Science.gov

Sample records for fusion technology soft

  1. Advances in fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2000-12-01

    The US fusion technology program is an essential element in the development of the knowledge base for an attractive fusion power source. The technology program incorporates both near and long term R&D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, ranges from hardware production to theory and modeling, contributes significantly to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies.

  2. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  3. Fusion technology status and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-26

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

  4. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown.

  5. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  6. A synthetic dataset for evaluating soft and hard fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Jacob L.; Hall, David L.; Rimland, Jeffrey

    2011-06-01

    There is an emerging demand for the development of data fusion techniques and algorithms that are capable of combining conventional "hard" sensor inputs such as video, radar, and multispectral sensor data with "soft" data including textual situation reports, open-source web information, and "hard/soft" data such as image or video data that includes human-generated annotations. New techniques that assist in sense-making over a wide range of vastly heterogeneous sources are critical to improving tactical situational awareness in counterinsurgency (COIN) and other asymmetric warfare situations. A major challenge in this area is the lack of realistic datasets available for test and evaluation of such algorithms. While "soft" message sets exist, they tend to be of limited use for data fusion applications due to the lack of critical message pedigree and other metadata. They also lack corresponding hard sensor data that presents reasonable "fusion opportunities" to evaluate the ability to make connections and inferences that span the soft and hard data sets. This paper outlines the design methodologies, content, and some potential use cases of a COIN-based synthetic soft and hard dataset created under a United States Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office (ARO). The dataset includes realistic synthetic reports from a variety of sources, corresponding synthetic hard data, and an extensive supporting database that maintains "ground truth" through logical grouping of related data into "vignettes." The supporting database also maintains the pedigree of messages and other critical metadata.

  7. Enabling Technology in Support of Fusion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes remarks made at Fusion Power Associates annual meeting, July 17, 2000 in San Diego. It describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Enegy Sciences programs in plasma and fusion technology in support of the U. S. fusion energy sciences program.

  8. Soft X-ray measurements in magnetic fusion plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Mazon, D.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.

    2010-11-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostic systems and their successful application in the field of magnetic fusion plasma physics are discussed. Radiation with wavelength in the region of Soft X-Ray (1-30 keV) is largely produced by high temperature plasmas, carrying important information on many processes during a plasma discharge. Soft X-ray diagnostics are largely used in various fusion devices all over the world. These diagnostic systems are able to obtain information on electron temperature, electron density, impurity transport, Magneto Hydro Dynamic instabilities. We will discuss the SXR diagnostic installed on FTU in Frascati (Italy) and on Tore Supra in Cadarache (France), with special emphasis on diagnostic performances. Moreover, we will discuss the two different inversion methods for tomographic reconstruction used in Frascati and in Cadarache, the first one is relied on a guessed topology of iso-emissivity surfaces, the second one on regularization techniques, like minimum Fisher or maximum entropy. Finally, a new and very fast 2D imaging system with energy discrimination and high time resolution will be summarized as an alternative approach of SXR detection system.

  9. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  10. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  11. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  12. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  14. Embedded Empiricisms in Soft Soil Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; John, L. M. S. Alvin; Adnan, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Civil engineers of today are continuously challenged by innovative projects that push further the knowledge boundaries with conceptual and/or ingenious solutions leading to the realization of that once was considered impossible in the realms of geotechnology. Some of the forward developments rely on empirical methods embedded within soft soil technology and the spectral realms of engineering in its entirety. Empiricisms unlike folklore are not always shrouded in mysticism but can find scientific reasoning to justify them being adopted in design and tangible construction projects. This lecture therefore is an outline exposition of how empiricism has been integrally embedded in total empirical beginnings in the evolution of soft soil technology from the Renaissance time, through the developments of soil mechanics in the 19th century which in turn has paved the way to the rise of computational soil mechanics. Developments in computational soil mechanics has always embraced and are founded on a wide backdrop of empirical geoenvironment simulations. However, it is imperative that a competent geotechnical engineer needs postgraduate training combined with empiricism that is based on years of well- winnowed practical experience to fathom the diverseness and complexity of nature. However, experience being regarded more highly than expertise can, perhaps inadvertently, inhibit development and innovation.

  15. rf coupler technology for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Radio frequency (rf) oscillations at critical frequencies have successfully provided a means to convey power to fusion plasmas due to the electrical-magnetic properties of the plasma. While large rf systems to couple power to the plasma have been designed, built, and tested, the main link to the plasma, the coupler, is still in an evolutionary stage of development. Design and fabrication of optimal antennas for fusion applications are complicated by incomplete characterizations of the harsh plasma environment and of coupling mechanisms. A brief description of rf coupler technology required for plasma conditions is presented along with an assessment of the status and goals of coupler development.

  16. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  17. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, Glen A.

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  18. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  19. Gene Fusions in Soft Tissue Tumors: Recurrent and Overlapping Pathogenetic Themes

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Fredrik; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Mitelman, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Gene fusions have been described in approximately one-third of soft tissue tumors (STT); of the 142 different fusions that have been reported, more than half are recurrent in the same histologic subtype. These gene fusions constitute pivotal driver mutations, and detailed studies of their cellular effects have provided important knowledge about pathogenetic mechanisms in STT. Furthermore, most fusions are strongly associated with a particular histotype, serving as ideal molecular diagnostic markers. In recent years, it has also become apparent that some chimeric proteins, directly or indirectly, constitute excellent treatment targets, making the detection of gene fusions in STT ever more important. Indeed, pharmacological treatment of STT displaying fusions that activate protein kinases, such as ALK and ROS1, or growth factors, such as PDGFB, is already in clinical use. However, the vast majority (52/78) of recurrent gene fusions create structurally altered and/or deregulated transcription factors, and a small but growing subset develops through rearranged chromatin regulators. The present review provides an overview of the spectrum of currently recognized gene fusions in STT, and, on the basis of the protein class involved, the mechanisms by which they exert their oncogenic effect are discussed. PMID:26684580

  20. Higgs boson production via gluon fusion: Soft-gluon resummation including mass effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Timo; Spira, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We analyze soft and collinear gluon resummation effects at the N3LL level for Standard Model Higgs boson production via gluon fusion g g →H and the neutral scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons of the minimal supersymmetric extension at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log (N3LL ) and next-to-next-to-leading-log (NNLL) level, respectively. We introduce refinements in the treatment of quark mass effects and subleading collinear gluon effects within the resummation. Soft and collinear gluon resummation effects amount to up to about 5% beyond the fixed-order results for scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs boson production.

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  2. Homeland security application of the Army Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion (STEF) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2010-04-01

    A fusion system that accommodates both text-based extracted information along with more conventional sensor-derived input has been developed and demonstrated in a terrorist attack scenario as part of the Empire Challenge (EC) 09 Exercise. Although the fusion system was developed to support Army military analysts, the system, based on a set of foundational fusion principles, has direct applicability to department of homeland security (DHS) & defense, law enforcement, and other applications. Several novel fusion technologies and applications were demonstrated in EC09. One such technology is location normalization that accommodates both fuzzy semantic expressions such as behind Library A, across the street from the market place, as well as traditional spatial representations. Additionally, the fusion system provides a range of fusion products not supported by traditional fusion algorithms. Many of these additional capabilities have direct applicability to DHS. A formal test of the fusion system was performed during the EC09 exercise. The system demonstrated that it was able to (1) automatically form tracks, (2) help analysts visualize behavior of individuals over time, (3) link key individuals based on both explicit message-based information as well as discovered (fusion-derived) implicit relationships, and (4) suggest possible individuals of interest based on their association with High Value Individuals (HVI) and user-defined key locations.

  3. Soft Technologies, Hard Choices. Worldwatch Paper 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    The infusion of technology into society has created social and environmental problems as well as benefits. Four concerns linked with technology are discussed in this paper: rising unemployment, growing social inequalities, dwindling oil and gas reserves, and potential long-term ecological problems. Indiscriminate transfer of modern labor-saving…

  4. Human cognitive and perceptual factors in JDL level 4 hard/soft data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Utilization of human participants as "soft sensors" is becoming increasingly important for gathering information related to a wide range of phenomena including natural and man-made disasters, environmental changes over time, crime prevention, and other roles of the "citizen scientist." The ubiquity of advanced mobile devices is facilitating the role of humans as "hybrid sensor platforms", allowing them to gather data (e.g. video, still images, GPS coordinates), annotate it based on their intuitive human understanding, and upload it using existing infrastructure and social networks. However, this new paradigm presents many challenges related to source characterization, effective tasking, and utilization of massive quantities of physical sensor, human-based, and hybrid hard/soft data in a manner that facilitates decision making instead of simply amplifying information overload. In the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model, "level 4" fusion is a meta-process that attempts to improve performance of the entire fusion system through effective source utilization. While there are well-defined approaches for tasking and categorizing physical sensors, these methods fall short when attempting to effectively utilize a hybrid group of physical sensors and human observers. While physical sensor characterization can rely on statistical models of performance (e.g. accuracy, reliability, specificity, etc.) under given conditions, "soft" sensors add the additional challenges of characterizing human performance, tasking without inducing bias, and effectively balancing strengths and weaknesses of both human and physical sensors. This paper addresses the challenges of the evolving human-centric fusion paradigm and presents cognitive, perceptual, and other human factors that help to understand, categorize, and augment the roles and capabilities of humans as observers in hybrid systems.

  5. Improved GSO Optimized ESN Soft-Sensor Model of Flotation Process Based on Multisource Heterogeneous Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process. PMID:24982935

  6. Improved GSO optimized ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process based on multisource heterogeneous information fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process. PMID:24982935

  7. Advanced control strategies for HVAC&R systems—An overview: Part II: Soft and fusion control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-04-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for HVAC&R is presented. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and the fusion or hybrid of hard and soft control techniques. Part I focused on hardcontrol strategies; Part II focuses on soft and fusion control and some future directions in HVA&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  8. Analysis of human soft palate morphogenesis supports regional regulation of palatal fusion.

    PubMed

    Danescu, Adrian; Mattson, Melanie; Dool, Carly; Diewert, Virginia M; Richman, Joy M

    2015-10-01

    It is essential to complete palate closure at the correct time during fetal development, otherwise a serious malformation, cleft palate, will ensue. The steps in palate formation in humans take place between the 7th and 12th week and consist of outgrowth of palatal shelves from the paired maxillary prominences, reorientation of the shelves from vertical to horizontal, apposition of the medial surfaces, formation of a bilayered seam, degradation of the seam and bridging of mesenchyme. However, in the soft palate, the mechanism of closure is unclear. In previous studies it is possible to find support for both fusion and the alternative mechanism of merging. Here we densely sample the late embryonic-early fetal period between 54 and 74 days post-conception to determine the timing and mechanism of soft palate closure. We found the epithelial seam extends throughout the soft palates of 57-day specimens. Cytokeratin antibody staining detected the medial edge epithelium and distinguished clearly that cells in the midline retained their epithelial character. Compared with the hard palate, the epithelium is more rapidly degraded in the soft palate and only persists in the most posterior regions at 64 days. Our results are consistent with the soft palate following a developmentally more rapid program of fusion than the hard palate. Importantly, the two regions of the palate appear to be independently regulated and have their own internal clocks regulating the timing of seam removal. Considering data from human genetic and mouse studies, distinct anterior-posterior signaling mechanisms are likely to be at play in the human fetal palate. PMID:26299693

  9. Fusion of Single View Soft k-NN Classifiers for Multicamera Human Action Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilla, Rodrigo; Patricio, Miguel A.; Berlanga, Antonio; Molina, Jose M.

    This paper presents two different classifier fusion algorithms applied in the domain of Human Action Recognition from video. A set of cameras observes a person performing an action from a predefined set. For each camera view a 2D descriptor is computed and a posterior on the performed activity is obtained using a soft classifier. These posteriors are combined using voting and a bayesian network to obtain a single belief measure to use for the final decision on the performed action. Experiments are conducted with different low level frame descriptors on the IXMAS dataset, achieving results comparable to state of the art 3D proposals, but only performing 2D processing.

  10. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  11. Enhancement of Data Analysis Through Multisensor Data Fusion Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-sensor data fusion is an emerging technology that fuses data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection. Applications of multi-sensor data fusion cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas. With the rapid e...

  12. Implementing MEMS technology for soft, (bio)electronics interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Alessia; Hofmeister, Yannick; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2014-06-01

    Soft, bioelectronics interfaces are broadly defined as microfabricated devices with mechanical properties suited to comply with biological tissues. There are many challenges associated with the development of such technology platforms. Simultaneously one must achieve reliable electronic performance, thermal and environmental stability, mechanical compliance, and biocompatibility. Materials and system architecture must be designed such that mechanical integrity and electrical functionality is preserved during fabrication, implementation and use of the interface. Depositing and patterning conventional device materials, ranging from inorganic to organic thin films as well as nanomaterials, directly onto soft elastomeric substrates enable electronic devices with enhanced mechanical flexibility. Success in fabrication also relies on a careful design of the mechanical architecture of the soft interface to minimize mechanical stresses in the most fragile materials.

  13. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  14. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  15. SUMO fusion technology for difficult-to-express proteins.

    PubMed

    Butt, Tauseef R; Edavettal, Suzanne C; Hall, John P; Mattern, Michael R

    2005-09-01

    The demands of structural and functional genomics for large quantities of soluble, properly folded proteins in heterologous hosts have been aided by advancements in the field of protein production and purification. Escherichia coli, the preferred host for recombinant protein expression, presents many challenges which must be surmounted in order to over-express heterologous proteins. These challenges include the proteolytic degradation of target proteins, protein misfolding, poor solubility, and the necessity for good purification methodologies. Gene fusion technologies have been able to improve heterologous expression by overcoming many of these challenges. The ability of gene fusions to improve expression, solubility, purification, and decrease proteolytic degradation will be discussed in this review. The main disadvantage, cleaving the protein fusion, will also be addressed. Focus will be given to the newly described SUMO fusion system and the improvements that this technology has advanced over traditional gene fusion systems. PMID:16084395

  16. Interactions between fusion materials R&D and other technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, A.; Seki, M.; Abe, K.; Muroga, T.; Matsui, H.; Jitsukawa, S.; Matsuda, S.

    2000-12-01

    The importance of interactions between fusion materials research and development (R&D) and other technologies is emphasized to make attractive and realistic fusion technology integration activities. The focuses are on: (1) materials design and processing, (2) safety issues relating to materials and (3) material performance evaluation methodologies, including 14 MeV neutron source utilization for fusion material R&D. As typical examples, material design activities on reduced activation ferritic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composite materials are provided. The safety assessment of reactor systems and reactor design code consideration including prediction methodologies of materials performance are also discussed.

  17. Remote maintenance for fusion: Requirements vs technology gap

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.C.; Kuban, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Today's remote handling technology was developed in response to the remote maintenance (RM) requirements of the fission community's nuclear fuel recycle process. The needs of the fusion community present new challenges to the remote handling experts of the world. New difficulties are superimposed on the difficulties experienced in maintaining fission processes. Today's technology must be enhanced to respond to the RM needs of these future huge investments. This paper first discusses the current RM needs for fusion based on existing facilities and designs of future machines. It then exposes the gap between these requirements and existing RM technology and recommends ways to extend the state of the art to close this gap.

  18. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  19. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  20. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  1. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  2. Critical Fusion--Technology and Equity in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the first year of a formative, external program evaluation of the Critical Fusion Initiative (CFI), which involved a higher education institution, a public high school, a corporation, and two nonprofit organizations. The initiative fused technology and education to address the issue of equity by assisting 16 high school…

  3. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  4. Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.K.; Doggett, J.N.

    1982-07-15

    The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design.

