements for plasma physics experiments.

  3. High-level multifunction radar simulation for studying the performance of multisensor data fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizing, Albert G.; Bosse, Eloi

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the basic requirements for a simulation of the main capabilities of a shipborne MultiFunction Radar (MFR) that can be used in conjunction with other sensor simulations in scenarios for studying Multi Sensor Data Fusion (MSDF) systems. This simulation is being used to support an ongoing joint effort (Canada - The Netherlands) in the development of MSDF testbeds. This joint effort is referred as Joint-FACET (Fusion Algorithms & Concepts Exploration Testbed), a highly modular and flexible series of applications that is capable of processing both real and synthetic input data. The question raised here is how realistic should the sensor simulations be to trust the MSDF performance assessment? A partial answer to this question is that at least, the dominant perturbing effects on sensor detection (true or false) are sufficiently represented. Following this philosophy, the MFR model, presented here, takes into account sensor's design parameters and external environmental effects such as clutter, propagation and jamming. Previous radar simulations capture most of these dominant effects. In this paper the emphasis is on an MFR scheduler which is the key element that needs to be added to the previous simulations to represent the MFR capability to search and track a large number of targets and at the same time support a large number of (semi-active) surface-to-air missiles (SAM) for the engagement of multiple hostile targets.

  4. Selection of intrusion detection system threshold bounds for effective sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ciza; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2007-04-01

    The motivation behind the fusion of Intrusion Detection Systems was the realization that with the increasing traffic and increasing complexity of attacks, none of the present day stand-alone Intrusion Detection Systems can meet the high demand for a very high detection rate and an extremely low false positive rate. Multi-sensor fusion can be used to meet these requirements by a refinement of the combined response of different Intrusion Detection Systems. In this paper, we show the design technique of sensor fusion to best utilize the useful response from multiple sensors by an appropriate adjustment of the fusion threshold. The threshold is generally chosen according to the past experiences or by an expert system. In this paper, we show that the choice of threshold bounds according to the Chebyshev inequality priciple performs better. This approach also helps to solve the problem of scalability and has the advantage of failsafe capability. This paper theoretically models the fusion of Intrusion Detection Systems for the purpose of proving the improvement in performance, supplemented with the empirical evaluation. The combination of complementary sensors is shown to detect more attacks than the individual components. Since the individual sensors chosen detect sufficiently different attacks, their result can be merged for improved performance. The combination is done in different ways like (i) taking all the alarms from each system and avoiding duplications, (ii) taking alarms from each system by fixing threshold bounds, and (iii) rule-based fusion with a priori knowledge of the individual sensor performance. A number of evaluation metrics are used, and the results indicate that there is an overall enhancement in the performance of the combined detector using sensor fusion incorporating the threshold bounds and significantly better performance using simple rule-based fusion.

  5. Functional fusion of living systems with synthetic electrode interfaces.

    PubMed

    Staufer, Oskar; Weber, Sebastian; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Spatz, Joachim P; Rustom, Amin

    2016-01-01

    The functional fusion of "living" biomaterial (such as cells) with synthetic systems has developed into a principal ambition for various scientific disciplines. In particular, emerging fields such as bionics and nanomedicine integrate advanced nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells and organisms in order to develop novel strategies for applications, including energy production or real-time diagnostics utilizing biomolecular machineries "perfected" during billion years of evolution. To date, hardware-wetware interfaces that sample or modulate bioelectric potentials, such as neuroprostheses or implantable energy harvesters, are mostly based on microelectrodes brought into the closest possible contact with the targeted cells. Recently, the possibility of using electrochemical gradients of the inner ear for technical applications was demonstrated using implanted electrodes, where 1.12 nW of electrical power was harvested from the guinea pig endocochlear potential for up to 5 h (Mercier, P.; Lysaght, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chandrakasan, A.; Stankovic, K. Nat. Biotech. 2012, 30, 1240-1243). More recent approaches employ nanowires (NWs) able to penetrate the cellular membrane and to record extra- and intracellular electrical signals, in some cases with subcellular resolution (Spira, M.; Hai, A. Nat. Nano. 2013, 8, 83-94). Such techniques include nanoelectric scaffolds containing free-standing silicon NWs (Robinson, J. T.; Jorgolli, M.; Shalek, A. K.; Yoon, M. H.; Gertner, R. S.; Park, H. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012, 10, 180-184) or NW field-effect transistors (Qing, Q.; Jiang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gao, R.; Mai, L.; Lieber, C. Nat. Nano. 2013, 9, 142-147), vertically aligned gallium phosphide NWs (Hällström, W.; Mårtensson, T.; Prinz, C.; Gustavsson, P.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.; Kanje, M. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2960-2965) or individually contacted, electrically active carbon nanofibers. The latter of these approaches is capable of recording electrical responses from oxidative events

  6. Functional fusion of living systems with synthetic electrode interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Oskar; Weber, Sebastian; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Spatz, Joachim P

    2016-01-01

    Summary The functional fusion of “living” biomaterial (such as cells) with synthetic systems has developed into a principal ambition for various scientific disciplines. In particular, emerging fields such as bionics and nanomedicine integrate advanced nanomaterials with biomolecules, cells and organisms in order to develop novel strategies for applications, including energy production or real-time diagnostics utilizing biomolecular machineries “perfected” during billion years of evolution. To date, hardware–wetware interfaces that sample or modulate bioelectric potentials, such as neuroprostheses or implantable energy harvesters, are mostly based on microelectrodes brought into the closest possible contact with the targeted cells. Recently, the possibility of using electrochemical gradients of the inner ear for technical applications was demonstrated using implanted electrodes, where 1.12 nW of electrical power was harvested from the guinea pig endocochlear potential for up to 5 h (Mercier, P.; Lysaght, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chandrakasan, A.; Stankovic, K. Nat. Biotech. 2012, 30, 1240–1243). More recent approaches employ nanowires (NWs) able to penetrate the cellular membrane and to record extra- and intracellular electrical signals, in some cases with subcellular resolution (Spira, M.; Hai, A. Nat. Nano. 2013, 8, 83–94). Such techniques include nanoelectric scaffolds containing free-standing silicon NWs (Robinson, J. T.; Jorgolli, M.; Shalek, A. K.; Yoon, M. H.; Gertner, R. S.; Park, H. Nat Nanotechnol. 2012, 10, 180–184) or NW field-effect transistors (Qing, Q.; Jiang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gao, R.; Mai, L.; Lieber, C. Nat. Nano. 2013, 9, 142–147), vertically aligned gallium phosphide NWs (Hällström, W.; Mårtensson, T.; Prinz, C.; Gustavsson, P.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.; Kanje, M. Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2960–2965) or individually contacted, electrically active carbon nanofibers. The latter of these approaches is capable of recording electrical

  7. Assessment of radiofrequency ablation margin by MRI-MRI image fusion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Kai; Su, Zhong-Zhen; Huang, Ze-Ping; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-MRI image fusion in assessing the ablative margin (AM) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A newly developed ultrasound workstation for MRI-MRI image fusion was used to evaluate the AM of 62 tumors in 52 HCC patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The lesions were divided into two groups: group A, in which the tumor was completely ablated and 5 mm AM was achieved (n = 32); and group B, in which the tumor was completely ablated but 5 mm AM was not achieved (n = 29). To detect local tumor progression (LTP), all patients were followed every two months by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced MRI or computed tomography (CT) in the first year after RFA. Then, the follow-up interval was prolonged to every three months after the first year. RESULTS: Of the 62 tumors, MRI-MRI image fusion was successful in 61 (98.4%); the remaining case had significant deformation of the liver and massive ascites after RFA. The time required for creating image fusion and AM evaluation was 15.5 ± 5.5 min (range: 8-22 min) and 9.6 ± 3.2 min (range: 6-14 min), respectively. The follow-up period ranged from 1-23 mo (14.2 ± 5.4 mo). In group A, no LTP was detected in 32 lesions, whereas in group B, LTP was detected in 4 of 29 tumors, which occurred at 2, 7, 9, and 15 mo after RFA. The frequency of LTP in group B (13.8%; 4/29) was significantly higher than that in group A (0/32, P = 0.046). All of the LTPs occurred in the area in which the 5 mm AM was not achieved. CONCLUSION: The MRI-MRI image fusion using an ultrasound workstation is feasible and useful for evaluating the AM after RFA for HCC. PMID:25954109

  8. Systems for State Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Bertenthal, Meryl W., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), "Systems for State Science Assessment" explores the ideas and tools that are needed to assess science learning at the state level. This book provides a detailed examination of K-12 science assessment: looking specifically at what should be measured and how to measure it. Along with…

  9. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other. PMID:26213932

  10. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other. PMID:26213932

  11. Description of the Fusion-Fission Reactions in the Framework of Dinuclear System Conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Within the dinuclear system model fusion-fission reactions 78Kr+40Ca and 86Kr+48Ca is investigated. The charge distributions of the decay products are predicted at bombarding energy 10 MeV/nucleon. The competition is treated between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels. The possible explanation of the odd-even staggering in the yield of the final reaction products at high excitation energies is discussed.

  12. The Architecture of Information Fusion System Ingreenhouse Wireless Sensor Network Based on Multi-Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenting; Chen, Ming

    In view of current unprogressive situation of factory breeding in aquaculture, this article designed a standardized, informationized and intelligentized aquaculture system, proposed a information fusion architecture based on multi-agent in greenhouse wireless sensor network (GWSN), and researched mainly the structural characteristic of the four-classed information fusion based on distributed multi-agent and the method to construct the structure inside of every agent.

  13. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  14. Supervised classification of aerial imagery and multi-source data fusion for flood assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sava, E.; Harding, L.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Floods are among the most devastating natural hazards and the ability to produce an accurate and timely flood assessment before, during, and after an event is critical for their mitigation and response. Remote sensing technologies have become the de-facto approach for observing the Earth and its environment. However, satellite remote sensing data are not always available. For these reasons, it is crucial to develop new techniques in order to produce flood assessments during and after an event. Recent advancements in data fusion techniques of remote sensing with near real time heterogeneous datasets have allowed emergency responders to more efficiently extract increasingly precise and relevant knowledge from the available information. This research presents a fusion technique using satellite remote sensing imagery coupled with non-authoritative data such as Civil Air Patrol (CAP) and tweets. A new computational methodology is proposed based on machine learning algorithms to automatically identify water pixels in CAP imagery. Specifically, wavelet transformations are paired with multiple classifiers, run in parallel, to build models discriminating water and non-water regions. The learned classification models are first tested against a set of control cases, and then used to automatically classify each image separately. A measure of uncertainty is computed for each pixel in an image proportional to the number of models classifying the pixel as water. Geo-tagged tweets are continuously harvested and stored on a MongoDB and queried in real time. They are fused with CAP classified data, and with satellite remote sensing derived flood extent results to produce comprehensive flood assessment maps. The final maps are then compared with FEMA generated flood extents to assess their accuracy. The proposed methodology is applied on two test cases, relative to the 2013 floods in Boulder CO, and the 2015 floods in Texas.

  15. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  16. Fusion of a variable baseline system and a range finder.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  17. Application of Fusion Gyrotrons to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H.; Oglesby, K.

    2013-10-01

    The potential size of geothermal energy resources is second only to fusion energy. Advances are needed in drilling technology and heat reservoir formation to realize this potential. Millimeter-wave (MMW) gyrotrons and related technologies developed for fusion energy research could contribute to enabling EGS. Directed MMW energy can be used to advance rock penetration capabilities, borehole casing, and fracking. MMWs are ideally suited because they can penetrate through small particulate extraction plumes, can be efficiently guided long distances in borehole dimensions, and continuous megawatt sources are commercially available. Laboratory experiments with a 10 kW, 28 GHz CPI gyrotron have shown that granite rock can be fractured and melted with power intensities of about 1 kW/cm2 and minute exposure times. Observed melted rock MMW emissivity and estimated thermodynamics suggest that penetrating hot, hard crystalline rock formations may be economic with fusion research developed MMW sources. Supported by USDOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Impact Technologies, LLC.

  18. Condition Assessment Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  19. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) systems in color imaging and low light target applications. This paper will discuss first the digital sensors that are utilized in the noted image fusion applications which is a 1900x1086 (high definition format) CMOS imager coupled to a Generation III image intensifier for the visible/near infrared (NIR) digital sensor and 320x240 or 640x480 uncooled microbolometer thermal imager for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) digital sensor. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented. The digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) process will be presented in context of early fused night vision systems such as the digital image fused system (DIFS) and the digital enhanced night vision goggle and later, the long range digitally fused night vision sighting system. Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Dual color image fusion schemes such as Green/Red, Cyan/Yellow, and White/Blue for image intensifier and thermal infrared sensor color representation, respectively, are discussed. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. The result of this image analysis with enhanced A+B digital image fusion systems is that maximum contrast and spatial resolution is achieved in a digital fusion mode as compared to individual sensor modalities in low light, long distance imaging applications. Paper has been cleared by DoD/OSR for Public Release under Ref: 08-S-2183 on August 8, 2008.

  20. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  1. Local Evaluation of a Fusion System for 3-D Tomographic Image Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamallem, Abdellah; Valet, Lionel; Coquin, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Information fusion has been studied in various domains of computer sciences and engineering, and these techniques have increasingly been used. Such systems aim to build new interesting information from much information. Over time, fusion systems have become complex systems integrating information extraction, representations, combinations and interpretations. The performance evaluation of such systems has become a real problem. The choices of methods and parameter values have a significant impact on the quality of the results. A global evaluation of the fused results does not allow the end-users to adjust the numerous parameters. We propose a local approach to evaluate the mission completeness of the fusion system subparts. In this article, we focus on the formulation of the mission of extraction subparts and we measure their degree of achievement. We aim at showing the end-users which subparts do not completely achieve the functionality they were designed for.

  2. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  3. A minichaperone-based fusion system for producing insoluble proteins in soluble stable forms.

    PubMed

    Sharapova, Olga A; Yurkova, Maria S; Fedorov, Alexey N

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a fusion system for reliable production of insoluble hydrophobic proteins in soluble stable forms. A carrier is thermophilic minichaperone, GroEL apical domain (GrAD), a 15 kDa monomer able to bind diverse protein substrates. The Met-less variant of GrAD has been made for further convenient use of Met-specific CNBr chemical cleavage, if desired. The Met-less GrAD retained stability and solubility of the original protein. Target polypeptides can be fused to either C-terminus or N-terminus of GrAD. The system has been tested with two unrelated insoluble proteins fused to the C-terminus of GrAD. One of the proteins was also fused to GrAD N-terminus. The fusions formed inclusion bodies at 25°C and above and were partly soluble only at lower expression temperatures. Most importantly, however, after denaturation in urea, all fusions without exception were completely renatured in soluble stable forms that safely survived freezing-thawing as well as lyophilization. All fusions for both tested target proteins retained solubility at high concentrations for days. Functional analysis revealed that a target protein may retain functionality in the fusion. Convenience features include potential thermostability of GrAD fusions, capacity for chemical and enzymatic cleavage of a target and His6 tag for purification. PMID:26612097

  4. Principles of data-fusion in multi-sensor systems for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioclea, Shmuel; Dickstein, Phineas

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, there has been progress in the application of measurement and control systems that engage multi-sensor arrays. Several algorithms and techniques have been developed for the integration of the information obtained from the sensors. The fusion of the data may be complicated due to the fact that each sensor has its own performance characteristics, and because different sensors may detect different physical phenomena. As a result, data fusion turns out to be a multidisciplinary field, which applies principles adopted from other fields such as signal processing, artificial intelligence, statistics, and The Theory of Information. The data fusion machine tries to imitate the human brain, in combining data from numerous sensors and making optimal inferences about the environment. The present paper provides a critical review of data fusion algorithms and techniques and a trenchant summary of the experience gained to date from the several preliminary NDT studies which have been applying multi-sensor data fusion systems. Consequently, this paper provides a list of rules and criteria to be followed in future applications of data fusion to nondestructive testing.

  5. Evolution of fusion hindrance for asymmetric systems at deep sub-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Nanal, V.; Ichikawa, T.; Hagino, K.; Navin, A.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Parkar, V. V.; Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, Abhinav; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of fusion cross-sections of 7Li and 12C with 198Pt at deep sub-barrier energies are reported to unravel the role of the entrance channel in the occurrence of fusion hindrance. The onset of fusion hindrance has been clearly observed in 12C +198Pt system but not in 7Li +198Pt system, within the measured energy range. Emergence of the hindrance, moving from lighter (6,7Li) to heavier (12C, 16O) projectiles is explained employing a model that considers a gradual transition from a sudden to adiabatic regime at low energies. The model calculation reveals a weak effect of the damping of coupling to collective motion for the present systems as compared to that obtained for systems with heavier projectiles.

  6. Improving the recognition of fingerprint biometric system using enhanced image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Stripathi, Reshma

    2010-04-01

    Fingerprints recognition systems have been widely used by financial institutions, law enforcement, border control, visa issuing, just to mention few. Biometric identifiers can be counterfeited, but considered more reliable and secure compared to traditional ID cards or personal passwords methods. Fingerprint pattern fusion improves the performance of a fingerprint recognition system in terms of accuracy and security. This paper presents digital enhancement and fusion approaches that improve the biometric of the fingerprint recognition system. It is a two-step approach. In the first step raw fingerprint images are enhanced using high-frequency-emphasis filtering (HFEF). The second step is a simple linear fusion process between the raw images and the HFEF ones. It is shown that the proposed approach increases the verification and identification of the fingerprint biometric recognition system, where any improvement is justified using the correlation performance metrics of the matching algorithm.

  7. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  9. Fusion hindrance for a positive-q-value system (24)Mg+(30)Si.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C L; Stefanini, A M; Esbensen, H; Rehm, K E; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Back, B B; Corradi, L; Fioretto, E; Montagnoli, G; Scarlassara, F; Montanari, D; Courtin, S; Bourgin, D; Haas, F; Goasduff, A; Szilner, S; Mijatovic, T

    2014-07-11

    Measurements of the excitation function for the fusion of (24)Mg+(30)Si (Q=17.89  MeV)have been extended toward lower energies with respect to previous experimental data. The S-factor maximum observed in this large, positive-Q-value system is the most pronounced among such systems studied thus far. The significance and the systematics of an S-factor maximum in systems with positive fusion Q values are discussed. This result would strongly impact the extrapolated cross sections and reaction rates in the carbon and oxygen burnings and, thus, the study of the history of stellar evolution. PMID:25062170

  10. Fusion hindrance for Ca+Ca systems: Influence of neutron excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.; Rehm, K. E.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Mason, P.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Silvestri, R.; Singh, P. P.; Szilner, S.; Tang, X. D.; Ur, C. A.

    2010-10-01

    The measurement of the excitation function for fusion evaporation reactions in the system Ca40+Ca48 (Q= 4.56 MeV) has been extended downward by two orders of magnitude with respect to previous cross section data. A first indication of an S-factor maximum in a system with a positive Q value has been observed. In addition a correlation between fusion hindrance and neutron excess N-Z has been found for the Ca + Ca, Ni + Ni, and Ca + Zr systems.

  11. Applications of intelligent-measurement systems in controlled-fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Lindquist, W.B.; Peterson, R.L.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-06-22

    The paper describes the control and instrumentation for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA. This large-scale scientific experiment in controlled thermonuclear fusion, which is currently being expanded, originally had 3000 devices to control and 7000 sensors to monitor. A hierarchical computer control system, is used with nine minicomputers forming the supervisory system. There are approximately 55 local control and instrumentation microcomputers. In addition, each device has its own monitoring equipment, which in some cases consists of a small computer. After describing the overall system a more detailed account is given of the control and instrumentation for two large superconducting magnets.

  12. Near-barrier fusion of proton- and neutron-halo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E. F.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the fusion excitation functions for proton-halo and neutron-halo systems presents important differences, especially in the energy region slightly above the barrier. Measurements for 6He, 11Li and 11Be projectiles are discussed to exemplify the behaviour of neutron-halo systems, while experiments with 8B beams illustrate the situation for proton-halo nuclei. With respect to a standard benchmark, neutron- (proton-) halo systems show a fusion suppression (enhancement) above the barrier.

  13. Sub-barrier fusion and transfers in the 40Ca + 58,64Ni systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgin, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Huiming, J.; Scarlassara, F.; Fioretto, E.; Simenel, C.; Rowley, N.; Szilner, S.; Mijatović, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The 40Ca beam was delivered by the XTU Tandem accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and evaporation residues were measured at very forward angles with the LNL electrostatic beam deflector. Coupled-channels calculations were performed which highlight possible strong effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni system. Microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations have also been performed for both systems. Preliminary results are shown.

  14. A data fusion algorithm for multi-sensor microburst hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig R.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    A recursive model-based data fusion algorithm for multi-sensor microburst hazard assessment is described. An analytical microburst model is used to approximate the actual windfield, and a set of 'best' model parameters are estimated from measured winds. The winds corresponding to the best parameter set can then be used to compute alerting factors such as microburst position, extent, and intensity. The estimation algorithm is based on an iterated extended Kalman filter which uses the microburst model parameters as state variables. Microburst state dynamic and process noise parameters are chosen based on measured microburst statistics. The estimation method is applied to data from a time-varying computational simulation of a historical microburst event to demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Selection of filter parameters and initial conditions is discussed. Computational requirements and datalink bandwidth considerations are also addressed.

  15. Assessment of martensitic steels as structural materials in magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, J.M.; Chen, W.Y.K.; Cheng, E.T.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Miller, P.H.; Rosenwasser, S.N.; Thompson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    This manuscript documents the results of preliminary experiments and analyses to assess the feasibility of incorporating ferromagnetic martensitic steels in fusion reactor designs and to evaluate the possible advantages of this class of material with respect to first wall/blanket lifetime. The general class of alloys under consideration are ferritic steels containing from about 9 to 13 percent Cr with some small additions of various strengthening elements such as Mo. These steels are conventionally used in the normalized and tempered condition for high temperature applications and can compete favorably with austenitic alloys up to about 600/sup 0/C. Although the heat treatment can result in either a tempered martensite or bainite structure, depending on the alloy and thermal treatment parameters, this general class of materials will be referred to as martensitic stainless steels for simplicity.

  16. Information fusion and uncertainty management for biological multisensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jerome J.; Glina, Yan; Stein, David W.; Skomoroch, Peter N.; Fox, Emily B.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates methods of decision-making from uncertain and disparate data. The need for such methods arises in those sensing application areas in which multiple and diverse sensing modalities are available, but the information provided can be imprecise or only indirectly related to the effects to be discerned. Biological sensing for biodefense is an important instance of such applications. Information fusion in that context is the focus of a research program now underway at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The paper outlines a multi-level, multi-classifier recognition architecture developed within this program, and discusses its components. Information source uncertainty is quantified and exploited for improving the quality of data that constitute the input to the classification processes. Several methods of sensor uncertainty exploitation at the feature-level are proposed and their efficacy is investigated. Other aspects of the program are discussed as well. While the primary focus of the paper is on biodefense, the applicability of concepts and techniques presented here extends to other multisensor fusion application domains.

  17. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  18. Analysing the role of fusion power in the future global energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Ciorba, U.; Gracceva, F.; Eder, T.; Hamacher, T.; Lehtila, A.; Biberacher, M.; Grohnheit, P. E.; Ward, D.; Han, W.; Eherer, C.; Pina, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work presents the EFDA Times model (ETM), developed within the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). ETM is an optimization global energy model which aims at providing the optimum energy system composition in terms of social wealth and sustainability including fusion as an alternative technology in the long term. Two framework scenarios are defined: a Base case scenario with no limits to CO2 emissions, and a 450ppm scenario with a limit of 450ppm in CO2-eq concentrations set by 2100. Previous results showed that in the Base case scenario, with no measures for CO2 emission reductions, fusion does not enter the energy system. However, when CO2 emission restrictions are imposed, the global energy system composition changes completely. In a 450ppm scenario, coal technologies disappear in a few decades, being mainly replaced by nuclear fission technologies which experience a great increase when constrained only by Uranium resources exhaustion. Fission technologies are then replaced by the fusion power plants that start in 2070, with a significant contribution to the global electricity production by 2100. To conclude the work, a sensitivity analysis will be presented on some parameters that may affect the possible role of fusion in the future global energy system.

  19. An infrared/video fusion system for military robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.W.; Roberts, R.S.