  5. Fc fusion as a platform technology: potential for modulating immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ditza; Golding, Basil; Strome, Scott E; Sauna, Zuben E

    2015-01-01

    The platform technology of fragment crystallizable (Fc) fusion, in which the Fc region of an antibody is genetically linked to an active protein drug, is among the most successful of a new generation of bioengineering strategies. Immunogenicity is a critical safety concern in the development of any protein therapeutic. While the therapeutic goal of generating Fc-fusion proteins has been to extend half-life, there is a critical mass of literature from immunology indicating that appropriate design of the Fc component has the potential to engage the immune system for product-specific outcomes. In the context of Fc-fusion therapeutics, a review of progress in understanding Fc biology suggests the prospect of engineering products that have an extended half-life and are able to modulate the immune system. PMID:25488117

  6. Calculations of ( n, α) Cross Sections on Some Structural Fusion Materials for Fusion Reactor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Tanır, G.

    2013-06-01

    The knowledge of cross section for emission of light charged particles ( p, d, t, and α) induced by fast neutrons on structural fusion materials has a critical importance on fusion reactors. The gas production arising from ( n, p) and ( n, α) reactions causes seriously radiation damage in fusion reactor structure. The radiation damage in fusion related materials is a large problem need to be overcome for development of fusion reactor technology. Particularly, the ( n, α) reaction cross section data are required to estimation of the radiation damage effects on structural fusion materials. Therefore, the cross section data for ( n, α) reaction induced by fast neutrons are of increasing importance for the success of future fusion reactors. In this study, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of neutron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as 29 Si, 30 Si, 48 Ti, 50 Ti, 50 Cr, 54 Cr, 54 Fe and 58 Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 29 Si ( n, α) 26 Mg, 30 Si ( n, α) 27 Mg, 48 Ti ( n, α) 45 Ca, 50 Ti ( n, α) 47 Ca, 50 Cr ( n, α) 47 Ti, 54 Cr ( n, α) 51 Ti, 54 Fe ( n, α) 51 Cr and 58 Fe ( n, α) 55 Cr have been carried out for incident neutron energies up to 30 MeV. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects for ( n, α) reactions have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects of the excitation functions for the investigated reactions are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, α) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other.

  7. Neutron measurements for biomedical and fusion technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barschall, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of reaction cross sections of neutrons of energy above 5 MeV yield important information about reaction mechanisms. The main impetus for such measurements has, however, recently come from applications. Measurements on light elements are needed for neutron dosimetry, primarily for radiotherapy. Measurements on heavier nuclides provide information for fusion technology, both for the assessment of radiation damage and for the management of radioactive wastes.

  8. The need for a fusion technology information program

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    In providing an adequate energy technology for the future, which new programs should be considered by the Department of Energy national laboratories to ensure that the US remains in the forefront of international science and technology is an important question. This paper suggests that the urgency for energy independence demands an active communication program that would increase awareness of energy as a critical national issue and would present fusion, with its benefits and risks, as one of the long-term alternative energy sources.

  9. Soft Skills for Information Technology Professionals in Recruitment Advertisements: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research…

  10. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  11. Visual detection, recognition, and classification of surface-buried UXO based on soft-computing decision fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Rababaah, Haroun

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the problem of visual inspection, recognition, and discrimination of UXO based on computer vision techniques and introduced three complimentary color, texture, and shape classifiers. The proposed technique initially enhances an image taken from an UXO site and removes terrain background. Next, it applies a blob detector to detect the salient objects of the environment. The UXO classification begins with a perceptive color classifier that classifies the found salient objects based on their color hues. The color classifier attempts to differentiate and classify the color of salient objects based on the color hue information of some known UXO objects in the database. A color ranking scheme is applied for ranking color hue likelihood of the salient objects in the environment. Next, an intuitive texture classifier is applied to characterize the surface texture of the salient objects. The texture signature is used to disjointedly discriminate objects whose surface texture properties matching the priori known UXO textures. Lasting, an intuitive Object Shape Classifier is applied to independently arbitrate the classification of the UXO. Three soft computing methods were developed for robust decision fusion of three UXO feature classifiers. These soft computing techniques include: a statistical-based genetic algorithm, a hamming neural network, and a fuzzy logic algorithm. In this paper, we present details of the UXO feature classifiers and discuss the performance of three decision fusion methods for fusion of results from the three UXO feature classifiers. The main contributing factor of this work is toward designing an ultimate fully-automated tele-robotic system for UXO classification and decontamination.

  12. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics and development and technology at GA Technologies, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overskei, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    Research carried out by GA for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy provides key information and insight necessary for the development of fusion power systems. Highlights of the fusion theory effort described in this report include progress in numerical simulations of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas, extension of novel theories of the H-mode, development and application of advanced codes for evaluating ECRF current drive efficiency, and new understanding and techniques for dealing with high beta tokamak equilibria. Experimental plasma research efforts are addresssing several important issues in fusion research. Neutron and alpha particle spectroscopy and triton confinement diagnostics are being developed to enable fusion researchers to understand alpha particle confinement and slowdown in burning plasmas. Development of Li beam diagnostic systems continued and has shown a capability for measuring both magnetic field pitch angle and relative current density profiles. Experiments on Ergodic Magnetic Divertor (EMD) phenomena on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) continued to demonstrate low plasma edge temperatures and impurity reduction that make the concept attractive for reactor applications. GA led efforts continuing the Resonant Island Divertor (RID) experiments on TEXT using the EMD as a controlled magnetic perturbation. Research carried out in GA's Development and Technology programs included reactor systems design studies, and development of ferritic steels suitable for use as a structural material in fusion reactors. In the reactor systems design area, GA participated in the TITAN Reserved Field Pinch (RFP) Reactor Design Study. GA is responsible for project operation, safety design and analysis, and blanket shield neutronics calculations for this study.

  13. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  14. Soft, cutting edge of environmentalism: why and how the appropriate-technology notion is changing the movement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    The central theme of hard, or centralized, technology versus soft, or small and disperse, technology is traced through two stages of development that the author terms enthusiasm and realism. The overlap between the environmental movement and the soft-technology movement has given the appropriate-technology movement a broad base of ideological support. Soft-technology thinking in environmentalism is broadening its concerns. This trend tends to increase what to date has been environmentalism's rather marginal relevance and legitimacy in the original and still-central domain of the soft-technolgoy movement, namely the developing countries. The small is beautiful concept will force environmentalists to question their commitments to political ideologies as well as environmentalism when faced with achieving environmental reform in the context of achieving greater social equity through redistribution. According to the author, the soft-technology vision of transformation to a soft society is the cutting edge of thought in environmentalism. 45 footnotes, 1 table. (SAC)

  15. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  16. Use of the 810 nm diode laser: soft tissue management and orthodontic applications of innovative technology.

    PubMed

    Sarver, David M

    2006-10-01

    Innovative technologies such as the diode laser have provided considerable benefit to dental patients and professionals. Facilitating efficient cutting of tissue and subsequent coagulation, the soft tissue laser enhances tissue healing and can reduce postsurgical complications. Due to the conservative nature of treatment accomplished with the laser this technology is very useful in orthodontic procedures. The diode laser is utilized in both esthetic enhancement of the smile, and treatment management of soft tissue issues that impede efficient orthodontic treatment. Its clinical application will be illustrated in a series of orthodontic cases. PMID:17139948

  17. Comparison of SUMO fusion technology with traditional gene fusion systems: enhanced expression and solubility with SUMO.

    PubMed

    Marblestone, Jeffrey G; Edavettal, Suzanne C; Lim, Yiting; Lim, Peter; Zuo, Xun; Butt, Tauseef R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous gene fusion systems, recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli remains difficult. Establishing the best fusion partner for difficult-to-express proteins remains empirical. To determine which fusion tags are best suited for difficult-to-express proteins, a comparative analysis of the newly described SUMO fusion system with a variety of commonly used fusion systems was completed. For this study, three model proteins, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP13), and myostatin (growth differentiating factor-8, GDF8), were fused to the C termini of maltose-binding protein (MBP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), thioredoxin (TRX), NUS A, ubiquitin (Ub), and SUMO tags. These constructs were expressed in E. coli and evaluated for expression and solubility. As expected, the fusion tags varied in their ability to produce tractable quantities of soluble eGFP, MMP13, and GDF8. SUMO and NUS A fusions enhanced expression and solubility of recombinant proteins most dramatically. The ease at which SUMO and NUS A fusion tags were removed from their partner proteins was then determined. SUMO fusions are cleaved by the natural SUMO protease, while an AcTEV protease site had to be engineered between NUS A and its partner protein. A kinetic analysis showed that the SUMO and AcTEV proteases had similar KM values, but SUMO protease had a 25-fold higher kcat than AcTEV protease, indicating a more catalytically efficient enzyme. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SUMO is superior to commonly used fusion tags in enhancing expression and solubility with the distinction of generating recombinant protein with native sequences. PMID:16322573

  18. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  19. Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, J. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Mcbride, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more effective impact attenuation devices justify a renewal of the landing technology development effort that existed during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. A study was performed to evaluate the current and projected national capability in landing systems and to identify critical deficiencies in the technology base required to support the Assured Crew Return Vehicle and the Two-Way Manned Transportation System. A technology development program covering eight landing system performance issues is recommended.

  20. Enhancement of data analysis through multisensor data fusion technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates...

  1. Fusion technology development: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The overall objective of the General Atomics (GA) fusion technology development program is the advancement of the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, the authors carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies and materials needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these materials and technologies. GA`s fusion technology development program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the current DIII-D program and facility. The following sections summarize GA`s FY98 work done in the areas of Fusion Power Plan Design Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), Radiation Testing of ITER Magnetic Coil (Section 4), RF Technology (Section 5), Advanced Liquid Plasma Facing Surfaces (Section 6), and Advanced Power Extraction Study (Section 7). The work in these areas continues to address many of the issues that must be resolved for the successful construction and operation of next-generation experiments and, ultimately, the development of safe, reliable, economic fusion power plants.

  2. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  3. Softly, Softly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs and on their…

  4. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  5. Synthesizing Soft Systems Methodology and Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Glen; Winiecki, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Human performance technology (HPT), like other concepts, models, and frameworks that we use to describe the world in which we live and the way we organize ourselves to accomplish valuable activities, is built from paradigms that were fresh and relevant at the time it was conceived and from the fields of study from which it grew. However, when the…

  6. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-23

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  7. Single crystal artificial diamond detectors for VUV and soft X-rays measurements on JET thermonuclear fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Coffey, I.; Murari, A.; Tartoni, N.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2010-11-01

    Diamond appears to be a promising material for VUV and soft X-ray radiation detection. Its wide band-gap (5.5 eV) results in a very low leakage current (it can operate above room temperature) and its electronic properties (high carrier mobility) allow a fast time response. More importantly, it is optimally suited for harsh environment applications, like those in the JET Tokamak located at the Culham laboratory (UK). Its extreme radiation hardness is well known and another interesting feature, again related to the wide band-gap, is its selective sensitivity to radiation with wavelengths shorter than 225 nm (visible-blind detectors).We report on the performances of two photodetectors based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) single crystal diamonds, one optimized for extreme UV detection, the other for soft X-ray radiation detection in the 0.8-8 keV range. These detectors have been fabricated at Roma "Tor Vergata" University using a p-type/intrinsic/metal configuration and they behave like photodiodes allowing operation with no external applied voltage. They have been installed on JET inside a vacuum chamber with a direct horizontal view of JET plasma without any wavelength selection. Their low thickness, low sensitivity to gamma ray and the unbiased operation mode make both detectors ideal for a Tokamak environment. The measurements routinely performed at JET show a low intrinsic dark current (˜0.01 pA) and very high signal to noise ratio (50 dB). Both detectors show a fast response and their signals are acquired using an electronic chain and ADC able to operate at 200 kHz, providing very interesting results for MHD and Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) instability studies on fusion plasmas.

  8. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  9. Soft computing-based terrain visual sensing and data fusion for unmanned ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we have primarily discussed technical challenges and navigational skill requirements of mobile robots for traversability path planning in natural terrain environments similar to Mars surface terrains. We have described different methods for detection of salient terrain features based on imaging texture analysis techniques. We have also presented three competing techniques for terrain traversability assessment of mobile robots navigating in unstructured natural terrain environments. These three techniques include: a rule-based terrain classifier, a neural network-based terrain classifier, and a fuzzy-logic terrain classifier. Each proposed terrain classifier divides a region of natural terrain into finite sub-terrain regions and classifies terrain condition exclusively within each sub-terrain region based on terrain visual clues. The Kalman Filtering technique is applied for aggregative fusion of sub-terrain assessment results. The last two terrain classifiers are shown to have remarkable capability for terrain traversability assessment of natural terrains. We have conducted a comparative performance evaluation of all three terrain classifiers and presented the results in this paper.

  10. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Kumar, D.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ˜ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements.

  11. Data processing for soft X-ray diagnostics based on GEM detector measurements for fusion plasma imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement system based on GEM - Gas Electron Multiplier detector is developed for X-ray diagnostics of magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. The Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (T-GEM) is presented as soft X-ray (SXR) energy and position sensitive detector. The paper is focused on the measurement subject and describes the fundamental data processing to obtain reliable characteristics (histograms) useful for physicists. So, it is the software part of the project between the electronic hardware and physics applications. The project is original and it was developed by the paper authors. Multi-channel measurement system and essential data processing for X-ray energy and position recognition are considered. Several modes of data acquisition determined by hardware and software processing are introduced. Typical measuring issues are deliberated for the enhancement of data quality. The primary version based on 1-D GEM detector was applied for the high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer KX1 in the JET tokamak. The current version considers 2-D detector structures initially for the investigation purpose. Two detector structures with single-pixel sensors and multi-pixel (directional) sensors are considered for two-dimensional X-ray imaging. Fundamental output characteristics are presented for one and two dimensional detector structure. Representative results for reference source and tokamak plasma are demonstrated.

  12. Fusion bonding of non-pressurized process piping: A new technology and a new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.J.; Pinder, R.

    1996-07-01

    Perhaps the best-known method of thermoplastic fusion bonding for process piping is hot-plate or heated-tool butt welding. Despite the age of this method and the considerable research available on the subject, in practice, this method of heat fusion relies largely on the skill and knowledge of the machine operator. Hence, the quality of the completed fusion bond is largely dependent on human factors. Another method for joining thermoplastic process piping with heat fusion has been through the use of electrofusion fittings or couplings. A sleeve with an embedded resistance wire is slipped onto mating pipe ends, and welding takes place by electrically heating the resistance wire and forming a molecular bond on the outside surface of the mated pipes. While butt welding tends to rely heavily on the knowledge and experience of the machine operator, electrofusion fittings tend to rely more on automated mechanisms such as the software in the computerized fusion box. An alternative form of thermoplastic welding that employs the features of both butt welding and electrofusion couplings has recently been developed. This unique method employs the principles of electrofusion for performing butt welding. The authors have successfully demonstrated this technology at a major US chemical manufacturer`s facility to produce reliable, leak-tight fusion joints in non-pressurized, process piping applications. Research and practical experience were blended to provide consistent fusion quality based on monitoring key fusion parameters, while still relying on the experience and training of a fusion operator.

  13. An oncogenic NTRK fusion in a soft tissue sarcoma patient with response to the tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) inhibitor LOXO-101

    PubMed Central

    Doebele, Robert C.; Davis, Lara E.; Vaishnavi, Aria; Le, Anh T.; Estrada-Bernal, Adriana; Keysar, Stephen; Jimeno, Antonio; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Aisner, Dara L.; Li, Yali; Stephens, Philip J.; Morosini, Deborah; Tuch, Brian B.; Fernandes, Michele; Nanda, Nisha; Low, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic TRK fusions induce cancer cell proliferation and engage critical cancer-related downstream signaling pathways. These TRK fusions occur rarely, but in a diverse spectrum of tumor histologies. LOXO-101 is an orally administered inhibitor of the TRK kinase, and is highly selective only for the TRK family of receptors. Preclinical models of LOXO-101 using TRK-fusion bearing human-derived cancer cell lines demonstrate inhibition of the fusion oncoprotein and cellular proliferation in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. The tumor of a 41-year old woman with soft tissue sarcoma metastatic to lung was found to harbor an LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion encoding a functional LMNA-TRKA fusion oncoprotein as determined by an in situ proximity ligation assay. On a phase 1 study of LOXO-101 (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02122913), this patient’s tumors underwent rapid and substantial tumor regression, with an accompanying improvement in pulmonary dyspnea, oxygen saturation and plasma tumor markers. PMID:26216294

  14. Review of progress on fusion materials technology, Harwell, December 1980. Irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, D. R.

    1981-03-01

    The evolution of the radiation damage structure, void and gas bubble swelling, and surface blistering effects in both model and potential first wall materials for a D-T fusion reactor system of the TOKAMAK type was investigated along with radiation effects in inorganic insulator materials. In addition, investigations were carried out into the effects of irradiation on organic insulators and on the performance of rubber seals. The principal achievements are summarized and a list of 50 references is given.

  15. The Fusion of Learning Theory and Technology in an Online Music History Course Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, Blase; Garcia, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Teaching today's students requires an integration of learner-centered pedagogy with innovative technological resources. In this article, Blase Scarnati and Paula Garcia describe the redesign of a junior-level music history course guided by learner-centered principles and driven by a fusion of stimulating technology-based learning tools and…

  16. Argonne National Laboratory contributions to the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A total of sixteen papers with authors from Argonne National Laboratory were presented at the First International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT), held in Tokyo, Japan, in April 1988. The papers cover the results of recent investigations in blanket design and analysis, fusion neutronics, materials experiments in liquid metal corrosion and solid breeders, tritium recovery analysis, experiments and analysis for liquid metal MHD, reactor safety and economic analysis, and transient electromagnetic analysis.

  17. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  18. Fusion protein technologies for biopharmaceuticals: Applications and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sven; Lowe, Peter; Tesar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Stefan R. Schmidt consolidates the hugely diverse field of fusion proteins and their application in the creation of biopharmaceuticals. The text is replete with case studies and clinical data that inform and intrigue the reader as to the myriad possibilities available when considering the creation of a fusion protein. This valuable text will serve the novice as a broad introduction or the seasoned professional as a thorough review of the state of the art. The first marketed therapeutic recombinant protein was human insulin (Humulin® R). Its approval in 1982 was followed by other such products, including erythropoietin (EPO), interferon (IFN), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPa). Since the 1980s, the number and general availability of recombinant products that replace natural proteins harvested from animal or human sources has increased considerably. Following the initial success, researchers started de novo designs of therapeutic proteins that do not occur in nature. The first of these new drugs to be approved was etanercept (Enbrel®), a fusion portion containing a section of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1.

  19. Fusion Materials Science and Technology Research Needs: Now and During the ITER era

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian D.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.

    2013-09-30

    The plasma facing components, first wall and blanket systems of future tokamak-based fusion power plants arguably represent the single greatest materials engineering challenge of all time. Indeed, the United States National Academy of Engineering has recently ranked the quest for fusion as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st Century. These challenges are even more pronounced by the lack of experimental testing facilities that replicate the extreme operating environment involving simultaneous high heat and particle fluxes, large time varying stresses, corrosive chemical environments, and large fluxes of 14-MeV peaked fusion neutrons. This paper will review, and attempt to prioritize, the materials research and development challenges facing fusion nuclear science and technology into the ITER era and beyond to DEMO. In particular, the presentation will highlight the materials degradation mechanisms we anticipate to occur in the fusion environment, the temperature- displacement goals for fusion materials and plasma facing components and the near and long-term materials challenges required for both ITER, a fusion nuclear science facility and longer term ultimately DEMO.

  20. Depth profiling of tritium in materials for fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    The paper outlines recent progress in depth profiling of tritium distribution near the surface of materials by two ion beam techniques; elastic recoil detection (ERD) and T(d,/alpha/)n nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The sensitivity and depth-resolution of both methods are examined for a series of tritiated titanium films. Calculated depth profiles and ranges of implanted tritium ions in selected candidate materials for thermonuclear fusion devices are also given. Depth profiles of tritium implanted into specimens of graphite and lithium oxides as a function of temperature are discussed as the examples of applications.

  1. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. PMID:22112596

  2. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  3. Phase 1 report on sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1991-10-01

    In this report we discuss sensor technology, data fusion and data interpretation approaches of possible maximal usefulness for subsurface imaging and characterization of land-fill waste sites. Two sensor technologies, terrain conductivity using electromagnetic induction and ground penetrating radar, are described and the literature on the subject is reviewed. We identify the maximum entropy stochastic method as one providing a rigorously justifiable framework for fusing the sensor data, briefly summarize work done by us in this area, and examine some of the outstanding issues with regard to data fusion and interpretation. 25 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Development of phosphor scintillator-based detectors for soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; May, M. J.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Specialized soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) diagnostics used to monitor impurity emissions from fusion plasmas are often placed in a very challenging experimental environment. Detectors in these diagnostics must be simple; mechanically robust; immune to electromagnetic interference, energetic particles, and magnetic fields up to several tesla; ultra-high-vacuum compatible; and able to withstand bakeout temperatures up to 300 °C. The design and the photometric calibration of a detector consisting of a P45 phosphor (Y2O2S:Tb), two incoherent fiber-optic bundles coupled with a vacuum feedthrough fiber-optic faceplate, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) are reported. We have successfully operated the detectors of this type in novel soft x-ray and VUV diagnostics on several fusion plasma facilities. Measurements of the visible photon throughput of the silica/silica incoherent fiber-optic bundle, and the light loss associated with the coupling of the two fibers with the faceplate are presented. In addition, improved absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of the P45/PMT photodetector based upon the use of a PMT with a bialkali photocathode instead of a multialkali one are presented for the soft x-ray and VUV range of photon wavelengths. The conversion efficiency is defined as the ratio of the photoelectrons ejected from the photocathode of a visible detector, which are excited by the scintillated photons that are emitted from the phosphor in a solid angle of 2π, to the number of soft x-ray photons incident on the phosphor. Sensitive electronic gain measurements of the PMT using the visible scintillated light from the P45 phosphor are compared with the gain measurements supplied by the manufacturer of the PMT, which were performed with a tungsten filament lamp operated at 2856 K.

  5. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  6. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology program: Soft wear ring seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility tests, including autogenous ignition, promoted ignition, LOX impact tests, and friction and wear tests on different PV products were conducted for several polymer materials as verification for the implementation of soft wear ring seals in advanced rocket engine turbopumps. Thermoplastics, polyimide based materials, and polyimide-imide base materials were compared for oxygen compatibility, specific wear coefficient, wear debris production, and heat dissipation mechanisms. A thermal model was generated that simulated the frictional heating input and calculated the surface temperature and temperature distribution within the seal. The predictions were compared against measured values. Heat loads in the model were varied to better match the test data and determine the difference between the measured and the calculated coefficients of friction.

  7. Annual report to DOE of the GA Technologies Inc. fusion program fiscal 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Wesley, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of the year's progress are given for: (1) Doublet III, (2) theoretical science, and (3) fusion technology development. In addition, research and development highlights are given for each of the following: (1) attainment of reactor-level volume-averaged toroidal beta in Doublet III, (2) JAERI results, (3) Doublet III diagnostic developments, (4) big Dee upgrade, (5) finite aspect ratio enhancement of neoclassical transport, (6) theory of runaway current sustainment by lower hybrid waves, (7) MHD beta limit scaling laws and comparison with Doublet III data, (8) numerical studies of strong drift turbulence, (9) lithium blanket module for TFTR, (10) development of a 12 Tesla coil, (11) cusp-stabilized mirror experiments in RFC-XX, (12) a new C + SiC alloy for fusion, and (13) gamma rays from fusion reactions. (MOW)

  8. Inertial fusion technology spin-offs-history provides a glimpse of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H

    2000-03-07

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup -6} m) with picosecond (10{sup -12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. It is noteworthy that more than 40 R&D 100 awards, the ''Oscars of applied research'' have been received by members of the inertial fusion community over this period. Not surprisingly, the inertial fusion community has created many new companies based on these advances. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The capabilities of inertial fusion research have also been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of scientific research. Examples include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and

  9. Use of Soft Computing Technologies for a Qualitative and Reliable Engine Control System for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Brown, Terry; Crumbley, R. T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to improve overall vehicle system safety, reliability, and rocket engine performance by development of a qualitative and reliable engine control system (QRECS). Specifically, this will be addressed by enhancing rocket engine control using SCT, innovative data mining tools, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall's Flight Software Group (FSG). The principle goals for addressing the issue of quality are to improve software management, software development time, software maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering, all relative to addressing the issue of reliability. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion (system level), software engineering for embedded flight software systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, and Bayesian belief networks); some of which are briefed in this paper. For this effort, the targeted demonstration rocket engine testbed is the MC-1 engine (formerly FASTRAC) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed (MAST) laboratory that currently resides at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, building 4476, and is managed by the Avionics Department. A brief plan of action for design, development, implementation, and testing a Phase One effort for QRECS is given, along with expected results. Phase One will focus on development of a Smart Start Engine Module and a Mainstage Engine Module for proper engine start and mainstage engine operations. The overall intent is to demonstrate that by

  10. Fusion Materials Science and Technology Research Opportunities now and during the ITER Era

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Blanchard, James; Callis, Richard W.; Kessel, Charles E.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lee, Peter J.; Mccarthy, Kathryn; Morley, Neil; Najmabadi, Farrokh; Nygren, Richard; Tynan, George R.; Whyte, Dennis G.; Willms, Scott; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-03-13

    Several high-priority near-term potential research activities to address fusion nuclear science challenges are summarized. General recommendations include: 1) Research should be preferentially focused on the most technologically advanced options (i.e., options that have been developed at least through the single-effects concept exploration stage, Technology Readiness Levels >3), 2) Significant near-term progress can be achieved by modifying existing facilities and/or moderate investment in new medium-scale facilities, and 3) Computational modeling for fusion nuclear sciences is generally not yet sufficiently robust to enable truly predictive results to be obtained, but large reductions in risk, cost and schedule can be achieved by careful integration of experiment and modeling.

  11. A high-performance D-lithium neutron source for fusion technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.; Wangler, T.P.; Schriber, S.O.; Kemp, E.L.; Wilson, M.T.; Bhatia, T.S.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Guy, F.W.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Recent advances in high-current linear accelerator technology have considerably increased the attractiveness of a deuterium-lithium high-energy neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing. This paper describes a new Los Alamos conceptual design for a deuteron accelerator aimed at meeting near-term flux requirements of an International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility. The new neutron-source driver concept is based on the idea of multiple accelerator modules, with each module consisting of two 125-mA, 175-MHz radio-frequency quadrupoles funneling 3-MeV cw deuteron beams into a 35-MeV, 250-mA, 350-MHz drift-tube linac.

  12. Fusion materials science and technology research opportunities now and during the ITER era

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zinkle; J.P. Planchard; R.W. Callis; C.E. Kessel; P.J. Lee; K.A. McCarty; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    Several high-priority near-term potential research activities to address fusion nuclear science challenges are summarized. General recommendations include: (1) Research should be preferentially focused on the most technologically advanced options (i.e., options that have been developed at least through the singleeffects concept exploration stage, technology readiness levels >3), (2) Significant near-term progress can be achieved by modifying existing facilities and/or moderate investment in new medium-scale facilities, and (3) Computational modeling for fusion nuclear sciences is generally not yet sufficiently robust to enable truly predictive results to be obtained, but large reductions in risk, cost and schedule can be achieved by careful integration of experiment and modeling.

  13. Fusion development and technology. Technical progress report, October 15, 1990--October 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R&D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  14. The novel Fh8 and H fusion partners for soluble protein expression in Escherichia coli: a comparison with the traditional gene fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sofia J; Almeida, André; Castro, António; Domingues, Lucília; Besir, Hüseyin

    2013-08-01

    The Escherichia coli host system is an advantageous choice for simple and inexpensive recombinant protein production but it still presents bottlenecks at expressing soluble proteins from other organisms. Several efforts have been taken to overcome E. coli limitations, including the use of fusion partners that improve protein expression and solubility. New fusion technologies are emerging to complement the traditional solutions. This work evaluates two novel fusion partners, the Fh8 tag (8 kDa) and the H tag (1 kDa), as solubility enhancing tags in E. coli and their comparison to commonly used fusion partners. A broad range comparison was conducted in a small-scale screening and subsequently scaled-up. Six difficult-to-express target proteins (RVS167, SPO14, YPK1, YPK2, Frutalin and CP12) were fused to eight fusion tags (His, Trx, GST, MBP, NusA, SUMO, H and Fh8). The resulting protein expression and solubility levels were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis before and after protein purification and after tag removal. The Fh8 partner improved protein expression and solubility as the well-known Trx, NusA or MBP fusion partners. The H partner did not function as a solubility tag. Cleaved proteins from Fh8 fusions were soluble and obtained in similar or higher amounts than proteins from the cleavage of other partners as Trx, NusA or MBP. The Fh8 fusion tag therefore acts as an effective solubility enhancer, and its low molecular weight potentially gives it an advantage over larger solubility tags by offering a more reliable assessment of the target protein solubility when expressed as a fusion protein. PMID:23160981

  15. The US Program of Fusion Energy Research and Development: Report of the Fusion Review Panel of the President`s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, J.P.; Conn, R.W.; MacArthur, D.; Papay, L.T.

    1995-06-01

    Funding for fusion energy R&D by the Federal government is an important investment in the development of an attractive and possibly essential new energy source for this country and the world in the middle of the next century and beyond. This funding also sustains an important field of scientific research - plasma science - in which the United States is the world leader and which has generated a panoply of insights and techniques widely applicable in other fields of science and in industry. And U.S. funding has been crucial to a productive, equitable, and durable international collaboration in fusion science and technology that represents the most important instance of international scientific cooperation in history as well as the best hope for timely commercialization of fusion at this time because the development costs are too high and the potential economic returns too distant. But funding fusion is a bargain for society as a whole. However, in light of present congressional funding climates the authors are suggesting a program which falls far short of what US DOE is proposing, but provides monies to keep the program alive, and to retain limited participation in the international program which currently is aimed at the construction of ITER. This limited funding will severly strain the program as it exists domestically at present, will limit industrial participation, will stretch the reasonable date for an operating demonstation fusion reactor, but will maintain the basic stucture of a domestic fusion research program.

  16. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-09-01

    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.