    1997-08-05

    Sensory information is critical to the telerobotic operation of mobile robots. In particular, visual sensors are a key component of the sensor package on a robot engaged in urban military operations. Visual sensors provide the robot operator with a wealth of information including robot navigation and threat assessment. However, simple countermeasures such as darkness, smoke, or blinding by a laser, can easily neutralize visual sensors. In order to provide a robust visual sensing system, an infrared sensor is required to augment the primary visual sensor. An infrared sensor can acquire useful imagery in conditions that incapacitate a visual sensor. A simple approach to incorporating an infrared sensor into the visual sensing system is to display two images to the operator: side-by-side visual and infrared images. However, dual images might overwhelm the operator with information, and result in degraded robot performance. A better solution is to combine the visual and infrared images into a single image that maximizes scene information. Fusing visual and infrared images into a single image demands balancing the mixture of visual and infrared information. Humans are accustom to viewing and interpreting visual images. They are not accustom to viewing or interpreting infrared images. Hence, the infrared image must be used to enhance the visual image, not obfuscate it.

  20. Analysis of fusion dynamics of colliding systems involving stable, loosely bound and halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Gautam, Manjeet

    2015-12-01

    This article analyzed the fusion dynamics of stable nuclei, loosely bound nuclei and halo nuclei within the view of coupled channel approach and the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model). The different projectiles ({}3{}{6,7}{{L}}{{i}} and {}8{}{16,17}{{O}}) are bombarded onto common spherical target isotope ({}62{}144{{S}}{{m}}) wherein target isotope exhibits inelastic surface excitations as dominant mode of coupling. The fusion dynamics of {}8{}{16,17}{{O}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} reactions, wherein there is no signature of fusion suppression at above barrier energies, are adequately explained by both theoretical approaches in domain of Coulomb barrier. In case of {}3{}{6,7}{{L}}{{i}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} reactions, the couplings of inelastic surface excitations of colliding systems remove the discrepancies between below barrier fusion data and expectations of one-dimensional barrier penetration model. However, at above barrier energies, the fusion excitation function data are suppressed in comparison to the theoretical predictions of both approaches. Interestingly, this suppression of above barrier fusion data is minimized by the present model calculation by a factor of 7% with respect to a value reported in literature. Within the view of the EDWSP model calculations, the above barrier fusion data of {}3{}6{{L}}{{i}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} reaction are hindered by a factor of 25% and by a factor of 17% for {}3{}7{{L}}{{i}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} reaction which is smaller than a value as pointed out in literature. The observed sub-barrier fusion dynamics of {}3{}{6,7}{{L}}{{i}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} and {}8{}{16,17}{{O}}+{}62{}144{{S}}{{m}} reactions are reasonably described by the coupled channel model and the EDWSP model. Furthermore, the applicability of the EDWSP model has been tested for exploration of the fusion of {}2{}6{{H}}{{e}}-{{induced}} reaction and hence due to barrier modification effects, the EDWSP model successfully explains the observed

  1. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: the novel Fh8 system

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sofia; Almeida, André; Castro, António; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell. With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide’s immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification, and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system. PMID:24600443

  2. Minimally invasive arthrodesis for chronic sacroiliac joint dysfunction using the SImmetry SI Joint Fusion system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint-related low back pain (LBP) is a common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated condition due to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and highly variable treatment practices. In patients with debilitating SI-related LBP for at least 6 months duration who have failed conservative management, arthrodesis is a viable option. The SImmetry(®) SI Joint Fusion System is a novel therapy for SI joint fusion, not just fixation, which utilizes a minimally invasive surgical approach, instrumented fixation for immediate stability, and joint preparation with bone grafting for a secure construct in the long term. The purpose of this report is to describe the minimally invasive SI Joint Fusion System, including patient selection criteria, implant characteristics, surgical technique, postoperative recovery, and biomechanical testing results. Advantages and limitations of this system will be discussed. PMID:24851059

  3. Fusion of multisource and multiscale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in a metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. B.; Yang, Y. J.; Daranpob, A.

    2009-09-01

    Recent extreme hydroclimatic events in the United States alone include, but are not limited to, the droughts in Maryland and the Chesapeake Bay area in 2001 through September 2002; Lake Mead in Las Vegas in 2000 through 2004; the Peace River and Lake Okeechobee in South Florida in 2006; and Lake Lanier in Atlanta, Georgia in 2007 that affected the water resources distribution in three states - Alabama, Florida and Georgia. This paper provides evidence from previous work and elaborates on the future perspectives that will collectively employ remote sensing and in-situ observations to support the implementation of the water availability assessment in a metropolitan region. Within the hydrological cycle, precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration can be monitored by using WSR-88D/NEXRAD data, RADARSAT-1 images, and GEOS images collectively to address the spatiotemporal variations of quantitative availability of waters whereas the MODIS images may be used to track down the qualitative availability of waters in terms of turbidity, Chlorophyll-a and other constitutes of concern. Tampa Bay in Florida was selected as a study site in this analysis, where the water supply infrastructure covers groundwater, desalination plant, and surface water at the same time. Research findings show that through the proper fusion of multi-source and multi-scale remote sensing data for water availability assessment in metropolitan region, a new insight of water infrastructure assessment can be gained to support sustainable planning region wide.

  4. Multi-model data fusion to improve an early warning system for hypo-/hyperglycemic events.

    PubMed

    Botwey, Ransford Henry; Daskalaki, Elena; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G

    2014-01-01

    Correct predictions of future blood glucose levels in individuals with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) can be used to provide early warning of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events and thus to improve the patient's safety. To increase prediction accuracy and efficiency, various approaches have been proposed which combine multiple predictors to produce superior results compared to single predictors. Three methods for model fusion are presented and comparatively assessed. Data from 23 T1D subjects under sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy were used in two adaptive data-driven models (an autoregressive model with output correction - cARX, and a recurrent neural network - RNN). Data fusion techniques based on i) Dempster-Shafer Evidential Theory (DST), ii) Genetic Algorithms (GA), and iii) Genetic Programming (GP) were used to merge the complimentary performances of the prediction models. The fused output is used in a warning algorithm to issue alarms of upcoming hypo-/hyperglycemic events. The fusion schemes showed improved performance with lower root mean square errors, lower time lags, and higher correlation. In the warning algorithm, median daily false alarms (DFA) of 0.25%, and 100% correct alarms (CA) were obtained for both event types. The detection times (DT) before occurrence of events were 13.0 and 12.1 min respectively for hypo-/hyperglycemic events. Compared to the cARX and RNN models, and a linear fusion of the two, the proposed fusion schemes represents a significant improvement. PMID:25571076

  5. Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System for a Sensor Fusion Processor Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Thomas, Tyson; Li, Wei-Te; Daud, Taher; Fabunmi, James

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the hardware implementation and initial tests from a low-power, highspeed reconfigurable sensor fusion processor. The Extended Logic Intelligent Processing System (ELIPS) is described, which combines rule-based systems, fuzzy logic, and neural networks to achieve parallel fusion of sensor signals in compact low power VLSI. The development of the ELIPS concept is being done to demonstrate the interceptor functionality which particularly underlines the high speed and low power requirements. The hardware programmability allows the processor to reconfigure into different machines, taking the most efficient hardware implementation during each phase of information processing. Processing speeds of microseconds have been demonstrated using our test hardware.

  6. Energy Logic (EL): a novel fusion engine of multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion for intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2009-04-01

    The rapidly advancing hardware technology, smart sensors and sensor networks are advancing environment sensing. One major potential of this technology is Large-Scale Surveillance Systems (LS3) especially for, homeland security, battlefield intelligence, facility guarding and other civilian applications. The efficient and effective deployment of LS3 requires addressing number of aspects impacting the scalability of such systems. The scalability factors are related to: computation and memory utilization efficiency, communication bandwidth utilization, network topology (e.g., centralized, ad-hoc, hierarchical or hybrid), network communication protocol and data routing schemes; and local and global data/information fusion scheme for situational awareness. Although, many models have been proposed to address one aspect or another of these issues but, few have addressed the need for a multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion that has characteristics satisfying the requirements of current and future intelligent sensors and sensor networks. In this paper, we have presented a novel scalable fusion engine for multi-modality multi-agent information fusion for LS3. The new fusion engine is based on a concept we call: Energy Logic. Experimental results of this work as compared to a Fuzzy logic model strongly supported the validity of the new model and inspired future directions for different levels of fusion and different applications.

  7. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qun-Ying; Li, Jian-Gang; Chen, Yi-Xue

    2004-12-01

    Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB) to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW.yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  8. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H; Powell, J R; Wiswall, R

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements.

  9. Operation of the cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chronis, W.C.; Slack, D.S.

    1987-06-09

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to cool the entire MFTF-B system from ambient to operating temperature in less than 10 days. The system was successfully operated in the recent plant and capital equipment (PACE) acceptance tests, and results from these tests helped us correct problem areas and improve the system.

  10. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability.

  11. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability.

  12. Second Symposium on ``Current trends in international fusion research: review and assessment`` Chairman`s summary of session

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-26

    This session began with a keynote speech by B. Coppi of M.I.T., entitled: ``Physics of Fusion Burning Plasmas, Ignition, and Relevant Technology Issues.`` It continued with a second paper on the tokamak approach to fusion, presented by E. Mazzucato of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, entitled ``High Confinement Plasma Confinement Regime in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear.`` The session continued with three talks discussing various aspects of the so-called ``Field Reversed Configuration`` (FRC), and concluded with a talk on a more general topic. The first of the three FRC papers, presented by J. Slough of the University of Washington, was entitled ``FRC Reactor for Deep Space Propulsion.`` This paper was followed by a paper by S. Goto of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Osaka University in Japan, entitled ``Experimental Initiation of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Toward Helium-3 Fusion.`` The third of the FRC papers, authored by H. Mimoto and Y. Tomito of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan, and presented by Y. Tomita was entitled ``Helium-3 Fusion Based on a Field-Reversed Configuration.`` The session was concluded with a paper presented by D. Ryutov of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entitled: ``A User Facility for Research on Fusion Systems with Dense Plasmas.``

  13. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  14. Heterogeneous Data Fusion Methods for Disaster Risk Assessment using Grid Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, a risk-oriented approach to manage disasters has been adopted. Risk is a function of two arguments: hazard probability and vulnerability [1]. In order to assess flood risk, for example, aggregation of heterogeneous data acquired from multiple sources is required. Outputs from hydrological and hydraulic models make it possible to predict floods; in situ observations such as river level and flows are used for early warning and models calibration. Remote sensing observations can be effectively used for rapid mapping in case of emergencies, and can be assimilated into models. One point that is mutual for all datasets is their geospatial nature. In order to enable operational assessment of disaster risk, appropriate technology is necessary. In this paper we discuss different strategies to heterogeneous data fusion and show their application in the domain of disaster monitoring and risk assessment. In particular, two case-studies are presented. The first one focuses on the use of time-series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images to generate a maximum flood extent image for each flood event. These maps are fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI) [2]. The RFI values are compared to relative water depth generated from the LISFLOOD-FP model. The model is calibrated against the satellite-derived flood extent. The model with different combinations of Manning's parameters was run in the Grid environment at Space Research Institute NASU-SSAU [3], and the optimal set of parameters was found. It is shown that RFI and water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Therefore, it justifies the use of RFI values for risk assessment. The second case-study deals with quantitative estimation of drought risk in Ukraine based on satellite data. Drought hazard mapping is performed based on the use of vegetation health

  15. A hingeless Fc fusion system for site-specific cleavage by IdeS.

    PubMed

    Novarra, Shabazz; Grinberg, Luba; Rickert, Keith W; Barnes, Arnita; Wilson, Susan; Baca, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Fusion of proteins to the Fc region of IgG is widely used to express cellular receptors and other extracellular proteins, but cleavage of the fusion partner is sometimes required for downstream applications. Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) is a protease with exquisite specificity for human IgG, and it can also cleave Fc-fusion proteins at a single site in the N-terminal region of the CH2 domain. However, the site of IdeS cleavage results in the disulfide-linked hinge region partitioning with the released protein, complicating downstream usage of the cleaved product. To tailor the Fc fragment for release of partner proteins by IdeS treatment, we investigated the effect of deleting regions of IgG-derived sequence that are upstream of the cleavage site. Elimination of the IgG-derived hinge sequence along with several residues of the CH2 domain had negligible effects on expression and purity of the fusion protein, while retaining efficient processing by IdeS. An optimal Fc fragment comprising residues 235-447 of the human IgG1 heavy chain sufficed for efficient production of fusion proteins and minimized the amount of residual Ig-derived sequence on the cleavage product following IdeS treatment. Pairing of this truncated Fc fragment with IdeS cleavage enables highly specific cleavage of Fc-fusion proteins, thus eliminating the need to engineer extraneous cleavage sequences. This system should be helpful for producing Fc-fusion proteins requiring downstream cleavage, particularly those that are sensitive to internal miscleavage if treated with alternative proteases. PMID:27210548

  16. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility. PMID:24043410

  17. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  18. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  19. Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  20. Estimating orientation using magnetic and inertial sensors and different sensor fusion approaches: accuracy assessment in manual and locomotion tasks.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  1. New perspectives on level-four processing in data fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Garga, Amulya K.

    1999-07-01

    One of the top-level processing functions defined in the Joint Directors of Laboratories data fusion processing mode is Level 4 processing. This is a meta-process that monitors the on-going data fusion process to optimize the fusion of data. To date, two basic approaches have been used for Level 4 processing. The first approach uses classic constrained optimization methods to optimize a measure of performance of the data fusion process. The second approach treats Level 4 processing as a classical control problem, invovling dynamic sensor tasking, to meet performance objectives. Both of these approaches generally ignore the human-in-the-loop user, and treat sensor as relatively unintelligent devices. Recent development in smart sensor, improved models of dynamic sensor performance, and advances in cognitive psychology suggests that a new perspective on Level 4 processing is needed. In this paper, the concept of Level 4 processing is extended to exploit these rapid evolutions, resulting in increased performance of data fusion systems.

  2. OPERATION OF FUSION REACTORS IN ONE ATMOSPHERE OF AIR INSTEAD OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J. Reece

    2009-07-26

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  3. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF (inertial confinement fusion) reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-12

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants.

  4. Radiation-induced electrical breakdown of helium in fusion reactor superconducting magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.

    1983-12-02

    A comprehensive theoretical study has been performed on the reduction of the electrical breakdown potential of liquid and gaseous helium under neutron and gamma radiation. Extension of the conventional Townsend breakdown theory indicates that radiation fields at the superconducting magnets of a typical fusion reactor are potentially capable of significantly reducing currently established (i.e., unirradiated) helium breakdown voltages. Emphasis is given to the implications of these results including future deployment choices of magnet cryogenic methods (e.g., pool-boiling versus forced-flow), the possible impact on magnet shielding requirements and the analogous situation for radiation-induced electrical breakdown in fusion RF transmission systems.

  5. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+159Tb system: Spin distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Gupta, Sunita; Sharma, Manoj K.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the reaction modes on the basis of their entry state spin population, an experiment has been done by employing particle-γ coincidence technique carried out at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The preliminary analysis conclusively demonstrates, spin distribution for some reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 16O with 159Tb system found to be distinctly different. Further, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies indicates the possibility to populate high spin states.

  6. Reply to Comment on Shadow model for sub-barrier fusion applied to light systems' ''

    SciTech Connect

    Scalia, A. )

    1994-05-01

    This is a reply to the Comment on Shadow model for sub-barrier fusion applied to light systems.' '' We confirm the results of our paper. The claimed demonstration of the disagreement between the cross section derived from the shadow'' model and the low energy laboratory data is meaningless because it is based on a comparison which is incorrect.

  7. Enhanced protein expression in the baculovirus/insect cell system using engineered SUMO fusions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Spurrier, Joshua; Butt, Tauseef R; Strickler, James E

    2008-11-01

    Recombinant protein expression in insect cells varies greatly from protein to protein. A fusion tag that is not only a tool for detection and purification, but also enhances expression and/or solubility would greatly facilitate both structure/function studies and therapeutic protein production. We have shown that fusion of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) to several test proteins leads to enhanced expression levels in Escherichia coli. In eukaryotic expression systems, however, the SUMO tag could be cleaved by endogenous desumoylase. In order to adapt SUMO-fusion technology to these systems, we have developed an alternative SUMO-derived tag, designated SUMOstar, which is not processed by native SUMO proteases. In the present study, we tested the SUMOstar tag in a baculovirus/insect cell system with several proteins, i.e. mouse UBP43, human tryptase beta II, USP4, USP15, and GFP. Our results demonstrate that fusion to SUMOstar enhanced protein expression levels at least 4-fold compared to either the native or His(6)-tagged proteins. We isolated active SUMOstar tagged UBP43, USP4, USP15, and GFP. Tryptase was active following cleavage with a SUMOstar specific protease. The SUMOstar system will make significant impact in difficult-to-express proteins and especially to those proteins that require the native N-terminal residue for function. PMID:18713650

  8. Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1996-04-01

    The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.

  9. Analyzing cell fusion events within the central nervous system using bone marrow chimerism.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    It has emerged that cells which typically reside in the bone marrow have the capacity to cross the blood brain barrier and contribute genetic material to a range of neuronal cell types within the central nervous system. One such mechanism to account for this phenomenon is cellular fusion, occurring between migrating bone marrow-derived stem cells and neuronal cells in-situ. Biologically, the significance as to why cells from distinct lineages fuse with cells of the central nervous system is, as yet, unclear. Growing evidence however suggests that these cell fusion events could provide an efficient means of rescuing the highly complex and differentiated neuronal cell types that cannot be replaced in adulthood. To facilitate further understanding of cell fusion within the central nervous system, we describe here a technique to establish chimeric mice that are stably reconstituted with green fluorescent protein expressing sex-mismatched bone marrow. These chimeric mice are known to represent an excellent model for studying bone marrow cell migration and infiltration throughout the body, while in parallel, as will be described here, also provide a means to neatly analyze both bone marrow-derived cell fusion and trans-differentiation events within the central nervous system. PMID:25947664

  10. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  11. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  12. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  13. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  14. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  15. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  16. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  17. Immiscible fluid: Heat of fusion heat storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.; Mullins, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Both heat and mass transfer in direct contact aqueous crystallizing systems were studied as part of a program desig- ned to evaluate the feasibility of direct contact heat transfer in phase change storage using aqueous salt system. Major research areas, discussed include (1) crystal growth velocity study on selected salts; (2) selection of salt solutions; (3) selection of immiscible fluids; (4) studies of heat transfer and system geometry; and (5) system demonstration.

  18. South Dakota's State Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The South Dakota Assessment System provides information for schools to use in evaluating their teaching and curriculum as well as allowing parents to monitor their child's progress. All public schools in South Dakota test students according to South Dakota Codified Law 13-3-55, which was adopted in January 1997 and amended in January 2003. This…

  19. The risk assessment information system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.B.; Bonczek, R.R.; McGinn, C.W.; Land, M.L.; Bloom, L.D.; Sample, B.E.; Dolislager, F.G.

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to provide service-oriented environmental risk assessment expertise, the Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) and DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) are sponsoring Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a web-based system for disseminating risk tools and information to its users. This system, the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS), was initially developed to support the site-specific needs of the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program. With support from the CRE, the system is currently being expanded to benefit all DOE risk information users and can be tailored to meet site-specific needs. Taking advantage of searchable and executable databases, menu-driven queries, and data downloads, using the latest World Wide Web technologies, the RAIS offers essential tools that are used in the risk assessment process or anywhere from project scoping to implementation. The RAIS tools can be located directly at http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/homepage/rap{_}tool.htm or through the CRE`s homepage at http://www.doe.gov/riskcenter/home.html.

  20. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite data fusion for coastal zone dynamics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, L. F. V.; Ionescu Golovanov, C.; Zoran, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on fusion technique of satellite remote sensing data. The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. A newly proposed sub-pixel mapping algorithm was applied to a set of multispectral and multitemporal satellite data for Constantza and Black Sea coastal zone areas in Romania. A land cover classification and subsequent environmental quality analysis for change detection was done based on satellite images over a period of time from 1986 to 2006 , from Landsat TM , Landsat ETM, MODIS , IKONOS, Quickbird. Spectral signatures of different terrain features were used to separate and classify surface units of coastal zone and sub-coastal zone area.The change in the position of the coastline in Constantza area is examined in relation with the urban expansion. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change linked to anthropogenic and coastal erosion.

  1. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice. PMID:26122974

  2. Acrosome integrity assessment of boar spermatozoa images using an early fusion of texture and contour descriptors.

    PubMed

    García-Olalla, Oscar; Alegre, Enrique; Fernández-Robles, Laura; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of the state of the acrosome is a priority in artificial insemination centres since it is one of the main causes of function loss. In this work, boar spermatozoa present in gray scale images acquired with a phase-contrast microscope have been classified as acrosome-intact or acrosome-damaged, after using fluorescent images for creating the ground truth. Based on shape prior criteria combined with Otsu's thresholding, regional minima and watershed transform, the spermatozoa heads were segmented and registered. One of the main novelties of this proposal is that, unlike what previous works stated, the obtained results show that the contour information of the spermatozoon head is important for improving description and classification. Other of this work novelties is that it confirms that combining different texture descriptors and contour descriptors yield the best classification rates for this problem up to date. The classification was performed with a Support Vector Machine backed by a Least Squares training algorithm and a linear kernel. Using the biggest acrosome intact-damaged dataset ever created, the early fusion approach followed provides a 0.9913 F-Score, outperforming all previous related works. PMID:25887848

  3. Operational System-Impact Products for the Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSBX) and the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC/WXT) have combined efforts under the Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D). The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation provides a general overview of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2007-2008.

  4. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  5. Fusion metrics for dynamic situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Pribilski, Mike; Daughtery, Bryan; Roscoe, Brian; Gunsett, Josh

    2004-08-01

    To design information fusion systems, it is important to develop metrics as part of a test and evaluation strategy. In many cases, fusion systems are designed to (1) meet a specific set of user information needs (IN), (2) continuously validate information pedigree and updates, and (3) maintain this performance under changing conditions. A fusion system"s performance is evaluated in many ways. However, developing a consistent set of metrics is important for standardization. For example, many track and identification metrics have been proposed for fusion analysis. To evaluate a complete fusion system performance, level 4 sensor management and level 5 user refinement metrics need to be developed simultaneously to determine whether or not the fusion system is meeting information needs. To describe fusion performance, the fusion community needs to agree on a minimum set of metrics for user assessment and algorithm comparison. We suggest that such a minimum set should include feasible metrics of accuracy, confidence, throughput, timeliness, and cost. These metrics can be computed as confidence (probability), accuracy (error), timeliness (delay), throughput (amount) and cost (dollars). In this paper, we explore an aggregate set of metrics for fusion evaluation and demonstrate with information need metrics for dynamic situation analysis.

  6. Priority depth fusion for the 2D to 3D conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Wei-Yin; Chang, Jing-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Min; Lee, Chia-Lin; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2008-02-01

    For the sake of providing 3D contents for up-coming 3D display devices, a real-time automatic depth fusion 2D-to-3D conversion system is needed on the home multimedia platform. We proposed a priority depth fusion algorithm with a 2D-to-3D conversion system which generates the depth map from most of the commercial video sequences. The results from different kinds of depth reconstruction methods are integrated into one depth map by the proposed priority depth fusion algorithm. Then the depth map and the original 2D image are converted to stereo images for showing on the 3D display devices. In this paper, a 2D-to-3D conversion algorithm set is combined with the proposed depth fusion algorithm to show the improved results. With the converted 3D contents, the needs for 3D display devices will also increase. As long as the two technologies evolve, the 3D-TV era will come as soon as possible.

  7. Assessment of Residential GSHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2010-09-01

    This report first briefly reviews geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology and the current status of the GHP industry in the United States. Then it assesses the potential national benefits, in terms of energy savings, reduced summer peak electrical demand, consumer energy cost savings, and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions from retrofitting the space heating, space cooling, and water heating systems in existing U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems. The investment for retrofitting typical U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems is also analyzed using the metrics of net present value and levelized cost.

  8. Evaluation techniques and metrics for assessment of pan+MSI fusion (pansharpening)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercovich, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Fusion of broadband panchromatic data with narrow band multispectral data - pansharpening - is a common and often studied problem in remote sensing. Many methods exist to produce data fusion results with the best possible spatial and spectral characteristics, and a number have been commercially implemented. This study examines the output products of 4 commercial implementations with regard to their relative strengths and weaknesses for a set of defined image characteristics and analyst use-cases. Image characteristics used are spatial detail, spatial quality, spectral integrity, and composite color quality (hue and saturation), and analyst use-cases included a variety of object detection and identification tasks. The imagery comes courtesy of the RIT SHARE 2012 collect. Two approaches are used to evaluate the pansharpening methods, analyst evaluation or qualitative measure and image quality metrics or quantitative measures. Visual analyst evaluation results are compared with metric results to determine which metrics best measure the defined image characteristics and product use-cases and to support future rigorous characterization the metrics' correlation with the analyst results. Because pansharpening represents a trade between adding spatial information from the panchromatic image, and retaining spectral information from the MSI channels, the metrics examined are grouped into spatial improvement metrics and spectral preservation metrics. A single metric to quantify the quality of a pansharpening method would necessarily be a combination of weighted spatial and spectral metrics based on the importance of various spatial and spectral characteristics for the primary task of interest. Appropriate metrics and weights for such a combined metric are proposed here, based on the conducted analyst evaluation. Additionally, during this work, a metric was developed specifically focused on assessment of spatial structure improvement relative to a reference image and

  9. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  10. TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Can the future world energy system be free of nuclear fusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putvinskii, Sergei V.

    1998-11-01

    The available information on the dynamics of world population growth as well as global statistical data on today's energy production, consumption and distribution are presented. Natural restrictions on the modern world's fossil combustion energy system are discussed along with possible climatic and biospherical impacts for its part. Alternative energy sources capable of replacing the existing energy system are considered and prospects for controllable nuclear fusion are discussed.

  11. Fusion-based, high-volume automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Reisman, James G.

    1994-02-01

    Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) provide a means for non-manual fingerprint database searches. Future AFIS applications demand greater fingerprint match request throughput, and for larger fingerprint databases. Barriers to the implementation of a high volume AFIS are analyzed. Data-fusion methods are proposed as a method to maximize integration of fingerprint feature information with limited computational resources. Preliminary results from a prototype AFIS system are presented.

  12. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  13. Mirror fusion test facility magnet system. Final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Hodges, A.J.; VanSant, J.H.; Dalder, E.N.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Scanlan, R.M.; Shimer, D.W.; Baldi, R.W.; Tatro, R.E.

    1980-09-03

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) magnet description, (2) superconducting manufacture, (3) mechanical behavior of conductor winding, (4) coil winding, (5) thermal analysis, (6) cryogenic system, (7) power supply system, (8) structural analysis, (9) structural finite element analysis refinement, (10) structural case fault analysis, and (11) structural metallurgy. (MOW)

  14. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  15. Knowledge-based imaging-sensor fusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrom, George

    1989-01-01

    An imaging system which applies knowledge-based technology to supervise and control both sensor hardware and computation in the imaging system is described. It includes the development of an imaging system breadboard which brings together into one system work that we and others have pursued for LaRC for several years. The goal is to combine Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Knowledge-Based Processing and also include Neural Net processing. The system is considered a smart camera. Imagine that there is a microgravity experiment on-board Space Station Freedom with a high frame rate, high resolution camera. All the data cannot possibly be acquired from a laboratory on Earth. In fact, only a small fraction of the data will be received. Again, imagine being responsible for some experiments on Mars with the Mars Rover: the data rate is a few kilobits per second for data from several sensors and instruments. Would it not be preferable to have a smart system which would have some human knowledge and yet follow some instructions and attempt to make the best use of the limited bandwidth for transmission. The system concept, current status of the breadboard system and some recent experiments at the Mars-like Amboy Lava Fields in California are discussed.

  16. Modular System for Neutronics Calculations of Fission Reactors, Fusion Blankets, and Other Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-23

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energymore » deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations.« less

  17. Optimization of parasitic isolators in laser fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, J.F.; Phipps, C.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of model calculations for the optimization of the efficiency of high-gain amplifier systems stabilized by saturable absorbers are described. It is shown that the isolator performance can be characterized by a convenient figure of merit.

  18. Rapamycin-induced oligomer formation system of FRB-FKBP fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Inobe, Tomonao; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin. By adjusting the configuration of fusion proteins, we succeeded in generating an inducible tetramer formation system. Proteins of interest also formed tetramers by fusing to the inducible tetramer formation system, which exhibits its utility in a broad range of biological applications. PMID:26777239

  19. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements.

    PubMed

    Krzysztof, Naus; Aleksander, Nowak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line) system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy-PNA) are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning. PMID:27537884

  20. Novel, spherically-convergent ion systems for neutron source and fusion energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Ribe, F. L.; Schauer, M. M.; Schranck, L. S.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1999-06-01

    Combining spherical convergence with electrostatic or electro-magnetostatic confinement of a nonneutral plasma offers the possibility of high fusion gain in a centimeter-sized system. The physics principles, scaling laws, and experimental embodiments of this approach are presented. Steps to development of this approach from its present proof-of-principle experiments to a useful fusion power reactor are outlined. This development path is much less expensive and simpler, compared to that for conventional magnetic confinement and leads to different and useful products at each stage. Reactor projections show both high mass power density and low to moderate wall loading. This approach is being tested experimentally in PFX-I (Penning Fusion eXperiment-Ions), which is based on the following recent advances: 1) Demonstration, in PFX (our former experiment), that it is possible to combine nonneutral electron plasma confinement with nonthermal, spherical focussing; 2) Theoretical development of the POPS (Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere) concept, which allows spherical compression of thermal-equilibrium ions; 3) The concept of a massively-modular approach to fusion power, and associated elimination of the critical problem of extremely high first wall loading. PFX-I is described. PFX-I is being designed as a small (<1.5 cm) spherical system into which moderate-energy electrons (up to 100 kV) are injected. These electrons are magnetically insulated from passing to the sphere and their space charge field is then used to spherically focus ions. Results of initial operation with electrons only are presented. Deuterium operation can produce significant neutron output with unprecedented efficiency (fusion gain Q).

  1. Overcoming adverse weather conditions with a common optical path, multiple sensors, and intelligent image fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Joseph; Piacentino, Michael; Caldwell, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Mission success is highly dependent on the ability to accomplish Surveillance, Situation Awareness, Target Detection and Classification, but is challenging under adverse weather conditions. This paper introduces an engineering prototype to address the image collection challenges using a Common Optical Path, Multiple Sensors and an Intelligent Image Fusion System, and provides illustrations and sample fusion images. Panavision's advanced wide spectrum optical design has permitted a suite of imagers to perform observations through a common optical path with a common field of view, thereby aligning images and facilitating optimized downstream image processing. The adaptable design also supports continuous zoom or Galilean lenses for multiple field of views. The Multiple Sensors include: (1) High-definition imaging sensors that are small, have low power consumption and a wide dynamic range; (2) EMCCD sensors that transition from daylight to starlight, even under poor weather conditions, with sensitivity down to 0.00025 Lux; and (3) SWIR sensors that, with the advancement in InGaAs, are able to generate ultra-high sensitivity images from 1-1.7μm reflective light and can achieve imaging through haze and some types of camouflage. The intelligent fusion of multiple sensors provides high-resolution color information with previously impossible sensitivity and contrast. With the integration of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), real-time Image Processing and Fusion Algorithms can facilitate mission success in a small, low power package.

  2. Fusion of neutron-rich systems using time-dependent density-constrained DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberacker, Volker; Umar, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    In connection with experiments at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities, we study fusion reactions with a new approach [1] which is based on a time-dependent density-constrained density functional theory (DFT). The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We calculate heavy-ion interaction potentials V(R), mass parameters M(R), and total fusion cross sections. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Results will be presented for low-energy fusion reactions of ^12C+^16,24O and for ^16,24O+^16,24,28O which occur in the crust of neutron stars [2]. Finally, we will discuss fusion with neutron-rich halo nuclei, in particular ^11Li+^208Pb.[4pt] [1] Umar and Oberacker, PRC 74, 021601(R) (2006)[0pt] [2] Umar, Oberacker, and Horowitz, PRC 85, 055801 (2012)

  3. Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-11-05

    This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns.

  4. Large distributed control system using ADA in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, J. P., LLNL

    1998-04-21

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a large distributed control system constructed using object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers that run software written in Ada and communicating through CORBA. The project has completed its final design review; implementation of the first of five planned increments will be delivered at the end of fiscal year 1998. Preliminary measures of the distributed controls performance confirm the design decisions reported in this paper, and the measurement and supporting simulation of full system performance continue.

  5. Accuracy assessment system and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Houston, A. G.; Badhwar, G.; Bender, M. J.; Rader, M. L.; Eppler, W. G.; Ahlers, C. W.; White, W. P.; Vela, R. R.; Hsu, E. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy and reliability of LACIE estimates of wheat production, area, and yield is determined at regular intervals throughout the year by the accuracy assessment subsystem which also investigates the various LACIE error sources, quantifies the errors, and relates then to their causes. Timely feedback of these error evaluations to the LACIE project was the only mechanism by which improvements in the crop estimation system could be made during the short 3 year experiment.

  6. The Physics Design for a Fusion Driven Sub-critical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Wu

    2002-11-01

    The Fusion Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is a sub-critical nuclear energy system drive by fusion neutron source, which provides a feasible, safe, economic and highly efficient potential of disposing High Level Waste (HLW) and produce fission nuclear fuel as a early application of fusion technology. This paper reviews the past physics reactor design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor in China, and a low aspect ratio tokamak energy system that has been proposed, which aims at high β, good confinement, and steady-state operation in a compact configuration at modest field. The system includes a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, a radioactivity clean nuclear power system as blanket and novel concept of liquid metal conductor as centre conductor post. Parameters of such kind reactor are the following. Major radius 1.4m, Minor radius 1m, plasma current 9.2MA, Toroidal field 2.5T, Plasma edge q=5, Average density 1.6 10^20m^3, Average temperature 10keV, Plasma volume 50m^3, Bootstrap current fraction 0.72, Fusion power 100MW, Drive power 28MW, Neutron wall loading 1.0MW/m-2. The plasma configuration is an important part in the low-A tokamak. The Eq code has been used to get a equilibrium. From this calculation, we have found a simple set of PF coils that satisfies the requirements of the large elongation plasma configuration and a vertical field with less curve field lines in the low-A tokamak. The natural elongation can be attributed mostly to differences in the current density profile. In order to determine the feasibility of the low-A tokamak operation, a transient simulation has been made which includes the equilibrium, transport and plasma position shape control in the low-A tokamak. A 1-1/2 equilibrium evolution code has been used to make this simulation. The code is two-dimensional time dependent free boundary simulation code that advances the MHD equations describing the transport time-scale evolution of a axisymmetric tokamak plasma.

  7. Nuclear weapon system risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.

    1993-11-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400, {sup 1} in which the risks of nuclear power accidents were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Recently, these techniques have begun to be adapted to nuclear weapon system applications. This report discusses this application to nuclear weapon systems.

  8. Unique sensor fusion system for coordinate-measuring machine tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashman, Marilyn; Yoshimi, Billibon; Hong, Tsai Hong; Rippey, William G.; Herman, Martin

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a real-time hierarchical system that fuses data from vision and touch sensors to improve the performance of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) used for dimensional inspection tasks. The system consists of sensory processing, world modeling, and task decomposition modules. It uses the strengths of each sensor -- the precision of the CMM scales and the analog touch probe and the global information provided by the low resolution camera -- to improve the speed and flexibility of the inspection task. In the experiment described, the vision module performs all computations in image coordinate space. The part's boundaries are extracted during an initialization process and then the probe's position is continuously updated as it scans and measures the part surface. The system fuses the estimated probe velocity and distance to the part boundary in image coordinates with the estimated velocity and probe position provided by the CMM controller. The fused information provides feedback to the monitor controller as it guides the touch probe to scan the part. We also discuss integrating information from the vision system and the probe to autonomously collect data for 2-D to 3-D calibration, and work to register computer aided design (CAD) models with images of parts in the workplace.

  9. Wrap-Around Out-the-Window Sensor Fusion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Boe, Eric A.; Delgado, Francisco; Secor, James B.; Clark, Michael R.; Ehlinger, Kevin D.; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Cockpit Evaluation System (ACES) includes communication, computing, and display subsystems, mounted in a van, that synthesize out-the-window views to approximate the views of the outside world as it would be seen from the cockpit of a crewed spacecraft, aircraft, or remote control of a ground vehicle or UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The system includes five flat-panel display units arranged approximately in a semicircle around an operator, like cockpit windows. The scene displayed on each panel represents the view through the corresponding cockpit window. Each display unit is driven by a personal computer equipped with a video-capture card that accepts live input from any of a variety of sensors (typically, visible and/or infrared video cameras). Software running in the computers blends the live video images with synthetic images that could be generated, for example, from heads-up-display outputs, waypoints, corridors, or from satellite photographs of the same geographic region. Data from a Global Positioning System receiver and an inertial navigation system aboard the remote vehicle are used by the ACES software to keep the synthetic and live views in registration. If the live image were to fail, the synthetic scenes could still be displayed to maintain situational awareness.

  10. System and method for cognitive processing for data fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system and method for cognitive processing of sensor data. A processor array receiving analog sensor data and having programmable interconnects, multiplication weights, and filters provides for adaptive learning in real-time. A static random access memory contains the programmable data for the processor array and the stored data is modified to provide for adaptive learning.

  11. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  12. Assessment of protein domain fusions in human protein interaction networks prediction: application to the human kinetochore model.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Ian; Lees, Jon G; Reid, Adam J; Orengo, Christine; Ranea, Juan A G

    2010-12-31

    In order to understand how biological systems function it is necessary to determine the interactions and associations between proteins. Some proteins, involved in a common biological process and encoded by separate genes in one organism, can be found fused within a single protein chain in other organisms. By detecting these triplets, a functional relationship can be established between the unfused proteins. Here we use a domain fusion prediction method to predict these protein interactions for the human interactome. We observed that gene fusion events are more related to physical interaction between proteins than to other weaker functional relationships such as participation in a common biological pathway. These results suggest that domain fusion is an appropriate method for predicting protein complexes. The most reliable fused domain predictions were used to build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. These predicted PPI network models showed the same topological features as real biological networks and different features from random behaviour. We built the PPI domain fusion sub-network model of the human kinetochore and observed that the majority of the predicted interactions have not yet been experimentally characterised in the publicly available PPI repositories. The study of the human kinetochore domain fusion sub-network reveals undiscovered kinetochore proteins with presumably relevant functions, such as hubs with many connections in the kinetochore sub-network. These results suggest that experimentally hidden regions in the predicted PPI networks contain key functional elements, associated with important functional areas, still undiscovered in the human interactome. Until novel experiments shed light on these hidden regions; domain fusion predictions provide a valuable approach for exploring them. PMID:20851221

  13. Data fusion concept in multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurapiński, Wieslaw; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marek; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Piszczek, Marek

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play" architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.

  14. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  15. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is limited and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical working experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, it is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium alloy option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  16. Real-time Enhancement, Registration, and Fusion for a Multi-Sensor Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) to aid pilots while flying in poor visibility conditions. The EVS captures imagery using two infrared video cameras. The cameras are placed in an enclosure that is mounted and flown forward-looking underneath the NASA LaRC ARIES 757 aircraft. The data streams from the cameras are processed in real-time and displayed on monitors on-board the aircraft. With proper processing the camera system can provide better-than- human-observed imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. However, to obtain this goal requires several different stages of processing including enhancement, registration, and fusion, and specialized processing hardware for real-time performance. We are using a real-time implementation of the Retinex algorithm for image enhancement, affine transformations for registration, and weighted sums to perform fusion. All of the algorithms are executed on a single TI DM642 digital signal processor (DSP) clocked at 720 MHz. The image processing components were added to the EVS system, tested, and demonstrated during flight tests in August and September of 2005. In this paper we briefly discuss the EVS image processing hardware and algorithms. We then discuss implementation issues and show examples of the results obtained during flight tests. Keywords: enhanced vision system, image enhancement, retinex, digital signal processing, sensor fusion

  17. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Santarius, John; Percy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  18. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  19. Implementing Management Systems-Based Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, John A.; Reese, Robert T.

    1999-05-03

    A management system approach for evaluating environment, safety, health, and quality is in use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. As a multi-program national laboratory, SNL has many diverse operations including research, engineering development and applications, production, and central services supporting all activities and operations. Basic research examples include fusion power generation, nuclear reactor experiments, and investigation of combustion processes. Engineering development examples are design, testing, and prototype developments of micro-mechanical systems for safe'~arding computer systems, air bags for automobiles, satellite systems, design of transportation systems for nuclear materials, and systems for use in medical applications such as diagnostics and surgery. Production operations include manufacture of instrumented detection devices, radioisotopes, and replacement parts for previously produced engineered systems. Support services include facilities engineering, construction, and site management, site security, packaging and transportation of hazardous materials wastes, ES&H functional programs to establish requirements and guidance to comply with federal, state, local, and contractual requirements and work safety. In this diverse environment, unlike more traditional single function business units, an integrated consistent management system is not typical. Instead, each type of diverse activity has its own management system designed and distributed around the operations, personnel, customers, and facilities (e.g., hazards involved, security, regulatory requirements, and locations). Laboratory managers are not likely to have experience in the more traditional hierarchical or command and control structures and thus do not share oversight expectations found in centralized

  20. The Application of Data Fusion Technology Based on Neural Network in the Dynamic Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Dan, Ni Yang; Yingc, Wang

    As As electric network being intelligent, risk assessment of power information system has faced with a lot of hidde dangers of information security. Based on diversified tools for network security management, this paper proposes to fuses a variety of information sources and then output the results of classification. This method provides information of credible threat and vulnerabilities.

  1. Research and Development of Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Toku, Hisayuki; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Imoto, Masaki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Hotta, Eiki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Okino, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masato; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Yuura, Morimasa; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2005-05-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion). Landmines are to be identified through backscattering of neutrons, and specific-energy capture {gamma}-rays by hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the landmine explosives.For this purpose, improvements in the IECF were made by various methods to achieve a drastic enhancement of neutron yields of more than 10{sup 8} n/s in pulsed operation. This required R and D on the power source, as well as analysis of envisaged detection systems with multi-sensors. The results suggest promising and practical features for humanitarian landmine detection, particularly, in Afghanistan.

  2. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  3. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  4. Magnetic mirror fusion-fission early history and applicability to other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R

    2009-08-24

    In the mid 1970s to mid 1980s the mirror program was stuck with a concept, the Standard Mirror that was Q {approx} 1 where Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub injection}. Heroic efforts were put into hybridizing thinking added energy and fuel sales would make a commercial product. At the same time the tokamak was thought to allow ignition and ultrahigh Q values of 20 or even higher. There was an effort to use neutral beams to drive the tokamak just like the mirror machines were driven in which case the Q value plunged to a few, however this was thought to be achievable decades earlier than the high Q versions. Meanwhile current drive and other features of the tokamak have seen the projected Q values come down to the range of 10. Meanwhile the mirror program got Q enhancement into high gear and various tandem mirrors projected Q values up towards 10 and with advanced features over 10 with axi-symmetric magnets (See R. F. Post papers), however the experimental program is all but non-existent. Meanwhile, the gas dynamic trap mirror system which is present day state-of-the-art can with low risk produce Q of {approx}0.1 useful for a low risk, low cost neutron source for materials development useful for the development of materials for all fusion concepts (see Simonen white paper: 'A Physics-Based Strategy to Develop a Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid' and D.D. Ryutov, 'Axisymmetric MHD-stable mirror as a neutron source and a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid'). Many early hybrid designs with multi-disciplinary teams were carried out in great detail for the mirror system with its axi-symmetric blanket modules. It is recognized that most of these designs are adaptable to tokamak or inertial fusion geometry. When Q is low (1 to 2) economics gives a large economic penalty for high recirculating power. These early studies covered the three design types: Power production, fuel production and waste burning. All three had their place but power production fell away because every study showed

  5. Fusion Reactions of Superheavy and Giant Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Walter; Zagrebaev, Valery

    2007-05-22

    The problem of production and study of superheavy elements is discussed in the talk. Different nuclear reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are analyzed. Collisions of transactinide nuclei are investigated as an alternative way for production of neutron-rich superheavy elements. In many events lifetime of the composite giant nuclear system consisting of two touching nuclei turns out to be rather long ({>=} 10-20 s); sufficient for observing line structure in spontaneous positron emission from super-strong electric fields, a fundamental QED process.

  6. Sensor Fusion for a Network of Processes/Systems with Highly Autonomous Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Yuan, Xiao-Jing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed sensor-data-fusion paradigm and theory based on a previously developed theory to model sensors as highly autonomous units. Generic procedures are defined to reason and make decisions at the qualitative level. This facilitates distribution of intelligence ( code and hardware) to the sensor level and peer-to-peer communication among sensors, controllers, and other devices in the system.

  7. Data fusion for compensation of temperature variations in Lamb-wave based SHM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworakowski, Ziemowit; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Temperature variations affect Lamb wave propagation and therefore in this way they can severely limit application of baseline signals in SHM systems. Various techniques are proposed in the paper to solve this problem. New method based on an interpretation of multiple signals acquired in distinct points of the structure is introduced and compared with other widely used approaches. Data fusion is used to merge a number of methods into one with a substantially increased efficiency.

  8. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  9. Sub-Barrier Fusion Calculations for the {sup 9}Li+{sup 70}Zn System

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A. B.; Kocak, G.

    2008-11-11

    Sub-barrier fusion cross sections for the {sup 9}Li+{sup 70}Zn system are analyzed within the framework of the coupled channels model. We find that inclusion of the inelastic and one-neutron transfer channels in the coupled-channels calculations fails to reproduce the data. We find that possible formation of a molecular bond accompanied by two-neutron transfer may account for the observed behavior.

  10. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  11. High yield expression of catalytically active USP18 (UBP43) using a Trigger Factor fusion system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Covalent linkage of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 interferes with viral infection and USP18 is the major protease which specifically removes ISG15 from target proteins. Thus, boosting ISG15 modification by protease inhibition of USP18 might represent a new strategy to interfere with viral replication. However, so far no heterologous expression system was available to yield sufficient amounts of catalytically active protein for high-throughput based inhibitor screens. Results High-level heterologous expression of USP18 was achieved by applying a chaperone-based fusion system in E. coli. Pure protein was obtained in a single-step on IMAC via a His6-tag. The USP18 fusion protein exhibited enzymatic activity towards cell derived ISG15 conjugated substrates and efficiently hydrolyzed ISG15-AMC. Specificity towards ISG15 was shown by covalent adduct formation with ISG15 vinyl sulfone but not with ubiquitin vinyl sulfone. Conclusion The results presented here show that a chaperone fusion system can provide high yields of proteins that are difficult to express. The USP18 protein obtained here is suited to setup high-throughput small molecule inhibitor screens and forms the basis for detailed biochemical and structural characterization. PMID:22916876

  12. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boon-Giin; Chung, Wan-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring. PMID:23247416

  13. Inertial and optical sensor fusion to compensate for partial occlusions in surgical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changyu; Liu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    To solve the occlusion problem in optical tracking system (OTS) for surgical navigation, this paper proposes a sensor fusion approach and an adaptive display method to handle cases where partial or total occlusion occurs. In the sensor fusion approach, the full 6D pose information provided by the optical tracker is used to estimate the bias of the inertial sensors when all of the markers are visible. When partial occlusion occurs, the optical system can track the position of at least one marker which can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6D pose information. When all the markers are invisible, the position tracking will be realized based on outputs of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which may generate increasing drifting error. To alert the user when the drifting error is great enough to influence the navigation, the images adaptive to the drifting error are displayed in the field of the user's view. The experiments are performed with an augmented reality HMD which displays the AR images and the hybrid tracking system (HTS) which consists of an OTS and an IMU. Experimental result shows that with proposed sensor fusion approach the 6D pose of the head with respect to the reference frame can be estimated even under partial occlusion conditions. With the help of the proposed adaptive display method, the users can recover the scene of markers when the error is considered to be relatively high.

  14. RACC Code System for Computing Radioactivity-Related Parameters for Fusion Reactor Systems Modified for Pulsed/Intermittent Activation Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-30

    Version 00 CCC-388/RACC was specifically developed to compute the radioactivity and radioactivity-related parameters (e.g., afterheat, biological hazard potential, etc.) due to neutron activation within Inertial Fusion Energy and Magnetic Fusion Energy reactor systems. It can also be utilized to compute the radioactivity in fission, accelerator or any other neutron generating and neutron source system. This new version designated RACC-PULSE is based on CCC-388 and has the capability to model irradiation histories of varying flux levelsmore » having varying pulse widths (on times) and dwell periods (off times) and varying maintenance periods. This provides the user with the flexibility of modeling most any complexity of irradiation history beginning with simple steady state operating systems to complex multi-flux level pulse/intermittent operating systems.« less

  15. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE/sub 0,2/) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE/sub 15,2/), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE/sub 0,1/ mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs.