  17. High-performance deuterium-lithium neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Blind, B.; Guy, F.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Schnurr, N.M.; Schriber, S.O.; Varsamis, G.L.; Wangler, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in high-current linear-accelerator technology since the design of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility have increased the attractiveness of a deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing. This paper discusses a new approach to such a source aimed at meeting the near-term requirements of a high-flux high-energy International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The concept employs multiple accelerator modules providing deuteron beams to two liquid-lithium jet targets oriented at right angles. This beam/target geometry provides much larger test volumes than can be attained with a single beam and target and produces significant regions of low neutron-flux gradient. A preliminary beam-dynamics design has been obtained for a 250-mA reference accelerator module. Neutron-flux levels and irradiation volumes were calculated for a neutron source incorporating two such modules, and interaction of the beam with the lithium jet was studied using a thermal-hydraulic computer simulation. Cost estimates are provided for a range of beam currents and a possible facility staging sequence is suggested. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The curious ability of PEG-fusion technologies to restore lost behaviors after nerve severance

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, G.D.; Sengelaub, D.R.; Trevino, R.C.; Peduzzi, J.D.; Mikesh, M.; Ghergherehchi, C.L.; Schallert, T.; Thayer, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to PNS and CNS axons are not uncommon. Restoration of lost behaviors following severance of mammalian peripheral nerve axons (PNAs) relies on regeneration by slow outgrowths and is typically poor or nonexistent if after ablation or injuries close to the soma. Behavioral recovery after severing spinal tract axons (STAs) is poor because STAs do not naturally regenerate. Current techniques to enhance PNA and/or STA regeneration have had limited success and do not prevent the onset of Wallerian degeneration of severed distal segments. This review describes the use of a recently-developed polyethylene glycol (PEG)-fusion technology combining concepts in biochemical engineering, cell biology and clinical microsurgery. Within minutes after micro-suturing carefully-trimmed cut ends and applying a well-specified sequence of solutions, PEG-fused axons exhibit morphological continuity (assessed by intra-axonal dye diffusion) and electrophysiological continuity (assessed by conduction of action potentials) across the lesion site. Wallerian degeneration of PEG-fused PNAs is greatly reduced as measured by counts of sensory and/or motor axons, and maintenance of axonal diameters and neuromuscular synapses. After PEG-fusion repair, cut- or crush-severed or ablated PNAs or crush-severed STAs rapidly (within days to weeks), more completely, and permanently restore PNA- or STA-mediated behaviors compared to non-treated or conventionally-treated animals. PEG-fusion success is enhanced or decreased by applying anti-oxidants or oxidants, trimming cut ends or stretching axons, exposure to Ca2+-free or - containing solutions, respectively. PEG-fusion technology employs surgical techniques and chemicals already used by clinicians and has the potential to produce a paradigm-shift in the treatment of traumatic injuries to PNAs and STAs. PMID:26525605

  19. The curious ability of polyethylene glycol fusion technologies to restore lost behaviors after nerve severance.

    PubMed

    Bittner, G D; Sengelaub, D R; Trevino, R C; Peduzzi, J D; Mikesh, M; Ghergherehchi, C L; Schallert, T; Thayer, W P

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to PNS and CNS axons are not uncommon. Restoration of lost behaviors following severance of mammalian peripheral nerve axons (PNAs) relies on regeneration by slow outgrowths and is typically poor or nonexistent when after ablation or injuries close to the soma. Behavioral recovery after severing spinal tract axons (STAs) is poor because STAs do not naturally regenerate. Current techniques to enhance PNA and/or STA regeneration have had limited success and do not prevent the onset of Wallerian degeneration of severed distal segments. This Review describes the use of a recently developed polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion technology combining concepts from biochemical engineering, cell biology, and clinical microsurgery. Within minutes after microsuturing carefully trimmed cut ends and applying a well-specified sequence of solutions, PEG-fused axons exhibit morphological continuity (assessed by intra-axonal dye diffusion) and electrophysiological continuity (assessed by conduction of action potentials) across the lesion site. Wallerian degeneration of PEG-fused PNAs is greatly reduced as measured by counts of sensory and/or motor axons and maintenance of axonal diameters and neuromuscular synapses. After PEG-fusion repair, cut-severed, crush-severed, or ablated PNAs or crush-severed STAs rapidly (within days to weeks), more completely, and permanently restore PNA- or STA-mediated behaviors compared with nontreated or conventionally treated animals. PEG-fusion success is enhanced or decreased by applying antioxidants or oxidants, trimming cut ends or stretching axons, and exposure to Ca(2+) -free or Ca(2+) -containing solutions, respectively. PEG-fusion technology employs surgical techniques and chemicals already used by clinicians and has the potential to produce a paradigm shift in the treatment of traumatic injuries to PNAs and STAs. PMID:26525605

  20. Nitric oxide nanoparticle technology: a novel antimicrobial agent in the context of current treatment of skin and soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Englander, Laura; Friedman, Adam

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections account for the majority of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly evolving resistance to contemporary topical as well as systemic antibiotics. Alternatives to current treatment options for skin and soft tissue infections are needed for more effective treatment now and in the future. Nitric oxide's proven roles in both wound repair and as an antimicrobial agent make it an excellent candidate for the treatment of skin infections. Recent attempts at novel nitric oxide therapies, in the form of nitric oxide donors, have shown limited potential in treating cutaneous infection. However, more recent developments in nitric oxide delivery, using nitric oxide nanoparticle technology, demonstrate substantial promise in the promotion of wound repair and eradication of skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:20725551

  1. Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for application in science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Mirosław; Adjei, Daniel; Ahad, Inam Ul; Ayele, Mesfin G.; Fok, Tomasz; Szczurek, Anna; Torrisi, Alfio; Wegrzyński, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Laser plasma sources of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) developed in our laboratory for application in various areas of technology and science are presented. The sources are based on a laser-irradiated gas puff target approach. The targets formed by pulsed injection of gas under high-pressure are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from Nd:YAG lasers. We use commercial lasers generating pulses with time duration from 1ns to 10ns and energies from 0.5J to 10J at 10Hz repetition rate. The gas puff targets are produced using a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which secures high conversion efficiency without degradation of the nozzle. The use of a gas puff target instead of a solid target makes generation of laser plasmas emitting soft x-rays and EUV possible without target debris production. The sources are equipped with various optical systems, including grazing incidence axisymmetric ellipsoidal mirrors, a "lobster eye" type grazing incidence multi-foil mirror, and an ellipsoidal mirror with Mo/Si multilayer coating, to collect soft x-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beams. In this paper new applications of these sources in various fields, including soft x-ray and EUV imaging in nanoscale, EUV radiography and tomography, EUV materials processing and modification of polymer surfaces, EUV photoionization of gases, radiobiology and soft x-ray contact microscopy are reviewed.

  2. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.E.; Perkins, L.J.

    1983-07-08

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D/sup 0/ and T/sup 0/ beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T/sup 0/ + T/sup +/ space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D/sub 2/ target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 10/sup 15//s, 7 x 10/sup 15//s, or 1.6 x 10/sup 16//s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/.

  3. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  4. Approaching soft X-ray wavelengths in nanomagnet-based microwave technology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiming; D' Allivy Kelly, O; Cros, V; Bernard, R; Bortolotti, P; Anane, A; Brandl, F; Heimbach, F; Grundler, D

    2016-01-01

    Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100 nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10 nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88 nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic. PMID:27063401

  5. Approaching soft X-ray wavelengths in nanomagnet-based microwave technology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiming; d' Allivy Kelly, O.; Cros, V.; Bernard, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Anane, A.; Brandl, F.; Heimbach, F.; Grundler, D.

    2016-01-01

    Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100 nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10 nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88 nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic. PMID:27063401

  6. Approaching soft X-ray wavelengths in nanomagnet-based microwave technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiming; D'Allivy Kelly, O.; Cros, V.; Bernard, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Anane, A.; Brandl, F.; Heimbach, F.; Grundler, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100 nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10 nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88 nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic.

  7. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC.

  8. The Study on the Measurement & Testing Technology of the HMCVT Hydraulic Pressure Based on the Data Fusion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. W.; Zhou, Z. L.; Men, Q. Y.; Deng, C. N.

    2006-10-01

    The pressure of the hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) is not only one of the major factors affecting the performance of the power train but also the major control parameter of the HMCVT control system. So how to improve the high accuracy hydraulic pressure parameter for the HMCVT control system will be one of the key technologies in system development. Based on the HMCVT test system for a certain tracked vehicle, the hydraulic pressure is studied, and multi-sensor data fusion technology based on Taylor polynomial regression equation is put forward, which turn out to improve the performance of the pressure sensor. Utilizing the above-mentioned method, the ability of antijamming of the hydraulic screen pressure system of the HMCVT is effectively improved, and the validity of the test data in the test system is improved too.

  9. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  10. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  11. N(pro) fusion technology: On-column complementation to improve efficiency in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Missbichler, B; Walther, C; Sponring, M; Cserjan-Puschmann, M; Auer, B; Schneider, R; Dürauer, A

    2016-04-01

    N(pro) fusion technology, a highly efficient system for overexpression of proteins and peptides in Escherichia coli, was further developed by splitting the autoprotease N(pro) into two fragments to generate a functional complementation system. The size of the expression tag is thus reduced from 168 to 58 amino acids, so by 66%. Upon complementation of the fragments auto-proteolytic activity is restored. This process has been shown for three model proteins of different size, a short 16 aa-peptide, MCP-1, and lysozyme. Moreover, the complementation was still functional after immobilization of the N-terminal fragment to a solid support which enables recycling of the immobilized fragment. This strategy enhances overall productivity of N(pro) Fusion Technology and thus allows more efficient production of recombinant proteins with reduced costs and in higher yields. Overall, the N(pro) complementation system has, depending on the size of the target molecule, potential to increase the productivity up to 4 fold for batch refolding and even more for on-column refolding strategies by the proven possibility of regeneration of the immobilized fragment. PMID:26687898

  12. Current topics in the field of materials technology of soft ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Takeshi; Ochiai, Tatusshiro

    1995-09-01

    The present paper focuses on the recent progress of materials technology for high performance soft ferrites. The electromagnetic properties of ferrites depend on the producing process and micro- and nano-structures. MnZn ferrite is a principal ferrite for high permeability and power uses. Recently, spray roasting method of Mn-Zn-Fe ternary system has been developed. High initial permeability over 20000 at 10kHz was achieved by using highly pure spray roasted powder of Mn-Fe binary system. Low power loss is of prime importance for power application. Control of grain boundary chemistry and grain size by the adequate selection of additives and firing conditions is required for achieving low power loss at high frequencies. NiCuZn ferrites for multilayer-ferrite chip-components fired under controlled oxygen partial pressure showed high Q-value. This could be explained by nanostructure of grain boundary. MnMgZn ferrites for deflection yoke cores satisfy high cost-performance. Problems of MnMgZn ferrites are loss characteristics and instability of initial permeability. Relaxation of permeability could be depressed by the control of chemical composition and microstructure. Fine magnetite powders by thermal decomposition of iron chloride are under development. This method may be a promising way to low cost and high performance toner for copy machines. High performance such as low loss or high permeability can be achieved by controlling ferrite microstructure and grain boundary chemistry. These can be attained by a highly pure raw powder, a small amount of additives, and an adequate firing program.

  13. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2013-07-14

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 {mu}m thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks.

  14. Analysis and correction of defects within parts fabricated using powder bed fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Morton, Philip A.; Hinojos, Alejandro; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Quality assurance is an important topic for additive manufacturing (AM) and often seen as a requirement for the transition and adoption of the technology toward fabrication of end use applications. As AM technologies are used for production, it is necessary to ensure high quality, repeatable, and reproducible components are manufactured. Various nondestructive examination techniques have been used to evaluate AM-fabricated parts to determine part quality post-fabrication (e.g. scanning and/or microstructural characterization). In situ monitoring methods have been developed for AM technologies to enable defect detection and have potential to be used for in situ monitoring and correction of fabrication anomalies (e.g. undesired temperature gradients and porosity). In this research, defects (e.g. pores) were seeded into parts fabricated using the powder bed fusion AM process, electron beam melting, and monitored using in situ infrared (IR) thermography. Results from layerwise thermography were compared with results obtained using computer tomography (CT) scanning techniques. Although the measured geometry of the seeded defects between IR thermography and CT was substantially different (area difference of ∼60%), the thermographs did provide a good indication of defects present within a fabricated part. Furthermore, defect correction methods were evaluated including post-processing methods such as hot isostatic pressing as well as in situ correction methods such as layer re-melting. Re-melting a porous layer successfully corrected defects and demonstrates a potential method for in situ defect correction if implemented in future systems equipped with automatic feedback control of powder bed fusion processes.

  15. Robust-fusion optic fiber distance and orientation integrated sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-xiong; Kuang, Yong-cong; Xu, Jing; Li, Xia-ni

    2005-02-01

    A robust-fusion optic fiber sensor technology of proximity distance and orientation integration is studied in this paper. A novel optic fiber sensing head with redundant information, which can measure distance and orientation in any pose as well as compensate fluctuation caused by changing parameters such as surface reflectivity, light intensity and characteristic shifting from photoelectric-converter device, is proposed. The implement method of sensor network compensation is introduced. An improved BP network arithmetic, which can enhance the dynamic characteristic and measurement accuracy of the sensing system, is presented. To speed up the convergence rate of BP network training, GA -BP training method is applied. An intelligent signal detecting and processing system based on DSP is designed, the strong data processing ability of DSP makes the system hardware structure simplified. The method of moderate output light power control is put forward for enlarging the measuring range. Experiment result shows that robust-fusion optic fiber proximity sensor system has the distance measuring range of 0.1~19.9mm and the orientation measuring range of 0~25°. The measuring time of each point is 92.5ms.

  16. Transposon assisted gene insertion technology (TAGIT): a tool for generating fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Gregory, James A; Becker, Eric C; Jung, James; Tuwatananurak, Ida; Pogliano, Kit

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a transposon (transposon assisted gene insertion technology, or TAGIT) that allows the random insertion of gfp (or other genes) into chromosomal loci without disrupting operon structure or regulation. TAGIT is a modified Tn5 transposon that uses Kan(R) to select for insertions on the chromosome or plasmid, beta-galactosidase to identify in-frame gene fusions, and Cre recombinase to excise the kan and lacZ genes in vivo. The resulting gfp insertions maintain target gene reading frame (to the 5' and 3' of gfp) and are integrated at the native chromosomal locus, thereby maintaining native expression signals. Libraries can be screened to identify GFP insertions that maintain target protein function at native expression levels, allowing more trustworthy localization studies. We here use TAGIT to generate a library of GFP insertions in the Escherichia coli lactose repressor (LacI). We identified fully functional GFP insertions and partially functional insertions that bind DNA but fail to repress the lacZ operon. Several of these latter GFP insertions localize to lacO arrays integrated in the E. coli chromosome without producing the elongated cells frequently observed when functional LacI-GFP fusions are used in chromosome tagging experiments. TAGIT thereby faciliates the isolation of fully functional insertions of fluorescent proteins into target proteins expressed from the native chromosomal locus as well as potentially useful partially functional proteins. PMID:20090956

  17. SUMO fusion technology for enhanced protein expression and purification in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Peroutka Iii, Raymond J; Orcutt, Steven J; Strickler, James E; Butt, Tauseef R

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of sufficient amounts of high-quality protein samples is the major bottleneck for structural proteomics. The use of recombinant proteins has increased significantly during the past decades. The most commonly used host, Escherichia coli, presents many challenges including protein misfolding, protein degradation, and low solubility. A novel SUMO fusion technology appears to enhance protein expression and solubility ( http://www.lifesensors.com ). Efficient removal of the SUMO tag by SUMO protease in vitro facilitates the generation of target protein with a native N-terminus. In addition to its physiological relevance in eukaryotes, SUMO can be used as a powerful biotechnology tool for enhanced functional protein expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:21125378

  18. APPLICATIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF HIGH POWER MILLIMETER WAVES TO MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    J. LOHR

    2002-08-01

    Although research on magnetically confined fusion plasmas has been carried out for a half century, for most of this time control of the temperature, density and current density profiles has been limited and transient. Now, high power long pulse gyrotron systems with excellent reliability are coming on line, which can provide non-inductively driven currents and electron heating leading to higher plasma performance and continuous operation in reactor relevant regimes. The precision of the location at which heating and current drive are applied has also made it possible to suppress certain classes of plasma instabilities. Basic physics of electron cyclotron current drive and heating are understood and these new technological capabilities are being exploited in magnetic confinement devices worldwide.

  19. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  20. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992-1993 report to the President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT's plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics, RF plasma heating, gyrotron research, treatment of solid waste by arc plasma, divertor experiments, tokamak studies, and plasma and fusion theory.

  1. Impact of Spacecraft Shielding on Direct Ionization Soft Error Rates for sub-130 nm Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Michael M.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Oldham, Timothy R.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    We use ray tracing software to model various levels of spacecraft shielding complexity and energy deposition pulse height analysis to study how it affects the direct ionization soft error rate of microelectronic components in space. The analysis incorporates the galactic cosmic ray background, trapped proton, and solar heavy ion environments as well as the October 1989 and July 2000 solar particle events.