  16. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  17. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Mori, Yoshitaka; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  18. Reconstitution of vesicle fusions occurring in endocytosis with a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Gruenberg, J E; Howell, K E

    1986-01-01

    We have used defined subcellular fractions to reconstitute in a cell-free system vesicle fusions occurring in the endocytic pathway. The endosomal fractions were prepared by immuno-isolation using as antigen an epitope located on a foreign protein, the transmembrane glycoprotein G (G-protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus. The G-protein was first implanted in the cell plasma membrane and subsequently endocytosed for 15 to 30 min at 37 degrees C. The endosomal fractions were immuno-isolated on a solid support using as antigen the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein in combination with a specific monoclonal antibody. For comparative studies the plasma membrane was immuno-isolated from cells in the absence of G internalization with a monoclonal antibody against the exoplasmic domain of the G-protein. The immuno-isolated endosomal vesicles contained 70% of horseradish peroxidase internalized in the endosome fluid phase, exhibited an acidic luminal pH as shown by acridine orange fluorescence and differed in their protein composition from the immuno-isolated plasma membrane fraction. The fusion of endocytic vesicles originating from different stages of the pathway was studied in a cell-free assay using both a bio-chemical and a morphological detection system. These well defined endosomal vesicles were immuno-isolated with the G-protein on the solid support and provided the recipient compartment of the fusion (acceptor). They were mixed with a post-nuclear supernatant containing endosomes loaded with exogenous lactoperoxidase (donor) at 37 degrees C. Fusion delivered the donor peroxidase to the lumen of acceptor vesicles permitting fusion-specific iodination of the G-protein itself. The fusion of vesicles required ATP and was detected only with an endosomal fraction prepared after internalization of the G-protein for 15 min at 37 degrees C but not with a plasma membrane or with an endosomal fraction prepared after 30 min G-protein internalization. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2

  19. Tactical multisensor fusion (TMSF): an SAIC white paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert D.; Short, Robert; Stewart, Clayton V.

    1999-07-01

    A software application for correlating and fusion information products from multiple dissimilar sensors is presented. The Tactical Multi Sensor Fusion (TMSF) system is a C++ object oriented application implementing data correlation and fusion algorithms which provide decision aids for identifying, locating, and determining the status of processing equipment within suspected weapons of mass destruction sites. The TMSF system also provides valuable information for assessing weapon delivery accuracy and effectiveness.

  20. Near-barrier fusion of Sn+Ni and Te+Ni Systems: Examining the influence of neutron transfer couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J Felix; Kohley, Zachary W; Shapira, Dan; Varner Jr, Robert L; Gross, Carl J; Allmond, J M; Lagergren, Karin B; Mueller, Paul Edward

    2011-01-01

    The fusion excitation functions for radioactive 132Sn+58Ni and stable 130Te+58;64Ni were measured at energies near the Coulomb barrier. The role of transfer couplings in heavy-ion fusion was examined through a comparison of Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems, which have large variations in the number of positive Q-value nucleon transfer channels. In contrast with previous comparisons, where increased sub-barrier fusion cross sections were observed in the systems with positive Q-value neutron transfer channels, the reduced excitation functions were equivalent for the different Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems. The present results suggest a significant change in the influence of transfer couplings on the fusion process for the Sn+Ni and Te+Ni systems.

  1. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. A description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies is presented.

  2. SUMO fusion technology for enhanced protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    PubMed

    Panavas, Tadas; Sanders, Carsten; Butt, Tauseef R

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the reversible attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein is a post-translational modification that has been demonstrated to play an important role in various cellular processes. Moreover, it has been found that SUMO as an N-terminal fusion partner enhances functional protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, based upon significantly improved protein stability and solubility. Following the expression and purification of the fusion protein, the SUMO-tag can be cleaved by specific (SUMO) proteases via their endopeptidase activity in vitro to generate the desired N-terminus of the released protein partner. In addition to its physiological relevance in eukaryotes, SUMO can, thus, be used as a powerful biotechnological tool for protein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems.In this chapter, we will describe the construction of a fusion protein with the SUMO-tag, its expression in Escherichia coli, and its purification followed by the removal of the SUMO-tag by a SUMO-specific protease in vitro. PMID:19107426

  3. An Efficient Genome-Wide Fusion Partner Screening System for Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Hyun Sung, Bong; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Soon-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Mook; Kim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To produce rarely secreted recombinant proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed a novel genome-wide optimal translational fusion partner (TFP) screening system that involves recruitment of an optimal secretion signal and fusion partner. A TFP library was constructed from a genomic and truncated cDNA library by using the invertase-based signal sequence trap technique. The efficiency of the system was demonstrated using two rarely secreted proteins, human interleukin (hIL)-2 and hIL-32. Optimal TFPs for secretion of hIL-2 and hIL-32 were easily selected, yielding secretion of these proteins up to hundreds of mg/L. Moreover, numerous uncovered yeast secretion signals and fusion partners were identified, leading to efficient secretion of various recombinant proteins. Selected TFPs were found to be useful for the hypersecretion of other recombinant proteins at yields of up to several g/L. This screening technique could provide new methods for the production of various types of difficult-to-express proteins. PMID:26195161

  4. A new in vitro hemagglutinin inhibitor screening system based on a single-vesicle fusion assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanki; Jin, Wook; Jeong, Byeong-Chul; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) from the influenza virus plays a pivotal role in the infection of host mammalian cells and is, therefore, a druggable target, similar to neuraminidase. However, research involving the influenza virus must be conducted in facilities certified at or above Biosafety Level 2 because of the potential threat of the contagiousness of this virus. To develop a new HA inhibitor screening system without intact influenza virus, we conceived a single-vesicle fusion assay using full-length recombinant HA. In this study, we first showed that full-length recombinant HA can mediate membrane fusion in ensemble and single-vesicle fusion assays. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) frequency pattern of single-vesicle complexes completely differed when the inhibitors targeted the HA1 or HA2 domain of HA. This result indicates that analysing the FRET patterns in this assay can provide information regarding the domains of HA inhibited by compounds and compounds' inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the assay developed here is a promising tool for the discovery of anti-influenza virus drug candidates as a new in vitro inhibitor screening system against HA from the influenza virus. PMID:27469068

  5. A new in vitro hemagglutinin inhibitor screening system based on a single-vesicle fusion assay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanki; Jin, Wook; Jeong, Byeong-Chul; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) from the influenza virus plays a pivotal role in the infection of host mammalian cells and is, therefore, a druggable target, similar to neuraminidase. However, research involving the influenza virus must be conducted in facilities certified at or above Biosafety Level 2 because of the potential threat of the contagiousness of this virus. To develop a new HA inhibitor screening system without intact influenza virus, we conceived a single-vesicle fusion assay using full-length recombinant HA. In this study, we first showed that full-length recombinant HA can mediate membrane fusion in ensemble and single-vesicle fusion assays. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) frequency pattern of single-vesicle complexes completely differed when the inhibitors targeted the HA1 or HA2 domain of HA. This result indicates that analysing the FRET patterns in this assay can provide information regarding the domains of HA inhibited by compounds and compounds’ inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the assay developed here is a promising tool for the discovery of anti-influenza virus drug candidates as a new in vitro inhibitor screening system against HA from the influenza virus. PMID:27469068

  6. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Lai, J; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C

    2014-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T(e) and n(e) fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ~60,000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50-75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60,000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained. PMID:24689579

  7. Recording system and data fusion algorithm for enhancing the estimation of the respiratory rate from photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Roxana A; Ciorecan, Silvia I; Ungureanu, Constantin; Arends, Johan; Strungaru, Rodica; Ungureanu, G Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    The respiratory rate is a vital parameter that can provide valuable information about the health condition of a patient. The extraction of respiratory information from photoplethysmographic signal (PPG) was actually encouraged by the reported results, our main goal being to obtain accurate respiratory rate estimation from the PPG signal. We developed a fusion algorithm that identifies the best derived respiratory signals, from which is possible to extract the respiratory rate; based on these, a global respiratory rate is computed using the proposed fusion algorithm. The algorithm is qualitatively tested on real PPG signals recorded by an acquisition system we implemented, using a reflection pulse oximeter sensor. Its performance is also statistically evaluated using benchmark dataset publically available from CapnoBase.Org. PMID:26737653

  8. An experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, D. W.; Humphreys, R. C.; Emmons, S. P.; Zimmermann, U.; Gessner, P.; Klinman, N. R.; Neil, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on lymphocyte activation is central to the understanding of immunological function in space. Moreover, the adaptation of ground-based technologies to microgravity conditions presents opportunities for biotechnological applications including high efficiency production of antibody forming hybridomas. Because the emerging technology of microgravity hybridoma generation is dependent upon activation and cultivation of B lymphocytes during flight, mitogen-driven B lymphocyte stimulation and culture were adapted that allow for the in vitro generation of large numbers of antibody forming cells suitable for cell fusion over a period of 1-2 weeks. It is believed that this activation and cultivation system can be flown on near-term space flights to test fundamental hypotheses about mammalian cell activation, cell fusion, metabolism, secretion, growth, and bioseparation.

  9. A motorized ultrasound system for MRI-ultrasound fusion guided prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifabadi, Reza; Xu, Sheng; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: This study presents MoTRUS, a motorized transrectal ultrasound system, to enable remote navigation of a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe during da Vinci assisted prostatectomy. MoTRUS not only provides a stable platform to the ultrasound probe, but also allows the physician to navigate it remotely while sitting on the da Vinci console. This study also presents phantom feasibility study with the goal being intraoperative MRI-US image fusion capability to bring preoperative MR images to the operating room for the best visualization of the gland, boundaries, nerves, etc. Method: A two degree-of-freedom probe holder is developed to insert and rotate a bi-plane transrectal ultrasound transducer. A custom joystick is made to enable remote navigation of MoTRUS. Safety features have been considered to avoid inadvertent risks (if any) to the patient. Custom design software has been developed to fuse pre-operative MR images to intraoperative ultrasound images acquired by MoTRUS. Results: Remote TRUS probe navigation was evaluated on a patient after taking required consents during prostatectomy using MoTRUS. It took 10 min to setup the system in OR. MoTRUS provided similar capability in addition to remote navigation and stable imaging. No complications were observed. Image fusion was evaluated on a commercial prostate phantom. Electromagnetic tracking was used for the fusion. Conclusions: Motorized navigation of the TRUS probe during prostatectomy is safe and feasible. Remote navigation provides physician with a more precise and easier control of the ultrasound image while removing the burden of manual manipulation of the probe. Image fusion improved visualization of the prostate and boundaries in a phantom study.

  10. Assessing Global Water System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braimoh, Ademola K.; Craswell, Eric T.

    2006-04-01

    Rapid growth of global change science has led to improved knowledge about interdependencies in the global water cycle and recognition that the global water system consists of physical, human, and biogeochemical components [Vörösmarty et al., 2004]. Traditionally, water research is spread over a number of scientific disciplines. However, for water science to effectively inform policy for sustainable water management, research about the dynamics of water in the context of global change needs to be holistic, must integrate the existing knowledge base, and should synthesize knowledge about how the interactions between nature and society at various scales are affecting the global water system. This article assesses the level of interdisciplinarity in water science programs by comparing the activities of international waterrelated projects with the Global Water System Project (GWSP) activity profile (http://www.gwsp.org). The GWSP is a project of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) comprising the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (http:// www.igbp.kva.se/cgi-bin/php/frameset.php), the International Human Dimension Programme on Global Environmental Change (www.ihdp.org), the World Climate Research Programme (http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcrp/wcrp-home.html), and the DIVERSITAS international program on biodiversity science (http://www.diversitasinternational.org/). GWSP's attributes include its scientific and policy-informing orientation, global perspective, integrative and interdisciplinary approach, and multitemporal investigation of human impacts on water resources.

  11. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-09-29

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described.

  12. Assessing the efficacy of vesicle fusion with planar membrane arrays using a mitochondrial porin as reporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila; Hansen, Jesper S.; Stibius, Karin B.; Groth, Jesper S.; Helix-Nielsen, Claus

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} We have established a vesicle fusion efficacy assay based on the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA). {yields} Maximal fusion obtained was almost 150,000 porin insertions during 20 min. {yields} Incorporation can be either first order or exponential kinetics which has implications for establishing protein delivery to biomimetic membranes. -- Abstract: Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We establish a protein incorporation efficacy assay using the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA) as reporter. We use electrical conductance measurements and fluorescence microscopy to characterize proteoliposome fusion with an array of planar membranes. We show that protein reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR) = 50 more than 10{sup 5} FomA proteins could be incorporated in a bilayer array with a total membrane area of 2 mm{sup 2} within 20 min. This novel assay for quantifying protein delivery into lipid bilayers may be a useful tool in developing biomimetic membrane applications.

  13. Optical model parallel description of elastic, fusion and breakup cross sections for systems with weakly bound projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2014-03-01

    A brief description is presented of the results obtained in recent years for the simultaneous analysis of elastic and fusion cross section data of nuclear reactions for several nuclear systems with weakly bound and halo projectiles. The method used in this description, consists of simultaneously determine the parameters of fusion UF and direct reaction UDR polarization potentials of Woods-Saxon geometric shapes, that fit the elastic and fusion data. As a matter of fact, UFis an energy dependent potential, with real VF and imaginary WFcomponents, that is responsible for fusion reactions. Similarly, UDR is also energy dependent with real VDR and imaginary WDR parts, that accounts for direct reactions. A general finding for all the systems presented is that, the real and imaginary parts of the fusion potential and direct reaction potentials, are related by a dispersion relation and their energy dependence around and below the Coulomb barrier, show the so-called Breakup Threshold Anomaly. The effect of breakup reactions on fusion cross sections is studied by analyzing the separate effect of the absorption potential WDR and the fusion barrier rising produced by VDR.

  14. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  15. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  16. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Norman, J.H.; Price, R.J.; Porter, J.; Schuster, H.L.; Simnad, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of a two-year study on the design and evaluation of the Cascade concept as a commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. We developed a reactor design based on the Cascade reaction chamber concept that would be competitive in terms of both capital and operating costs, safe and environmentally acceptable in terms of hazard to the public, occupational exposure and radioactive waste production, and highly efficient. The Cascade reaction chamber is a double-cone-shaped rotating drum. The granulated solid blanket materials inside the rotating chamber are held against the walls by centrifugal force. The fusion energy is captured in a blanket of solid carbon, BeO, and LiAlO/sub 2/ granules. These granules are circulated to the primary side of a ceramic heat exchanger. Primary-side granule temperatures range from 1285 K at the LiAlO/sub 2/ granule heat exchanger outlet to 1600 K at the carbon granule heat exchanger inlet. The secondary side consists of a closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system with helium working fluid, operating at 1300 K peak outlet temperature and achieving a thermal power conversion efficiency of 55%. The net plant efficiency is 49%. The reference design is a plant producing 1500 MW of D-T fusion power and delivering 815 MW of electrical power for sale to the utility grid. 88 refs., 44 figs., 47 tabs.

  17. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  18. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  19. A comprehensive assessment of the risk of bone morphogenetic protein use in spinal fusion surgery and postoperative cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kevin S; McCormick, Paul C; Levi, Allan D

    2015-07-01

    The risk of postoperative cancer following the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in spinal fusion is one potential complication that has received significant interest. Until recently, there has been little clinical evidence to support the assertion of potential cancer induction after BMP use in spinal surgery. This report aims to summarize the findings from clinical data available to date from the Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) project as well as more recently published large database studies regarding the association of BMP use in spinal fusion and the risk of postoperative cancer. A detailed review was based on online databases, primary studies, FDA reports, and bibliographies of key articles for studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of BMP in spinal fusion. In an analysis of the YODA project, one meta-analysis detected a statistically significant increase in cancer occurrence at 24 months but not at 48 months, and the other meta-analysis did not detect a significant increase in postoperative cancer occurrence. Analysis of 3 large health care data sets (Medicare, MarketScan, and PearlDiver) revealed that none were able to detect a significant increase in risk of malignant cancers when BMP was used compared with controls. The potential risk of postoperative cancer formation following the use of BMP in spinal fusion must be interpreted on an individual basis for each patient by the surgeon. There is no conclusive evidence that application of the common formulations of BMP during spinal surgery results in the formation of cancer locally or at a distant site. PMID:25860517

  20. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  1. Sensor fusion to enable next generation low cost Night Vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiger, R.; Franz, S.; Löhlein, O.; Ritter, W.; Källhammer, J.-E.; Franks, J.; Krekels, T.

    2010-04-01

    The next generation of automotive Night Vision Enhancement systems offers automatic pedestrian recognition with a performance beyond current Night Vision systems at a lower cost. This will allow high market penetration, covering the luxury as well as compact car segments. Improved performance can be achieved by fusing a Far Infrared (FIR) sensor with a Near Infrared (NIR) sensor. However, fusing with today's FIR systems will be too costly to get a high market penetration. The main cost drivers of the FIR system are its resolution and its sensitivity. Sensor cost is largely determined by sensor die size. Fewer and smaller pixels will reduce die size but also resolution and sensitivity. Sensitivity limits are mainly determined by inclement weather performance. Sensitivity requirements should be matched to the possibilities of low cost FIR optics, especially implications of molding of highly complex optical surfaces. As a FIR sensor specified for fusion can have lower resolution as well as lower sensitivity, fusing FIR and NIR can solve performance and cost problems. To allow compensation of FIR-sensor degradation on the pedestrian detection capabilities, a fusion approach called MultiSensorBoosting is presented that produces a classifier holding highly discriminative sub-pixel features from both sensors at once. The algorithm is applied on data with different resolution and on data obtained from cameras with varying optics to incorporate various sensor sensitivities. As it is not feasible to record representative data with all different sensor configurations, transformation routines on existing high resolution data recorded with high sensitivity cameras are investigated in order to determine the effects of lower resolution and lower sensitivity to the overall detection performance. This paper also gives an overview of the first results showing that a reduction of FIR sensor resolution can be compensated using fusion techniques and a reduction of sensitivity can be

  2. Evaluation of CFETR as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility using multiple system codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Costley, A. E.; Wan, B. N.; Garofalo, A. M.; Leuer, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a multi-system codes benchmarking study of the recently published China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) pre-conceptual design (Wan et al 2014 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42 495). Two system codes, General Atomics System Code (GASC) and Tokamak Energy System Code (TESC), using different methodologies to arrive at CFETR performance parameters under the same CFETR constraints show that the correlation between the physics performance and the fusion performance is consistent, and the computed parameters are in good agreement. Optimization of the first wall surface for tritium breeding and the minimization of the machine size are highly compatible. Variations of the plasma currents and profiles lead to changes in the required normalized physics performance, however, they do not significantly affect the optimized size of the machine. GASC and TESC have also been used to explore a lower aspect ratio, larger volume plasma taking advantage of the engineering flexibility in the CFETR design. Assuming the ITER steady-state scenario physics, the larger plasma together with a moderately higher BT and Ip can result in a high gain Qfus ˜ 12, Pfus ˜ 1 GW machine approaching DEMO-like performance. It is concluded that the CFETR baseline mode can meet the minimum goal of the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) mission and advanced physics will enable it to address comprehensively the outstanding critical technology gaps on the path to a demonstration reactor (DEMO). Before proceeding with CFETR construction steady-state operation has to be demonstrated, further development is needed to solve the divertor heat load issue, and blankets have to be designed with tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1 as a target.

  3. An image fusion of quincunx sampling lifting scheme and small real-time DSP-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ni, Guoqiang; Chen, Bo

    2008-03-01

    An image fusion method using the quincunx sampling lifting wavelet transform combined with the fusion strategy of area edge change is put forward. Lifting wavelet transform can realize fast computation and no auxiliary memory, which could realize integral wavelet transform. Quincunx sampling adopts the scheme suitable for visual system and has the non-rectangle segmentation spectrum. Quincunx sampling lifting scheme, which is separable wavelet, combines both of their advantages. Furthermore, the fusion strategy of horizontal, vertical, diagonal edge change for low frequency image could reserve object integrality of source image. At the same time, the algorithm complexity and system Input/Output are calculated, after which the small integrated dual-spectral image fusion system with TMS320DM642 DSP as its kernel processor is then shown. As the hardware design of function, principle, structure and high speed circuit PCB design is presented, software design methods and implementation on this fusion platform are simultaneously introduced. The dual-spectral image real-time fusion system is built with high performance and small board dimensions, which lays a solid foundation for future applications.

  4. Hindrance of heavy-ion fusion at extreme sub-barrier energies in open-shell colliding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Esbensen, H.; Janssens, R. V.; Back, B. B.; Davids, C. N.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Lister, C. J.; Pardo, R. C.; Pennington, T.; Peterson, D.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.; Sinha, S.; Tang, X. D.; Tanihata, I.; Zhu, S.; Collon, P.; Kurtz, S.; Paul, M.

    2005-04-01

    The excitation function for the fusion-evaporation reaction 64Ni+100Mo has been measured down to a cross section of ˜5 nb. Extensive coupled-channels calculations have been performed, which cannot reproduce the steep falloff of the excitation function at extreme sub-barrier energies. Thus, this system exhibits a hindrance for fusion, a phenomenon that has been discovered only recently. In the S-factor representation introduced to quantify the hindrance, a maximum is observed at Es=120.6MeV, which corresponds to 90% of the reference energy Erefs, a value expected from systematics of closed-shell systems. A systematic analysis of Ni-induced fusion reactions leading to compound nuclei with mass A=100-200 is presented in order to explore a possible dependence of fusion hindrance on nuclear structure.

  5. New approach to information fusion for Lipschitz classifiers ensembles: Application in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Egorov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents new results concerning selection of an optimal information fusion formula for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificatory which could provide better generalization ability of the ensemble while achieving a practically acceptable level of effectiveness. The problem of information fusion is very relevant for data processing in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems. In this case we have to effectively classify targeted events which appear in the vicinity of the monitored object. Solution of this problem is based on usage of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers each of which corresponds to a respective channel. We suggest a brand new method for information fusion in case of ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. This method is called "The Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants" (WILC). Results of WILC-method practical usage in multichannel C-OTDR monitoring systems are presented.

  6. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  7. Prognostics and Health Management for Complex system Based on Fusion of Model-based approach and Data-driven approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-feng, Wang

    Prognostics and Health Management has been becoming an effective technology to increasing efficiency and reducing cost for complex system. As for the two major categories methods, both model-based approaches and datadriven approaches have merits and drawbacks. A kind of fusion approaches that integrate model-based approaches and data-driven approaches is presented in this paper and fusion structure is detailed to make full use of their advantages and overcome their limitations.

  8. A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

    2008-09-01

    A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

  9. Initial testing of the tritium systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Gentile, C.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Walters, R.T.; Voorhees, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton will start its D-T experiments in late 1993, introducing and operating the tokamak with tritium in order to begin the study of burning plasma physics in D-T. Trace tritium injection experiments, using small amounts of tritium will begin in the fall of 1993. In preparation for these experiments, a series of tests with low concentrations of tritium inn deuterium have been performed as an initial qualification of the tritium systems. These tests began in April 1993. This paper describes the initial testing of the equipment in the TFTR tritium facility.

  10. Elastic scattering and fusion cross sections for {sup 7}Be,{sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalita, K.; Verma, S.; Singh, R.; Das, J.J.; Jhingan, A.; Madhavan, N.; Nath, S.; Varughese, T.; Sugathan, P.; Parkar, V.V.; Mahata, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Barua, S.; Basu, P.; Majumdar, H.; Sinha, M.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2006-02-15

    Quasi-elastic-scattering and transfer reaction cross-section measurements were made for the {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at E{sub lab}=17, 19, and 21 MeV in the angular range {theta}{sub c.m.}=12 deg. An optical model (OM) analysis of the quasi-elastic scattering data was carried out. The fusion cross sections were derived at these energies by subtraction of the integrated transfer cross sections from the reaction cross sections obtained from the fits to quasi-elastic-scattering data. These fusion cross sections were found to be consistent with those obtained from the coupled-channels calculations. Elastic scattering and fusion cross sections were measured for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al system at E{sub lab}=10, 13, 16, 19, and 24 MeV. For elastic scattering the angular coverages were in the {theta}{sub lab}=12 deg. - 72 deg. range and for fusion the {alpha}-evaporation spectra from the compound nucleus were measured in the angular range {theta}{sub lab}=52 deg. - 132 deg. (142 deg. at 10 MeV). The elastic-scattering angular distributions were subjected to OM analysis. The {alpha}-evaporation spectra were reproduced with the statistical model calculations, and the fusion cross sections were extracted from them. The fusion cross sections were also extracted by subtraction of the integrated inelastic-scattering cross sections from the reaction cross sections obtained from the OM fits to the elastic-scattering data, and these fusion data were found to be consistent. The CCDEF calculations describe these data quite well. A comparison of the fusion data for the {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al and {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al systems shows a similar and consistent behavior.

  11. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed.