  2. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  3. Proposals for an influential role of small tokamaks in mainstream fusion physics and technology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oost, G.; Del Bosco, E.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Malaquias, A.; Mank, G.

    2006-12-01

    Small tokamaks may significantly contribute to the better understanding of phenomena in a wide range of fields such as plasma confinement and energy transport; plasma stability in different magnetic configurations; plasma turbulence and its impact on local and global plasma parameters; processes at the plasma edge and plasma-wall interaction; scenarios of additional heating and non-inductive current drive; new methods of plasma profile and parameter control; development of novel plasma diagnostics; benchmarking of new numerical codes and so on. Furthermore, due to the compactness, flexibility, low operation costs and high skill of their personnel small tokamaks are very convenient to develop and test new materials and technologies, which because of the risky nature cannot be done in large machines without preliminary studies. Small tokamaks are suitable and important for broad international cooperation, providing the necessary environment and manpower to conduct dedicated joint research programmes. In addition, the experimental work on small tokamaks is very appropriate for the education of students, scientific activities of post-graduate students and for the training of personnel for large tokamaks. All these tasks are well recognised and reflected in documents and understood by the large tokamak teams. Recent experimental results will be presented of contributions to mainstream fusion physics and technology research on small tokamaks involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Joint Research using small tokamaks", started in 2004.

  4. Fc-fusion technology and recombinant FVIII and FIX in the management of the hemophilias

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2014-01-01

    Prophylaxis with regular infusions of factor VIII (FVIII)- or factor IX (FIX)- containing products is the mainstay of modern hemophilia care. However, this therapeutic regimen is inconvenient, requiring repeated intravenous injections from childhood. Approaches meant to prolong the half-life of FVIII and FIX in plasma have been developed in order to improve the feasibility and acceptability of replacement therapy, extending protection from bleeding, reducing infusion frequency and hence the need for venous access devices in young children. Several strategies have been implemented to enhance the pharmacokinetics of clotting factors, including conjugation with polyethylene glycol and the production by genetic engineering of fusion proteins containing the coagulation factors linked to a long-lived plasma protein such as albumin or the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. The latter technology is one of the most promising, since the prolongation of FVIII and FIX half-life is obtained by exploiting the physiological binding of the Fc domain to the neonatal Fc receptor. Fc fusion monomers have been obtained with both recombinant FVIII (rFVIIIFc) and FIX (rFIXFc), and data from preclinical and clinical studies showed improved pharmacokinetics for both factors, which are produced in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, thus ensuring full human post-translational modifications. In Phase I/IIa studies, rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc showed 1.5–1.7 fold and 3.0–4.0 fold longer elimination half-life, respectively. Similar data have been obtained in the Phase III clinical studies with rFVIIIFc and rFIX-Fc published recently. Both drugs were satisfactorily safe, particularly with respect to immunogenicity, and no serious adverse event was observed. PMID:24729686

  5. Soft breakdown characteristics of ultralow-k time-dependent dielectric breakdown for advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fen; Shinosky, Michael

    2010-09-01

    During technology development, the study of ultralow-k (ULK) time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is important for assuring robust reliability. As the technology advances, the increase in ULK leakage current noise level and reversible current change induced by soft breakdown (SBD) during stress has been observed. In this paper, the physical origin of SBD and reversible breakdown, and its correlation to conventional hard breakdowns (HBDs) were extensively studied. Based on constant voltage stress (CVS) and constant current stress (CCS) results, it was concluded that SBD in ULK is an intrinsic characteristic for ULK material, and all first breakdown events most likely are soft instead of hard. Therefore, a unified understanding of SBD and HBD for low-k TDDB was established. Furthermore, the post-SBD and HBD breakdown conduction characteristics were explored and their impacts on circuit operation were discussed. Based on current limited constant voltage stress studies, it was found that the power dissipation, not the stored energy, determined the severity of ULK dielectric breakdown, and the postbreakdown conduction properties. A percolation-threshold controlled, variable-range-hopping (VRH) model was proposed to explain all postbreakdown aspects of SBD and HBD of ULK material.

  6. Can solid-state laser technology serve usefully beyond fusion ignition facilities?

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Powell, H.T.; Krupke, W.F.

    1995-07-28

    We have explored the major technical and conceptual issues relating to the suitability of a diode-pumped solid state laser as a driver for an inertial fusion energy power plant. While solid state lasers have long served as the workhorse of inertial confinement fusion physics studies, the deployment of a driver possessing adequate efficiency, reliability, and repetition rate for inertial fusion energy requires the implementation of several technical innovations discussed in this article.

  7. Evaluation of soft error rates using nuclear probes in bulk and SOI SRAMs with a technology node of 90 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Satoshi; Masuda, Naoyuki; Wakaya, Fujio; Onoda, Shinobu; Hirao, Toshio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Takai, Mikio

    2010-06-01

    The difference of soft error rates (SERs) in conventional bulk Si and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) with a technology node of 90 nm has been investigated by helium ion probes with energies ranging from 0.8 to 6.0 MeV and a dose of 75 ions/μm 2. The SERs in the SOI SRAM were also investigated by oxygen ion probes with energies ranging from 9.0 to 18.0 MeV and doses of 0.14-0.76 ions/μm 2. The soft error in the bulk and SOI SRAMs occurred by helium ion irradiation with energies at and above 1.95 and 2.10 MeV, respectively. The SER in the bulk SRAM saturated with ion energies at and above 2.5 MeV. The SER in the SOI SRAM became the highest by helium ion irradiation at 2.5 MeV and drastically decreased with increasing the ion energies above 2.5 MeV, in which helium ions at this energy range generated the maximum amount of excess charge carriers in a SOI body. The soft errors occurred by helium ions were induced by a floating body effect due to generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions. The soft error occurred by oxygen ion irradiation with energies at and above 10.5 MeV in the SOI SRAM. The SER in the SOI SRAM gradually increased with energies from 10.5 to 13.5 MeV and saturated at 18 MeV, in which the amount of charge carriers induced by oxygen ions in this energy range gradually increased. The computer calculation indicated that the oxygen ions with energies above 13.0 MeV generated more excess charge carriers than the critical charge of the 90 nm node SOI SRAM with the designed over-layer thickness. The soft errors, occurred by oxygen ions with energies at and below 12.5 MeV, were induced by a floating body effect due to the generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions and those with energies at and above 13.0 MeV were induced by both the floating body effect and generated excess carriers. The difference of the threshold energy of the oxygen ions between the experiment and the computer calculation might

  8. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  9. Radiation damage microstructures in nuclear ceramics with applications in fusion energy technology and nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.W.

    1989-09-01

    This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled Radiation Damage Microstructures in Nuclear Ceramics'' funded between July 1984 and July 1988 under DOE Grant FG02-84ER45090. The initial program, begun at MIT in 1983, had as its objective investigation of the radiation responses of ceramics, heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}, KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr,Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The issues involved have been the subject of a series of DOE-sponsored workshops in which the principal investigator has prominently participated, as well as of two informal collaborative meetings among DOE-supported groups at MIT, Los Alamos, University of New Mexico, Boeing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  10. Tritium production potential of beam research and magnetic fusion program technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Regular replenishment of tritium in the nuclear weapons stockpile is essential to maintain our nuclear deterrent. Nuclear reactor facilities presently used for the production of tritium are aging, and their operation is being curtailed awaiting the repairs and upgrades needed to meet modern standards of safety and environment. To provide improved capability in the future, DOE plans to construct a new production reactor. Alternatives to nuclear reactor methods for the production of tritium, mainly electrically-driven accelerator or fusion systems, have been proposed many times in the past. Given the critical national security implications of maintaining adequate tritium production facilities, it is clearly worthwhile for political decision-makers to have a clear and accurate picture of the technical options that could be made available at various points in the future. The goal of this white paper is to summarize available technical information on a set of non-nuclear-reactor options for tritium production with a minimum of advocacy for any one system of implicit assumptions about politically desirable attributes. Indeed, these various options differ considerably in aspects such as the maturity of the technology, the development cost and timescales required, and the capital and operating costs of a typical ''optimized'' facility.

  11. Development of fusion fuel cycle technology at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe: The experiment CAPRICE

    SciTech Connect

    Glugla, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The development of plasma exhaust fuel clean-up technology for the recovery of chemically bonded and elemental tritium/deuterium isotopes based on catalytic processes involving the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and the reduction of water vapor by carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction) in combination with hydrogen isotope permeation presently constitutes the main experimental activity at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). All basic steps of these processes have been tested with protium/deuterium under laboratory and technical scale conditions. In addition, the validity of the integral process concept has also been demonstrated with relevant concentrations of tritium in small scale runs performed in collaboration with TSTA, Los Alamos National Laboratory. A facility carrying the acronym CAPRICE (Catalytic: Purification Experiment) has been erected at the TLK to demonstrate the process assembly with tritium on a technical scale. The design throughput is approx. 10 mol/h of DT and about 1 mol/h of tritiated and untritiated impurities. Depending upon the selected process conditions within the fusion fuel cycle this throughput could actually approach the needs of ITER. These gloves boxes for the primary system and the containment for a 150 m{sup 3}/h scroll pump totaling a volume of 16.6 m{sup 3} are operated under an inert gas atmosphere (0.5-1% O{sub 2}) at slightly below laboratory pressure. Two tritium retention systems provide with four ionization chambers are employed to control the tritium activity in the glove box atmosphere.

  12. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992--1993 report to the President

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT`s plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics; rf plasma heating; gyrotron research; treatment of solid waste by arc plasma; divertor experiments; tokamak studies; and plasma and fusion theory.

  13. Fusion of Hurricane Models and Observations: Developing the Technology to Improve the Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Li, P.; Knosp, B.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Tanelli, S.; Niamsuwan, N.; Haddad, Z.; Poulsen, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing an urgent need for more accurate hurricane forecasts, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently established the multi-agency 10-year Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP). The two critical pathways to hurricane forecast improvement are: validation and improvement of hurricane models through the use of satellite data; development and implementation of advanced techniques for assimilation of satellite observations inside the hurricane precipitating core. Despite the significant amount of satellite observations today, they are still underutilized in hurricane research and operations. This talk will describe our efforts in developing new technology to bring models and observations into a common information system. We will begin by briefly describing two previous very successful NASA-funded projects, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System -TCIS - (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov and http://grip.jpl.nasa.gov) and the NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3). These two efforts resulted in building the critical components for our current work, aimed at providing fusion of hurricane models and observations with the goal to improve hurricane forecast. The talk will outline the three areas of on-going research: - the coupling of the instrument simulator with operational hurricane forecast models and incorporation of simulated satellite observables into the existing database of satellite and air-borne observations (TCIS). As part of this integration we will develop tools for model-observations fusion (e.g. data mining to determine when and what satellite observations are available inside the model domain; model sub-sampling in accordance with the time and space coverage of the satellite/airborne overpasses) - the development of a set of analysis tools that will enable users to calculate joint statistics, produce composites, compare modeled and observed quantities, and apply advanced strategies to assimilate

  14. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  15. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is limited and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical working experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, it is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium alloy option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  16. Preparation of Specific Polyclonal Antibody Against the Recombinant Mutacin Produced by sfGFP Fusion Protein Technology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Homsi, Lamis; Al-Okla, Souad; Abbady, Abdul Q.

    2015-01-01

    Mutacin I, a bacteriocin produced by streptococcus mutans, displays an antimicrobial activity against many gram positive and some gram negative bacteria. Because of its medical importance, production of this short peptide in large scale for future applications is a significant challenge. This work described the improvement of a novel system to produce the recombinant mutacin using fusion protein technology. The short peptide was expressed directly as a fusion protein with a superfolder form of the green florescent protein (sfGFP), resulting in a high yield expression of soluble sfGFP-mutacin fusion protein (30 kDa) in the cytoplasm of E. coli. Mutacin was released from the fusion by enzymatic cleavage at the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease recognition site and separated from the carrier sfGFP by nickel affinity and gel filtration chromatography. An additional advantage of this fusion system was tested in the generation of mutacin-specific polyclonal antibodies. Specific anti-mutacin IgGs were affinity purified, and were able to recognize the mutacin-sfGFP fusion protein or the cleaved forms of mutacin. Even though it was efficiently produced (25 mg/L) by this method, pure mutacin was devoid of antibiotic activity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the absence of thioether bonds in the purified mutacin, which are critical for final structure and function of this antibiotic. Determining whether the activity of pure mutacin could be recovered by the reformation of such structures by chemical reaction needs more investigations. The development of this system will provide large quantities of mutacin for future studies and applications as broad spectrum antibacterial peptide. PMID:26668664

  17. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  18. PhysioSoft--an approach in applying computer technology in biofeedback procedures.

    PubMed

    Havelka, Mladen; Havelka, Juraj; Delimar, Marko

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents description of original biofeedback computer program called PhysioSoft. It has been designed on the basis of the experience in development of biofeedback techniques of interdisciplinary team of experts of the Department of Health Psychology of the University of Applied Health Studies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, and "Mens Sana", Private Biofeedback Practice in Zagreb. The interest in the possibility of producing direct and voluntary effects on autonomic body functions has gradually proportionately increased with the dynamics of abandoning the Cartesian model of body-mind relationship. The psychosomatic approach and studies carried out in the 50-ies of the 20th century, together with the research about conditioned and operant learning, have proved close inter-dependence between the physical and mental, and also the possibility of training the individual to consciously act on his autonomic physiological functions. The new knowledge has resulted in the development of biofeedback techniques around the 70-ies of the previous century and has been the base of many studies indicating the significance of biofeedback techniques in clinical practice concerned with many symptoms of health disorders. The digitalization of biofeedback instruments and development of user friendly computer software enable the use of biofeedback at individual level as an efficient procedure of a patient's active approach to self care of his own health. As the new user friendly computer software enables extensive accessibility of biofeedback instruments, the authors have designed the PhysioSoft computer program as a contribution to the development and broad use of biofeedback. PMID:19860110

  19. Enhancement display of veins distribution based on binocular vision and image fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Di, Si; Jin, Jian; Bai, Liping

    2014-11-01

    The capture and display of veins distribution is an important issue for some applications, such as medical diagnosis and identification. Therefore, it has become a popular topic in the field of biomedical imaging. Usually, people capture the veins distribution by infrared imaging, but the display result is similar with that of a gray picture and the color and details of skin cannot be remained. To some degree, it is unreal for doctors. In this paper, we develop a binocular vision system to carry out the enhancement display of veins under the condition of keeping actual skin color. The binocular system is consisted of two adjacent cameras. A visible band filter and an infrared band filter are placed in front of the two lenses, respectively. Therefore, the pictures of visible band and infrared band can be captured simultaneously. After that, a new fusion process is applied to the two pictures, which related to histogram mapping, principal component analysis (PCA) and modified bilateral filter fusion. The final results show that both the veins distribution and the actual skin color of the back of the hand can be clearly displayed. Besides, correlation coefficient, average gradient and average distortion are selected as the parameters to evaluate the image quality. By comparing the parameters, it is evident that our novel fusion method is prior to some popular fusion methods such as Gauss filter fusion, Intensity-hue-saturation (HIS) fusion and bilateral filter fusion.

  20. Individual Autonomy, Law, and Technology: Should Soft Determinism Guide Legal Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockfield, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    How one thinks about the relationship between individual autonomy (sometimes referred to as individual willpower or human agency) and technology can influence the way legal thinkers develop policy at the intersection of law and technology. Perspectives that fall toward the "machines control us" end of the spectrum may support more interventionist…

  1. Fusion interfaces for tactical environments: An application of virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael W.

    1994-01-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and nonvirtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory, and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multisensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion interface concepts. This new facility, the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments (FITE) Facility is a specialized flight simulator enabling efficient concept development through rapid prototyping and direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE Facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operation fighter pilots in an air combat environment. The facility is utilized by a multidisciplinary design team composed of human factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, experimental psychologists, and oeprational pilots. The FITE computational architecture is composed of twenty-five 80486-based microcomputers operating in real-time. The microcomputers generate out-the-window visuals, in-cockpit and head-mounted visuals, localized auditory presentations, haptic displays on the stick and rudder pedals, as well as executing weapons models, aerodynamic models, and threat models.

  2. Recurrent BCOR Internal Tandem Duplication and YWHAE-NUTM2B Fusions in Soft Tissue Undifferentiated Round Cell Sarcoma of Infancy: Overlapping Genetic Features With Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Argani, Pedram; Chung, Catherine T; Graf, Nicole S; Wright, Dale C; Kellie, Stewart J; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Ludwig, Kathrin; Zin, Angelica; Alaggio, Rita; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-08-01

    Soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcoma (URCS) occurring in infants is a heterogenous group of tumors, often lacking known genetic abnormalities. On the basis of a t(10;17;14) karyotype in a pelvic URCS of a 4-month-old boy showing similar breakpoints with clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK), we have investigated the possibility of shared genetic abnormalities in CCSK and soft tissue URCS. Most CCSKs are characterized by BCOR exon 16 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), whereas a smaller subset shows YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusions. Because of overlapping clinicopathologic features, we have also investigated these genetic alterations in the so-called primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI). Among the 22 infantile URCSs and 7 PMMTIs selected, RNA sequencing was performed in 5 and 2 cases, with frozen tissue, respectively. The remaining cases with archival material were tested for YWHAE-NUTM2B/E by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and BCOR ITD by PCR. A control group of 4 CCSKs and 14 URCSs in older children or adults without known gene fusion and 20 other sarcomas with similar histomorphology or age at presentation were also tested. A YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was confirmed in the index case by FISH and RT-PCR, whereas BCOR ITD was lacking. An identical YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was found in another URCS case of a 5-month-old girl with a back lesion. The remaining cases and control group lacked YWHAE gene rearrangements; instead, consistent BCOR ITDs, similar to CCSK, were found in 15/29 (52%) infantile sarcoma cases (9/22 infantile URCS and 6/7 PMMTI). In the control cohort, BCOR ITD was found only in 3 CCSK cases but not in the other sarcomas. Histologically, URCS with both genotypes and PMMTI shared significant histologic overlap, with uniform small blue round cells with fine chromatin and indistinct nucleoli. A prominent capillary network similar to CCSK, rosette structures, and varying

  3. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  4. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  5. Application of microgravity and containerless environments to the investigation of fusion target fabrication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W.-K.; Helizon, R. S.; Youngberg, C. L.; Feng, I.-A.; Wang, T. G.

    After the first observation of the core-centering force within a liquid shell in the KC-135 flight experiment, this force was successfully reproduced in terrestrial laboratories using two experimental techniques. The core-centering force generated for a compound drop system in the neutral buoyancy tank provides the first correlation between theoretical and experimental results. When this force was generated in a more realistic fusion-pellet system using the focusing-radiator levitating system, it was shown that this is a very strong force indeed in view of the fact that the ratio of specific gravities between the water and the core is approximately five. It is believed that this centering force will contribute significantly to an overall understanding of the fabrication physics of a fusion target system. Results from experiments in a vertical drag-free wind tunnel and in a 16-ft low pressure drop furnace suggest that eliminating or reducing the aerodynamic drag on fusion pellets during their formation stage will prevent the decentering of the bubble. Metallic and metallic glass fusion targets are seen as holding promise for improving and simplifying the fabrication process for ablative-type fusion targets.

  6. Application of microgravity and containerless environments to the investigation of fusion target fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W.-K.; Helizon, R. S.; Youngberg, C. L.; Feng, I.-A.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    After the first observation of the core-centering force within a liquid shell in the KC-135 flight experiment, this force was successfully reproduced in terrestrial laboratories using two experimental techniques. The core-centering force generated for a compound drop system in the neutral buoyancy tank provides the first correlation between theoretical and experimental results. When this force was generated in a more realistic fusion-pellet system using the focusing-radiator levitating system, it was shown that this is a very strong force indeed in view of the fact that the ratio of specific gravities between the water and the core is approximately five. It is believed that this centering force will contribute significantly to an overall understanding of the fabrication physics of a fusion target system. Results from experiments in a vertical drag-free wind tunnel and in a 16-ft low pressure drop furnace suggest that eliminating or reducing the aerodynamic drag on fusion pellets during their formation stage will prevent the decentering of the bubble. Metallic and metallic glass fusion targets are seen as holding promise for improving and simplifying the fabrication process for ablative-type fusion targets.

  7. Pinch me - I'm fusing! Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    SciTech Connect

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-03-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  8. Hydrogeologic Data Fusion. Industry Programs/Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscut Program. OST Reference #2944

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: The fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface requires knowledge of the hydrogeologic system. Site characterization typically involves the collection of various data sets needed to create a conceptual model that represents what’s known about contaminant migration in the subsurface at a particular site. How Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Works Hydrogeologic Data Fusion is a mathematical tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It can be especially useful at hazardous waste sites where the hydrology, geology, or contaminant distribution is significantly complex such that groundwater modeling is required to enable a reasonable and accurate prediction of subsurface conditions.

  9. SUMO fusion technology for enhanced protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    PubMed

    Panavas, Tadas; Sanders, Carsten; Butt, Tauseef R

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the reversible attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein is a post-translational modification that has been demonstrated to play an important role in various cellular processes. Moreover, it has been found that SUMO as an N-terminal fusion partner enhances functional protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, based upon significantly improved protein stability and solubility. Following the expression and purification of the fusion protein, the SUMO-tag can be cleaved by specific (SUMO) proteases via their endopeptidase activity in vitro to generate the desired N-terminus of the released protein partner. In addition to its physiological relevance in eukaryotes, SUMO can, thus, be used as a powerful biotechnological tool for protein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems.In this chapter, we will describe the construction of a fusion protein with the SUMO-tag, its expression in Escherichia coli, and its purification followed by the removal of the SUMO-tag by a SUMO-specific protease in vitro. PMID:19107426

  10. A new image fusion technology based on object extraction and NSCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Suxia; Liu, Peng

    In this effort, we proposed an new image fusion technique, utilizing Renyi entropy's object extraction and Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), for improved visible effect of the image. NSCT is a multiscale transform method, it is a shift-invariant, linear phase, ``true" two-dimensional transform that can decomposes an image into any directional sub-images to capture the intrinsic geometrical structure. In this paper we decompose visible image into 21, 22, and 23 directional sub-images at three different level respectively. Image enhancement is performed at the decomposition level and fused. Renyi entropy is a generalized information entropy. Infrared image can be divided into two parts of the object and the background through the maximum value of Renyi entropy. Image fusion is performed after NSCT and Renyi entropy. The fused image has significantly improved brightness and higher contrast than other images. In order to evaluate the proposed method, information entropy (IE), standard deviation (STD), spatial frequency (SF) and mutual information (MI) are adopted to compare with Laplace, wavelet, and NSCT et al. Results are shown that all evaluation value of the proposed method is higher than that of other methods, and it is a better image fusion method.

  11. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  12. Production and characterization of hirudin variant-1 by SUMO fusion technology in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wuguang; Cai, Xueting; Gu, Zhenghua; Huang, Yuzheng; Xia, Binbin; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Hirudin is the most potent non-covalent inhibitor of thrombin. Several expression systems have been used to produce recombinant hirudin for pharmaceutical purposes. However, high expression of active hirudin in Escherichia coli cytoplasm has not been successful owing to the fact that heterogenetic small peptide is easily degraded in the cell. To solve this problem, we constructed a recombinant form of the hirudin variant-1 (HV1) as a fusion protein with the small ubiquitin-related modifier gene (SUMO) by use of over-lap PCR. The fusion gene His(6)-SUMO-HV1 was highly expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) in which the SUMO-HV1 accounts for over 30% of the soluble fraction. The fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and cleaved by a SUMO-specific protease Ulp1 to release the HV1 with natural N-terminal. The recombinant HV1 (rHV1) was further purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and then by Q anion-exchange chromatography. N-terminal sequencing result demonstrated the purified rHV1 had the same N-terminal sequence as the native hirudin. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified rHV1 protein was 6939.161 Da, which was similar to the theoretical molecular weight of rHV1 6,944 Da. The Chromozym TH assay result showed that the anti-thrombin activity of purified rHV1 was 8,800 ATU/mg and comparable to the specific activity of native hirudin. PMID:22371262

  13. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  14. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  15. Use of multisensor fusion technology to meet the challenges of emerging EO and RF threats to a combat aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Arvind K.; Parthasarathy, T.; Rao, P. N. A. P.

    2003-04-01

    The pilot on-board a combat aircraft encounters during any mission a dynamically varying threat environment of diverse EO and RF threats. Different sensors are carried on-board the aircraft to combat these threats. However, these sensors have their own limitations and no single sensor is able to perform in all kinds of situations. In addition, the technological advances in the threat scenario - in terms of higher speeds, small signatures and multimode guidance - and increased complex threats in the battlefield leading to generation of large amount of data input to the pilot make his decision making task very difficult due to increased workload. These challenges can be efficiently handled by deployment of a system on-board the aircraft with a comprehensive goal of autonomous target detection and tracking, situation and threat assessment and decision making based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques. In this paper, major emerging EO and RF threats for a combat aircraft and some important EO and RF sensors on-board the aircraft have been discussed. A design approach for the development of a multi-sensor data fusion system for a combat aircraft to provide better threat assessment than that provided by any single stand alone sensor has also been presented.

  16. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  17. Combination of ERG9 Repression and Enzyme Fusion Technology for Improved Production of Amorphadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Baadhe, Rama Raju; Mekala, Naveen Kumar; Parcha, Sreenivasa Rao; Prameela Devi, Yalavarthy

    2013-01-01

    The yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) MTCC 3157 was selected for combinatorial biosynthesis of plant sesquiterpene amorpha-4,11-diene. Our main objective was to overproduce amorpha 4-11-diene, which is a key precursor molecule of artemisinin (antimalarial drug) produced naturally in plant Artemisia annua through mevalonate pathway. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) is a common intermediate metabolite of a variety of compounds in the mevalonate pathway of yeast and leads to the production of ergosterols, dolichol and ubiquinone, and so forth. In our studies, FPP converted to amorphadiene (AD) by expressing heterologous amorphadiene synthase (ADS) in yeast. First, ERG9 (squalane synthase) promoter of yeast was replaced with repressible methionine (MET3) promoter by using bipartite gene fusion method. Further to overcome the loss of the intermediate FPP through competitive pathways in yeast, fusion protein technology was adopted and farnesyldiphosphate synthase (FPPS) of yeast has been coupled with amorphadiene synthase (ADS) of plant origin (Artemisia annua L.) where amorphadiene production was improved by 2-fold (11.2 mg/L) and 4-fold (25.02 mg/L) in yeast strains YCF-002 and YCF-005 compared with control strain YCF-AD (5.5 mg/L), respectively. PMID:24282652

  18. Building on knowledge base of sodium cooled fast spectrum reactors to develop materials technology for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Baldev; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara

    2009-04-01

    The alloys 316L(N) and Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel are the major structural materials for fabrication of structural components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Various factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of these alloys and different modes of deformation and failure in SFR systems, their analysis and the simulated tests performed on components for assessment of structural integrity and the applicability of RCC-MR code for the design and validation of components are highlighted. The procedures followed for optimal design of die and punch for the near net shape forming of petals of main vessel of 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR); the safe temperature and strain rate domains established using dynamic materials model for forming of 316L(N) and 9Cr-1Mo steels components by various industrial processes are illustrated. Weldability problems associated with 316L(N) and Mo. 9Cr-1Mo are briefly discussed. The utilization of artificial neural network models for prediction of creep rupture life and delta-ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds is described. The usage of non-destructive examination techniques in characterization of deformation, fracture and various microstructural features in SFR materials is briefly discussed. Most of the experience gained on SFR systems could be utilized in developing science and technology for fusion reactors. Summary of the current status of knowledge on various aspects of fission and fusion systems with emphasis on cross fertilization of research is presented.

  19. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  20. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  1. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  2. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  3. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  4. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  5. GRISSOM platform: enabling distributed processing and management of biological data through fusion of grid and web technologies.

    PubMed

    Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A; Kanaris, Ioannis; Doukas, Charalampos; Moulos, Panagiotis; Kolisis, Fragiskos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptomic technologies have a critical impact in the revolutionary changes that reshape biological research. Through the recruitment of novel high-throughput instrumentation and advanced computational methodologies, an unprecedented wealth of quantitative data is produced. Microarray experiments are considered high-throughput, both in terms of data volumes (data intensive) and processing complexity (computationally intensive). In this paper, we present grids for in silico systems biology and medicine (GRISSOM), a web-based application that exploits GRID infrastructures for distributed data processing and management, of DNA microarrays (cDNA, Affymetrix, Illumina) through a generic, consistent, computational analysis framework. GRISSOM performs versatile annotation and integrative analysis tasks, through the use of third-party application programming interfaces, delivered as web services. In parallel, by conforming to service-oriented architectures, it can be encapsulated in other biomedical processing workflows, with the help of workflow enacting software, like Taverna Workbench, thus rendering access to its algorithms, transparent and generic. GRISSOM aims to set a generic paradigm of efficient metamining that promotes translational research in biomedicine, through the fusion of grid and semantic web computing technologies. PMID:21078581

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  9. Task toward a Realization of Commercial Tokamak Fusion Plants in 2050 -The Role of ITER and the Succeeding Developments- 5.Challenge to Innovative Technologies and the Expected Market Appeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, Kenji; Konishi, Satoshi; Tokimatsu, Koji; Nishio, Satoshi; Hiwatari, Ryoji

    This section describes the future of fusion energy in terms of its impact on the global energy supply and global warming mitigation, the possible entry scenarios of fusion into future energy market, and innovative technologies for deploying and expanding fusion's share in the market. Section 5.1 shows that fusion energy can contribute to the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration if fusion is introduced into the future energy market at a competitive price. Considerations regarding fusion's entry scenarios into the energy market are presented in Sec. 5.2, suggesting that fusion should replace fossil energy sources and thus contribute to global warming mitigation. In this sense, first generation fusion power plants should be a viable energy source with global appeal and be so attractive as to be employed in developing countries rather than in developed countries. Favorable factors lending to this purpose are fusion's stability as a power source, and its security, safety, and environmental frendliness as well as its cost-of-electricity. The requirements for core plasma to expand the share of fusion in the market in the latter half of this century are given in Sec.5.3, pointing out the importance of high beta access with low aspect ratio and plasma profile control. From this same point of view, innovative fusion technologies worthy of further development are commented on in Sec. 5.4, addressing the high temperature blanket, hydrogen production, high temperature superconductors, and hot cell maintenance.

  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center FY97--FY98 work proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Alcator C-Mod is the high-field, high-density divertor tokamak in the world fusion program. It is one of five divertor experiments capable of plasma currents exceeding one megamp. Because of its compact dimensions, Alcator C-Mod investigates an essential area in parameter space, which complements the world`s larger experiments, in establishing the tokamak physics database. Three key areas of investigation have been called out in which Alcator C-Mod has a vital role to play: (1) divertor research on C-Mod takes advantage of the advanced divertor shaping, the very high scrap-off-layer power density, unique abilities in impurity diagnosis, and the High-Z metal wall, to advance the physics understanding of this critical topic; (2) in transport studies, C-Mod is making critical tests of both empirical scalings and theoretically based interpretations of tokamak transport, at dimensional parameters that are unique but dimensionless parameters often comparable to those in much larger experiments; (3) in the area of Advanced Tokamak research, so important to concept optimization, the high-field design of the device also provides long pulse length, compared to resistive skin time, which provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate the extent to which enhanced confinement and stability can be sustained in steady-state, using active profile control. In addition to these main programmatic emphasis, important enabling research is being performed in MHD stability and control, which has great significance for the immediate design of ITER, and in the physics and engineering of ICRF, which is the main auxiliary heating method on C-Mod.