  12. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  13. Real-time Enhancement, Registration, and Fusion for an Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) to aid pilots while flying in poor visibility conditions. The EVS captures imagery using two infrared video cameras. The cameras are placed in an enclosure that is mounted and flown forward-looking underneath the NASA LaRC ARIES 757 aircraft. The data streams from the cameras are processed in real-time and displayed on monitors on-board the aircraft. With proper processing the camera system can provide better-than-human-observed imagery particularly during poor visibility conditions. However, to obtain this goal requires several different stages of processing including enhancement, registration, and fusion, and specialized processing hardware for real-time performance. We are using a real-time implementation of the Retinex algorithm for image enhancement, affine transformations for registration, and weighted sums to perform fusion. All of the algorithms are executed on a single TI DM642 digital signal processor (DSP) clocked at 720 MHz. The image processing components were added to the EVS system, tested, and demonstrated during flight tests in August and September of 2005. In this paper we briefly discuss the EVS image processing hardware and algorithms. We then discuss implementation issues and show examples of the results obtained during flight tests.

  14. Measurement of fusion excitation functions in the system {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier measurements of fusion reactions involving {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo projectiles and Ni-targets showed surprisingly large fusion yields at low energies which could not be explained by coupled-channels calculations. The main difference to similar measurements involving the neighboring {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo isotopes was the different slope of the excitation functions at sub-barrier energies. An analysis of a variety of experiments showed a correlation between the nuclear structure and the slope of the excitation functions, with the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} transitional nuclei ({sup 78}Kr, {sup 100}Mo) exhibiting shallower slopes than the {open_quotes}stiff{close_quotes} nuclei ({sup 86}Kr, {sup 92}Mo) measured at the same energies with respect to the barrier. In this experiment we studied the fusion excitation function involving two transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo. The measurements were performed with {sup 78}Kr beams from the ECR source at energies between 285-370 MeV. Separation of the evaporation nucleus from the elastically scattered particles was achieved by measuring time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The data were completely analyzed. A comparison of the cross sections with measurements for the system {sup 86}Kr + {sup 92}Mo populating the same compound nucleus {sup 178}Pt. It shows good agreement at the highest energies, but quite different falloffs of the excitation functions toward lower energies. Coupled-channels calculations, including multi-phonon excitation for the two systems, are being performed.

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT SAMPLING SYSTEM: DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report chronologically describes the design and development of the Source Assessment Sampling System (SASS). The SASS train is the principal sampling element for ducted sources when performing EPA's Level 1 environmental assessment studies. As such, it samples process streams...

  16. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  17. Thermoplastic fusion bonding using a pressure-assisted boiling point control system.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehyun; Song, In-Hyouk; Park, Daniel S; You, Byoung Hee; Murphy, Michael C

    2012-08-21

    A novel thermoplastic fusion bonding method using a pressure-assisted boiling point (PABP) control system was developed to apply precise temperatures and pressures during bonding. Hot embossed polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) components containing microchannels were sealed using the PABP system. Very low aspect ratio structures (AR = 1/100, 10 μm in depth and 1000 μm in width) were successfully sealed without collapse or deformation. The integrity and strength of the bonds on the sealed PMMA devices were evaluated using leakage and rupture tests; no leaks were detected and failure during the rupture tests occurred at pressures greater than 496 kPa. The PABP system was used to seal 3D shaped flexible PMMA devices successfully. PMID:22728966

  18. The estrogen receptor fusion system in mouse models: a reversible switch.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Reversible regulatory mouse models have significantly contributed to our understanding of normal tissue and cancer biology, providing the opportunity to temporally control initiation, progression, and evolution of physiological and pathological events. The tamoxifen inducible system, one of the best-characterized "reversible switch" models, has a number of beneficial features. In this system, the hormone-binding domain of the mammalian estrogen receptor is used as a heterologous regulatory domain. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. We summarize the advantages and drawbacks of the system, describe several mouse models that rely on it, and discuss potential improvements that could render it even more useful and versatile. PMID:25734072

  19. Fusion hindrance for {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc and other systems with positive Q-values.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Esbensen, H.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Collon, P.; Deibel, C. M.; DiGiovine, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Notani, M.; Marley, S. T.; Pardo, R. C.; Patel, N.; Seweryniak, D.; Tang, X. D.; Ugalde, C.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Notre Dame; Michigan State Univ.; TANDAR; Western Michigan Univ.; Colorado School of Mines

    2010-01-01

    Fusion evaporation cross sections for the {sup 27}Al+{sup 45}Sc (Q=9.63 MeV) system are measured down to about 300 nb. Deviations from standard coupled-channels calculations were observed in this system at the lowest energies. The steep fall-off of the fusion cross sections can be reproduced by calculations using a shallow potential model, which was originally developed to explain the hindrance behavior of heavy-ion fusion in medium-mass systems with negative Q values. Comparisons of the hindrance behavior between the present experiment and other systems, for example, {sup 28}Si+{sup 30}Si (Q = 14.3 MeV) and {sup 36}S+{sup 48}Ca (Q = 7.55 MeV) are presented.

  20. DPSSL pumped 20-TW Ti:sapphire laser system for DD fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, T.; Hatano, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawashima, T.

    2016-03-01

    A diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) pumped 20-TW output Ti:sapphire laser system has been developed. A diode-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energy of 12.7 J in 527 nm was used as a pump source for a 20-TW Ti:sapphire amplifier. A CeLiB6O10 nonlinear optical crystal was used as a frequency doubler of the Nd:glass DPSSL[1]. Figure 1 shows typical output pulse energy of the 20-TW amplifier as a function of pumping energy and a near field pattern. A 1.65 J pulse energy was obtained by 4.5 J pump energy. The amplified seed pulse is compressed to typically 60 fs as shown in Fig. 1 by a vacuumed pulse compressor with 80% of transmissivity. Encircled energy ratio, into a circled with 8 μm diameter area, of far field pattern focused by off-axis parabolic mirror with F# of 3 is numerically evaluated to 40% at TW class output condition. Then focal intensity would reach to 1018W/cm2. This all- DPSSL system contributes for stable and continual investigation of laser induced plasma experiment. We have succeeded continual and high efficient generation of DD fusion neutron from CD nano-particles by cluster fusion scheme using the 20-TW laser. A yield of ∼105 neutrons per shot was stably observed during continuous 100 shots with repetition rate of 0.1Hz.

  1. Highly radiation-resistant vacuum impregnation resin systems for fusion magnet insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P. E.; Munshi, N. A.; Denis, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    Magnets built for fusion devices such as the newly proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) need to be highly reliable, especially in a high radiation environment. Insulation materials are often the weak link in the design of superconducting magnets due to their sensitivity to high radiation doses, embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures, and the limitations on their fabricability. An insulation system capable of being vacuum impregnated with desirable properties such as a long pot-life, high strength, and excellent electrical integrity and which also provides high resistance to radiation would greatly improve magnet performance and reduce the manufacturing costs. A new class of insulation materials has been developed utilizing cyanate ester chemistries combined with other known radiation-resistant resins, such as bismaleimides and polyimides. These materials have been shown to meet the demanding requirements of the next generation of devices, such as FIRE. Post-irradiation testing to levels that exceed those required for FIRE showed no degradation in mechanical properties. In addition, the cyanate ester-based systems showed excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures and possess a wide range of processing variables, which will enable cost-effective fabrication of new magnets. This paper details the processing parameters, mechanical properties at 76 K and 4 K, as well as post-irradiation testing to dose levels surpassing 108 Gy.

  2. Palmprint and face score level fusion: hardware implementation of a contactless small sample biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinsot, Audrey; Yang, Fan; Brost, Vincent

    2011-02-01

    Including multiple sources of information in personal identity recognition and verification gives the opportunity to greatly improve performance. We propose a contactless biometric system that combines two modalities: palmprint and face. Hardware implementations are proposed on the Texas Instrument Digital Signal Processor and Xilinx Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platforms. The algorithmic chain consists of a preprocessing (which includes palm extraction from hand images), Gabor feature extraction, comparison by Hamming distance, and score fusion. Fusion possibilities are discussed and tested first using a bimodal database of 130 subjects that we designed (uB database), and then two common public biometric databases (AR for face and PolyU for palmprint). High performance has been obtained for recognition and verification purpose: a recognition rate of 97.49% with AR-PolyU database and an equal error rate of 1.10% on the uB database using only two training samples per subject have been obtained. Hardware results demonstrate that preprocessing can easily be performed during the acquisition phase, and multimodal biometric recognition can be treated almost instantly (0.4 ms on FPGA). We show the feasibility of a robust and efficient multimodal hardware biometric system that offers several advantages, such as user-friendliness and flexibility.

  3. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  4. Neurological complications using a novel retractor system for direct lateral minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Sedra, Fady; Lee, Robert; Dominguez, Ignacio; Wilson, Lester

    2016-09-01

    We describe our experience using the RAVINE retractor (K2M, Leesburg, VA, USA) to gain access to the lateral aspect of the lumbar spine through a retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative neurological adverse events, utilising the mentioned retractor system, were recorded and analysed. We included 140 patients who underwent minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (MI-LLIF) for degenerative spinal conditions between 2011 and 2015 at two major spinal centres. A total of 228 levels were treated, 35% one level, 40% two level, 20% three level and 5% 4 level surgeries. The L4/5 level was instrumented in 28% of cases. 12/140 patients had postoperative neurological complications. Immediately after surgery, 5% of patients (7/140) had transient symptoms in the thigh ranging from sensory loss, pain and paraesthesia, all of which recovered within 12weeks following surgery. There were five cases of femoral nerve palsy (3.6% - two ipsilateral and three contralateral), all of which recovered completely with no residual sensory or motor deficit within 6months. MI-LLIF done with help of the described retractor system has proved a safe and efficient way to achieve interbody fusion with minimal complications, mainly nerve related, that recovered quickly. Judicious use of the technique to access the L4/5 level is advised. PMID:27349467

  5. Cryogenic system component development for the fusion experimental reactor at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamiya, S.; Tada, E.; Hiyama, T.; Kawano, K.; Shimamoto, S.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of fusion R and D at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is to construct the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) to follow JT-60. The construction of FER inevitably requires development of a large, reliable, and efficient helium liquefier/refrigerator and the more advanced cryogenic technology for cooling superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils. Typical characteristics required for the cryogenic system of FER are 10 to 20 kW at 4 K as one unit, reliability for > 8000 h, a stable pulsed heat load, and high-energy efficiency of > 1/500. In this cryogenic system, the major components such as the helium compressor, turbo-expander, cold circulation pump for supercritical helium, and cold compressor to reduce operating temperature below 4 K should be scaled up to a mass flow rate of > 1000 g/s. For this purpose, JAERI has developed cryogenics since 1980 in accordance with the development program in which the scaling up of the major components mentioned above are involved as well as cooling technology development.

  6. Data fusion-based design for automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, James G.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a data fusion-based approach to designing an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). Fingerprint matching methods vary from pattern matching, using ridge structure, orientation, or even the entire fingerprint itself, to point critical matching, using localized features such as ridge discontinuities, e.g. minutiae, or porous structures. Localized matching methods, such as minutiae, tend to yield more compact templates, in general, than pattern based methods. However, the reliability of localized features may be an issue, since they are affected adversely by the quality of the captured fingerprint, i.e. the degree of noise. Minutiae-based matching methods tend to be slower, albeit more accurate, than pattern-based methods. The trade-off in designing a cost-effective AFIS in terms of processing power (CPU) used, matching speed, and accuracy, lies in the choice of the proper matching methods that are selected to optimize performance by maximizing the matching accuracy while minimizing the search time. In this paper we present a systematic design and study of a fusion-based AFIS using a multiplicity of matching methods to optimize system performance and minimize required CPU cost.

  7. Visual programming environment for multisensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Kasmala, Gerald

    1996-06-01

    In recent years, numerous multisensor data fusion systems have been developed for a wide variety of applications. Defense related applications include; automatic target recognition systems, identification-friend-foe-neutral, automated situation assessment and threat assessment systems, and systems for smart weapons. Non-defense applications include; robotics, condition-based maintenance, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. For each of these applications, multiple sensor data are combined to achieve inferences which are not generally possible using only a single sensor. Implementation of these data fusion systems often involves a significant amount of effort. In particular, software must be developed for components such as data base access, human computer interfaces and displays, communication software, and data fusion algorithms. While commercial software packages exist to assist development of data bases, communications, and human computer interfaces, there are no general purpose packages available to support the implementation of the data fusion algorithms. This paper describes a visual programming tool developed to assist in rapid prototyping of data fusion systems. This toolkit is modeled after the popular tool, Khoros, used by the image processing community. The tool described here is written in visual C, and provides the capability to rapidly implement and apply data fusion algorithms. An application to condition based maintenance is described.

  8. In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    2005-11-15

    This final report on "In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation" (DE-FG03-01ER54632) consists of a series of summaries of work that has been published, or presented at meetings, or both. It briefly describes results on the following topics: 1) A Transport and Fate Model for Helium and Helium Management; 2) Atomistic Studies of Point Defect Energetics, Dynamics and Interactions; 3) Multiscale Modeling of Fracture consisting of: 3a) A Micromechanical Model of the Master Curve (MC) Universal Fracture Toughness-Temperature Curve Relation, KJc(T - To), 3b) An Embrittlement DTo Prediction Model for the Irradiation Hardening Dominated Regime, 3c) Non-hardening Irradiation Assisted Thermal and Helium Embrittlement of 8Cr Tempered Martensitic Steels: Compilation and Analysis of Existing Data, 3d) A Model for the KJc(T) of a High Strength NFA MA957, 3e) Cracked Body Size and Geometry Effects of Measured and Effective Fracture Toughness-Model Based MC and To Evaluations of F82H and Eurofer 97, 3-f) Size and Geometry Effects on the Effective Toughness of Cracked Fusion Structures; 4) Modeling the Multiscale Mechanics of Flow Localization-Ductility Loss in Irradiation Damaged BCC Alloys; and 5) A Universal Relation Between Indentation Hardness and True Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior. Further details can be found in the cited references or presentations that generally can be accessed on the internet, or provided upon request to the authors. Finally, it is noted that this effort was integrated with our base program in fusion materials, also funded by the DOE OFES.

  9. The Landsat-D Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracken, P. A.; Billingsley, J. B.; Lynch, T. J.; Quann, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The overall Landsat-D system is discussed with emphasis on the objectives, configuration, and capabilities of the Landsat-D Assessment System. This system is being developed to support investigations which demonstrate, evaluate, and assess the utility of Landsat-D data for a wide variety of earth observations applications.

  10. Assessment of Novel Anti-thrombotic Fusion Proteins for Inhibition of Stenosis in a Porcine Model of Arteriovenous Graft

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Christi M.; Zhuplatov, Ilya; He, Yuxia; Wun, Tze-Chein; Kim, Seong-Eun; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis arteriovenous synthetic grafts (AVG) provide high volumetric blood flow rates shortly after surgical placement. However, stenosis often develops at the vein-graft anastomosis contributing to thrombosis and early graft failure. Two novel fusion proteins, ANV-6L15 and TAP-ANV, inhibit the tissue factor/factor VIIa coagulation complex and the factor Xa/factor Va complex, respectively. Each inhibitor domain is fused to an annexin V domain that targets the inhibitor activity to sites of vascular injury to locally inhibit thrombosis. This study’s objective was to determine if these antithrombotic proteins are safe and effective in inhibiting AVG stenosis. Methods A bolus of either TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 fusion protein was administered intravenously immediately prior to surgical placement of a synthetic graft between the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in a porcine model. At surgery, the vein and artery were irrigated with the anti-thrombotic fusion protein. Control animals received intravenous heparin. At 4 weeks, MRI was performed to evaluate graft patency, the pigs were then euthanized and grafts and attached vessels were explanted for histomorphometric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia at the vein-graft anastomosis. Blood was collected at surgery, immediately after surgery and at euthanasia for serum metabolic panels and coagulation chemistries. Results No acute thrombosis occurred in the control group or in either experimental group. No abnormal serum chemistries, activated clotting times or PT, PTT values were observed after treatment in experimental or control animals. However, at the vein-graft anastomosis, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups in cross-sectional lumen areas, as measured on MRI, and no difference in hyperplasia areas as determined by histomorphometry. These results suggest that local irrigation of TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 intra-operatively was as effective in inhibiting acute graft

  11. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  12. Understanding the system in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-02-01

    In the assessment of a system, understanding the system is central. Even so, most of the current literature takes a narrow view of understanding, making only the catalog of system ``assets`` explicit, while maintaining the balance of the analyst`s understanding inside the analyst`s head. This can lead to problems with non-repeatability and incompleteness of assessment results. This paper introduces the notion of using explicit system models to document the analyst`s understanding of the system and shows that, from these models, standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees, can be automatically derived. This paper also presents five ``views`` of a system that can be used to document the analyst`s understanding of the system. These views go well beyond the standard instruction to identify the system`s assets to show that a much richer understanding of the system can be required for effective assessment.

  13. A scalable portable object-oriented framework for parallel multisensor data-fusion applications in HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Prasad, Guru

    2004-04-01

    Multi-sensor Data Fusion is synergistic integration of multiple data sets. Data fusion includes processes for aligning, associating and combining data and information in estimating and predicting the state of objects, their relationships, and characterizing situations and their significance. The combination of complex data sets and the need for real-time data storage and retrieval compounds the data fusion problem. The systematic development and use of data fusion techniques are particularly critical in applications requiring massive, diverse, ambiguous, and time-critical data. Such conditions are characteristic of new emerging requirements; e.g., network-centric and information-centric warfare, low intensity conflicts such as special operations, counter narcotics, antiterrorism, information operations and CALOW (Conventional Arms, Limited Objectives Warfare), economic and political intelligence. In this paper, Aximetric presents a novel, scalable, object-oriented, metamodel framework for parallel, cluster-based data-fusion engine on High Performance Computing (HPC) Systems. The data-clustering algorithms provide a fast, scalable technique to sift through massive, complex data sets coming through multiple streams in real-time. The load-balancing algorithm provides the capability to evenly distribute the workload among processors on-the-fly and achieve real-time scalability. The proposed data-fusion engine exploits unique data-structures for fast storage, retrieval and interactive visualization of the multiple data streams.

  14. Incomplete fusion studies in the 19F+159Tb system at low energies and its correlation with various systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Devendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-07-01

    The excitation functions of reaction residues populated via the complete fusion and incomplete fusion process in the interaction of the 19F+159Tb system have been measured at energies ≈4 -6 MeV/nucleon, using off-line γ -ray spectroscopy. The analysis of data was done within the framework of statistical model code pace4 (a compound nucleus model). A significant fraction of incomplete fusion was observed in the production of reaction residues involving α particle(s) in the exit channels, even at energies as low as near the Coulomb barrier. The incomplete fusion strength function was deduced from the experimental excitation functions and the dependence of this strength function on various entrance channel parameters was studied. The present results show a strong dependence on the projectile α -Q value that agrees well with the existing data. To probe the dependence of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, the present work was compared with the results obtained in the interaction of 12C, 16O, and 19F with nearby targets available in the literature. It was observed that the mass asymmetry linearly increases for each projectile separately and turns out to be a projectile-dependent mass-asymmetry systematics. The deduced incomplete fusion strength functions in the present work are also plotted as a function of ZPZT (Coulomb effect) and compared with the existing literature. A strong dependence of the Coulomb effect on the incomplete fusion fraction was observed. It was found that the fraction of incomplete fusion linearly increases with ZPZT and was found to be more for larger ZPZT values indicating significantly important linear systematics.

  15. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  16. Soft computing-based terrain visual sensing and data fusion for unmanned ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we have primarily discussed technical challenges and navigational skill requirements of mobile robots for traversability path planning in natural terrain environments similar to Mars surface terrains. We have described different methods for detection of salient terrain features based on imaging texture analysis techniques. We have also presented three competing techniques for terrain traversability assessment of mobile robots navigating in unstructured natural terrain environments. These three techniques include: a rule-based terrain classifier, a neural network-based terrain classifier, and a fuzzy-logic terrain classifier. Each proposed terrain classifier divides a region of natural terrain into finite sub-terrain regions and classifies terrain condition exclusively within each sub-terrain region based on terrain visual clues. The Kalman Filtering technique is applied for aggregative fusion of sub-terrain assessment results. The last two terrain classifiers are shown to have remarkable capability for terrain traversability assessment of natural terrains. We have conducted a comparative performance evaluation of all three terrain classifiers and presented the results in this paper.

  17. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N.; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  18. Probabilistic Multi-Sensor Fusion Based Indoor Positioning System on a Mobile Device.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Aloi, Daniel N; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart mobile devices include more and more sensors on board, such as motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer), wireless signal strength indicators (WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee), and visual sensors (LiDAR, camera). People have developed various indoor positioning techniques based on these sensors. In this paper, the probabilistic fusion of multiple sensors is investigated in a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework for mobile-device user-positioning. We propose a graph structure to store the model constructed by multiple sensors during the offline training phase, and a multimodal particle filter to seamlessly fuse the information during the online tracking phase. Based on our algorithm, we develop an indoor positioning system on the iOS platform. The experiments carried out in a typical indoor environment have shown promising results for our proposed algorithm and system design. PMID:26694387

  19. Multiview 3-D Echocardiography Fusion with Breath-Hold Position Tracking Using an Optical Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Hareendranathan, Abhilash R; McNulty, Alexander; Biamonte, Marina; He, Allen; Noga, Michelle; Boulanger, Pierre; Becher, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in echocardiography allow real-time 3-D dynamic image acquisition of the heart. However, one of the major limitations of 3-D echocardiography is the limited field of view, which results in an acquisition insufficient to cover the whole geometry of the heart. This study proposes the novel approach of fusing multiple 3-D echocardiography images using an optical tracking system that incorporates breath-hold position tracking to infer that the heart remains at the same position during different acquisitions. In six healthy male volunteers, 18 pairs of apical/parasternal 3-D ultrasound data sets were acquired during a single breath-hold as well as in subsequent breath-holds. The proposed method yielded a field of view improvement of 35.4 ± 12.5%. To improve the quality of the fused image, a wavelet-based fusion algorithm was developed that computes pixelwise likelihood values for overlapping voxels from multiple image views. The proposed wavelet-based fusion approach yielded significant improvement in contrast (66.46 ± 21.68%), contrast-to-noise ratio (49.92 ± 28.71%), signal-to-noise ratio (57.59 ± 47.85%) and feature count (13.06 ± 7.44%) in comparison to individual views. PMID:27166019

  20. Noise temperature improvement for magnetic fusion plasma millimeter wave imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-03-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas [B. Tobias et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 6, 2106042 (2011)]. Of particular importance have been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry systems for imaging T{sub e} and n{sub e} fluctuations. These instruments have employed heterodyne receiver arrays with Schottky diode mixer elements directly connected to individual antennas. Consequently, the noise temperature has been strongly determined by the conversion loss with typical noise temperatures of ∼60 000 K. However, this can be significantly improved by making use of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit chip low noise amplifiers to insert a pre-amplifier in front of the Schottky diode mixer element. In a proof-of-principle design at V-Band (50–75 GHz), significant improvement of noise temperature from the current 60 000 K to measured 4000 K has been obtained.

  1. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  2. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  3. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  4. Hybrid Surgery Combined with Dynamic Stabilization System and Fusion for the Multilevel Degenerative Disease of the Lumbosacral Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2015-01-01

    Background As motion-preserving technique has been developed, the concept of hybrid surgery involves simultaneous application of two different kinds of devices, dynamic stabilization system and fusion technique. In the present study, the application of hybrid surgery for lumbosacral degenerative disease involving two-segments and its long-term outcome were investigated. Methods Fifteen patients with hybrid surgery (Hybrid group) and 10 patients with two-segment fusion (Fusion group) were retrospectively compared. Results Preoperative grade for disc degeneration was not different between the two groups, and the most common operated segment had the most degenerated disc grade in both groups; L4-5 and L5-S1 in the Hybrid group, and L3-4 and L4-5 in Fusion group. Over 48 months of follow-up, lumbar lordosis and range of motion (ROM) at the T12-S1 global segment were preserved in the Hybrid group, and the segmental ROM at the dynamic stabilized segment maintained at final follow-up. The Fusion group had a significantly decreased global ROM and a decreased segmental ROM with larger angles compared to the Hybrid group. Defining a 2-mm decrease in posterior disc height (PDH) as radiologic adjacent segment pathology (ASP), these changes were observed in 6 and 7 patients in the Hybrid and Fusion group, respectively. However, the last PDH at the above adjacent segment had statistically higher value in Hybrid group. Pain score for back and legs was much reduced in both groups. Functional outcome measured by Oswestry disability index (ODI), however, had better improvement in Hybrid group. Conclusion Hybrid surgery, combined dynamic stabilization system and fusion, can be effective surgical treatment for multilevel degenerative lumbosacral spinal disease, maintaining lumbar motion and delaying disc degeneration. PMID:26484008

  5. Fusion and direct reactions around the barrier for the systems {sup 7,9}Be,{sup 7}Li+{sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, R.; Angulo, C.; Charvet, J. L.; Jouanne, C.; Nalpas, L.; Figuera, P.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Sida, J. L.

    2006-10-15

    We present new cross section data for the complete fusion of the weakly bound systems {sup 7,9}Be and {sup 7}Li on {sup 238}U at energies around the Coulomb barrier. In the same measurement, yields for direct processes and incomplete fusion are detected. For all systems, a suppression of the complete fusion cross section around and above the barrier is observed. At energies below the barrier, the fusion of the {sup 7}Be+{sup 238}U system shows no enhancement with respect to simple model predictions.

  6. Assessment of ion-atom collision data for magnetic fusion plasma edge modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaneuf, R. A.

    Cross-section data for ion-atom collision processes which play important roles in the edge plasma of magnetically-confined fusion devices are surveyed and reviewed. The species considered include H, He, Li, Be, C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Ar, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and their ions. The most important ion-atom collision processes occurring in the edge plasma are charge-exchange reactions. Excitation and ionization processes are also considered. The scope is limited to atomic species and to collision velocities corresponding to plasma ion temperatures in the 2 to 200 eV range. Sources of evaluated or recommended data are presented where possible, and deficiencies in the data base are indicated.

  7. An integrated approach to assessing the fracture safe margins of fusion reactor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    Design and operation of fusion reactor structures will require an appropriate data base closely coupled to a reliable failure analysis method to safely manage irradiation embrittlement. However, ongoing irradiation programs will not provide the information on embrittlement necessary to accomplish these objectives. A new engineering approach is proposed based on the concept of a master toughness-temperature curve indexed on an absolute temperature scale using shifts to account for variables such as size scales, crack geometry and loading rates as well as embrittlement. While providing a simple practical engineering expedient, the proposed method can also be greatly enhanced by fundamental mechanism based models of fracture and embrittlement. Indeed, such understanding is required for the effective use of small specimen test methods, which is a integral element in developing the necessary data base.

  8. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: beryllium lifetime assessment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-10-01

    The lifetime of beryllium pebbles in the Reference Tandem Mirror Fusion Breeder blanket is estimated on the basis of the maximum stress generated in the pebbles. The forces due to stacking height, lithium flow, and the internal stresses due to thermal expansion and differential swelling are considered. The total stresses are calculated for three positions in the blanket, at a first wall neutron wall loading of 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/. These positions are: (a) near the first fuel zone wall, (b) near the center, and (c) near the back wall. The average lifetime of the pebbles is estimated to be 6.5 years. The specific estimated lifetimes are 2.4 years, 5.4 years, and 15 years for the first fuel zone wall, center and near the back wall, respectively.

  9. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H{sub 2}O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  10. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H sub 2 O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  11. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  12. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-03-19

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated.

  13. Distinct types of protease systems are involved in homeostasis regulation of mitochondrial morphology via balanced fusion and fission.

    PubMed

    Saita, Shotaro; Ishihara, Takaya; Maeda, Maki; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Ishihara, Naotada

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically regulated by fusion and fission. Several GTPase proteins control fusion and fission, and posttranslational modifications of these proteins are important for the regulation. However, it has not been clarified how the fusion and fission is balanced. Here, we report the molecular mechanism to regulate mitochondrial morphology in mammalian cells. Ablation of the mitochondrial fission, by repression of Drp1 or Mff, or by over-expression of MiD49 or MiD51, results in a reduction in the fusion GTPase mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) in outer membrane and long form of OPA1 (L-OPA1) in inner membrane. RNAi- or CRISPR-induced ablation of Drp1 in HeLa cells enhanced the degradation of Mfns via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). We further found that UPS-related protein BAT3/BAG6, here we identified as Mfn2-interacting protein, was implicated in the turnover of Mfns in the absence of mitochondrial fission. Ablation of the mitochondrial fission also enhanced the proteolytic cleavage of L-OPA1 to soluble S-OPA1, and the OPA1 processing was reversed by inhibition of the inner membrane protease OMA1 independent on the mitochondrial membrane potential. Our findings showed that the distinct degradation systems of the mitochondrial fusion proteins in different locations are enhanced in response to the mitochondrial morphology. PMID:26935475

  14. Biomechanical Comparison of Spinal Fusion Methods Using Interspinous Process Compressor and Pedicle Screw Fixation System Based on Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jisoo; Kim, Sohee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical effects of a newly proposed Interspinous Process Compressor (IPC) and compare with pedicle screw fixation at surgical and adjacent levels of lumbar spine. Methods A three dimensional finite element model of intact lumbar spine was constructed and two spinal fusion models using pedicle screw fixation system and a new type of interspinous devices, IPC, were developed. The biomechanical effects such as range of motion (ROM) and facet contact force were analyzed at surgical level (L3/4) and adjacent levels (L2/3, L4/5). In addition, the stress in adjacent intervertebral discs (D2, D4) was investigated. Results The entire results show biomechanical parameters such as ROM, facet contact force, and stress in adjacent intervertebral discs were similar between PLIF and IPC models in all motions based on the assumption that the implants were perfectly fused with the spine. Conclusion The newly proposed fusion device, IPC, had similar fusion effect at surgical level, and biomechanical effects at adjacent levels were also similar with those of pedicle screw fixation system. However, for clinical applications, real fusion effect between spinous process and hooks, duration of fusion, and influence on spinous process need to be investigated through clinical study. PMID:26962413

  15. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  16. Calibration of laser scanner and camera fusion system for intelligent vehicles using Nelder-Mead optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, Thomas J.; Huang, Yingping

    2013-03-01

    A novel method is presented here for the calibration of a sensor fusion system for intelligent vehicles. In this example, the sensors are a camera and a laser scanner which observe the same scene from different viewpoints. The method employs the Nelder-Mead direct search algorithm to minimize the sum of squared errors between the image coordinates and the re-projected laser data by iteratively adjusting and improving the calibration parameters. The method is applied to a real set of data collected from a test vehicle. Using only 11 well-spaced target points observable by each sensor, 12 intrinsic and extrinsic parameters indicating the position relationship between the sensors can be estimated to give an accurate projection. Experiments show that the method can project the laser points onto the image plane with an average error of 1.01 pixels (1.51 pixels worst case).

  17. Fusion techniques using distributed Kalman filtering for detecting changes in systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    A comparison is made of the performances of two detection strategies that are based on different data fusion techniques. The strategies detect changes in a linear system. One detection strategy involves combining the estimates and error covariance matrices of distributed Kalman filters, generating a residual from the used estimates, comparing this residual to a threshold, and making a decision. The other detection strategy involves a distributed decision process in which estimates from distributed Kalman filters are used to generate distributed residuals which are compared locally to a threshold. Local decisions are made and these decisions are then fused into a global decision. The performances of each of these detection schemes are compared, and it is concluded that better performance is achieved when local decisions are made and then fused into a global decision.

  18. Near-Barrier Fusion of the B8+Ni58 Proton-Halo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E. F.; Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Lizcano, D.; Rosales, P.; García-Martínez, H.; Gómez-Camacho, A.; Kolata, J. J.; Roberts, A.; Lamm, L. O.; Rogachev, G.; Guimarães, V.; Becchetti, F. D.; Villano, A.; Ojaruega, M.; Febbraro, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, H.; Deyoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Guess, C.; Khadka, U.; Brown, J.; Hinnefeld, J. D.; Acosta, L.; , E. S. Rossi, Jr.; Huiza, J. F. P.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2011-08-01

    Fusion cross sections were measured for the exotic proton-halo nucleus B8 incident on a Ni58 target at several energies near the Coulomb barrier. This is the first experiment to report on the fusion of a proton-halo nucleus. The resulting excitation function shows a striking enhancement with respect to expectations for normal projectiles. Evidence is presented that the sum of the fusion and breakup yields saturates the total reaction cross section.

  19. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  20. Fusion of Laser Altimetry Data with Dems Derived from Stereo Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Duncan, K.

    2016-06-01

    During the last two decades surface elevation data have been gathered over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from a variety of different sensors including spaceborne and airborne laser altimetry, such as NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), as well as from stereo satellite imaging systems, most notably from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Worldview. The spatio-temporal resolution, the accuracy, and the spatial coverage of all these data differ widely. For example, laser altimetry systems are much more accurate than DEMs derived by correlation from imaging systems. On the other hand, DEMs usually have a superior spatial resolution and extended spatial coverage. We present in this paper an overview of the SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection) system, designed to cope with the data complexity and the computation of elevation change histories. SERAC simultaneously determines the ice sheet surface shape and the time-series of elevation changes for surface patches whose size depends on the ruggedness of the surface and the point distribution of the sensors involved. By incorporating different sensors, SERAC is a true fusion system that generates the best plausible result (time series of elevation changes) a result that is better than the sum of its individual parts. We follow this up with an example of the Helmheim gacier, involving ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry data, together with ASTER DEMs.

  1. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  2. Fusion research: the past is prologue

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    1998-10-14

    At this juncture fusion research can be viewed as being at a turning point, a time to review its past and to imagine its future. Today, almost 50 years since the first serious attempts to address the daunting problem of achieving controlled fusion, we have both an opportunity and a challenge. Some predictions place fusion research today at a point midway between its first inception and its eventual maturation - in the middle of the 21st century - when fusion would become a major source of energy. Our opportunity therefore is to assess what we have learned from 50 years of hard work and use that knowledge as a starting point for new and better approaches to solving the fusion problem. Our challenge is to prove the "50 more years" prophesy wrong, by finding ways to shorten the time when fusion power becomes a reality. The thesis will be advanced that in the magnetic confinement approach to fusion open-ended magnetic confinement geometries offer much in responding to the challenge. A major advantage of open systems is that, owing to their theoretically and experimentally demonstrated ability to suppress plasma instabilities of both the MHD and the high-frequency wave-particle variety, the confinement becomes predictable from "classical," i.e., Fokker-Planck-type analysis. In a time of straitened budgetary circumstances for magnetic fusion research now being faced in the United States, the theoretical tractability of mirror-based systems is a substantial asset. In pursuing this avenue it is also necessary to keep an open mind as to the forms that mirror-based fusion power plants might take. For example, one can look to the high-energy physics community for a possible model: This community has shown the feasibility of constructing large and complex particle accelerators using superconducting magnets, vacuum chambers and complicated particle-handling technology, housed in underground tunnels that are 20 or more kilometers long. In the paper examples of mirror

  3. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  4. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  5. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  6. A Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    1999-01-01

    A probabilistic approach is described for aeropropulsion system assessment. To demonstrate this approach, the technical performance of a wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine (i.e. engine net thrust, specific fuel consumption, and engine weight) is assessed. The assessment accounts for the uncertainties in component efficiencies/flows and mechanical design variables, using probability distributions. The results are presented in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and sensitivity analyses, and are compared with those from the traditional deterministic approach. The comparison shows that the probabilistic approach provides a more realistic and systematic way to assess an aeropropulsion system.

  7. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  8. Assessment of RNA carrier function in peptide amphiphiles derived from the HIV fusion peptide.

    PubMed

    Pratumyot, Yaowalak; Torres, Oscar B; Bong, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    A small library of amphiphilic peptides has been evaluated for duplex RNA carrier function into A549 cells. We studied peptides in which a C-terminal 7-residue cationic domain is attached to a neutral/hydrophobic 23-residue domain that is based on the viral fusion peptide of HIV. We also examined peptides in which the cationic charge was evenly distributed throughout the peptide. Strikingly, subtle sequence variations in the hydrophobic domain that do not alter net hydrophobicity result in wide variation in RNA uptake. Additionally, cyclic cystine variants are much less active as RNA carriers than their open-chain cysteine analogs. With regard to electrostatic effects, we find that lysine is less effective than arginine in facilitating uptake, and that even distribution of cationic residues throughout the peptide sequence results in especially effective RNA carrier function. Overall, minor changes in peptide hydrophobicity, flexibility and charge distribution can significantly alter carrier function. We hypothesize this is due to altered properties of the peptide-RNA assembly rather than peptide secondary structure. PMID:26988874

  9. Sub-barrier fusion of {sup 36}S + {sup 64}Ni and other medium-light systems

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Silvestri, R.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Szilner, S.

    2010-12-15

    Sub-barrier fusion cross sections of {sup 36}S + {sup 64}Ni have been measured down to {approx_equal}3 {mu}b. The logarithmic slope of the fusion excitation function has a steep rise in the barrier region with decreasing energy and saturates at lower energies. The data can be reproduced within the coupled-channels model using a Woods-Saxon potential with a large diffuseness. The slope saturation is analogous to what has been observed for {sup 36}S, {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, while for heavier systems the slope increases steadily below the barrier.

  10. System Analysis and Risk Assessment System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-20

    Version 00 SARA4.16 is a program that allows the user to review the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and to perform limited sensitivity analysis on these results. This tool is intended to be used by a less technical oriented user and does not require the level of understanding of PRA concepts required by a full PRA analysis tool. With this program a user can review the information generated by a PRA analyst andmore » compare the results to those generated by making limited modifications to the data in the PRA. Also included in this program is the ability to graphically display the information stored in the database. This information includes event trees, fault trees, P&IDs and uncertainty distributions. SARA 4.16 is incorporated in the SAPHIRE 5.0 code package.« less

  11. Multi-sensor fusion system using wavelet-based detection algorithm applied to physiological monitoring under high-G environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Han Chool

    2000-06-01

    A significant problem in physiological state monitoring systems with single data channels is high rates of false alarm. In order to reduce false alarm probability, several data channels can be integrated to enhance system performance. In this work, we have investigated a sensor fusion methodology applicable to physiological state monitoring, which combines local decisions made from dispersed detectors. Difficulties in biophysical signal processing are associated with nonstationary signal patterns and individual characteristics of human physiology resulting in nonidentical observation statistics. Thus a two compartment design, a modified version of well established fusion theory in communication systems, is presented and applied to biological signal processing where we combine discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) with sensor fusion theory. The signals were decomposed in time-frequency domain by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to capture localized transient features. Local decisions by wavelet power analysis are followed by global decisions at the data fusion center operating under an optimization criterion, i.e., minimum error criterion (MEC). We used three signals acquired from human volunteers exposed to high-G forces at the human centrifuge/dynamic flight simulator facility in Warminster, PA. The subjects performed anti-G straining maneuvers to protect them from the adverse effects of high-G forces. These maneuvers require muscular tensing and altered breathing patterns. We attempted to determine the subject's state by detecting the presence or absence of the voluntary anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM). During the exposure to high G force the respiratory patterns, blood pressure and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured to determine changes in the subject's state. Experimental results show that the probability of false alarm under MEC can be significantly reduced by applying the same rule found at local thresholds to all subjects, and MEC can be employed as a

  12. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  13. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-04-04

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts.

  14. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: The Laser Elevator Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Wayne Pryor worked on three projects this summer. These were: 1) Inertial Electrostatic Confinement; 2) The Laser Elevator; and 3) Solar System Survey for Propellants Abstract. We Assisted Jon Nadler from Richland Community College in assembling and operating a table-top nuclear fusion reactor. We successfully demonstrated neutron production in a deuterium plasma. Pryor also obtained basic spectroscopic information on the atomic and molecular emissions in the plasma. The second project consisted of the completion of a paper on a novel propulsion concept (due to Tom Meyer of Colorado, the first author): a laser sail that bounces light back to the laser source. Recycling the photons from source to sail perhaps 100-1000 times dramatically improves the energy efficiency of this system, which may become very important for high-velocity missions in the future. Lastly, we compiled a very basic inventory of solar system propellant resources, their locations, and their accessibility. This initial inventory concentrates on sunlight availability, water availability, and the difficulty (delta-velocity requirement and radiation environment) in getting there.

  15. A Novel Human Autonomy Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Munstermann, Marco; Stevens, Torsten; Luther, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel human autonomy assessment system for generating context and discovering the behaviors of older people who use ambulant services. Our goal is to assist caregivers in assessing possibly abnormal health conditions in their clients concerning their level of autonomy, thus enabling caregivers to take countermeasures as soon as possible. PMID:22969374

  16. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  17. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  18. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  19. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. D.; Hogan, W. J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed.

  20. Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Comprehension Ability: Validity Arguments for Fusion Model Application to "Languedge" Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee

    2009-01-01

    With recent statistical advances in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA), the CDA approach has been increasingly applied to non-diagnostic tests partly to meet accountability demands for student achievement. The study aimed to evaluate critically the validity of the CDA application to an existing non-diagnostic L2 reading comprehension test and…

  1. In search of nuclear fusion in electrolytic cells and in metal/gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, D. R.; Paquette, J.; Boniface, H. A.; Graham, W. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Briden, N. A.; Cross, W. G.; Arneja, A.; Tennant, D. C.; Lone, M. A.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Chambers, K. W.; McIlwain, A. K.; Attas, E. M.; Dutton, R.

    1990-06-01

    It has been reported recently in the literature that unexpected thermal and nuclear effects (production of excess heat, neutrons, γ-rays, and tritium) can occur during the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium or titanium electrodes, or during temperature and pressure cycling of the titanium/deuterium gas system. We have attempted to reproduce some of these experiments. A variety of electrochemical cells having palladium cathodes in the form of wires, tubes, sheets, and rods have been used to electrolyze heavy water containing 0.1 mol.dm-3 LiOH, 0.1 mol.dn-3 LiOD or 0.5 mol.dm-3 D3PO4. Current densities of up to 200 mA.cm-2 were applied. The mass of the palladium cathodes covered the range from 1-40 grams and the surface area varied from 8-140 cm2. Neutron detection systems with low constant backgrounds were used to search for neutron emission during electrolysis. These included3He- and10BF3-based detectors. After running some of the cells for more than 30 days, no neutron emission above background could be detected. This puts upper limits of 0.5 s-1 and 2×10-23 fus. D-D.s-1 on the neutron emission and the fusion rate, respectively. A sensitive and accurate heat-flow calorimeter was built and used to monitor the energy balance of some of the cells during electrolysis. No unexpected heat effects were observed. This puts an upper limit of 0.13 W.cm-3 on the specific excess power. No enrichment of the electrolyte in tritium was evident after electrolysis. Experiments were also performed with the titanium/ deuterium gas system. These consisted of exposing titanium metal to a deuterium gas pressure of 40 atmospheres, lowering the temperature to -196°C, releasing the pressure and gradually warming the titanium to room temperature. No neutron emission above background was observed during these experiments, which puts upper limits of 0.5 s-1 and 4×10-25 fus.D-D.s-1 on the neutron emission and fusion rate, respectively.

  2. Control systems for membrane fusion in the ancestral eukaryote; evolution of tethering complexes and SM proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koumandou, V Lila; Dacks, Joel B; Coulson, Richard MR; Field, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    Background In membrane trafficking, the mechanisms ensuring vesicle fusion specificity remain to be fully elucidated. Early models proposed that specificity was encoded entirely by SNARE proteins; more recent models include contributions from Rab proteins, Syntaxin-binding (SM) proteins and tethering factors. Most information on membrane trafficking derives from an evolutionarily narrow sampling of model organisms. However, considering factors from a wider diversity of eukaryotes can provide both functional information on core systems and insight into the evolutionary history of the trafficking machinery. For example, the major Qa/syntaxin SNARE families are present in most eukaryotic genomes and likely each evolved via gene duplication from a single ancestral syntaxin before the existing eukaryotic groups diversified. This pattern is also likely for Rabs and various other components of the membrane trafficking machinery. Results We performed comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, when relevant, on the SM proteins and components of the tethering complexes, both thought to contribute to vesicle fusion specificity. Despite evidence suggestive of secondary losses amongst many lineages, the tethering complexes are well represented across the eukaryotes, suggesting an origin predating the radiation of eukaryotic lineages. Further, whilst we detect distant sequence relations between GARP, COG, exocyst and DSL1 components, these similarities most likely reflect convergent evolution of similar secondary structural elements. No similarity is found between the TRAPP and HOPS complexes and the other tethering factors. Overall, our data favour independent origins for the various tethering complexes. The taxa examined possess at least one homologue of each of the four SM protein families; since the four monophyletic families each encompass a wide diversity of eukaryotes, the SM protein families very likely evolved before the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA

  3. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  4. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  5. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  6. SATPro: the system assessment test program for Z-R.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, Jane Marie; Bloomquist, Douglas D.; Drennan, Scott Allen; Guthrie, Douglas Wayne; Johnson, D. J.; Harjes, Henry Charles III; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Corley, John Phillip; Struve, Kenneth William; Hodge, Keith Conquest; Maenchen, John Eric

    2004-09-01

    In the mid-90's, breakthroughs were achieved at Sandia with z-pinches for high energy density physics on the Saturn machine. These initial tests led to the modification of the PBFA II machine to provide high currents rather than the high voltage it was initially designed for. The success of z-pinch for high energy density physics experiments insured a new mission for the converted accelerator, known as Z since 1997. Z now provides a unique capability to a number of basic science communities and has expanded its mission to include radiation effects research, inertial confinement fusion and material properties research. To achieve continued success, the physics community has requested higher peak current, better precision and pulse shaping versatility be incorporated into the refurbishment of the Z machine, known as ZR. In addition to the performance specification for ZR of a peak current of 26 MA with an implosion time of 100 ns, the machine also has a reliability specification to achieve 400 shots per year. While changes to the basic architecture of the Z machine are minor, the vast majority of its components have been redesigned. Moreover the increase in peak current from its present 18 MA to ZR's peak current of 26 MA at nominal operating parameters requires significantly higher voltages. These higher voltages, along with the reliability requirement, mandate a system assessment be performed to insure the requirements have been met. This paper will describe the System Assessment Test Program (SATPro) for the ZR project and report on the results.

  7. Quadruplex digital flight control system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulcare, D. B.; Downing, L. E.; Smith, M. K.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the development and validation of a double fail-operational digital flight control system architecture for critical pitch axis functions. Architectural tradeoffs are assessed, system simulator modifications are described, and demonstration testing results are critiqued. Assessment tools and their application are also illustrated. Ultimately, the vital role of system simulation, tailored to digital mechanization attributes, is shown to be essential to validating the airworthiness of full-time critical functions such as augmented fly-by-wire systems for relaxed static stability airplanes.

  8. A Locomotion Intent Prediction System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baojun; Zheng, Enhao; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion intent prediction is essential for the control of powered lower-limb prostheses to realize smooth locomotion transitions. In this research, we develop a multi-sensor fusion based locomotion intent prediction system, which can recognize current locomotion mode and detect locomotion transitions in advance. Seven able-bodied subjects were recruited for this research. Signals from two foot pressure insoles and three inertial measurement units (one on the thigh, one on the shank and the other on the foot) are measured. A two-level recognition strategy is used for the recognition with linear discriminate classifier. Six kinds of locomotion modes and ten kinds of locomotion transitions are tested in this study. Recognition accuracy during steady locomotion periods (i.e., no locomotion transitions) is 99.71% ± 0.05% for seven able-bodied subjects. During locomotion transition periods, all the transitions are correctly detected and most of them can be detected before transiting to new locomotion modes. No significant deterioration in recognition performance is observed in the following five hours after the system is trained, and small number of experiment trials are required to train reliable classifiers. PMID:25014097

  9. Real-time portable dual channel image fusion and data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yang, Yong-ying; Wang, Dao-dang; Liu, Dong

    2009-05-01

    Presently electricity utilities make use of a number of inspection tools to survey their transmission lines and electrical distribution equipment. Visible and ultraviolet cameras are the latest visual diagnostic tools available to utilities to identify potential failures on electrical equipment. Based on the DSP and FPGA hardware platform, a system is designed to collect images from both visible and ultraviolet channels. Moreover, it performs image fusion, characteristic enhancement and image analysis as well. For detecting the corona, a ultra-violet quantum detector is used in the form of an image intensifier tube with a Cesium-Telluride photocathode, which is competent for single photon counting. For acquiring visible images, a high-speed industrial CCD is implemented to assure definition of images in terms of 1394 protocol. The real-time images is displayed on a LCD, compressed and saved for further analysis. Finally, several methods of program debugging are introduced. The experimental results in the field show that the designed system has good performance in the detection of corona radiation.

  10. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-01

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D- beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R&D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  11. Ion source development for a photoneutralization based NBI system for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, A.; Esch, H. P. L. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Bechu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.