  11. Grid Computing and Collaboration Technology in Support of Fusion Energy Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schissel, D. P.

    2004-11-01

    The SciDAC Initiative is creating a computational grid designed to advance scientific understanding in fusion research by facilitating collaborations, enabling more effective integration of experiments, theory and modeling, and allowing more efficient use of experimental facilities. The philosophy is that data, codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and communication tools should be thought of as easy to use network available services. Access to services is stressed rather than portability. Services share the same basic security infrastructure so that stakeholders can control their own resources and helps ensure fair use of resources. The collaborative control room is being developed using the open-source Access Grid software that enables secure group-to-group collaboration with capabilities beyond teleconferencing including application sharing and control. The ability to effectively integrate off-site scientists into a dynamic control room will be critical to the success of future international projects like ITER. Grid computing, the secure integration of computer systems over high-speed networks to provide on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. The first grid computational service deployed was the transport code TRANSP and included tools for run preparation, submission, monitoring and management. This approach saves user sites from the laborious effort of maintaining a complex code while at the same time reducing the burden on developers by avoiding the support of a large number of heterogeneous installations. This tutorial will present the philosophy behind an advanced collaborative environment, give specific examples, and discuss its usage beyond FES.

  12. A Laser Technology Test Facility for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Campbell, R W; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Latkowski, J; Molander, W A; Sutton, S B; Telford, S; Caird, J A

    2009-10-06

    A LIFE laser driver needs to be designed and operated which meets the rigorous requirements of the NIF laser system while operating at high average power, and operate for a lifetime of >30 years. Ignition on NIF will serve to demonstrate laser driver functionality, operation of the Mercury laser system at LLNL demonstrates the ability of a diode-pumped solid-state laser to run at high average power, but the operational lifetime >30 yrs remains to be proven. A Laser Technology test Facility (LTF) has been designed to specifically address this issue. The LTF is a 100-Hz diode-pumped solid-state laser system intended for accelerated testing of the diodes, gain media, optics, frequency converters and final optics, providing system statistics for billion shot class tests. These statistics will be utilized for material and technology development as well as economic and reliability models for LIFE laser drivers.

  13. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  14. A review of the US joining technologies for plasma facing components in the ITER fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.; Watson, R.D.; Slattery, K.T.

    1998-02-01

    This paper is a review of the current joining technologies for plasma facing components in the US for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Many facilities are involved in this project. Many unique and innovative joining techniques are being considered in the quest to join two candidate armor plate materials (beryllium and tungsten) to a copper base alloy heat sink (CuNiBe, OD copper, CuCrZr). These techniques include brazing and diffusion bonding, compliant layers at the bond interface, and the use of diffusion barrier coatings and diffusion enhancing coatings at the bond interfaces. The development and status of these joining techniques will be detailed in this report.

  15. Hydrogen Interaction with Titanium Carbide-Coated Metals for Fusion Technology Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caorlin, Marco

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The interaction of gaseous hydrogen with TiC coatings deposited on metals by Chemical Vapour Deposition was studied. The prime aim of this study was to determine whether such coatings could affect the rate of absorption and desorption by the metallic substrate. Developing and testing simple models for the experiments in terms of diffusivity D, Sieverts' constant K_{s} and surface reaction rates k_1, k_2, was another goal of the work. Both aims are closely linked to the use of tritium in present and future fusion devices. Two manometric techniques were used. At Ispra, the hydrogen pressure increase in a closed vessel was recorded in time, after loading the sample with hydrogen to equilibrium and evacuating the chamber. Loading pressures between 10^3 Pa and 10^5 Pa were used, with temperatures in the range 673 K-873 K. At Oxford, a similar equilibrium state was perturbed by a imposed periodic volume variation. The corresponding pressure response, in a closed chamber containing the specimen immersed in hydrogen, was recorded in time. Pressures between 4 Pa and 74 Pa were used and the temperature range was 883 K-1083 K. The substrates used were the AISI 316L steel and the molybdenum alloy TZM at Ispra, while only TZM at Oxford. With both methods, a marked increase of the times to reach equilibrium was detected with respect to uncoated samples, while the equilibrium absorption behaviour of the coated specimens was not significantly different from that of the bare ones. Very low diffusivity values were obtained for hydrogen in TiC. For the Ispra samples, the temperature dependence found is D/{rm(m ^2s}^{-1}) = 1.08 times 10^{-12} exp(-{6800 over T/K})while that determined at Oxford, for different TiC specimens, is D/{rm (m^2s}^ {-1}) = 9.60 times 10^{-12} exp (-{6010over T/K}). The surface rate constants determined at Ispra are represented by eqalign {k_1/({rm mol m^{ -2}s^{-1}Pa^{-1}) }&= 4.10 times 10^{-8} exp

  16. Measurement of 55Fe(n ,p ) cross sections by the surrogate-reaction method for fusion technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Bhawna; Desai, V. V.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Mirgule, E. T.; Santra, S.; Mahata, K.; Makawana, R.; Abhangi, M.; Basu, T. K.; Rao, C. V. S.; Jakhar, S.; Vala, S.; Sarkar, B.; Agrawal, H. M.; Kaur, G.; Prajapati, P. M.; Pal, Asim; Sarkar, D.; Kundu, A.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured the proton decay probabilities of the *56Fe and *47Ti compound systems which are populated by the transfer reactions 52Cr(6Li,d ) *56Fe (surrogate of n +55Fe→*56Fe→p +55Mn ) and 45Sc(6Li,α ) *47Ti (surrogate of n +46Ti→47Ti*→p +46Sc ) reactions, respectively. The 55Fe(n ,p ) cross sections were then obtained in the equivalent neutron energy range of 7.9 to 20.1 MeV within the framework of the surrogate-reaction method. The measured results were compared with predictions of the empire-3.2.3 statistical model code and various recent evaluated data libraries. The experimental cross-section data on 55Fe(n ,p ) are in reasonable agreement with EAF-2010, while the TENDL-2014 and ROSFOND-2010 data show some discrepancies. This study demonstrates the possibility of determining neutron-induced charged particle emission cross sections for unstable radionuclides relevant to fusion technology applications by the surrogate-reaction method.

  17. Research on fusion measurement technology of capacitive displacement transducer and grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Qian-min; Zhang, Zeng-yao; Zheng, Yong-jun

    2006-11-01

    The design techniques of actuating signal source in capacitive displacement transducer measurement system is used for designing a group of multiphase modulation signal source, which generates the multiphase linear light source actuating signal for grating measurement system, after the emitted multiphase modulating light signal is modulated by a scale grating, it is received by a photoelectric component and a compound electrical signal is obtained. Another electrical signal is obtained after processed by circuit, whose frequency is same as the fundamental frequency of actuating signal source, the movement distance x of scale grating can be obtained by detecting the change of phase difference between two electrical signals. Sub-micron or nanometer-level measurement resolution is reached by organically integrating the capacitive displacement transducer and grating measurement technology, by increasing the subdivision number of phase detecting circuit, and by decreasing the point distance of linear light source.

  18. Metal shell technology based upon hollow jet instability. [for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M.; Lee, M. C.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical shells of submillimeter size are sought as ICF targets. Such shells must be dimensionally precise, smooth, of high strength, and composed of a high atomic number material. A technology for the production of shells based upon the hydrodynamic instability of an annular jet of molten metal is described. Shells in the 0.7-2.0 mm size range have been produced using tin as a test material. Specimens exhibit good sphericity, fair concentricity, and excellent finish over most of the surface. Work involving a gold-lead-antimony alloy is in progress. Droplets of this are amorphous and possess superior surface finish. The flow of tin models that of the alloy well; experiments on both metals show that the technique holds considerable promise.

  19. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    ) satellite imagery as previously developed was used. Eight commonly used vegetation indices were calculated from the reflectance obtained from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. The vegetation indices were individually used to classify vegetation cover in association with genetic programming algorithm. The soil moisture and vegetation indices were integrated into Landsat TM images based on a pre-pixel channel approach for riparian classification. Two different classification algorithms were used including genetic programming, and a combination of ISODATA and maximum likelihood supervised classification. The white box feature of genetic programming revealed the comparative advantage of all input parameters. The GP algorithm yielded more than 90% accuracy, based on unseen ground data, using vegetation index and Landsat reflectance band 1, 2, 3, and 4. The detection of changes in the buffer zone was proved to be technically feasible with high accuracy. Overall, the development of the RICAL algorithm may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies for the handling of non-point source pollution control, bird habitat monitoring, and grazing and live stock management in the future. Geo-environmental information amassed in this study includes soil permeability, surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With the aid of a remote sensing-based GIP analysis, only five locations out of more than 800 candidate sites were selected by the spatial analysis, and then confirmed by a field investigation. The methodology developed in this remote sensing-based GIP analysis will significantly advance the state-of-the-art technology in optimum arrangement/distribution of water sensor platforms for maximum sensing coverage and information-extraction capacity. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the results have led us to seek

  20. Multisensor fusion remote sensing technology for assessing multitemporal responses in ecohydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin

    ) satellite imagery as previously developed was used. Eight commonly used vegetation indices were calculated from the reflectance obtained from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. The vegetation indices were individually used to classify vegetation cover in association with genetic programming algorithm. The soil moisture and vegetation indices were integrated into Landsat TM images based on a pre-pixel channel approach for riparian classification. Two different classification algorithms were used including genetic programming, and a combination of ISODATA and maximum likelihood supervised classification. The white box feature of genetic programming revealed the comparative advantage of all input parameters. The GP algorithm yielded more than 90% accuracy, based on unseen ground data, using vegetation index and Landsat reflectance band 1, 2, 3, and 4. The detection of changes in the buffer zone was proved to be technically feasible with high accuracy. Overall, the development of the RICAL algorithm may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies for the handling of non-point source pollution control, bird habitat monitoring, and grazing and live stock management in the future. Geo-environmental information amassed in this study includes soil permeability, surface temperature, soil moisture, precipitation, leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With the aid of a remote sensing-based GIP analysis, only five locations out of more than 800 candidate sites were selected by the spatial analysis, and then confirmed by a field investigation. The methodology developed in this remote sensing-based GIP analysis will significantly advance the state-of-the-art technology in optimum arrangement/distribution of water sensor platforms for maximum sensing coverage and information-extraction capacity. To more efficiently use the limited amount of water or to resourcefully provide adequate time for flood warning, the results have led us to seek

  1. Progress toward fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1981-03-11

    This paper summarizes the basis for the present optimism in the magnetic fusion program, and describes some of the remaining tasks leading to a demonstration power reactor and the primary technologies necessary for that endeavor.

  2. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  3. Feasibility of contactless 3D optical measurement for the analysis of bone and soft tissue lesions: new technologies and perspectives in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Porta, Davide; Picozzi, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    In forensic pathology and anthropology, a correct analysis of lesions on soft tissues and bones is of the utmost importance, in order to verify the cause and manner of death. Photographs, videos, and photogrammetry may be an optimal manner of immortalizing a lesion, both on cadavers and skeletal remains; however, none of these can supply a detailed three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the lesion. Up to now, only the use of casts has given us the possibility of studying deep lesions such as saw marks with an accurate and complete 3D reconstruction of bone structure. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of 3D optical contactless measurement for the accurate recording of soft tissue and bone lesions, in order to develop a unique and precise method of registering and analyzing lesions, both in forensic pathology and anthropology. Three cases were analyzed: the first, a car accident with blunt force skin injuries; the second, a murder with blunt force injury to the head applied with a metal rod; the third, a series of sharp force knife and saw lesions on bone. Results confirm that 3D optical digitizing technology is a crucial tool in the immortalization of wound morphology in the medico-legal context even on "difficult" substrates such as cut marks and saw marks on bone. PMID:19368623

  4. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  5. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology. PMID:23823163

  6. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  7. Novel nanocomposite technologies for dynamic monitoring of structures: a comparison between cement-based embeddable and soft elastomeric surface sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon; Ceylan, Halil; Materazzi, Annibale Luigi; Cerni, Gianluca; Saleem, Hussam; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Corradini, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    The authors have recently developed two novel solutions for strain sensing using nanocomposite materials. While they both aim at providing cost-effective solutions for the monitoring of local information on large-scale structures, the technologies are different in their applications and physical principles. One sensor is made of a cementitious material, which could make it suitable for embedding within the core of concrete structures prior to casting, and is a resistor, consisting of a carbon nanotube cement-based transducer. The other sensor can be used to create an external sensing skin and is a capacitor, consisting of a flexible conducting elastomer fabricated from a nanocomposite mix, and deployable in a network setup to cover large structural surfaces. In this paper, we advance the understanding of nanocomposite sensing technologies by investigating the potential of both novel sensors for the dynamic monitoring of civil structures. First, an in-depth dynamic characterization of the sensors using a uniaxial test machine is conducted. Second, their performance at dynamic monitoring of a full-scale concrete beam is assessed, and compared against off-the-shelf accelerometers. Experimental results show that both novel technologies compare well against mature sensors at vibration-based structural health monitoring, showing the promise of nanocomposite technologies for the monitoring of large-scale structural systems.

  8. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  9. The magic of mid-face three-dimensional contour alterations combining alloplastic and soft tissue suspension technologies.

    PubMed

    Terino, Edward O; Edward, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Recent advances in the technology of implant designs and shapes, as well as improved understanding of the principles of facial aesthetics, give the plastic surgeon, for the first time, tools to precisely and permanently change faces in specific areas and with minimum morbidity. Cosmetic facial surgeons must learn and understand the zonal anatomy of the malar-midface region to be prepared for growing patient demands regarding analysis and alteration of facial cheek contours. This article describes and illustrates contemporary technology that uses alloplastic implants throughout the face. Three-dimensional changes in facial form and shape using alloplastic augmentation techniques are essential for creating aesthetic beauty and are the "final chapter" of the development of cosmetic facial surgery. PMID:18558238

  10. Robotic radiosurgery vs. brachytherapy as a boost to intensity modulated radiotherapy for tonsillar fossa and soft palate tumors: the clinical and economic impact of an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Nijdam, W; Levendag, P; Fuller, D; Schulz, R; Prevost, J-B; Noever, I; Uyl-de Groot, C

    2007-12-01

    As a basis for making decisions regarding optimal treatment for patients with tonsillar fossa and soft palate tumors, we conducted a preliminary investigation of costs and quality of life (QoL) for two modalities [brachytherapy (BT) and robotic radiosurgery] used to boost radiation to the primary tumors following external beam radiotherapy. BT was well established in our center; a boost by robotic radiosurgery was begun more recently in patients for whom BT was not technically feasible. Robotic radiosurgery boost treatment has the advantage of being non-invasive and is able to reach tumors in cases where there is deep parapharyngeal tumor extension. A neck dissection was performed for patients with nodal-positive disease. Quality of life (pain and difficulty swallowing) was established in long-term follow-up for patients undergoing BT and over a one-year follow-up in robotic radiosurgery patients. Total hospital costs for both groups were computed. Our results show that efficacy and quality of life at one year are comparable for BT and robotic radiosurgery. Total cost for robotic radiosurgery was found to be less than BT primarily due to the elimination of hospital admission and operating room expenses. Confirmation of robotic radiosurgery treatment efficacy and reduced morbidity in the long term requires further study. Quality of life and cost analyses are critical to Health Technology Assessments (HTA). The present study shows how a preliminary HTA of a new medical technology such as robotic radiosurgery with its typical hypofractionation characteristics might be based on short-term clinical outcomes and assumptions of equivalence. PMID:17994791

  11. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  12. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  13. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-09-15

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project.

  14. Soft Mappings Space

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  15. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  16. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  17. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way

  18. An overview of LLNL high-energy short-pulse technology for advanced radiography of laser fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.; Key, M.; Britten, J.; Beach, R.; Beer, G.; Brown, C.; Bryan, S.; Caird, J.; Carlson, T.; Crane, J.; Dawson, J.; Erlandson, A. C.; Fittinghoff, D.; Hermann, M.; Hoaglan, C.; Iyer, A.; Jones, L., II; Jovanovic, I.; Komashko, A.; Landen, O.; Liao, Z.; Molander, W.; Mitchell, S.; Moses, E.; Nielsen, N.; Nguyen, H.-H.; Nissen, J.; Payne, S.; Pennington, D.; Risinger, L.; Rushford, M.; Skulina, K.; Spaeth, M.; Stuart, B.; Tietbohl, G.; Wattellier, B.

    2004-12-01

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF and possibly other large-scale Nd : glass lasers are reviewed. High-energy short-pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on NIF. Development of metre-scale, high-efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of high energy petawatt (HEPW) pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fibre-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for HEPW pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  19. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  20. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  1. Generic magnetic fusion rocket model

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Logan, B.G.

    1993-06-01

    A generic magnetic fusion rocket model is developed and used to explore the limits of fusion propulsion systems. Two fusion fuels are examined, D-T and D-(He-3), and the D-(He-3) fuel cycle is found to give a higher specific power in almost all parameter regimes. The key findings are that (1) magnetic fusion should ultimately be able to deliver specific powers of about 10 kW/kg and (2) specific powers of 15 kW/kg could be achieved with only modest extrapolations of present technology. 9 refs.

  2. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes , which is sometimes called "flesh-eating bacteria." Necrotizing soft tissue infection develops when ...

  4. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  5. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  6. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  7. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  9. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  10. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers. PMID:26512522

  11. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form. PMID:26407523

  12. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  13. Status of inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs RF linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use of the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program.

  14. Excitation of muonic molecules ddμ and dtμ by super-intense attosecond soft X-ray laser pulses: Shaped post-laser-pulse muonic oscillations and enhancement of nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Paramonov, Guennaddi K.

    2014-07-01

    The quantum dynamics of muonic molecular ions ddμ and dtμ excited by linearly polarized along the molecular (z)-axis super-intense laser pulses is studied beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation by the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation within a three-dimensional model, including the internuclear distance R and muon coordinates z and ρ. The peak-intensity of the super-intense laser pulses used in our simulations is I0 = 3.51 × 1022 W/cm2 and the wavelength is λl = 5 nm. In both ddμ and dtμ, expectation values and < ρ > of muon demonstrate "post-laser-pulse" oscillations after the ends of the laser pulses. In ddμ post-laser-pulse z-oscillations appear as shaped nonoverlapping "echo-pulses". In dtμ post-laser-pulse muonic z-oscillations appear as comparatively slow large-amplitude oscillations modulated with small-amplitude pulsations. The post-laser-pulse ρ-oscillations in both ddμ and dtμ appear, for the most part, as overlapping "echo-pulses". The post-laser-pulse oscillations do not occur if the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is employed. Power spectra generated due to muonic motion along both optically active z and optically passive ρ degrees of freedom are calculated. The fusion probability in dtμ can be increased by more than 11 times by making use of three sequential super-intense laser pulses. The energy released from the dt fusion in dtμ can by more than 20 GeV exceed the energy required to produce a usable muon and the energy of the laser pulses used to enhance the fusion. The possibility of power production from the laser-enhanced muon-catalyzed fusion is discussed.

  15. The Research on The Fusion Technology of Wireless LANs and Personal Area Networks for Emergency Secure in Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyuan, Li

    The author has provided craft brother with predictive wireless communication modality and imaginative solutions, and discussed the applied mode of amalgamation technology of wireless LANs and personal area networks for emergency secure in coal mine. The fire protection jobs of emergency secure will become more scientific, more efficient and more flexible in this circumstance. The study can supply bailout team with the situation of a disaster and the location of miner, enhance the efficiency of emergency secure in coal mine.

  16. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  18. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  19. Soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

  20. Outlook: Scientific obstacles. [Scientific obstacles to commercial nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    There is no question that fusion technology has come a long way. And yet commercial fusion energy seems as distant as ever. Numerous questions remain unanswered: Is magnetic fusion more promising than inertial fusion Which physical concept for a reactor is the best one Will the fully developed technology be economically competitive with other sources of energy Will fusion be as clean as promised And most fundamentally, can scientists make it work at all This article summarizes some of technological issues and hurdles facing fusion programs. Also, potential considerations are examined.

  1. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  2. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  3. OTA Magnetic Fusion Report Starpower. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development and the Subcommittee on International Scientific Cooperation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, October 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Results of the hearings before the joint meeting of the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development and Subcommittee on International Scientific Cooperation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives to hear testimony on the recently released report of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Starpower, dealing with the US and international quests for fusion energy are reported. The report discusses the key elements that make for a strong domestic program as well as important aspects of international cooperation in magnetic fusion. The important place of the Compact Ignition Tokamak in the domestic fusion energy program is emphasized. The Starpower report indicates that there is no foreseeable energy crisis and, therefore, this is an excellent time to take steps to develop an alternate energy source. It is pointed out in the discussion that billions of dollars are being spent on fusion energy, but that private industry does not see any possibility of profit available for 2 or 3 decades.

  4. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way

  5. Nanocrystalline Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 alloys: Soft magnets for vehicle electrification technologies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipling, K. E.; Daniil, M.; Willard, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the effect of substituting Co and Ni for Fe on the crystallization behavior, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Fe88-2xCoxNixZr7B4Cu1 (x = 0-22.00). The magnetization generally decreases and the coercivity increases with increasing x, whereas the Curie temperature of the amorphous phase increases significantly (from 73 °C at x = 0 to 570 °C at x = 22.00). There is thus an optimum composition near x = 5.50 exhibiting excellent soft magnetic properties at 300-500 °C. The higher magnetization and Curie temperature as compared with Fe-based alloys, and smaller Co content as compared with (Fe,Co)-based alloys, make this alloy attractive as an affordable high-temperature soft magnetic material.

  6. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  7. Echocardiographic and Fluoroscopic Fusion Imaging for Procedural Guidance: An Overview and Early Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Thaden, Jeremy J; Sanon, Saurabh; Geske, Jeffrey B; Eleid, Mackram F; Nijhof, Niels; Malouf, Joseph F; Rihal, Charanjit S; Bruce, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    There has been significant growth in the volume and complexity of percutaneous structural heart procedures in the past decade. Increasing procedural complexity and accompanying reliance on multimodality imaging have fueled the development of fusion imaging to facilitate procedural guidance. The first clinically available system capable of echocardiographic and fluoroscopic fusion for real-time guidance of structural heart procedures was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012. Echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging combines the precise catheter and device visualization of fluoroscopy with the soft tissue anatomy and color flow Doppler information afforded by echocardiography in a single image. This allows the interventionalist to perform precise catheter manipulations under fluoroscopy guidance while visualizing critical tissue anatomy provided by echocardiography. However, there are few data available addressing this technology's strengths and limitations in routine clinical practice. The authors provide a critical review of currently available echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging for guidance of structural heart interventions to highlight its strengths, limitations, and potential clinical applications and to guide further research into value of this emerging technology. PMID:27021355

  8. Fusion reactor nucleonics: status and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Engholm, B.A.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haight, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The national fusion technology effort has made a good start at addressing the basic nucleonics issues, but only a start. No fundamental nucleonics issues are seen as insurmountable barriers to the development of commercial fusion power. To date the fusion nucleonics effort has relied almost exclusively on other programs for nuclear data and codes. But as we progress through and beyond ETF type design studies the fusion program will need to support a broad based nucleonics effort including code development, sensitivity studies, integral experiments, data acquisition etc. It is clear that nucleonics issues are extremely important to fusion development and that we have only scratched the surface.

  9. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  10. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  11. Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Jeong, Jae Jung; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Woo; Suh, Jin-Soo

    2011-03-29

    A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week. PMID:24765266

  12. Extreme Mechanics in Soft Pneumatic Robots and Soft Microfluidic Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Carmel

    2012-02-01

    In the near future, machines and robots will be completely soft, stretchable, impact resistance, and capable of adapting their shape and functionality to changes in mission and environment. Similar to biological tissue and soft-body organisms, these next-generation technologies will contain no rigid parts and instead be composed entirely of soft elastomers, gels, fluids, and other non-rigid matter. Using a combination of rapid prototyping tools, microfabrication methods, and emerging techniques in so-called ``soft lithography,'' scientists and engineers are currently introducing exciting new families of soft pneumatic robots, soft microfluidic sensors, and hyperelastic electronics that can be stretched to as much as 10x their natural length. Progress has been guided by an interdisciplinary collection of insights from chemistry, life sciences, robotics, microelectronics, and solid mechanics. In virtually every technology and application domain, mechanics and elasticity have a central role in governing functionality and design. Moreover, in contrast to conventional machines and electronics, soft pneumatic systems and microfluidics typically operate in the finite deformation regime, with materials stretching to several times their natural length. In this talk, I will review emerging paradigms in soft pneumatic robotics and soft microfluidic electronics and highlight modeling and design challenges that arise from the extreme mechanics of inflation, locomotion, sensor operation, and human interaction. I will also discuss perceived challenges and opportunities in a broad range of potential application, from medicine to wearable computing.

  13. Present status and trends of image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dachao; Fu, Sheng; Cai, Yiheng

    2009-10-01

    Image fusion information extracted from multiple images which is more accurate and reliable than that from just a single image. Since various images contain different information aspects of the measured parts, and comprehensive information can be obtained by integrating them together. Image fusion is a main branch of the application of data fusion technology. At present, it was widely used in computer vision technology, remote sensing, robot vision, medical image processing and military field. This paper mainly presents image fusion's contents, research methods, and the status quo at home and abroad, and analyzes the development trend.

  14. Editorially Speaking - Fusion Power: Reasons for Higher Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippincott, William T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research trends in the use of laser-fusion technology in combustion chambers to eradicate energy shortages. Indicates that fusion power could be made available at a relatively low expense. (CC)

  15. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    PubMed

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision. PMID:25502384

  16. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  17. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  18. Controlled thermonuclear fusion, high temperature plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The primary source of nuclear energy comes from the fission process of heavy nuclei. To utilize the energy released by a thermonuclear fusion process, methods of controlling the fusion reaction were studied. This is controlled thermonuclear fusion technology. The fuel used in a thermonuclear fusion process are isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. They can be extracted from the almost unlimited seawater. Nuclear fusion also produces very little radioactive waste. Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source with an almost unlimited supply; it is economical, safe, and relatively clean. Ways to raise plasma temperature to a very high level and to maintain it to allow fusion reactions to take place are studied. The physical laws of high temperature plasma was studied to reach this goal which resulted in the development of high temperature plasma physics.

  19. NTRK1 Fusion in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young-Eun; An, Jaeyeol; Cho, Gye-Hyun; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumor, yet with no targeted therapy with substantial survival benefit. Recent studies on solid tumors showed that fusion genes often play driver roles and are promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. To survey potential fusion genes in GBMs, we analysed RNA-Seq data from 162 GBM patients available through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and found that 3′ exons of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1, encoding TrkA) are fused to 5′ exons of the genes that are highly expressed in neuronal tissues, neurofascin (NFASC) and brevican (BCAN). The fusions preserved both the transmembrane and kinase domains of NTRK1 in frame. NTRK1 is a mediator of the pro-survival signaling of nerve growth factor (NGF) and is a known oncogene, found commonly altered in human cancer. While GBMs largely lacked NTRK1 expression, the fusion-positive GBMs expressed fusion transcripts in high abundance, and showed elevated NTRK1-pathway activity. Lentiviral transduction of the NFASC-NTRK1 fusion gene in NIH 3T3 cells increased proliferation in vitro, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor formation in mice, suggesting the possibility that the fusion contributed to the initiation or maintenance of the fusion-positive GBMs, and therefore may be a rational drug target. PMID:24647444

  20. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  1. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  2. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  3. Outlook for the fusion hybrid and tritium-breeding fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. M.; Cohen, R.; Simpson, J. W.

    The study examines the outlook for fusion hybrid reactors. The study evaluates the status of fusion hybrid technology in the United States and analyzes the circumstances under which such reactors might be deployed. The study also examines a related concept, the tritium-breeding fusion reactor. The study examined two potential applications for fusion hybrid technology: (1) the production of fissile material to fuel light-water reactors, and (2) the direct production of baseload electricity. For both applications, markets were sufficiently problematical or remote (mid-century or later) to warrant only modest current research and development emphasis on technology specific to the fusion hybrid reactor. For the tritium-breeding fusion reactor, a need for tritium for use in nuclear weapons might arise well before the middle of the next century, so that a program of design studies, experimentation, and evaluation should be undertaken.

  4. Review of the magnetic fusion program by the 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1987-09-01

    The 1986 ERAB Fusion Panel finds that fusion energy continues to be an attractive energy source with great potential for the future, and that the magnetic fusion program continues to make substantial technical progress. In addition, fusion research advances plasma physics, a sophisticated and useful branch of applied science, as well as technologies important to industry and defense. These factors fully justify the substantial expenditures by the Department of Energy in fusion research and development (R&D). The Panel endorses the overall program direction, strategy, and plans, and recognizes the importance and timeliness of proceeding with a burning plasma experiment, such as the proposed Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) experiment.

  5. Production of recombinant peptides as fusions with SUMO.

    PubMed

    Satakarni, Makkapati; Curtis, Robin

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant production of non-native peptides requires using protein fusion technology to prevent peptide degradation by host-cell proteases. In this work, we have used SUMO protein as a fusion partner for the production of difficult-to-express, antimicrobial, self-assembling and amyloidogenic peptides using Escherichia coli. SUMO-peptide fusions were expressed as intracellular products by utilizing pET based expression vectors constructed by Life Sensors Inc., USA. Histidine tagged SUMO-peptide fusions were purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Complete (100%) cleavage of the SUMO-peptide fusion was achieved using SUMO protease-1. Our findings demonstrate that SUMO fusion technology is a promising alternative for production of peptides in E. coli. The key advantage of this technology is that the enzymatic activity of SUMO protease-1 is specific and efficient leading to inexpensive costs for cleaving the peptide fusion when compared with other fusion systems. PMID:21586326

  6. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  7. Program plan for the DOE Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program. Volume I. Summary, objectives and management. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document defines a plan for conducting selected aspects of the engineering testing required for magnetic fusion reactor FWBS components and systems. The ultimate product of this program is an established data base that contributes to a functional, reliable, maintainable, economically attractive, and environmentally acceptable commercial fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield system. This program plan updates the initial plan issued in November of 1980 by the DOE/Office of Fusion Energy (unnumbered report). The plan consists of two parts. Part I is a summary of activities, responsibilities and program management including reporting and interfaces with other programs. Part II is a compilation of the Detailed Technical Plans for Phase I (1982 to 1984) developed by the participants during Phase 0 of the program (July to December 1981).

  8. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  9. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  10. Application of Proteomics to Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tadashi; Kubota, Daisuke; Kawai, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignant cancers. Other than development of intensive therapies, the clinical outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma remains very poor, particularly when diagnosed at a late stage. Unique mutations have been associated with certain soft tissue sarcomas, but their etiologies remain unknown. The proteome is a functional translation of a genome, which directly regulates the malignant features of tumors. Thus, proteomics is a promising approach for investigating soft tissue sarcomas. Various proteomic approaches and clinical materials have been used to address clinical and biological issues, including biomarker development, molecular target identification, and study of disease mechanisms. Several cancer-associated proteins have been identified using conventional technologies such as 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and array technology. The functional backgrounds of proteins identified were assessed extensively using in vitro experiments, thus supporting expression analysis. These observations demonstrate the applicability of proteomics to soft tissue sarcoma studies. However, the sample size in each study was insufficient to allow conclusive results. Given the low frequency of soft tissue sarcomas, multi-institutional collaborations are required to validate the results of proteomic approaches. PMID:22778956