    2015-04-08

    The next step after ITER is to demonstrate the viability and generation of electricity by a future fusion reactor (DEMO). The specifications required to operate an NBI system on DEMO are very demanding. The system has to provide a very high level of power and energy, ~100MW of D° beam at 1MeV, including high wall-plug efficiency (η > 60%). For this purpose, a new injector concept, called Siphore, is under investigation between CEA and French universities. Siphore is based on the stripping of the accelerated negative ions by photo-detachment provided by several Fabry-Perot cavities (3.5MW of light power per cavity) implemented along the D{sup −} beam. The beamline is designed to be tall and narrow in order that the photon flux overlaps the entire negative ion beam. The paper will describe the present R and D at CEA which addresses the development of an ion source and pre-accelerator prototypes for Siphore, the main goal being to produce an intense negative ion beam sheet. The negative ion source Cybele is based on a magnetized plasma column where hot electrons are emitted from the source center. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize the plasma and to compare with numerical models being developed in French universities.

  12. Low-Energy Fusion-Fission Dynamics of Heavy Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2006-08-14

    A new approach is proposed for a unified description of strongly coupled deep-inelastic (DI) scattering, fusion, fission, and quasi-fission (QF) processes of heavy ion collisions. A unified driving-potential and a unified set of dynamic Langevin-type equations of motion are used in this approach. This makes it possible to perform a full (continuous) time analysis of the evolution of heavy nuclear systems, starting from the approaching stage, moving up to the formation of the compound nucleus or emerging into two final fragments. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with the corresponding experimental data for heavy and superheavy nuclear systems. Collisions of very heavy nuclei (such as 238U+248Cm) are investigated as an alternative way for production of superheavy elements. Large charge and mass transfer was found in these reactions due to the inverse (anti-symmetrizing) quasi-fission process leading to formation of surviving superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei.

  13. A Bidirectional System for the Dynamic Small Molecule Control of Intracellular Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kuzin, Alexander P.; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Acton, Thomas B.; Kornhaber, Gregory J.; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano Thomas; Tong, Liang; Crews, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    Small molecule control of intracellular protein levels allows temporal and dose-dependent regulation of protein function. Recently, we developed a method to degrade proteins fused to a mutant dehalogenase (HaloTag2) using small molecule hydrophobic tags (HyTs). Here, we introduce a complementary method to stabilize the same HaloTag2 fusion proteins, resulting in a unified system allowing bidirectional control of cellular protein levels in a temporal and dose-dependent manner. From a small molecule screen, we identified N-(3,5-dichloro-2-ethoxybenzyl)-2H-tetrazol-5-amine as a nanomolar HALoTag2 Stabilizer (HALTS1) that reduces the Hsp70:HaloTag2 interaction, thereby preventing HaloTag2 ubiquitination. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the HyT/HALTS system in probing the physiological role of therapeutic targets by modulating HaloTag2-fused oncogenic H-Ras, which resulted in either the cessation (HyT) or acceleration (HALTS) of cellular transformation. In sum, we present a general platform to study protein function, whereby any protein of interest fused to HaloTag2 can be either degraded 10-fold or stabilized 5-fold using two corresponding compounds. PMID:23978068

  14. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described.

  15. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system. PMID:24693243

  16. Novel Approaches to Improve Iris Recognition System Performance Based on Local Quality Evaluation and Feature Fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system. PMID:24693243

  17. Reliable emotion recognition system based on dynamic adaptive fusion of forehead biopotentials and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Khezri, Mahdi; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Sharafat, Ahmad Reza

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a new adaptive method for fusing multiple emotional modalities to improve the performance of the emotion recognition system. Three-channel forehead biosignals along with peripheral physiological measurements (blood volume pressure, skin conductance, and interbeat intervals) were utilized as emotional modalities. Six basic emotions, i.e., anger, sadness, fear, disgust, happiness, and surprise were elicited by displaying preselected video clips for each of the 25 participants in the experiment; the physiological signals were collected simultaneously. In our multimodal emotion recognition system, recorded signals with the formation of several classification units identified the emotions independently. Then the results were fused using the adaptive weighted linear model to produce the final result. Each classification unit is assigned a weight that is determined dynamically by considering the performance of the units during the testing phase and the training phase results. This dynamic weighting scheme enables the emotion recognition system to adapt itself to each new user. The results showed that the suggested method outperformed conventional fusion of the features and classification units using the majority voting method. In addition, a considerable improvement, compared to the systems that used the static weighting schemes for fusing classification units, was also shown. Using support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifiers, the overall classification accuracies of 84.7% and 80% were obtained in identifying the emotions, respectively. In addition, applying the forehead or physiological signals in the proposed scheme indicates that designing a reliable emotion recognition system is feasible without the need for additional emotional modalities. PMID:26253158

  18. Assessing sensor reliability for multisensor data fusion within the transferable belief model.

    PubMed

    Elouedi, Zied; Mellouli, Khaled; Smets, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a method for assessing the reliability of a sensor in a classification problem based on the transferable belief model. First, we develop a method for the evaluation of the reliability of a sensor when considered alone. The method is based on finding the discounting factor minimizing the distance between the pignistic probabilities computed from the discounted beliefs and the actual values of data. Next, we develop a method for assessing the reliability of several sensors that are supposed to work jointly and their readings are aggregated. The discounting factors are computed on the basis of minimizing the distance between the pignistic probabilities computed from the combined discounted belief functions and the actual values of data. PMID:15369123

  19. Fusion rule estimation in multiple sensor systems with unknown noise distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.

    1993-12-31

    A system of N sensors S{sub 1},S{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},S{sub N} is considered; corresponding to an object with parameter x {epsilon} R{sup d}, sensor S{sub i} yields output y{sup (i)} {epsilon} R{sup d} according to an unknown probability distribution p{sub i}(y{sup (i)}{vert_bar}x). A training l-sample (x{sub 1},y{sub 1}),(x{sub 2},y{sub 2}),{hor_ellipsis},(x{sub l},y{sub l}) is given where y{sub i} = (y{sub i}{sup (1)}, y{sub i}{sup (2)},{hor_ellipsis},y{sub i}{sup (N)}) and y{sub i}{sup (j)} is the output of S{sub j} in response to input x{sub i}. The problem is to estimate a fusion rule f:R{sup Nd} {yields} R{sup d}, based on the sample, such that the expected square error I(f) = {integral}[x {minus} f(y{sup (1)},y{sup (2)}, {hor_ellipsis},y{sup (N)})]{sup 2}p(y{sup (1)},y{sup (2)}, {hor_ellipsis},y{sup (N)}{vert_bar}x)p(x)dy{sup (1)}dy{sup (2)}{hor_ellipsis}dy{sup (N)}dx is to be minimized over a family of fusion rules {Lambda} based on the given l-sample. Let f{sub *} {epsilon} {Lambda} minimize I(f); f{sub *} cannot be computed since the underlying probability distributions are unknown. Using Vapnik`s empirical risk minimization method, we show that if {Lambda} has finite capacity, then under bounded error, for sufficiently large sample, f{sub emp} can be obtained such that P[I(f{sub emp}) {minus} I(f{sub *}) > {epsilon}] < {delta} for arbitrarily specified {epsilon} > 0 and {delta}, 0 < {delta} < 1. We identify several computational methods to obtain f{sub emp} or its approximations based on neural networks, radial basis functions, wavelets, non-polynomial networks, and polynomials and splines. We then discuss linearly separable systems to identify objects from a finite class where f{sub emp} can be computed in polynomial time using quadratic programming methods.

  20. The odontology victim identification skill assessment system.

    PubMed

    Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A

    2010-05-01

    Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills. PMID:20345802

  1. The systems approach to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The systems approach in ecology is both a methodology and a holistic mindset. As a methodology, it utilizes mathematical and computer models to simulate natural ecosystems. As a mindset, it focuses on the total functioning and overall properties of the ecosystem. The distinction between methodology and mindset forms a convenient outline for the present review. Under the rubric of methodology, I will discuss the applicability of ecological models to environmental assessment. Under holistic mindset, I will consider the feasibility of assessing impacts on overall ecosystem function. In both cases, we will find that the systems approach has much to offer in assessing environmental impacts. The approach encourages a comprehensive viewpoint and avoids the pitfalls that result from focusing too closely on a single population or process. At the same time, we will find that the systems approach is no panacea. No single approach should be relied upon (or ignored) in addressing complex assessment issues. 92 figs.

  2. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  3. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  4. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Klein, Gail; Diaz, Franklin Chang

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short duration manned mission performance exceeding other technologies. A study was conducted to assess the systems aspects of inertial as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983). The required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel is described. Preliminary design details are given for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days.

  5. A summary and assessment of oxidation driven volatility experiments at the INEL and their application to fusion reactor safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Smolik, G.R.; Harms, S.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report contains a summary and assessment of oxidation-driven volatility tests through March 1994 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Materials tested include a Cu alloy in air and steam, PCA stainless steel (similar to 316SS) in air and steam, AMCR-033 steel in air, HT-9 steel in air and steam, a Nb alloy in air and steam, a W alloy in air and steam, and two V alloys in air with a limited number of tests in steam. We give a brief description of the tests, including alloy compositions and test temperatures. For many materials, our results indicate that both volatility and oxide spalling are responsible for mobilizing mass, thus we refer to our measurements as mass flux or mobility flux. We plot mobility data for each element and present curve fits to the data. We include a section on how the mobility information is used in safety assessments. We calculate the early dose inventory of a first wall made of each material tested (the early dose to the maximum exposed individual that would result if all the material were mobilized and transported to the site boundary), and the early dose that would result when mobility fractions are considered in the calculation. We use this information to assess the data by determining which elements are the most important and concentrating on providing the mobility data for those elements. We discuss where more data are needed, and our plans for obtaining that data. Additionally, we discuss what must be done to produce a database that will withstand regulatory scrutiny.

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality. PMID:22899457

  7. Fusion of Remote Sensing and Non-authoritative Data for Flood Disaster and Transportation Infrastructure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnebele, Emily K.

    Flooding is the most frequently occurring natural hazard on Earth; with catastrophic, large scale floods causing immense damage to people, property, and the environment. Over the past 20 years, remote sensing has become the standard technique for flood identification because of its ability to offer synoptic coverage. Unfortunately, remote sensing data are not always available or only provide partial or incomplete information of an event due to revisit limitations, cloud cover, and vegetation canopy. The ability to produce accurate and timely flood assessments before, during, and after an event is a critical safety tool for flood disaster management. Furthermore, knowledge of road conditions and accessibility is crucial for emergency managers, first responders, and residents. This research describes a model that leverages non-authoritative data to improve flood extent mapping and the evaluation of transportation networks during all phases of a flood disaster. Non-authoritative data can provide real-time, on-the-ground information when traditional data sources may be incomplete or lacking. The novelty of this approach is the application of freely available, non-authoritative data and its effective integration with established data and methods. Although this model will not replace existing flood mapping and disaster protocols, as a result of fusing heterogeneous data of varying spatial and temporal scales, it allows for increased certainty in flood assessment by "filling in the gaps" in the spatial and temporal progression of a flood event. The research model and its application are defined by four case studies of recent flood events in the United States and Canada. The model illustrates how non-authoritative, authoritative, and remote-sensing data can be integrated together during or after a flood event to provide damage assessments, temporal progressions of a flood event, and near real-time flood estimations.

  8. Augmentative Communication: Assessment, System Selection, and Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuyter, Frank; Becker, Mary R.

    1988-01-01

    Augmentative communication systems for the nonspeaking brain-injured should be carefully selected to serve a variety of functions. These include the utilization of systems for communication purposes, assessment of cognitive-linguistic deficits, integration and participation by the individual in the rehabilitation program, and improvement in an…

  9. PREGNANCY RISK ASSESSMENT MONITORING SYSTEM (PRAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRAMS, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, is an ongoing state-specific population based surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health departments designed to improve the health of mothers and infants by reducing adverse...

  10. NASA Langley WINN System Operational Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    An operational assessment of the NASA Langley Weather Information Network (WINN) System is presented. The objectives of this program include: 1) Determine if near real-time weather information presented on the flight deck improves pilot situational awareness of weather; and 2) Identify pilot interface issues related to the use of WINN system during test flights. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  11. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  12. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  13. Fusion of the positive Q-value system {sup 36}S+{sup 48}Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnoli, G.; Beghini, S.; Guiot, B.; Mason, P.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Silvestri, R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Marginean, N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Szilner, S.

    2009-03-04

    The fusion excitation function for {sup 36}S+{sup 48}Ca with positive Q-value for the compound nucleus formation, has been measured from near the barrier down to very low energies, where ''fusion hindrance'' may be expected. No evidence of hindrance shows up in the measured energy range. Coupled-channels calculations have been performed with a large diffuseness parameter of the Woods-Saxon potential, reproducing the data above and below the barrier.

  14. Discrepancy in assessment of phagosome-lysosome fusion with two lysosomal markers in murine macrophages infected with Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, N; Goren, M B

    1987-01-01

    Phagosome-lysosome fusion (P-LF) was studied in cultured mouse resident peritoneal macrophages after phagocytosis of Candida albicans. The macrophages were labeled with acridine orange (AO), the electronopaque colloidal Thorotrast, or both markers. After phagocytosis of heat-killed C. albicans, both markers were delivered to more than 95% of phagosomes. After ingestion of viable C. albicans by labeled cells, delivery of AO to phagosomes was highly suppressed (90%), and yet Thorotrast delivery was almost universal. After phagocytosis and 60 min of incubation, about 10 to 20% of the yeasts were killed, and a similar fraction of phagosomes was stained by the fluorescent marker. The evidence from Thorotrast transfer and assessment of yeast viability indicates that C. albicans largely resists intracellular killing by resident macrophages in the face of entirely uninhibited P-LF. We infer that AO must transfer to nearly all of the phagosomes but that it is evidently recognizable only in those in which the yeasts have been killed or possibly severely injured. This conclusion constitutes yet another limitation in the usefulness of AO for studying P-LF. Images PMID:3298062

  15. Evaluation of hybrid fusion 2+ approach for providing air-to-air situational awareness and threat assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangjin David; Wiesenfeld, Eric; Colony, Mike

    2006-05-01

    Modern combat aircraft pilots increasingly rely on high-level fusion models (JDL Levels 2/3) to provide real-time engagement support in hostile situations. These models provide both Situational Awareness (SA) and Threat Assessment (TA) based on data and the relationships between the data. This information represents two distinct classes of uncertainty: vagueness and ambiguity. To address the needs associated with modeling both of these types of data uncertainty, an innovative hybrid approach was recently introduced, combining probability theory and possibility theory into a unified computational framework. The goal of this research is to qualitatively and quantitatively address the advantages and disadvantages of adopting this hybrid framework as well as identifying instances in which the combined model outperforms or is more appropriate than more classical inference approaches. To accomplish this task, domain specific models will be developed using different theoretical approaches and conventions, and then evaluated in comparison to situational ground truth to determine their accuracy and fidelity. Additionally, the performance tradeoff between accuracy and complexity will be examined in terms of computational cost to determine both the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  16. Fed-batch production of recombinant human calcitonin precursor fusion protein using Staphylococcus carnosus as an expression-secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dilsen, S; Paul, W; Sandgathe, A; Tippe, D; Freudl, R; Thömmes, J; Kula, M R; Takors, R; Wandrey, C; Weuster-Botz, D

    2000-09-01

    A pH-auxostatic fed-batch process was developed for the secretory production of a fusion protein consisting of the pro-part of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and two synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) precursor repeats under the control of a xylose-inducible promotor from Staphylococcus xylosus. Using glycerol as the energy source and pH-controlled addition of yeast extract resulted in the production of 2000 mg 1(-1) of the fusion protein (420 mg 1(-1) of the recombinant hCT precursor) within 14 h, reaching 45 g 1(-1) cell dry mass with Staphylococcus carnosus in a stirred-tank reactor. Product titer and space-time yield (30 mg calcitonin precursor 1(-1) h(-1)) were thus improved by a factor of 2, and 4.5, respectively, compared to Escherichia coli expression-secretion systems for the production of calcitonin precursors. Two hundred grams of the fusion protein was secreted by the recombinant S. carnosus on a 150-1 scale (scale-up factor of 50) with a minimum use of technical-grade yeast extract (40 mg fusion protein g(-1) yeast extract). PMID:11030573

  17. Stochastic approximation methods for fusion-rule estimation in multiple sensor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.

    1994-06-01

    A system of N sensors S{sub 1}, S{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},S{sub N} is considered; corresponding to an object with parameter x {element_of} {Re}{sup d}, sensor S{sub i} yields output y{sup (i)}{element_of}{Re}{sup d} according to an unknown probability distribution p{sub i}(y{sup (i)}{vert_bar}x). A training l-sample (x{sub 1}, y{sub 1}), (x{sub 2}, y{sub 2}),{hor_ellipsis},(x{sub l}, y{sub l}) is given where y{sub i} = (y{sub i}({sup 1}), y{sub i}({sup 2}),{hor_ellipsis},y{sub i}({sup N}) and y{sub i}({sup j}) is the output of S{sub j} in response to input X{sub i}. The problem is to estimate a fusion rule f : {Re}{sup Nd} {yields} {Re}{sup d}, based on the sample, such that the expected square error I(f) = {integral}[x {minus} f(y{sup 1}, y{sup 2},{hor_ellipsis},y{sup N})]{sup 2} p(y{sup 1}, y{sup 2},{hor_ellipsis},y{sup N}){vert_bar}x)p(x)dy{sup 1}dy{sup 2} {hor_ellipsis} dy{sup N}dx is to be minimized over a family of fusion rules {lambda} based on the given l-sample. Let f{sub *} {element_of} {lambda} minimize I(f); f{sub *} cannot be computed since the underlying probability distributions are unknown. Three stochastic approximation methods are presented to compute {cflx f}, such that under suitable conditions, for sufficiently large sample, P[I{cflx f} {minus} I(f{sub *}) > {epsilon}] < {delta} for arbitrarily specified {epsilon} > 0 and {delta}, 0 < {delta} < 1. The three methods are based on Robbins-Monro style algorithms, empirical risk minimization, and regression estimation algorithms.

  18. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, T; Landoas, O; Briat, M; Kime, S; Rossé, B; Thfoin, I; Bourgade, J L; Disdier, L; Glebov, V Yu; Marshall, F J; Sangster, T C

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (~10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a (60)Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution. PMID:22462917

  19. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rossé, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.

    2012-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution (˜10 μm) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MégaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999), 10.1017/S0263034699173087]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a 60Co γ-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997), 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 μm were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  20. Interactive Scene Analysis Module - A sensor-database fusion system for telerobotic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Eric G.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Goode, Plesent W.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishing a task with telerobotics typically involves a combination of operator control/supervision and a 'script' of preprogrammed commands. These commands usually assume that the location of various objects in the task space conform to some internal representation (database) of that task space. The ability to quickly and accurately verify the task environment against the internal database would improve the robustness of these preprogrammed commands. In addition, the on-line initialization and maintenance of a task space database is difficult for operators using Cartesian coordinates alone. This paper describes the Interactive Scene' Analysis Module (ISAM) developed to provide taskspace database initialization and verification utilizing 3-D graphic overlay modelling, video imaging, and laser radar based range imaging. Through the fusion of taskspace database information and image sensor data, a verifiable taskspace model is generated providing location and orientation data for objects in a task space. This paper also describes applications of the ISAM in the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL) at NASA Langley Research Center, and discusses its performance relative to representation accuracy and operator interface efficiency.

  1. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are ; (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li/sub 2/O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO/sub 2//He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies.

  2. Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yosuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1994-12-01

    Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R/h. As a result, the observation limit of the imagefiber specially fabricated for radiation hard is obtained to be 12 MGy at a illuminance of 8500 lx. Deterioration of transmissivity of three kinds of glass (alkaline barium glass, lead glass and synthetic quartz glass) is small compared with standard glass for commercial periscope. A periscope which was made of these glasses is visible even after 20 MGy at 8500 lx and in case of the standard periscope, the observation limit is 1 kGy at 8500 lx. Decrease in the reflectance on chromium nitride coated reflecting mirror is extremely small than aluminum coated and platinum coated mirrors at accumulated dose of 100 MGy. Two types of adhesive made of polyester resin and epoxy resin became discolored and exfoliated after 50 MGy.

  3. The Gevaltig: An inertial fusion powered manned spacecraft design for outer solar system missions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.A.

    1989-10-01

    The Gevaltig is an inertial fusion powered rocket engine capable of manned missions to other planets with round trip mission times as low as 100 days. The Gevaltig design was previously described for a mission to Mars. This effort defines the spacecraft components in terms of mass and presents a mission analysis for a manned trip to Titan, a moon of Saturn. The Gevaltig component masses are provided as a function of fuel pellet ignition frequency. These variable mass components include the fuel tanks, radiators, structure and EM pumps. Fixed mass components include the drivers, coil, coil shield, power processing system, payload, crew shield and laser mirrors. A 6 MW nuclear reactor is included in the design for startup purposes. Various combinations of thrust, mission duration and specific impulse were evaluated to determine a reasonable mission scenario for the Titan mission. The mission analysis yielded several viable mission scenarios, with round trip durations of 370 to 500 days and initial (launch) masses from lunar orbit of 2500 to 20,000 metric tons. 15 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. A novel microfluidic system for the mass production of Inertial Fusion Energy shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    A system which can mass produce millimetre sized spherical polymer shells economically and with high precision will be a great step towards the Inertial Fusion Energy goal. Microfluidics has shown itself to be a disruptive technology, where a rapid and continuous production of compound emulsions can be processed into such shells. Planar emulsion generators co-flow-focus in one step (COFON) and cascaded co-flow- focus (COFUS) enable millimetre compound emulsions to be produced using a one or two step formation process respectively. The co-flow-focus geometry uses symmetric and curved carrier fluid entrance walls to create a focusing orifice-minima and a carrier flow which aids movement and shaping of the dispersed fluid(s) towards the outlet, whilst maintaining operation in the dripping regime. Precision concentric alignment of these compound emulsions remains one of the greatest challenges. However steps to solve this passively using curved channel modulation to perturbate the emulsion have shown that rapid alignment can be achieved. Issues with satellite droplet formation, repeatability of the emulsion generation and cost are also addressed.

  5. Overview and Status of the Space Weather System-Impact Products for the SSA Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SYAG/SED) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of the SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation will provide general overviews and status update of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2009.

  6. Development of a Prototype Lattice Boltzmann Code for CFD of Fusion Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pattison, Martin J; Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Dwivedi, Vinay

    2007-02-26

    Designs of proposed fusion reactors, such as the ITER project, typically involve the use of liquid metals as coolants in components such as heat exchangers, which are generally subjected to strong magnetic fields. These fields induce electric currents in the fluids, resulting in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces which have important effects on the flow. The objective of this SBIR project was to develop computational techniques based on recently developed lattice Boltzmann techniques for the simulation of these MHD flows and implement them in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the study of fluid flow systems encountered in fusion engineering. The code developed during this project, solves the lattice Boltzmann equation, which is a kinetic equation whose behaviour represents fluid motion. This is in contrast to most CFD codes which are based on finite difference/finite volume based solvers. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach which has a number of advantages compared with more conventional methods such as the SIMPLE or projection method algorithms that involve direct solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. These are that the LBM is very well suited to parallel processing, with almost linear scaling even for very large numbers of processors. Unlike other methods, the LBM does not require solution of a Poisson pressure equation leading to a relatively fast execution time. A particularly attractive property of the LBM is that it can handle flows in complex geometries very easily. It can use simple rectangular grids throughout the computational domain -- generation of a body-fitted grid is not required. A recent advance in the LBM is the introduction of the multiple relaxation time (MRT) model; the implementation of this model greatly enhanced the numerical stability when used in lieu of the single relaxation time model, with only a small increase in computer time. Parallel processing was implemented using MPI and demonstrated the

  7. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology. PMID:25804424

  8. Toward a fusion of optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging for poultry meat quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging poultry meat quality concern is associated with chicken breast fillets having an uncharacteristically hard or rigid feel (called the wooden breast condition). The cause of the wooden breast condition is still largely unknown, and there is no single objective evaluation method or system k...

  9. A novel multisensor traffic state assessment system based on incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Jiang, Yaoliang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system. PMID:25162055

  10. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination

  11. Analysis of the potential of the Tm/sup 3 +/:YLF:XeF laser system as a fusion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo, P.R.; Schlecht, R.; Verdun, H.R.

    1981-02-01

    The element thulium (Tm) in the yttrium lithium floride lattice (YLF) has an absorption band which corresponds to the output wavelength of the Xenon floride (XeF) laser. Its fluorescence is centered around 451 nm and lasing has been demonstrated at this wavelength. The decays which take place within the energy level structure appear to be primarily radiative so that there is potentially low heat loading in this solid. In addition since it is a crystal the heat conduction properties of YLF are quite good. At first glance this appears to be a very interesting system for fusion applications. This study will examine this particular RGH/SS system further to determine its suitability for fusion applications.

  12. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  13. OASIS: A Data Fusion System Optimized for Access to Distributed Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Kong, M.; Good, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    The On-Line Archive Science Information Services (OASIS) is accessible as a java applet through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive home page. It uses Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to provide data fusion and interaction services for astronomers. These services include the ability to process and display arbitrarily large image files, and user-controlled contouring, overlay regeneration and multi-table/image interactions. OASIS has been optimized for access to distributed archives and data sets. Its second release (June 2002) provides a mechanism that enables access to OASIS from "third-party" services and data providers. That is, any data provider who creates a query form to an archive containing a collection of data (images, catalogs, spectra) can direct the result files from the query into OASIS. Similarly, data providers who serve links to datasets or remote services on a web page can access all of these data with one instance of OASIS. In this was any data or service provider is given access to the full suite of capabilites of OASIS. We illustrate the "third-party" access feature with two examples: queries to the high-energy image datasets accessible from GSFC SkyView, and links to data that are returned from a target-based query to the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). The second release of OASIS also includes a file-transfer manager that reports the status of multiple data downloads from remote sources to the client machine. It is a prototype for a request management system that will ultimately control and manage compute-intensive jobs submitted through OASIS to computing grids, such as request for large scale image mosaics and bulk statistical analysis.

  14. Comparison of the Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Shan, Jian-Lin; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Results The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups. Conclusions Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD. PMID:26824851

  15. Decision fusion framework in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster Shafer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannian, Wang; Zhuangde, Jiang

    2005-01-01

    A decision fusion algorithm in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is proposed in this paper. To monitor the leakage and external damage, a new monitoring system is constructed with an optical fiber cable installed along the pipeline as a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) and a pair of pressure meters installed at the pipeline inlet and outlet. When leaking, the oil stream disturbs the cable and a negative-pressure wave originates which propagates to pipe inlet and outlet. The probability of leaking is evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of negative-pressure waves acquired at the inlet and outlet, and the location is pinpointed using the negative-pressure method. The optical fiber cable is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation/vibration caused by leaking, tampering, or mechanical impacting. An optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is employed to locate the additional attenuation and an optical power meter is employed to record the transmitted optical power. By using the D-S rule, features generated from the waveforms of optical power and negative-pressures are fused to make a decision about whether and where there is leakage and/or external damage.

  16. Space station data management system assessment methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Bahrs, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-aided modeling tool and methodology was developed and is currently being used to assess candidate designs for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS). The DMS will be a complex distributed computer system including processors, storage devices, local area networks, and software that will support all processing functions on board the Space Station. The methodology produces assessments of the performance, reliability, cost, and physical attributes of the candidate designs. This paper describes the architecture and design of the modeling tool and presents the modeling methodology.

  17. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  18. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.

    1995-09-17

    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 {micro}m from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 {micro}m within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system.

  19. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  20. The Fusion Model of Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on the Urban Traffic Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang-Dong; Wang, Tao

    On these issues unified representation of urban transport information using urban transport ontology, it defines the statute and the algebraic operations of semantic fusion in ontology level in order to achieve the fusion of urban traffic information in the semantic completeness and consistency. Thus this paper takes advantage of the semantic completeness of the ontology to build urban traffic ontology model with which we resolve the problems as ontology mergence and equivalence verification in semantic fusion of traffic information integration. Information integration in urban transport can increase the function of semantic fusion, and reduce the amount of data integration of urban traffic information as well enhance the efficiency and integrity of traffic information query for the help, through the practical application of intelligent traffic information integration platform of Changde city, the paper has practically proved that the semantic fusion based on ontology increases the effect and efficiency of the urban traffic information integration, reduces the storage quantity, and improve query efficiency and information completeness.

  1. Fusion of real-time simulation, sensing, and geo-informatics in assessing tsunami impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, S.; Inoue, T.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.; Gokon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bringing together state-of-the-art high-performance computing, remote sensing and spatial information sciences, we establish a method of real-time tsunami inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance disaster response. Right after a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, we perform a real-time tsunami inundation forecasting with use of high-performance computing platform (Koshimura et al., 2014). Using Tohoku University's vector supercomputer, we accomplished "10-10-10 challenge", to complete tsunami source determination in 10 minutes, tsunami inundation modeling in 10 minutes with 10 m grid resolution. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, we perform quantitative estimation of exposed population using census data and mobile phone data, and the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying tsunami fragility curve. After the potential tsunami-affected areas are estimated, the analysis gets focused and moves on to the "detection" phase using remote sensing. Recent advances of remote sensing technologies expand capabilities of detecting spatial extent of tsunami affected area and structural damage. Especially, a semi-automated method to estimate building damage in tsunami affected areas is developed using pre- and post-event high-resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. The method is verified through the case studies in the 2011 Tohoku and other potential tsunami scenarios, and the prototype system development is now underway in Kochi prefecture, one of at-risk coastal city against Nankai trough earthquake. In the trial operation, we verify the capability of the method as a new tsunami early warning and response system for stakeholders and responders.

  2. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  3. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  4. Measurements of fusion cross sections in the systems {sup 58,64}Ni +, {sup 78,86}Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the nuclear structure dependence of the sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion induced reactions by studying the systems {sup 58,64}Ni + {sup 78,86}Kr at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. These {sup 78,86}Kr selected because, similar to the Mo case discussed isotopes were above, there are strong changes in nuclear structure as a function of the neutron number. However, contrary to Mo, where the {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} of the nucleus increases with higher neutron number, the most collective nucleus for the Kr case is the neutron-deficient {sup 78}Kr. The experiment was performed with Kr beams from the positive-ion injector using enriched {sup 78,86}Kr gas in the ECR ion source. The separation of evaporation residues from the elastically-scattered particles was achieved by using their difference in time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The excitation functions for the four systems were compared to coupled-channels calculations including inelastic excitations of one- and two-phonon states in projectile and target. For systems involving {sup 86}Kr, good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, while for {sup 78}Kr + {sup 58,64}Ni an additional enhancement of the cross sections persisted at the lowest energies. It was found that this fusion enhancement correlates with the nuclear structure of the individual nucleus. Characterizing the structure of vibrational even-even nuclei by their restoring force parameter C{sub 2}, which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the associated B(E2) value, one observes that nuclei with small C{sub 2} values exhibit a large sub-barrier fusion enhancement, while nuclei with high values of C{sub 2} (usually closed-shell nuclei), show smaller fusion yields.

  5. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  6. An assessment of indoor geolocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progri, Ilir Fiqiri

    2003-10-01

    Currently there is a need to design, develop, and deploy autonomous and portable indoor geolocation systems to fulfil the needs of military, civilian, governmental and commercial customers where GPS and GLONASS signals are not available due to the limitations of both GPS and GLONASS signal structure designs. The goal of this dissertation is (1) to introduce geolocation systems; (2) to classify the state of the art geolocation systems; (3) to identify the issues with the state of the art indoor geolocation systems; and (4) to propose and assess four WPI indoor geolocation systems. It is assessed that the current GPS and GLONASS signal structures are inadequate to overcome two main design concerns; namely, (1) the near-far effect and (2)the multipath effect. We propose four WPI indoor geolocation systems as an alternative solution to near-far and multipath effects. The WPI indoor geolocation systems are (1) a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system, (2) a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, (3) a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, and (4) an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation system. Each system is researched, discussed, and analyzed based on its principle of operation, its transmitter, the indoor channel, and its receiver design and issues associated with obtaining an observable to achieve indoor navigation. Our assessment of these systems concludes the following. First, a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system is inadequate to neither overcome the near-far effect not mitigate cross-channel interference due to the multipath. Second, a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate for indoor positioning, with data rate up to 3.2 KBPS, pseudorange error, less than to 2 m and phase error less than 5 mm. Third, a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate to achieve similar or better navigation accuracy than a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system and data rate up to 5 MBPS. Fourth, an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation

  7. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  8. Considerations for selecting a dietary assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    The software available with some food composition databases allows for the dietary assessment of individuals and groups and may provide graphic comparisons of nutrient intakes to dietary standards. Four factors to consider when choosing a computerized dietary assessment system are availability of desired database features, efficiency of the search engine in finding foods in the database, educational value of the output, and cost of purchasing and updating the software. Printed output should clearly characterize dietary adequacy with graphs or simple tables. Dietary assessment data used for research must also be available in electronic spreadsheet format for statistical analysis. Peer-reviewed papers in journals that provide overviews of the features of various computerized dietary assessment software are helpful for informing the selection process. PMID:19337578

  9. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in

  10. Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

    1980-01-01

    A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

  11. Status of fusion research and implications for D/He-3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.

    1988-09-01

    World wide programs in both magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion research have made steady progress towards the experimental demonstration of energy breakeven. However, after breakeven is achieved, considerable time and effort must still be expended to develop a usable power plant. The main program described is focused on Deuterium-Tritium devices. In magnetic confinement, three of the most promising high beta approaches with a reasonable experimental data base are the Field Reversed Configuration, the high field tokamak, and the dense Z-pinch. The situation is less clear in inertial confinement where the first step requires an experimental demonstration of D/T spark ignition. It appears that fusion research has reached a point in time where an R and D plan to develop a D/He-3 fusion reactor can be laid out with some confidence of success.

  12. Status of fusion research and implications for D/He-3 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.

    1988-01-01

    World wide programs in both magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion research have made steady progress towards the experimental demonstration of energy breakeven. However, after breakeven is achieved, considerable time and effort must still be expended to develop a usable power plant. The main program described is focused on Deuterium-Tritium devices. In magnetic confinement, three of the most promising high beta approaches with a reasonable experimental data base are the Field Reversed Configuration, the high field tokamak, and the dense Z-pinch. The situation is less clear in inertial confinement where the first step requires an experimental demonstration of D/T spark ignition. It appears that fusion research has reached a point in time where an R and D plan to develop a D/He-3 fusion reactor can be laid out with some confidence of success.

  13. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  14. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H – referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner – diflavin reductase – by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI – a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  15. The negative triangularity tokamak: stability limits and prospects as a fusion energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. Yu.; Kikuchi, M.; Villard, L.; Takizuka, T.; Diamond, P.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Duan, X.; Wu, Y.; Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.; Fasoli, A.; Sauter, O.

    2015-06-01

    The paper discusses edge stability, beta limits and power handling issues for negative triangularity tokamaks. The edge magnetohydrodynamic stability is the most crucial item for power handling. For the case of negative triangularity the edge stability picture is quite different from that for conventional positive triangularity tokamaks: the second stability access is closed for localized Mercier/ballooning modes due to the absence of a magnetic well, and nearly internal kink modes set the pedestal height limit to be weakly sensitive to diamagnetic stabilization just above the margin of the localized mode Mercier criterion violation. While a negative triangularity tokamak is thought to have a low beta limit with its magnetic hill property, it is found that plasmas with reactor-relevant values of normalized beta βN > 3 can be stable to global kink modes without wall stabilization with appropriate core pressure profile optimization against localized mode stability, and also with increased magnetic shear in the outer half-radius. The beta limit is set by the n = 1 mode for the resulting flat pressure profile. The wall stabilization is very inefficient due to strong coupling between external and internal modes. The n > 1 modes are increasingly internal when approaching the localized mode limit, and set a lower beta in the case of the peaked pressure profile leading to a Mercier unstable core. With the theoretical predictions supported by experiments, a negative triangularity tokamak would become a prospective fusion energy system with other advantages including a larger separatrix wetted area, more flexible divertor configuration design, wider trapped particle-free scrape-off layer, lower background magnetic field for internal poloidal field coils, and larger pumping conductance from the divertor room.

  16. In vitro assessment of biodurability: acellular systems.

    PubMed Central

    de Meringo, A; Morscheidt, C; Thélohan, S; Tiesler, H

    1994-01-01

    The assessment of biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers is essential to the limitation of health hazards associated with human exposure to environments in which respirable fibers are present. In vitro acellular systems provide effective test methods of measuring fiber solubility provided care is taken to select the most suitable solvent and test conditions for the specific fiber type and dimension. PMID:7882955

  17. ASSESSING RISKS TO THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no standardized laboratory animal testing approach to assess the potential toxicity of chemicals to the developing immune system. The goal of this research is to apply a panel of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays to determine whether the developing (i.e., prenatal, n...

  18. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AFTERBURNER COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment of afterburner control systems (fume incinerators). It consisted of a review of available data and literature, and the planning of a subsequent experimental program, intended to consist of laboratory and/or field emission me...

  19. Accountability Systems: Performance Standards and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Mikala L.; Holmes, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    This monograph provides a status report on issues related to accountability, including standards and assessments, data systems, and the role of incentives for schools, teachers, and students in improving student achievement. Using information gathered from the literature and interviews with state administrators of vocational education, this paper…

  20. Rapid Training System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A systematic self-assessment mirrors quality system and certification models, thus making a strong argument for high-quality design, control, and management of the training function. Accomplished for the ongoing betterment of the function, not as a summative judgment of conformance, it discovers strengths and weaknesses and results in a common…

  1. State Systems Improvement Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document was developed by the Mid-South Regional Resource Center (MSRRC) and is designed to be used as an assessment of State systems by State Part B and Part C staff and their stakeholders. It provides a detailed process for State Education Agencies (SEA) and Lead Agencies (LA) to follow that will guide improvement efforts relative to the…

  2. Sub-Barrier Fusion in the HI + 208Pb Systems and Nuclear Potentials for Cluster Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Sagaidak, R.N.; Tretyakova, S.P.; Khlebnikov, S.V.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Rowley, N.

    2005-11-21

    Near-barrier fusion excitation functions for the 12,14C, 16,18O + 208Pb reactions have been analyzed in the framework of the barrier-passing model using different forms of the nuclear potential and the phenomenology of a fluctuating barrier. The best-fit fusion potentials were used to estimate cluster decay probabilities from the corresponding ground states of Ra and Th, i.e., for the inverse decay process. The analysis supports the 'alpha-decay-like' scenario for carbon and oxygen emission from these nuclei.

  3. A system for testing distributed information fusion applications for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehn, Hans; Happe, Jens; Guitouni, Adel; Valin, Pierre; Bossé, Éloi

    2008-03-01

    A PRECARN partnership project, called CanCoastWatch (CCW), is bringing together a team of researchers from industry, government, and academia for creating an advanced simulation test bed for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Network Enabled Operations in a Coastal Wide Area Surveillance situation. The test bed allows experimenting with higher-level distributed information fusion, dynamic resource management and configuration management given multiple constraints on the resources and their communications networks. The test bed provides general services that are useful for testing many fusion applications. This includes a multi-layer plug-and-play architecture, and a general multi-agent framework based on John Boyd's OODA loop.

  4. Concept for testing fusion first wall/blanket systems in existing nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-10-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment (except the 14 MeV neutron component) employing an existing nuclear facility is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of a test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module.

  5. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-03-03

    We have conducted parametric economic studies for heavy-ion-beam fusion electric power plants. We examined the effects on the cost of electricity of several design parameters: maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We found with reasonable assumptions on driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, a 2 to 3 GWe heavy-ion-beam fusion power plant, with a chamber pulse rate of 5 to 10 Hz, can be competitive with nuclear and coal power plants.

  6. Autonomous navigation vehicle system based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lihong; Chen, Yingsong; Cui, Zhouping

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of autonomous navigation vehicle based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion technology is expatiated in this paper. In order to acquire more intelligence and robustness, accurate real-time collection and processing of information are realized by using this technology. The method to achieve robot vision and multi-sensor fusion is discussed in detail. The results simulated in several operating modes show that this intelligent vehicle has better effects in barrier identification and avoidance and path planning. And this can provide higher reliability during vehicle running.

  7. Synchronization in a PLC/VAX-based control and data-acquisition system of a nuclear-fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Hemming, O. N.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Vitturi, S.

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes the concept and implementation details of the synchronization mechanisms used in the control and data-acquisition system of the RFX (Reversed-Field Experiment) nuclear-fusion experimental device, at present under construction in Padova, Italy, within the framework of the co-ordinated nuclear-fusion research programme of the European Communities. The system employs industrial PLCs for the "slow" control and monitoring functions, and a VAX-based CAMAC for the "fast" functions of trigger-signal generation and data acquisition during the experiment pulses. All subsystems communicative via Ethernet, using compatible software protocols. The operational sequence of the complete system is governed by a single state machine implemented on a PLC-based supervisor system. Equivalent "slave" state machines are implemented on all other subsystems (PLC-and VAX-based). These state machines are synchronized by means of the exchange of messages via Ethernet. This paper deals in detail with the following components which are involved in system synchronization: - the Message Exchange System which implements the system-wide exchange of short messages; - the Scheduler programs which implement the state machine on the various computing nodes, and which make use of the Message Exchange System.

  8. Results of the Development of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Dual Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro

    2009-03-10

    A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.

  9. Analytical Assessment of the Reciprocating Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddleman, David E.; Blackmon, James B.; Morton, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary analysis tool has been created in Microsoft Excel to determine deliverable payload mass, total system mass, and performance of spacecraft systems using various types of propellant feed systems. These mass estimates are conducted by inserting into the user interface the basic mission parameters (e.g., thrust, burn time, specific impulse, mixture ratio, etc.), system architecture (e.g., propulsion system type and characteristics, propellants, pressurization system type, etc.), and design properties (e.g., material properties, safety factors, etc.). Different propellant feed and pressurization systems are available for comparison in the program. This gives the user the ability to compare conventional pressure fed, reciprocating feed system (RFS), autogenous pressurization thrust augmentation (APTA RFS), and turbopump systems with the deliverable payload, inert mass, and total system mass being the primary comparison metrics. Analyses of several types of missions and spacecraft were conducted and it was found that the RFS offers a performance improvement, especially in terms of delivered payload, over conventional pressure fed systems. Furthermore, it is competitive with a turbopump system at low to moderate chamber pressures, up to approximately 1,500 psi. Various example cases estimating the system mass and deliverable payload of several types of spacecraft are presented that illustrate the potential system performance advantages of the RFS. In addition, a reliability assessment of the RFS was conducted, comparing it to simplified conventional pressure fed and turbopump systems, based on MIL-STD 756B; these results showed that the RFS offers higher reliability, and thus substantially longer periods between system refurbishment, than turbopump systems, and is competitive with conventional pressure fed systems. This is primarily the result of the intrinsic RFS fail-operational capability with three run tanks, since the system can operate with just two run

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS, USER GUIDE, GASEOUS EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user guide to the Gaseous Emissions Data System (GEDS), a computerized data base on gaseous emissions from stationary point sources. GEDS is one of four waste stream data bases which are components of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS). The EADS conc...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS USER GUIDE: SOLID DISCHARGE DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user guide to the Solid Discharge Data System (SDDS), a computerized data base on solid waste discharges from stationary point sources. The SDDS is one of four waste stream data bases which are components of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS). The EA...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS USER GUIDE: LIQUID EFFLUENTS DATA SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user guide to the Liquid Effluents Data System (LEDS), a computerized data base on liquid effluents (or wastewater) from stationary point sources. The LEDS is one of four waste stream data bases which are components of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EA...

  13. Hyperspectral and in situ data fusion for the steering of plant production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    Plant production systems are governed by biotic and a-biotic factors and by management practices. Some of the relevant parameters have already been identified and incorporated as inputs into existing models for production assessment, early-warning, and process management. These parameters originate nowadays primarily from in-situ measurements and observations. Non-invasive remotely sensed data, the diagnostic tools of excellence where it concerns the interaction of solar energy with biomass, have seldom been included and if so, mostly to support yield assessment and harvest monitoring only. The availability of new-generation hyperspectral/hypertemporal signatures will greatly facilitate their integration into full-fledged plant production model either via direct use, forcing, assimilation or re-initialization strategies. The main objective of IS-HS (Integration of In Situ data and HyperSpectral remote sensing for plant production modeling) is to set up a multidisciplinary research platform to deepen our system understanding and to develop production-oriented schemes to steer capital-intensive vegetation scenarios. Real-time steering in a 10-15 year timeframe is envisaged, where current system state is monitored, and steered towards an ideal state in terms of production quantity and quality. IS-HS focuses on hyperspectral sensor design, time series analysis tools for remote sensing data of vegetation systems, on the establishment of two stream communication between satellite and ground sensors, on the development of citrus plant production systems, and on the design of in-situ data sensor networks. The general framework of this system approach will be presented. In time, this integration should allow to cross the bridge from post-harvest assessment to near real-time potential and actual yield monitoring in terms of crop.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of a New Pedicle Screw-Plate System for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system. Methods A L3–S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4–L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes. Results All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4–L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems. Conclusions Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior

  15. A Substrate-Fusion Protein Is Trapped inside the Type III Secretion System Channel in Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Dohlich, Kim; Zumsteg, Anna Brotcke; Goosmann, Christian; Kolbe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC). The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion. PMID:24453973

  16. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  17. Evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamic Stabilization and Fusion System in the Lumbar Spine: A 10 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kashkoush, Ahmed; Agarwal, Nitin; Paschel, Erin; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The development of adjacent-segment disease is a recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Posterior dynamic stabilization, or motion preservation, techniques have been developed which theoretically decrease stress on adjacent segments following fusion. This study presents the experience of using a hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct for degenerative lumbar spine pathology in place of rigid arthrodesis. Methods: A clinical cohort investigation was conducted of 66 consecutive patients (31 female, 35 male; mean age: 53 years, range: 25 – 76 years) who underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation with the Dynesys Transition Optima (DTO) implant (Zimmer-Biomet Spine, Warsaw, IN) hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion system over a 10-year period. The median length of follow-up was five years. DTO consists of pedicle screw fixation coupled to a rigid rod as well as a flexible longitudinal connecting system. All patients had symptoms of back pain and neurogenic claudication refractory to non-surgical treatment. Patients underwent lumbar arthrodesis surgery in which the hybrid system was used for stabilization instead of arthrodesis of the stenotic adjacent level. Results: Indications for DTO instrumentation were primary degenerative disc disease (n = 52) and failed back surgery syndrome (n = 14). The most common dynamically stabilized and fused segments were L3-L4 (n = 37) and L5-S1 (n = 33), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (56%) underwent decompression at the dynamically stabilized level, and 57 patients (86%) had an interbody device placed at the level of arthrodesis. Complications during the follow-up period included a single case of screw breakage and a single case of pseudoarthrosis. Ten patients (15%) subsequently underwent conversion of the dynamic stabilization portion of their DTO instrumentation to rigid spinal arthrodesis. Conclusion: The DTO system represents a novel hybrid dynamic stabilization and fusion construct

  18. An approach to 3D model fusion in GIS systems and its application in a future ECDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Depeng; Pan, Mingyang

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics technology is widely used in various areas and causes profound changes. As an information carrier, 3D models are becoming increasingly important. The use of 3D models greatly helps to improve the cartographic expression and design. 3D models are more visually efficient, quicker and easier to understand and they can express more detailed geographical information. However, it is hard to efficiently and precisely fuse 3D models in local systems. The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic and precise approach to fuse 3D models in geographic information systems (GIS). It is the basic premise for subsequent uses of 3D models in local systems, such as attribute searching, spatial analysis, and so on. The basic steps of our research are: (1) pose adjustment by principal component analysis (PCA); (2) silhouette extraction by simple mesh silhouette extraction and silhouette merger; (3) size adjustment; (4) position matching. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system Automotive Intelligent Chart (AIC) 3D Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS). The fusion approach we propose is a common method and each calculation step is carefully designed. This approach solves the problem of cross-platform model fusion. 3D models can be from any source. They may be stored in the local cache or retrieved from Internet, or may be manually created by different tools or automatically generated by different programs. The system can be any kind of 3D GIS system.

  19. The development of a universal diagnostic probe system for Tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R.; Manos, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the largest such facility in the U.S., is discussed with respect to instrumentation in general and mechanisms in particular. The design philosophy and detailed implementation of a universal probe mechanism for TFTR is discussed.

  20. The energy dependence of fusion in the 9Be+ 28Si system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Hugi, M.; Lang, J.; Müller, R.; Ungricht, E.; Jankowski, K.; Zipper, W.; Jarczyk, L.; Strzałkowski, A.; Willim, G.; Witała, H.

    1980-04-01

    The angular distributions of the energy spectra of the light charged particles (p, d and α) from the 9Be + 28Si reaction have been measured in the energy range 12 ≦ Elab ≦ 30 MeV. The particle evaporation spectra and the angular distributions were analyzed with a spin dependent statistical model. Angular distributions of 9Be ions elastically scattered on 28Si have been measured at the energies 12 MeV, 17 MeV, 23 MeV and 30 MeV and were analysed, together with previously measured cross sections, with the optical model. The fusion cut-off angular momentum lfus( E), the fusion cross section σfus( E) and the ratio σfus/ σROM( E) were deduced. The excitation function for fusion was analyzed with the Glas and Mosel model. The parameters obtained from the fusion excitation function were compared with the corresponding ones from the 9Be + 28Si optical-model interaction potential.